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rec.pets.dogs: Mastiffs Breed-FAQ

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Archive-name: dogs-faq/breeds/mastiffs
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Last-modified: 02 Sep 1997

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                              MASTIFF F. A. Q.
                      Frequently Asked Questions about
                                the Mastiff,
                        also commonly referred to as
                  the English or Old English Mastiff (OEM)
                   "Dedicated to the Ones who wait for us
                     at the end of the Rainbow Bridge."
                             Revision History:
     * Release 1.00, January 20, 1997 (Pre-USENET Release)
     * Release 1.01, February 1, 1997
     * Release 1.02, March 14, 1997
     * Release 1.03, March 31, 1997 (USENET Release)
     * Release 1.04, August 12, 1997
          + Combined the two separate parts into one document
          + Updated the largest dog in the world's weight
          + Added 1998 Specialty information
          + Appendix D - Rescue - revised to reflect new structure
          + Appendix E - Added a number of Mastiff books, sites
          + Appendix I - Updated MCOA contact list
          + Appendix J - New or changed sites for Bullmastiffs, Dogues,
            Filas, Saints, Tibetans
          + ... and a number of minor changes through-out
                             TABLE OF CONTENTS
         A. Introduction
         B. Copyright
         C. Disclaimer
         D. Contributors
         1. What is a Mastiff?
         2. What is the Mastiff Club Of America (MCOA)?
         3. Where do Mastiffs come from?
         4. What are Mastiffs good for?
         5. Are all Mastiffs the same?
         6. Are Mastiffs:
              a. Aggressive?
              b. Easy to train?
              c. Fighters?
              d. Good guard dogs?
              e. Protective?
              f. Shy?
         7. What are Mastiffs like in the house?
         8. How much does a Mastiff:
              a. Cost?
              b. Eat?
              c. Weigh?
         9. Do Mastiffs:
              a. Bark much?
              b. Bite?
              c. Chew?
              d. Dig?
              e. Make good obedience dogs?
              f. Need a lot of exercise?
              g. Pass gas?
              h. Roam?
              i. Shed?
              j. Slobber?
              k. Smell?
              l. Snore?
              m. Live indoors or outdoors?
        10. How are Mastiffs with:
              a. Burglars, muggers and other miscreants?
              b. Other dogs?
              c. Other animals?
              d. Strangers?
              e. Young children?
        11. How long does a Mastiff live?
        12. Can I get a white Mastiff? What colors can I get?
        13. Male vs. female, which is friendlier? more protective? Easier
            to train?
        14. Is there anything special I should know about raising a
            Mastiff puppy - isn't it the same as any other breed?
        15. How much training does a Mastiff need?
        16. Do Mastiffs have any genetic health problems?
        17. What are the common non-genetic health problems in Mastiffs?
        18. What other problems do Mastiffs have?
        19. What kind of a temperament does a Mastiff have?
        20. What does a Mastiff eat?
        21. What kind of living quarters does a Mastiff require? How
            about crating? Where do they sleep?
        22. Does owning a Mastiff:
              a. Cost a lot?
              b. Require a lot of work?
        23. Are you trying to talk me out of getting a Mastiff?
        24. Where should I get a Mastiff?
        25. Where can I get more information about Mastiffs?
        26. How do I pick a Mastiff puppy?
        27. What questions should I ask the breeder (and what answers
            should I get)
        28. What kind of toys and other paraphernalia do I need for my
        29. Is that a Mastiff in:
        30. What's the difference between a Mastiff and a Bullmastiff?
         A. History of the Mastiff
         B. MCOA / AKC Mastiff Conformation Standard
         C. MCOA Code of Ethics
         D. MCOA Rescue Service
              1. What is the MCOA Rescue Service?
              2. MCOA Rescue Service Contacts
         E. Mastiff References and Resources
              1. Books
              2. Publications
              3. Video / Audio
              4. Computer Programs & Databases
              5. Mastiffs on the Internet
         F. Health Tests / Certifications every Mastiff SHOULD have
         G. Questions To Ask a Mastiff Breeder
         H. Special Aspects of Raising a Mastiff Puppy
         I. Mastiff Clubs & Contacts
              1. Mastiff Club of America
              2. US Regional Mastiff Clubs
              3. Mastiff Clubs in Other Countries
         J. Mastiff Varieties and Internet References
                      I. INTRODUCTION AND LEGAL STUFF
    A. _Introduction_
       Hello and welcome to the wonderful world of the Mastiff! In our
       not so humble opinion, the Mastiff is THE best breed of dog to be
       owned by, bar none. BUT, the Mastiff is NOT a breed for everyone.
       We've tried to gear this F. A. Q. towards the breed browser and
       the first time Mastiff wanna-be owner. Here we've tried to show
       both the upside and the downside of the Mastiff / human
       relationship. Not that we're trying to chase you away (we wish
       everyone could enjoy the love and companionship of one of these
       great beasties), but we'd much rather have you know about the
       possible trials and tribulations BEFORE your new Mastiff pup walks
       through the front door, not AFTER. As the breed's popularity and
       exposure increases, more and more people are getting a Mastiff
       without any idea what-so-ever of what they're getting into. Way
       too often this ends up in severe disappoint for the human and
       tragedy for the Mastiff. So please, please, study this F. A. Q.
       Ask questions. Look before you leap! We hope that this F. A. Q. in
       some way helps you in making your decision and / or preparing for
       your life with a Mastiff. Good luck and doG Bless!
    B. _Copyright_
       This FAQ is a publication of, and Copyright (c) 1995, 1996, 1997
       by, the Mastiff Club Of America, Incorporated (MCOA). All rights
       are reserved. The Mastiff AKC Conformation Standard (Appendix B)
       is included with the permission of the American Kennel Club, Inc.
       The MCOA hereby gives permission to freely distribute this
       document in its entirety for non-profit, non-commercial, personal
       use and for traditional Internet archiving, provided that the
       document is distributed in its entirety and that no changes are
       made. Permission is also given to freely distribute excerpts and
       quotes provided that attribution is given to the Mastiff Club Of
       America, Inc. This FAQ may NOT be included in any commercial
       collections or compilations. If you find it in one, please notify
       the FAQ maintainer so appropriate action can be taken.
    C. _Disclaimer_
       This FAQ is provided as is without any express or implied
       warranties or guarantees as to the content's accuracy,
       completeness or applicability to a specific animal. While every
       effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information
       contained in this article, the MCOA, the contributors and the
       maintainer assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, or
       for damages resulting from the use of the information contained
    D. _Contributors_
          + Laurie Adams
          + Donna Dick
          + Deb Jones
          + Sharon Krauss
          + Kirsten Ludwig
          + Mike McBee
          + Linda Monroe
       Please send any comments, corrections or criticisms about the FAQ
       to the FAQ maintainer, Mike McBee, at
    1. _What is a Mastiff?_
       A Mastiff is a giant breed of dog, descended from the ancient
       Alaunt and Molosser. Today, mastiff is used to describe many
       different breeds around the world, all descended from the same
       root stock. In the US and other English speaking countries,
       Mastiff is used to refer to the Old English Mastiff (OEM),
       developed in England and nearly extinct after WW II. With that in
       mind, Mastiffs (OEMs) are generally very large dogs; fawn, apricot
       or brindle in color; all with a black mask and ears; possessing a
       medium to short coat with very little white (which, if it appears,
       should be confined to the chest but often appears on the toes as
       well). There is no upper height limit and no weight range in the
       Mastiff Standard. In height they generally range from the
       Standard's minimum of 27 1/2 inches up to 36 inches for the
       exceptionally tall ones. They can weigh anywhere from 110 pounds
       to the 343 pounds of Zorba, the world's largest dog, although most
       Mastiff males weigh around 160-230 pounds and females around
       120-170 pounds. This breed is supposed to be very broad with a
       huge head, wide chest and large bone, and is longer in body than
       in height (see Appendix B, the Mastiff Conformation Standard).
       Mastiffs are not supposed to resemble Great Danes except possibly
       in height, nor Saint Bernards, except for the bone, width, chest
       and large head. They should not be as wrinkled as a Neapolitan nor
       as dome headed as a Dogue de Bordeaux, nor 'houndy' like a Fila
       Brasileiro. Mastiffs possess characteristics unique to the breed,
       especially the head with a broad, deep muzzle with flews hanging
       over the bottom lip, giving the head a square appearance. A
       Mastiff should possess a calm, self assured temperament and be
       devoted to its family and friends. Mastiffs should not be
       aggressive to humans or other animals, including other dogs,
       although, unfortunately, some of them are. Mastiffs should be
       steady, gentle, eager for affection, good with children, calm and
       self assured, and used primarily as a family companion.
    2. _What is the Mastiff Club Of America (MCOA)?_
       The Mastiff Club Of America was incorporated in 1929 to protect
       and promote the Mastiff. It is the Mastiff parent breed club
       member of the American Kennel Club. Membership is open to persons
       18 years or older, in good standing with the American Kennel Club,
       who subscribe to the purposes of the Club, and who agree to abide
       and uphold the Club's Code of Ethics (Appendix C), Constitution
       and By-Laws. Applicants must be sponsored by two MCOA members who
       have been members in good standing for at least three years.
       Applicants will be an associate member (without voting or office
       holding privileges) for a period of one year. The MCOA is a
       non-profit organization. For membership information and
       application forms, contact the MCOA Membership Chairman (see
       Appendix I.1 for contact information).
       The objectives of the Club are:
          + to encourage and promote the selective breeding of quality
            purebred Mastiffs and to do all possible to bring their
            natural qualities to fit the standard
          + to encourage the organization of independent local Mastiff
            Specialty Clubs in those localities where there are
            sufficient fanciers of the breed to meet the requirements of
            the American Kennel Club
          + to urge members and breeders to accept the standard of the
            breed as approved by the American Kennel Club as the only
            standard of excellence by which Mastiffs shall be judged
          + to do all in its power to protect and advance the interests
            of the breed and to encourage sportsmanlike competition at
            dog shows and obedience trials
          + to provide for the welfare of the breed through a program of
            Mastiff Rescue and continuing education
          + to conduct sanctioned matches, obedience trials, and
            specialty shows under the rules of the American Kennel Club.
       The MCOA conducts a roving Independent National Specialty in the
       spring of each year; in 1996 the Specialty was held in St. Louis,
       Mo. and in Sacramento, Ca., in 1997. The 1998 MCOA National
       Specialty and Obedience Trial will held May 5-9, at the Embers Inn
       and Convention Center, Carlisle, PA. See for more
       The Club publishes a quarterly Journal available by subscription
       (see Appendix I.1 for Subscription Editor's address) and a
       quarterly Bulletin for its members.
       The MCOA offers a Genetic Data Collection Service to individuals
       and breeders who are interested in researching the genetic
       background of their dogs (see Appendix F for more information).
    3. _Where do Mastiffs come from?_
       See Appendix A for a brief history.
    4. _What are Mastiffs good for?_
       Mastiffs excel as companions, family members, therapy workers and
       as watch dogs. Mastiffs have also done well, when properly trained
       and conditioned, at carting, tracking, obedience, conformation
       showing, search and rescue (SAR), and weight pulling. They are
       also great foot warmers and couch potatoes. :-)
    5. _Are all Mastiffs the same?_
       No. Like humans, Mastiffs are individuals. Each has its own
       genetic and environmental history that effects its attitude,
       temperament, health and responses to stimuli. These questions are
       answered with the general breed characteristics in mind, no
       individual Mastiff will match the answers in every respect.
       Oh, that's not what you meant. While it is correct that the breed
       of mastiff dog developed in England has pre-empted the official
       name of 'Mastiff', according to the AKC's 'The Complete Dog Book',
       18th Edition, "The breed commonly called "Mastiff" in English
       speaking countries is more properly described as the 'Old English'
       Mastiff." From the same source: "The term 'mastiff' describes a
       group of giant varieties of dogs rather than a single breed."
       If this is what you meant, then No, not all Mastiffs are the same.
       See Appendix J for a list of some of the different Mastiff
    6. _Are Mastiffs:_
         a. Aggressive?
            Aggression is unnecessary force or dominance in any
            situation. Aggression should not be confused with protection
            where a dog uses force or dominance to protect its people or
            territory when threatened.
            The typical Mastiff's temperament, by nature, is one of
            gentle demeanor. However, as with any breed, a Mastiff can
            become aggressive for varying reasons.
            Typically, aggressive behavior is established due to
            environment as a "learned response" and/or results from a
            lack of proper socialization during the dog's developmental
            A certain percentage of dogs may be genetically unstable and
            inherit aggressive tendencies. For this reason, before you
            purchase a puppy, it is best to ask the breeders about the
            temperament of the sire and the dam and try to see both if at
            all possible.
            Some dogs may have a predisposition for certain
            characteristics which may be the basis for aggressive
            behavior: a dominant dog may exhibit Dominant Aggression, an
            unsocialized dog may develop Fear Motivated Aggression, or a
            dog unsocialized with other dogs may develop Species
            Aggression. Most aggression can be prevented by proper
            rearing and socialization, beginning as a puppy.
            If you are experiencing a problem, consult your Mastiff's
            breeder, your veterinarian, and/or a trained animal
            behaviorist BEFORE the problem becomes serious.
         b. Easy to train?
            Both easy and difficult. Mastiffs are smart, and live to
            please. However, they go through phases where they are also
            stubborn, and these phases can last anywhere from a few weeks
            a couple of times in puppyhood to (in some cases) the
            lifetime of the dog!
            Keep training sessions short (10-15 minutes) and frequent
            (several times a day). In addition to their stubbornness,
            Mastiffs have very sensitive feelings, and if they are
            frightened, hurt, or confused, they cannot be budged. Make
            training like a game. Use a happy, excited voice. You have to
            be consistent and firm to train effectively. Once a dog is
            well trained, it needs practice on a regular basis. Dogs LIKE
            to be trained because they WANT to know how to please their
            beloved owners. Once trained, a Mastiff seldom needs stronger
            correction than a stern voice.
            Except for formal obedience training, you can use food treats
            for motivation. But the best reward for any Mastiff is lavish
            hugs and plenty of praise.
         c. Fighters?
            Mastiffs, with their gentle natures, do not have the
            instincts that dogfighters are looking for. Their protective
            instincts make them actually the opposite to the aggressive
            fighting personality. However, they will, at times, fight
            among themselves, or with other dogs, for the typical canine
            reasons such as pack dominance and sexual competition. Two
            190 pound adult male Mastiffs in combat for pack leadership
            can be next to impossible, as well as exceedingly dangerous,
            to separate.
         d. Good guard dogs?
            Mastiffs are excellent guard dogs. They go to the door and
            bark, their hackles stand up, and they look formidable, but
            Mastiffs, as a breed, are not trigger-happy. They have a
            gentle, rather than an aggressive, nature.
            Mastiffs need the company of their human family much more
            than some other breeds of dogs do. A Mastiff left alone, tied
            out, or kept in a fenced yard with too little human company,
            will either pine away or develop destructive behaviors out of
            loneliness and anxiety. Denied the needed time with its
            family, a Mastiff may be much LESS protective because it
            isn't sure it belongs to that family.
            A normal, well adjusted Mastiff will protect it's family, but
            only if the need arises. You don't want an aggressive Mastiff
            that protects you from friends and family. The ideal
            temperament is one where you never know that you are being
            protected unless a true situation arises where a Mastiff's
            services are needed.
         e. Protective?
            Mastiffs ARE protective. However, many people do not
            understand the difference between protection and aggression.
            If a dog growls when there is no danger, that is aggression,
            NOT protection. A protective dog has the judgment to see when
            there is a real risk of danger, and therefore, if you have a
            TRULY protective dog, you may never know it till you ARE in
            The protective instinct is shown in subtle ways, such as the
            Mastiff tending to stand between their person and a stranger.
            Many people who have kids discover that they can't spank a
            kid in front of the Mastiff -- it looks worried and gets in
            between the parent and child! Couples who sometimes
            play-wrestle together have reported their Mastiff trying to
            stop them for fear it is a fight.
         f. Shy?
            Because of their great sensitivity, Mastiffs who are not
            THOROUGHLY socialized when young can very easily become shy
            of strange people, places, and animals. Shyness can be both
            inherited and/or the result of inadequate socialization. This
            is why puppy kindergarten, obedience classes over an extended
            period of time, and visits to parks are EXTREMELY important
            to the development of your Mastiff. If you do not have the
            time to do these things with and for your Mastiff, you need
            to think over whether you are in a position to do right by a
            dog, at least at this point in your life.
            A shy dog is an uneasy, unhappy dog. If your dog is more shy
            than the average, then it is more important than ever to get
            the right amount of gentle, gradual socialization with lots
            of positive reinforcement for all its friendly, confident,
            non-shy actions.
    7. _What are Mastiffs like in the house?_
       Clean, quiet, and undemanding. Heaven to a Mastiff is a rug beside
       his owner's chair. Mastiffs are naturally clean (except for
       slobber), and quick to housebreak. Most adult Mastiffs don't chew
       what they shouldn't, and they don't get on the furniture (unless
       you let them _;-)_).
       If you do let your young Mastiff on the sofa, just remember that
       they grow FAST, and it is unfair and quite unreasonable to let the
       dog learn to enjoy something, and then decide the dog is too big
       to get up there any more. Mastiffs have long memories, and are
       much easier to train correctly the first time than to retrain to
       get rid of bad habits.
    8. _How much does a Mastiff:_
         a. Cost?
            Puppy prices usually run $800-1500 and up, depending on a
            number of variables such as pedigree, show potential,
            geographic location, and breeder costs. A higher price does
            NOT necessarily mean a better dog! Read this FAQ thoroughly
            to learn about testing and other evidences of health and
            soundness, as well as show wins, as the basis for selecting
            the pup most likely to be healthy, happy, and just what you
         b. Eat?
            Probably not as much as you think. Pound for pound, the
            larger the dog the less food it needs for each pound of body
            weight. Exactly how much food your dog needs depends on many
            factors including its size, age and activity level. Feed your
            Mastiff a good quality, balanced diet - low on table scraps -
            and don't let him get too fat.
         c. Weigh?
            Adult males generally run about 160-230 pounds, females are
            normally between 120-170 pounds. Males over 200 pounds are
            not too uncommon and a few females reach these weights.
            According to the Guinness Book of Records the record holder
            for the world's largest dog is Zorba, a Mastiff, at 343
            pounds. He stood 37 inches at the shoulder and was 8 foot 3
            inches from the tip of his nose to the tip of his tail. Zorba
            set this record in November, 1989, when he was 8 years old.
    9. _Do Mastiffs:_
         a. Bark much?
            Puppies are puppies in most breeds. Young pups tend to bark
            more than adults because of the excitement of play. Adults
            rarely bark except when you first arrive home, or they hear a
            sound they want you to investigate, like a doorbell. Most
            Mastiffs will howl if they hear a siren close by, since it
            sounds like a howl such as wild dogs would respond to.
         b. Bite?
            Any dog bites if hurt, frightened, or threatened, but a
            Mastiff that is properly trained and socialized will
            typically not bite except as a very last resort. Do NOT let a
            pup (of any age) bite anyone or anything (except its litter
            mates) in play, since they NEED to know that biting is not
            allowed. They will still bite if there is an absolute
            necessity, but will not try it any other times.
         c. Chew?
            As for chewing, puppies of any breed need to be given durable
            toys that they know it is OK to chew. Any time you catch your
            puppy chewing on anything except its own chew toys, take the
            forbidden item away from it, and give it a chew toy, and
            encourage the dog to chew on its own toy. Praise it when it
            DOES chew on its own toy. Repeat as necessary (remember, we
            told you these dogs are stubborn!)
         d. Dig?
            Engineers on the Panama Canal project considered bringing in
            a myriad of Mastiffs to do the job, but ultimately rejected
            the idea when they figured out the manpower they'd have tied
            up in pooper scoopering.
            Seriously, though, many Mastiffs do like to dig. You'll have
            to ask them why.
         e. Make good obedience dogs?
            By nature, Mastiffs are eager to please. This makes them good
            Obedience dogs. But like any other breed, temperaments vary
            between individuals, so some Mastiffs are better candidates
            for the Obedience ring than others.
            Some Mastiffs are more laid back, aloof, and lethargic; while
            others are more outgoing, inquisitive, and athletic. Though
            both types of temperaments are trainable, the latter of these
            two temperaments would be better suited for competition in
            the Obedience ring.
         f. Need a lot of exercise?
            About as much as you do. Most Mastiffs are like most humans;
            they can manage a sedentary life reasonably well - but, also
            like most humans, they reach a physical peak with a moderate
            degree of exercise. It is important that you NOT over
            exercise any Mastiff under 2 years of age. Up until this age
            (and sometimes later) their skeleton is still developing.
            Since Mastiffs tend to be stoic, and also will do just about
            anything to be with and please their people, they can easily
            end up with an inflamed joint or other problems like those
            that beset humans who run for exercise.
            When you do begin to exercise your Mastiff, begin GRADUALLY.
            Build up SLOWLY. Make sure you know and watch for the signs
            of your dog getting tired or overheated. Take ice and water
            with you in case the dog overheats. The extra weight will add
            more effect to your workout! This is not to say that Mastiffs
            should not have any exercise at all as pups. On the contrary,
            Mastiff puppies are still puppies and need to do puppy things
            like running and playing. If left to their own schedule, they
            will rest themselves when they get tired. Crating a pup for
            most of its puppyhood is more detrimental than letting it
            play and exercise in moderation in the house and yard. If you
            go for long walks and your pup gets tired, be prepared to
            carry it home! Once a Mastiff is fully grown and its growth
            plates have closed, it can usually keep up with the best of
         g. Pass gas?
            Yep. Especially on a diet of beer, hard-boiled eggs and
            beans. Actually, like humans, it depends on how the Mastiff
            reacts to the food it eats, so using a good dog food should
            minimize the problem. If a dog can digest its food properly,
            it shouldn't have gas. Different dogs do best on different
            foods. See Question 20. 'What does a Mastiff eat?' for more
            If a Mastiff should get gas in spite of your best efforts,
            watch out. It is overpowering.
         h. Roam?
            Not usually. A Mastiff of either sex tends to be stay-at-home
            dog. Learning to stay within property boundaries comes
            naturally. Some individuals, however, would put Houdini to
            shame. Nevertheless, when your Mastiff is outdoors without
            supervision, as with all breeds, it's a good idea to have him
            in a secure, fenced enclosure.
         i. Shed?
            Yes, like most breeds they shed approximately twice a year.
            But, the short, sleek Mastiff coat is less objectionable,
            when it sheds, than the coats of many long-haired breeds. A
            daily brushing will prevent accumulation of hair around the
         j. Slobber?
            Most Mastiffs only drool when 1) they have just had a drink
            of water or just ate, or 2) they are extremely agitated and
            fearful, or 3) you are eating anything that smells better
            than dogfood, and you have been foolish enough to feed the
            dog some of your food at any time in the past.
            Mastiffs with tighter lips tend to drool less. Experienced
            Mastiff folks keep hand towels all around, to wipe faces
            after every drink and meal, and other times as needed. If you
            wipe the drool off immediately, it is a lot less likely to
            get slung onto the dog's face or body, your furniture, you,
            or the walls. If it makes you feel any better, 1) you get
            used to it, and 2) St. Bernard breeders say their dogs can
            hit the ceiling with their slingers, while Mastiffs tend to
            only hit about waist height on a human.
            Actually, if you are a habitual face-wiper it won't be bad at
            all, but to be realistic, "spit happens".
         k. Smell?
            Well, Mastiffs aren't bred for tracking, so they don't all
            have the best scent discrimination. Oh, you mean smell as in
            having B.O.?
            Mastiffs need occasional bathing, but since they have a short
            coat, they dry fairly fast. If a Mastiff has a bad odor
            despite regular bathing with a good dog shampoo approved by
            your breeder or vet, it may have a medical problem such as
            fungus in the ears or between the toes, or a digestive or
            dental problem, which can cause bad breath. Hypothyroid dogs
            tend to have B.O., and infected anal glands can cause a
            serious stench. Time to go to the vet to check it out.
         l. Snore?
            Yes. Ohhhh, yes. You'd better believe it!
            Actually, snoring is genetic. The reason a dog snores is due
            to a long soft palate (the back of the upper palate). This
            characteristic, like any other, is inherited. This does NOT
            mean that the dog has to have a long 'muzzle' to be a snorer!
            It just means that the upper palate has a longer soft palate.
            So you may see certain bloodlines which do not have as many
            problems with snoring and some which are horrendous snorers.
         m. Live indoors or outdoors?
            Indoors, of course. What's the sense of having a Mastiff if
            you don't have it close to you? It certainly can't protect
            you from the boogie man if it's tied out in the yard. And
            it's useless as a footstool if you keep it fastened in a
            kennel or locked in the garage.
            Seriously, Mastiffs seem to have an instinctive need and
            desire to be as close as possible to their human family, to
            the point that their emotional development can be stunted if
            they are deprived of that closeness. Many breeders will
            refuse to sell a Mastiff unless the new owner guarantees that
            it will be kept as a house dog.
   10. _How are Mastiffs with:_
         a. Burglars, muggers and other miscreants?
            Mastiffs tend to react in predictable ways when faced with a
            threatening person. If their owner is present and a tense
            situation arises between the owner and a stranger, the dog
            will usually get between the stranger and their owner, as a
            sort of giant protective barrier that no sane mugger would
            reach over. If the stranger does anything to escalate the
            tension, the dog will probably growl or snarl at the person.
            This may occur even within a family, if, for example, the
            owners fight. This may upset the Mastiff greatly and inspire
            him to protect the party who is on the receiving end of the
            If a stranger breaks into a house where there is a Mastiff,
            the Mastiff's tendency is to corner the person and not let
            them get away, holding them until their owner gets home to
            deal with the intruder. The dog may snarl or bark or even
            snap at the intruder if he tries to get away, but usually
            will not actually hurt him unless the intruder has tried to
            hurt the dog or has succeeded in hurting him.
            Dogs are creatures of habit, and it is this characteristic
            that makes them good guards. If, while your Mastiff is a
            puppy, you allow strangers like repairmen to come into your
            house when you are away, the dog will see that as normal for
            your household, and will not realize it is not "OK" for other
            strange people to come in and do things.
            Many Mastiffs, when mature, can recognize something about
            people who have unpleasant motives, and are watchful or will
            get in between you and that person. If your dog gets between
            you and a stranger in a questionable situation, trust your
            Mastiff! The dog may have sensed something you couldn't
            recognize in that person.
            Because of the intrinsic protective nature of the Mastiff,
            training as an attack or guard dog is not necessary and to do
            so may actually be detrimental to the temperament of the
            Mastiff. Mastiffs are not suitable for attack training or dog
            fighting and, if raised in kindness and socialized properly,
            will be a strong, loving companion who will defend his home
            and family if necessary.
         b. Other dogs?
            By nature a typical Mastiff is friendly and aloof toward
            other dogs. But, as with any breed, they must be properly
            socialized around other dogs from early puppyhood.
            Most cases of Dog Aggression in the Mastiff, or in any breed,
            are due to this lack of early introduction and stimuli with
            other dogs. This type of behavioral disorder is usually
            classified as Species Aggression.
            Another type of Canine Aggression is Dominance Aggression. A
            dog with dominant tendencies may seek to change its position
            in the pecking order by being aggressive toward another dog.
            This can really be a problem when there is more than one
            Dominant Aggressive dog in a multiple dog household. For this
            reason, it is best not place a dominant Mastiff in the same
            household with another dominant dog, especially of the same
            sex. While everything may seem fine while the puppy is young,
            as it matures it will seek to move up in the pack hierarchy
            and will compete for dominance with the other dog resulting
            in family turmoil.
            In most cases, proper socialization and adequate stimuli is
            the best way to head off most aggressive behavioral disorders
            before they have a chance to develop.
            If your Mastiff is aggressive, first, consult a canine
            behaviorist or professional trainer to determine if the dog
            can overcome some or all of this behavioral problem through
            retraining. ALSO have your veterinarian check for physical
            problems that can effect behavior, especially hormone
            problems such as hypothyroidism. Often spaying or neutering a
            dog aggressive dog will limit some of its tendencies to fight
            or dominate another dog, as well as cool some of the
            instinctive fighting among males and females in heat. If you
            are feeding a food that is in high in protein, try a food
            that is around 18% protein, some dogs are sensitive to excess
            levels of protein.
            If your Mastiffs do get into a fight, do NOT get between
            them. If someone else, known to the dogs, is there, each of
            you should grab a dog by the rear legs and drag them away
            from each other and separate them so that they cannot see or
            get to each other.
         c. Other animals?
            The earliest socialization, at the breeder's, and while a
            puppy is very young, influences how a particular Mastiff will
            behave with other animals. You want him to learn what YOU
            want him to accept while he is still small (this means it has
            to be done *very* young!) since a larger dog is much harder
            to control, and bad habits are harder to break than good
            habits. Some Mastiffs are born with a high prey drive and
            these dogs will need special training if a multi-pet
            household is to maintain harmony.
            A Mastiff who hasn't been exposed to cats or chickens or farm
            animals or whatever while young may treat them as prey or
            furniture, depending on the temperament of the individual
            dog. Some Mastiffs live well with cats, and recognize that
            the cats have to feel they are the bosses. Others chase cats
            without mercy even if they are wonderful dogs in every other
            way. Some dogs that were not raised around horses may sniff
            once, then ignore them, others may be afraid of them, others
            interested, etc. The point is, *you* need to plan what to
            socialize your dog to, so it will know how to behave around
            the animals that are or will be part of your household. Then
            it is not up to the highly individual reactions of a half- or
            fully-grown dog, but your choice.
         d. Strangers?
            A properly socialized Mastiff (which SHOULD be the only kind
            there is) will stand or sit beside you politely when a
            stranger is around. The world is full of people who are
            strangers to you and your dog, but who are nice, normal,
            decent folks who pose no threat. A Mastiff that is properly
            socialized (and free of severe shyness) should be polite,
            possibly aloof, but eventually friendly, after the dog sees
            your positive reaction to someone.
         e. Young children?
            They are gentle and protective, providing they have been
            raised with children and are accustomed to them. Small
            children should not be allowed to play roughly with a puppy;
            Mastiffs are a sensitive breed that can be permanently
            traumatized by rough handling.
   11. _How long does a Mastiff live?_
       Books on the breed describe the average Mastiff life span as 6-10
       years. A few have lived to be 13 or 14; a tiny handful have lived
       to be 16-17. Assuming no accidents, an individual dog's life span
       will depend on its bloodlines, weight, and freedom from
       significant problems such as blindness, heart disease, hip or
       elbow dysplasia, spondylosis, immune disorders, etc. (see
       Questions 16, 17 and Appendix F for more information on health
       problems). Sadly, there has been an increase in the death of
       middle aged and younger Mastiffs in the past 10 years or so,
       although this is not specific to Mastiffs but applies to most
       The increase in hereditary problems in all breeds has had the
       effect of shortening the lives of a number of animals in each
       breed, thus bringing down the averages. This is why we emphasize
       testing for health problems and breeding animals ONLY after they
       have been proven to be free of evidence of significant hereditary
       diseases. Choosing your breeder carefully, for awareness of
       problems and for evidence of specific actions taken consistently
       over a period of time to prevent these problems, will greatly
       increase your chances of getting a healthy dog with the potential
       to live to a ripe old age.
   12. _Can I get a white Mastiff? What colors can I get?_
       No, Mastiffs come in Apricot, Brindle, and various shades of Fawn.
       Since one of the faults listed in the breed standard is "excessive
       white on the chest or white on any other part of the body", then a
       Mastiff with much white on it at all is *not* correctly marked
       according to the breed standard. There are breeds for which white
       is a correct, acceptable color, but the Mastiff is not one of
   13. _Male vs. female, which is friendlier? more protective? easier to
       These are all traits that tend to vary more between individual
       animals than between the sexes. A healthy, alert, intelligent dog
       who did well on the Puppy Aptitude test and has been well
       socialized and trained from Puppy Kindergarten onward is your best
       chance at getting all the above characteristics. Socializing a dog
       who started out with a good temperament gives you the friendliest
       dog. A dog is protective when it has bonded well with you
       (training your dog is an outstanding way to bond with it) and has
       at least begun to mature. If you start training very young the dog
       learns how to *learn* and will enjoy it more and perform better.
   14. _Is there anything special I should know about raising a Mastiff
       puppy - isn't it the same as any other breed?_
       Due to their rapid growth and their eventual giant size and
       weight, there are special precautions that should be taken with
       growing Mastiff puppies. See Appendix H for details.
   15. _How much training does a Mastiff need?_
       Because they are destined to be VERY large dogs, basic obedience
       training should be a part of every Mastiff's upbringing.
       Adequate socialization is an extremely important part of a puppy's
       training. An unsocialized dog, of any breed, can become either
       fearful or aggressive. A well socialized Mastiff is a stable
       Most Mastiffs are easy to train because they are so eager to
       please, but they are generally more easily trained when young. A
       puppy's brain develops very rapidly. New information is absorbed
       at an astonishing rate as they learn from their environment. You
       want to make certain that WHAT they learn is desirable; therefore,
       you must guide them in their learning process. Also, just as inany
       other breed, some individuals are stubborn, dominant, etc., and in
       such cases the behavior pattern should be identified early and the
       training adjusted appropriately to compensate for it.
       Unless you plan to compete in conformation or obedience, basic
       obedience is all your puppy really needs to become a valued family
       companion. Basic obedience consists of: sit, down, stay, come,
       walk on lead and proper socialization.
       To find Obedience and Socialization classes, contact your local
       Kennel Clubs and veterinarians. If you cannot locate classes, take
       your puppy out often to places where it can meet people and other
       dogs in a friendly atmosphere.
       A Mastiff does not need protection training. A well socialized
       Mastiff has, in essence, been taught what a normal situation is
       and will be able to sense when something is wrong. Even the
       gentlest Mastiff will protect its family if it is well socialized
       and bonded to them.
   16. _Do Mastiffs have any genetic health problems?_
       Mastiffs are probably about average when it comes to the number of
       hereditary health problems that they are prone to. Being a large
       breed they are very prone to joint problems. For more information
       on genetic problems, please refer to Appendix F.
          + Potentially life threatening or serious:
            (*these conditions may be inherited or in some cases
               o Joint: hip dysplasia; elbow dysplasia (ununited anconeal
                 process, fragmented coronoid process, degenerative joint
                 disease); osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the
                 shoulders, knees, elbows or hocks.
               o Eye problems that cause blindness: cataracts*, retinal
                 dysplasia with detachment, glaucoma., progressive
                 retinal atrophy (PRA)
               o Other inherited eye problems: geographic retinal
                 dysplasia, PPM, entropion.
               o Hypothyroidism*, immune deficiencies.
               o Wobblers syndrome.
               o Skin: demodectic mange, deep pyoderma.
               o Nervous system: myasthenia gravis*, muscular dystrophy*,
               o Other: cardiomyopathy*, leukemia.
          + Less serious and/or less common:
            (*these conditions may be inherited or in some cases
               o Eye problems: ectropion, iris cysts, macroblapharon
                 (haw), corneal dystrophy*, distichiasis, cherry eye, dry
                 eye, retinal folds.
               o Skin: allergies
               o Joint problems: HOD (hypertrophic Osteo Dystrophy),
                 degenerative joint disease*, arthritis*, spondylosis of
                 the spine.
               o Reproductive: cryptorchid, monorchid, vaginal
               o Heart: murmurs*, pulmonic stenosis.
               o Other: hernias, von Willebrands Disease (vWD).
   17. _What are the common non-genetic health problems in Mastiffs?_
       Mastiffs are subject to the same common diseases and afflictions
       as every other breed of dog. Some of the more prevalent are:
          + Joint and bone: cruciate ligament rupture, panosteitis, elbow
          + Urinary tract: kidney and bladder infections, bladder stones.
          + Ear infections, hot spots, cysts and tumors.
          + Reproductive: uterine inertia, pyometra, other uterine
            infections, mastitis, breast cancer.
          + Cancer (bone, bowel, brain, spine, etc. Some forms of cancer
            are inherited, most aren't).
          + Other: gastric torsion (bloat), pica (eating rocks, socks,
   18. _What other problems do Mastiffs have?_
          + Temperament:
               o Aggressive
               o Fearful (inherited or lack of socialization).
               o Shy
          + Structural faults:
               o Limbs: weak pasterns, cow-hocks, straight shoulders,
                 stifles and/or hocks, elbows in or out instead of
               o Bite: very undershot, overshot, crooked teeth, wry
                 (twisted) jaw
               o Tail: abnormally short, kinked, bob tail
               o Feet: flat (hare foot), loose toes, turned toes or feet
               o Coat: long hair, no under coat, excessive white markings
               o Movement: paddling, crossing, sidewinding, overreaching,
                 lack of drive.
          + Problems caused by their size:
               o Expensive and difficult to take on an airplane once
               o Navigating steep stairs
               o Getting into small cars
               o Happy Tail (Crate Tail) syndrome - prone to abrasions
                 (often accompanied by considerable blood splattering)
                 from wagging against things.
   19. _What kind of a temperament does a Mastiff have?_
       Mastiffs are called gentle giants because of their benign and
       benevolent character. A Mastiff's temperament is so much a part of
       how it needs to be raised and cared for that many of the questions
       in this FAQ have incorporated one aspect or another of the Mastiff
       temperament in their answers.
       A dog this big has no NEED to growl or make menacing noises or
       faces to impress a would-be burglar or mugger. Instead, it can and
       does simply relax, but keeps an eye on situations where its human
       family could possibly be in danger of any kind.
       Mastiffs have a somewhat contradictory nature, they are very
       sensitive to the reactions of their people, most Mastiffs can be
       absolutely crushed by harsh words. Yet Mastiffs can also be among
       the most stubborn of dogs, so stubborn that you may find it to be
       an immense challenge to get them to do the same thing over and
       over for an obedience class (the Mastiff probably would rather do
       it once and then take a nap or do something different).
       Mastiffs, like people, are highly individual. Some are placid,
       some are high energy animals who need to be kept busy. A lot of
       any Mastiff's behavior depends on how well it was socialized while
   20. _What does a Mastiff eat?_
       A Mastiff will eat anything that is not nailed down! Mastiffs,
       being a giant breed, have the capability of chewing on things that
       most small breeds can't even get in their mouths.
       Oh, you meant food, huh? OK, Mastiffs do best on a food that is in
       the medium range for protein (20-25%), mid range for fat (12-18%)
       and is well balanced for calcium and phosphorus and high in iodine
       (3-5%). Feeding your Mastiff puppy foods high in protein, calories
       and fat will push the growth rate and possibly cause joint,
       ligament and tendon problems. It is best to grow your puppy at a
       slow, steady rate and not try to make him big too soon. Remember,
       the Mastiff will grow to what he was genetically programmed to be
       no matter how fast or slow that you get him there. It is best to
       take your time and grow them out slowly so as to minimize joint
       and bone problems and thus have a sound, healthy dog. If the dog
       food you intend to use is balanced for nutrition do not add
       supplemental calcium to the diet. Too much calcium causes more
       problems than too little!
       The amount of food is a judgment call, depending on the type of
       food you are feeding, the age of the Mastiff, and the body
       condition such as too fat, too thin or just right. Feed a good
       quality premium food, following the recommendations on the bag and
       adjusting the amount according to body condition. Do not let your
       Mastiff puppy or young adult get fat and make sure that you can
       feel the ribs or at least see the last two ribs when the dog is
       moving. Fat dogs have many problems with bones and joints, heart,
       liver, kidney, etc. Generally Mastiff puppies eat a lot of food
       while growing, until at least the age of two. An adult Mastiff
       generally has a slow metabolism and does not eat an exceptional
       amount of food, normally about the same as a German Shepherd or
       dog of similar or even smaller size.
   21. _What kind of living quarters does a Mastiff require? How about
       crating? Where do they sleep?_
       The standard answer to this question: Anywhere they want to!
       Mastiffs consider themselves to be part of your family, and will
       be most content if they are able to share your home with you. Many
       Mastiff breeders feel so strongly about the Mastiff's need tobe
       with their human family that they will only sell a puppy to people
       who guarantee that it will live in the house with them.
       Within your home, Mastiffs need a place of their own where they
       will feel comfortable and secure, just like any other dog. Crates
       are a practical solution, especially for puppy house training and
       safety. Wire crates are best so that the pup can see out and
       because they are harder to chew or destroy. Purchase the largest
       one you can afford so your Mastiff can grow into it. A pallet by
       your bed is also a good idea since Mastiffs want to be with their
       families and it is generally not a good idea to let them sleep on
       the bed with you. Sleeping with you puts them on the same level as
       you, so you may wind up with a dominance problem; and jumping off
       of a bed is not good for the joints when they are young. Most
       Mastiffs will wind up forgoing any wonderful bed you make for them
       and will want to sleep on the tile or linoleum floor because it is
       cooler. Caution is advised here because Mastiffs tend to clunk
       down on their elbows when lying down and many develop elbow
       hygromas from the constant banging on the elbows.
       The best beds are soft pads with blankets over them or even a baby
       bed mattress with a cover. Don't be surprised if your youngster
       shreds his bed as this seems to be great fun to most puppies - be
       sure to remove any pieces because they can be dangerous if
   22. _Does owning a Mastiff:_
         a. Cost a lot?
            A Mastiff costs more to maintain than smaller breeds due to
            its large size and weight. Larger crates cost more. More and
            larger consumables are needed - food, toys and the like. Many
            medicines, such as antibiotics, heartworm preventative and
            anesthesia are prescribed based on weight, so these cost
            more. A Mastiff on a 'chewing binge' can cause much more
            damage in a shorter time than smaller breeds.
         b. Require a lot of work?
            Compared to what? Mastiffs, due to their tendency to be inert
            (like couch potatoes), and their short hair, do not require
            as much work as a breed that needs to run a lot for exercise,
            or needs daily brushing to keep a fluffy coat from getting
            A Mastiff with a correct coat only needs a bath when it
            begins to smell "doggy" or if it has gotten into something
            that needs to be washed off. Bathing a Mastiff is sort of
            like washing a hairy Volkswagen except that the VW won't
            shake and drench you in shampoo or rinse water.
            Mastiffs need MODERATE exercise (if this much is too much for
            you, consider an older Rescue dog), a quality food with
            moderate protein and fat content, and the normal maintenance
            activities that any breed requires: clipping toenails,
            keeping teeth clean, ear cleaning, and regular vet checkups
            and vaccinations.
            The size of a Mastiff means that those toenails will be big
            and thick, harder to cut than those on a smaller dog. And
            they will eat a lot more food than your neighbor's poodle.
            Mastiffs tend to shed twice a year like most breeds, but when
            a huge dog sheds lightly, it can still add up to a lot of
            hair to vacuum.
            If you are grossed out by slingers and goobers, please be
            advised that if you own a Mastiff you might spend the rest of
            the dog's life wiping the walls and complaining about the
            mess. If you CAN handle it, you will learn tricks like wiping
            the dog's face as soon as it has finished drinking (to catch
            the slingers before they are slung).
   23. _Are you trying to talk me out of getting a Mastiff?_
       No and yes. No, because it would be wonderful if everyone could
       experience the joy and satisfaction of being owned by one of these
       gentle giants. Yes, because, as great and wonderful as they are,
       they have idiosyncrasies and problems particular to the breed. It
       would be much, much, much better if you found out that a Mastiff
       wasn't the breed for you NOW instead of after you've already
       gotten one.
       Mastiffs are not the right breed for everyone. Mastiffs are giants
       and take up a lot of space on the couch and in the house and car.
       They have powerful tails that can clean off a coffee table in one
       fell swoop or knock a small child down with one wag. And the smack
       of a tail is like being tortured with a rubber hose! Most
       Mastiff's drool and slobber, especially after eating and drinking.
       Many leave water trails all over the house after a drink and
       prefer to wipe their faces on their owners. Mastiffs like to be
       close to their family and will sit on your feet, lean against you,
       often put their paw on you and lay their heavy head in your lap.
       Occasionally people can be unintentionally injured by an exuberant
       Mastiff. Mastiffs like to follow you where ever you go and be part
       of whatever you do. They can block doorways with their huge
       bodies, stand in front of the TV and block your view, and take up
       large amounts of space with their crates and toys. If you can't
       handle any of the above, then a Mastiff is not the dog for you!
       Not recommended for:
          + Old, elderly, infirm - Mastiffs can accidentally knock down
            someone who is not steady on their feet; can aggravate back
            and other injuries; and, since they have the strength of a
            Rhino, can do unintended harm unless properly trained. If you
            just have to have one, an older, already trained Mastiff is
            recommended. See Appendix D for information about Mastiff
            Rescue, the best place to start looking for an older, trained
          + Small children - Children under about 6 can be knocked down
            by an exuberant puppy or adult. Mastiffs are, however,
            generally gentle with children of any age, but, you MUST
            supervise them when they are together so that neither the
            child nor the dog is injured.
          + Small habitats - Mastiffs are not recommended for small
            apartments or tiny houses since they tend to grow so large.
            Too many Mastiffs end up in shelters or with Rescue because
            their owners didn't take their eventual size into
            consideration. The ideal environment is one with a
            comfortable house, access to a fenced yard for potty breaks,
            where the owner knows exactly what they are getting in
          + Guard dog - Mastiffs possess the natural ability to defend
            their family should the need arise. They should know the
            difference between friend and foe and pick up on the emotions
            of their owners. Mastiffs are not recommended as a guard dog
            for businesses or junkyards because of their instinctual need
            to bond with people and because they are so strong that they
            may overdo the guarding and hurt the wrong person. The
            Mastiff temperament is not suited for formal "guard dog"
            training due to their sensitive nature and because to do so
            may permanently ruin their temperament.
          + Neat Freaks - Do not get a Mastiff if you are a person who
            must have a clean house at all times, can't stand dog hair on
            everything, or does not like the furniture being rearranged
            when a Mastiff decides that he wants to sleep behind the
            couch or under the table. Try to match your decor to the
            color of the dog hair and slobber.
          + Workaholics - If you work long hours and someone isn't home
            often, you may want to rethink getting a Mastiff. Mastiffs
            like people and do not like being left alone all day in a
            crate or back yard. They bore easily and will find ways to
            entertain themselves while you are away. A bored, lonesome
            Mastiff may destroy things or turn their boredom on
            themselves causing such things as having to replace furniture
            (or walls), or requiring treatment for lick granulomas. If
            your home is frequently empty except for your dog, please
            reconsider getting a Mastiff and may we suggest a toy breed
            where you could have two to keep each other company or
            perhaps a cat, bird or reptile.
          + Those on a tight budget - Mastiffs are giants and therefore
            the cost of upkeep is high. Everything you need to maintain
            one is expensive from the bedding, the collars, the food
            bowls, the food, to the vet bills. If you are on a tight
            budget or do not enjoy spending money on your dog, please
            reconsider getting this breed. The initial purchase price of
            the pup will be the least expensive part of owning a Mastiff.
   24. _Where should I get a Mastiff?_
          + Middleman who buys puppies from breeders and resells them?
          + Pet Shop?
          + Backyard breeder?
          + Reputable breeder?
            The best way to get a healthy, happy, quality Mastiff puppy,
            is to buy directly from a breeder. Reputable breeders put the
            welfare of their dogs and the improvement of the breed above
            their desire for financial gain. Reputable breeders will take
            back or replace a puppy who is found to have a congenital
            defect. Breeders who are members of the Mastiff Club Of
            America have agreed to abide by a Code of Ethics (see
            Appendix C). A Breeder Referral list is available from the
            MCOA, see Appendix I.1 for details.
          + Mastiff Rescue?
            Unfortunately, usually through no fault of their own, a
            number of Mastiffs end up homeless every year. The MCOA's
            Rescue Service is charged with helping these distressed
            Mastiff's find new homes. See Appendix D for more
   25. _Where can I get more information about Mastiffs?_
       See Appendix E for Mastiff information sources and Appendix I for
       Mastiff Clubs and contacts.
   26. _How do I pick a Mastiff puppy?_
       After you have chosen your breeder and your puppy's sire and dam,
       you're ready to choose your Mastiff puppy. But which one? The most
       important aspect of this choice is temperament. Puppies'
       temperament's vary even within the same litter.
       Many people will choose the first puppy that runs up to them and
       pulls at their pant leg because they think this must be a more
       outgoing puppy. Not every Mastiff is for every family and this
       puppy may not necessarily be THE puppy for your family. So how DO
       you choose a puppy?. You should choose a Mastiff puppy that has a
       temperament that compliments your family's.
       Ideally your puppy's breeder will use Puppy Aptitude Testing and
       family profiles to match puppies with their new owners. Puppy
       Aptitude Testing evaluates the individual temperament of each
       puppy. A family profile consists of a series of questions which
       allows the breeder to assess your family's situation and
       disposition. The breeder may even ask to choose a puppy for you.
       If the breeder is skilled in Puppy Aptitude Testing, they can
       generally choose the best puppy for your family. If the breeder
       does not perform these tests, you will need to know how to choose
       the right puppy yourself.
       First, look at your family's situation: Do you have small
       children? Do you have elderly in your household? Is your family
       quiet or of gentle nature? Do you already have another dog? Do you
       feel guilty when disciplining your children or current dog?
       If you have answered "yes" to any of these questions you may
       prefer a puppy with a more subordinate temperament. A dog with
       dominant tendencies would not fit into this particular family
       situation. Dogs are pack animals and they will try to establish a
       pecking order within their pack, and your family will be their new
       Subordinate (submissive) does not mean shy or timid. A puppy with
       a subordinate temperament will simply be closer to the bottom of
       the dominance ladder (pecking order). A subordinate puppy will not
       try to dominate the small children within your household, nor will
       it be as apt to challenge your authority or to compete with
       another dog for dominance. Note: Timidity (shyness) is a genetic
       fault in Mastiffs.
       If you already have a dog: Is it submissive or dominant? What is
       its size? Is it male or female? With another dog already in the
       family, especially a dominant one, consider a Mastiff puppy with a
       more submissive temperament and/or one of the opposite sex. A
       submissive puppy will be less likely to challenge your existing
       dog for pecking order. Males seldom compete with females for
       leadership position. Smaller dogs can be easily injured if they
       are involved in disputes with a Mastiff.
       Are you experienced with large breeds? Do you NOT have small
       children nor elderly within your home? Are you comfortable
       offering constructive criticism? Have you had any dog training
       experience of any kind? Is your current dog a larger breed of
       submissive nature? Do you have the time and are you planning to
       train this puppy in either Obedience, Conformation, or for Canine
       Good Citizenship? Is your family active and outgoing?
       If you have answered "yes" to all of these questions you may wish
       to consider a puppy with more dominant tendencies. Dominant does
       not mean aggressive. A Mastiff with dominant tendencies is one
       which would compete for its place higher up on the dominance
       ladder. It will be more apt to challenge a child or another dog.
       There is a difference between a dog with dominant tendencies and a
       true Alpha dog. An Alpha dog, of any breed, may even try to
       challenge YOUR authority. It is never a good idea to place a
       dominant puppy into a home with another dominant dog, especially
       of the same sex. Properly reared dogs with dominant tendencies can
       be wonderful, loving family companions.
   27. _What questions should I ask the breeder (and what answers should
       I get)?_
       Before talking to a breeder, before you even start looking for a
       puppy, DO YOUR HOMEWORK FIRST! Read this FAQ. Check out the books
       and Internet resources listed in the Appendices. Read the FAQs on
       'Selecting a Dog', 'Getting a Dog', 'Your New Puppy', 'Your New
       Dog', 'Health Care Issues' and other subjects (these can be found
       at Go to the library.
       Read, read, read. Ask veterinarians what they see frequently and
       what to be aware of. Go to some dog shows and talk to the
       exhibitors. It is vital to have knowledge BEFORE you get or even
       start looking for a puppy. Forewarned is forearmed.
       This may seem like a lot of research, but you are undertaking a
       long term commitment that may last 8, 10 or even more years -
       longer than a new car, often longer than a house, or even, these
       days, longer than a spouse! A Mastiff will quickly become a major
       factor in your day to day existence, with significant influence on
       your lifestyle. It is up to you to do everything you can ahead of
       time to ensure that this influence will be a positive one.
       A hastily or poorly chosen Mastiff can make your life miserable,
       and, if subject to health problems, can cause a significant drain
       on your financial resources.
       Appendix G contains a list of questions that you should ask the
       breeder of a Mastiff puppy that you are contemplating acquiring.
       The 'Getting a Dog FAQ' at contains more general
       questions to ask a breeder.
   28. _What kind of toys and other paraphernalia do I need for my
          + TOYS
            Mastiffs are big, strong puppies and even bigger, stronger
            adults, with a biting capacity of estimated at over 300 psi.
            Keeping that in mind, most toys and chewies for your Mastiff
            will have to be durable and able to withstand major abuse.
            Many toys are suitable for youngsters but not for adults and
            you will have to add to the toy box as your Mastiff grows
            older and stronger. When first introducing a new toy it is a
            good idea to supervise your Mastiff to see how they handle
            it. If they rip the toy to shreds and start swallowing lots
            of it - take it away and try a different toy. Each dog is an
            individual and what is good for one is not necessarily good
            for another.
            Some good toys to start out with are:
            Puppies - Nylabones, Kongs, Vermont Chews (stuffed),
            compressed rawhide bones (not shredded and pressed together,
            but whole pieces rolled up and compressed under thousands of
            pounds of steam), carefully selected children's stuffed
            animals, plastic soda bottles with the cap and cap ring
            removed (discard if the pup starts to tear apart), knotted
            rope bones (discard when shredded), large rope rings, soccer
            and basketballs, various dental chews, hard plastic or pvc
            balls, safe squeaky toys (human children's are the safest and
            least toxic), raw or sterilized beef bones, raw fruit and
            vegetables (No onion!), empty cardboard boxes (remove all
            staples, loose packing and labels), empty toilet paper and
            paper towel tubes (pups will empty them for you!) and cow
            ears. Puppies also enjoy shredding newspaper but it is messy
            and they can get black ink on themselves. It's not toxic
            though and it won't hurt them, unless they eat to much!
            Adult (over 6 months) - Same as above but delete the squeaky
            toys and plastic balls. Add old lawn mower tires, large
            knotted rope bones, huge nylabones and dental chews, big beef
            bones (knuckle, femur, etc.), larger fruit and vegetables
            (edible, biodegradable toys!), giant Kongs, large cardboard
            boxes (messy, but so much fun).
            There isn't a toy made that a Mastiff cannot destroy so
            please be careful in your selection and keep an eye on them.
            If any of the toys you have selected become badly chewed,
            shredded or have chunks missing, discard them and get
            something else. Each Mastiff is a little different in how it
            deals with each object. Some will lay down and eat a whole
            bone whereas others will occasionally gnaw on it and have it
            last a long time. Some will ignore toys that others covet.
            Try various things and see what your dog likes. Remember,
            anything can be dangerous if not used properly and can cause
            problems for your Mastiff. The best advice is to know your
            dog and watch it with new toys until you are certain that the
            toys won't be eaten (except for fruit & veggies) or destroyed
            in one sitting! Have fun and be creative!
          + FOOD and WATER DISHES
            Stainless steel is suggested for several reasons. It is
            basically indestructible and is easy to sterilize and
            dishwasher safe. Buy the largest one you can find for a water
            bowl and at least a 5 qt. size for the food.
          + COLLARS and LEASHES
            Up until about 6 months old, most collars will work just fine
            including the adjustable ones with a plastic snap. After 6
            months it is best to use a buckle type collar made of either
            wide nylon or leather. A six foot lead is recommended for
            training and a shorter leash for going on walks. You can use
            either nylon or leather, just be sure it has a strong snap!
            For formal training, like at an obedience class, you will
            need a "choke" chain, usually made with metal links. Your
            instructor will advise you of the correct size and how to put
            it on the pup and how to use it properly. Remember: NEVER
            leave a dog, puppy or adult, unattended with a choke collar
            on as they can easily get it caught on something, even in a
            crate, and strangle themselves!
       One company that publishes a catalog specifically for big dog
       items is Big Dog Basics & Pyraphernalia at (316) 276-8665
       The 'Resources FAQ' at
       an extensive list of dog supply catalogs, magazines, and
       organizations. In it you can find listing for things such as
       weight pulling harnesses, backpacking necessities and everything
       else imaginable for your Mastiff.
   29. _Is that a Mastiff in:_
          + Beethoven?   No, a St. Bernard.
          + Cybil?   Yes.
          + Howard Huge?   No, a St. Bernard(?).
          + Marmaduke?   No, a Great Dane.
          + Sandlot?   Yes.
          + The Secret Garden?   Yes.
          + That's My Dog?   Yes.
          + The Truth About Dogs?   No, a ???.
          + Turner and Hooch?   No, a Dogue de Borduex (French Mastiff).
          + Meet Wally Sparks?   Yes.
   30. _What's the difference between a Mastiff and a Bullmastiff?_
       The Mastiff is an ancient British breed and its history can be
       traced back over 2,000 years. The Bullmastiff is a relatively
       recent breed developed from crossing Mastiff (60%) and Bulldog
       (40%) stock. The Bullmastiff's shorter, more compact, more
       muscular look; shorter muzzle; higher energy level and greater
       stubbornness are derived from the Bulldog part of the
       Bullmastiff's ancestry.
       The most noticeable differences are temperament, the conformation
       of the heads and overall size of the dogs.
       Mastiffs have a mellower, more relaxed temperament, compared to
       the pushier, more active temperament of the typical Bullmastiff.
       The Mastiff's forehead should be slightly curved and the stop
       (indentation between the eyes) well marked but not too abrupt
       while the Bullmastiff's forehead should be flat and the stop
       Mastiff males should be at least 30" at the shoulder and females
       27 1/2" at the shoulder, with no upper limit for height.
       Bullmastiff males should be between 25-27" at the shoulder and
       females 24-26" at the shoulder.
       Weight ranges differ significantly between the breeds, with the
       Bullmastiff being smaller as well as more compact. The Bullmastiff
       Standard lists 110-130 pounds for males, 100-120 pounds for
       females. While the Mastiff Standard specifies no weight ranges,
       males weights usually run 160 pounds and up, females 120 pounds
       and up.
                              III. APPENDICES
    A. _History of the Mastiff_
       There is evidence of Mastiff-like giant dogs dating back as far as
       2500 BC in the mountains of Asia. Bas-reliefs from the Babylonian
       palace of Ashurbanipal (now on display in the British Museum)
       depict Mastiff-type dogs hunting lions in the desert near the
       Tigris River. Their coloration, of course, cannot be told, but
       other than being taller and leaner than current-day Mastiffs (as
       ours would be if raised in a desert and fed lightly), they are
       remarkably like our modern Mastiffs, despite the passing of nearly
       4500 years.
       After this clear visual evidence, we must rely on folklore and
       oral history. Phoenician traders are believed to have introduced
       the Mastiff to ancient Britain, where the Romans found them and
       brought them back to fight in the arena.
       Marco Polo wrote of Kubla Khan, who kept a kennel of 5,000
       Mastiffs used for hunting and war.
       When Hannibal, the great Roman leader, crossed the Alps, he took
       with him several battalions of trained war mastiffs, who, during
       their long travels, "fraternized" with local breeds to produce
       what became the St. Bernard, once called the Alpine Mastiff, as
       well as other giant breeds.
       All of the massive mountain dogs of Spain, France, Turkey, and the
       Balkans can trace their size back to Mastiff blood in their
       ancestry. Even the Chow Chow carries Mastiff blood, as does the
       Pug, which was originally a form of dwarf Mastiff.
       Theories advanced by various authors have focused on one or more
       of the above to try to identify the *origin* of the breed. What
       should matter the most to us is what the breed is like now, and
       how it came to be that way. Despite the differences of opinion on
       where the Mastiff originated, most agree that the British are the
       creators of the breed as we know it today.
       Of all the countries who used the Mastiff, it was the British who
       kept him in his purest form, and it is to them that we owe the
       Mastiff of today. They kept Mastiffs to guard their castles and
       estates, releasing them at night to ward off intruders. Henry VIII
       is said to have presented Charles V of Spain a gift of 400
       Mastiffs to be used in battle.
       The Legh family of Lyme Hall, Cheshire, who were given their
       estate by Richard II (1377-1399), kept and bred Mastiffs for many
       generations. Stowe's Annual, a reference book, shows that King
       James I (1603-1625) sent a gift of two Lyme Hall mastiffs to
       Phillip II of Spain. These, or their immediate descendants, are
       certainly the Mastiff-type dogs shown in famous portraits of the
       Spanish royal children.
       Other sources indicate that Mastiffs were used as war dogs by the
       ancient Celts, and accompanied their masters into battle. When the
       Romans invaded Britain, they took the dogs back to Italy and used
       them to guard property and prisoners, as well as using them to
       fight in the arena.
       The Mastiff was one of the few breeds mentioned by name in The
       Forest Laws of King Canute, the first written laws of England.
       There, Mastiffs were required to be checked by the tax collector,
       who would make sure the middle toes of each front foot were
       removed so the dog could not run fast enough to catch the deer
       (which traditionally belonged to royalty). Tax collectors have not
       evolved much over the centuries; the penalties for failing to meet
       their requirements were extreme. In the Forest Laws, Mastiffs were
       mentioned specifically as being kept for protection.
       In the Elizabethan Era, the Mastiff was used to fight wild animals
       (e.g., bears, tigers, etc.), usually for the entertainment of the
       Queen. After the cessation of this cruel sport, Mastiffs continued
       to be bred by the Dukes of Devonshire and Sutherland, the Earl of
       Harrington, and other nobles.
       According to the scanty records of the Pilgrim Fathers, two dogs,
       a Mastiff and a spaniel, accompanied the Plymouth colonists aboard
       the Mayflower on their journey to the new world.
       In England, dog showing became popular in the mid-1800s. Wealthy
       people kept and bred Mastiffs and started the first recorded
       pedigrees. These were registered with what was then the only
       kennel club in the world, The Kennel Club in England.
       During the World Wars, Mastiffs were used to pull munitions carts
       on the fronts. In America, they were frequently found on
       plantations as property guards.
       The size of the Mastiff and its need to eat about as much food per
       day as an adult human made a Mastiff too costly for most common
       folk to keep, except perhaps for butchers. In England they were
       sometimes called "the Butcher's Dog" because a butcher had enough
       meat scraps to feed a Mastiff well, and could therefore afford to
       keep one, even though he was not wealthy.
       Mastiffs began to decline in popularity until the late 1800's,
       when interest revived briefly, and Mastiffs started to be imported
       into America. World War I saw their decline again in England, and
       by the 1920's they were almost extinct in that country in their
       pure form. It was considered unpatriotic to keep dogs alive who
       ate as much in a day as a soldier; entire huge kennels were put
       down as a result.
       World War II all but finished the breed in England. At the end of
       the war, fresh blood was imported from Canada and the United
       States to revive the breed. Now, fortunately, Mastiffs are well
       established again, the United States having perhaps the greatest
       Breeders today have bred the Mastiff for gentleness and have
       created an excellent companion, large enough to deter intruders
       and yet gentle enough to be dependable around children.
    B. _MCOA / AKC Mastiff Conformation Standard_
       _General Appearance_
       The Mastiff is a large, massive, symmetrical dog with a well-knit
       frame. The impression is one of grandeur and dignity. Dogs are
       more massive throughout. Bitches should not be faulted for being
       somewhat smaller in all dimensions while maintaining a
       proportionally powerful structure. A good evaluation considers
       positive qualities of type and soundness with equal weight.
       _Size, Proportion, Substance_
       _Size_ - Dogs, minimum, 30 inches at the shoulder. Bitches,
       minimum, 27-1/2 inches at the shoulder. _Fault_-Dogs or bitches
       below the minimum standard. The farther below standard, the
       greater the fault.
       _Proportion_ - Rectangular, the length of the dog from forechest
       to rump is somewhat longer than the height at the withers. The
       height of the dog should come from depth of body rather than from
       length of leg.
       _Substance_ - Massive, heavy boned, with a powerful muscle
       structure. Great depth and breadth desirable. _Fault_-Lack of
       substance or slab sided.
       In general outline giving a massive appearance when viewed from
       any angle. Breadth greatly desired.
       _Eyes_ - set wide apart, medium in size, never too prominent.
       Expression alert but kindly. Color of eyes brown, the darker the
       better, and showing no haw. Light eyes or a predatory expression
       is undesirable.
       _Ears_ - small in proportion to the skull, V-shaped, rounded at
       the tips. Leather moderately thin, set widely apart at the highest
       points on the sides of the skull continuing the outline across the
       summit. They should lie close to the cheeks when in repose. Ears
       dark in color, the blacker the better, conforming to the color of
       the muzzle.
       _Skull_ - broad and somewhat flattened between the ears, forehead
       slightly curved, showing marked wrinkles which are particularly
       distinctive when at attention. Brows (superciliary ridges)
       moderately raised. Muscles of the temples well developed, those of
       the cheeks extremely powerful. Arch across the skull a flattened
       curve with a furrow up the center of the forehead. This extends
       from between the eyes to halfway up the skull. The stop between
       the eyes well marked but not too abrupt. Muzzle should be half the
       length of the skull, thus dividing the head into three parts-one
       for the foreface and two for the skull. In other words, the
       distance from the tip of the nose to stop is equal to one-half the
       distance between the stop and the occiput. Circumference of the
       muzzle (measured midway between the eyes and nose) to that of the
       head (measured before the ears) is as 3 is to 5.
       _Muzzle_ - short, broad under the eyes and running nearly equal in
       width to the end of the nose. Truncated, i.e. blunt and cut off
       square, thus forming a right angle with the upper line of the
       face. Of great depth from the point of the nose to the underjaw.
       Underjaw broad to the end and slightly rounded. Muzzle dark in
       color, the blacker the better. _Fault_-snipiness of the muzzle.
       _Nose_ - broad and always dark in color, the blacker the better,
       with spread flat nostrils (not pointed or turned up) in profile.
       _Lips_ - diverging at obtuse angles with the septum and
       sufficiently pendulous so as to show a modified square profile.
       _Canine Teeth_ - healthy and wide apart. Jaws powerful. Scissors
       bite preferred, but a moderately undershot jaw should not be
       faulted providing the teeth are not visible when the mouth is
       _Neck, Topline, Body_
       _Neck_ - powerful, very muscular, slightly arched, and of medium
       length. The neck gradually increases in circumference as it
       approaches the shoulder. Neck moderately "dry" (not showing an
       excess of loose skin).
       _Topline_ -In profile the topline should be straight, level, and
       firm, not swaybacked, roached, or dropping off sharply behind the
       high point of the rump.
       _Chest_ - wide, deep, rounded, and well let down between the
       forelegs, extending at least to the elbow. Forechest should be
       deep and well defined with the breastbone extending in front of
       the foremost point of the shoulders. Ribs well rounded. False ribs
       deep and well set back.
       _Underline_ - There should be a reasonable, but not exaggerated,
       _Back_ - muscular, powerful, and straight. When viewed from the
       rear, there should be a slight rounding over the rump.
       _Loins_ - wide and muscular.
       _Tail_ - set on moderately high and reaching to the hocks or a
       little below. Wide at the root, tapering to the end, hanging
       straight in repose, forming a slight curve, but never over the
       back when the dog is in motion.
       _Shoulders_ - moderately sloping, powerful and muscular, with no
       tendency to looseness. Degree of front angulation to match correct
       rear angulation.
       _Legs_ - straight, strong and set wide apart, heavy boned.
       _Elbows_ - parallel to body.
       _Pasterns_ - strong and bent only slightly.
       _Feet_ - large, round, and compact with well arched toes. Black
       _Hindquarters_ - broad, wide and muscular.
       _Second thighs_ - well developed, leading to a strong hock joint.
       _Stifle joint_ - is moderately angulated matching the front.
       _Rear legs_ - are wide apart and parallel when viewed from the
       rear. When the portion of the leg below the hock is correctly "set
       back" and stands perpendicular to the ground, a plumb line dropped
       from the rearmost point of the hindquarters will pass in front of
       the foot. This rules out straight hocks, and since stifle
       angulation varies with hock angulation, it also rules out
       insufficiently angulated stifles. _Fault_-Straight stifles.
       Outer coat straight, coarse, and of moderately short length.
       Undercoat dense, short, and close lying. Coat should not be so
       long as to produce "fringe" on the belly, tail, or hind legs.
       _Fault_-Long or wavy coat.
       Fawn, apricot, or brindle. Brindle should have fawn or apricot as
       a background color which should be completely covered with very
       dark stripes. Muzzle, ears, and nose must be dark in color, the
       blacker the better, with similar color tone around the eye orbits
       and extending upward between them. A small patch of white on the
       chest is permitted. _Faults_-Excessive white on the chest or white
       on any other part of the body. Mask, ears, or nose lacking dark
       The gait denotes power and strength. The rear legs should have
       drive, while the forelegs should track smoothly with good reach.
       In motion, the legs move straight forward; as the dog's speed
       increases from a walk to a trot, the feet move in toward the
       center line of the body to maintain balance.
       A combination of grandeur and good nature, courage and docility.
       Dignity, rather than gaiety, is the Mastiff's correct demeanor.
       Judges should not condone shyness or viciousness. Conversely,
       judges should also beware of putting a premium on showiness.
       Approved November 12, 1991
       Effective December 31, 1991
    C. _MCOA Code of Ethics _
   NOVEMBER 1995_
       The Mastiff Club of America requires its members to adhere to the
       following guidelines which constitute its Code of Ethics. The Club
       also requires that members, breeders and stud dog owners not aid
       or abet the violation of these guidelines by anyone else. This
       Code details certain practices necessary to implement the
       objectives of the Club as outlined in Article I, Section 2 of its
         1. I will consider only the betterment of the breed when
            breeding a bitch or allowing a breeding with my stud dog,
            being conscientious of controlling and eliminating inherited
            problems. A breeder and stud dog owner shall plan each
            breeding with the paramount intention of protecting the
            breed,, and only when the parties involved agree the breeder
            is in a position and has the knowledge to give proper care to
            both the bitch and offspring.
         2. I will not allow a bitch to be bred prior to her reaching
            twenty- two (22) months of age, nor shall any bitch be bred
            after her seventh (7) birthday. A bitch will not be bred more
            than once (1) a year unless she does not whelp a litter, the
            litter is stillborn, consists of a single (I) pup, or as part
            of a veterinarian's recommendation for treatment of pyometra.
            Any other reason for a bitch to be bred more than once (I) a
            year would need to be stated in writing, along with a
            licensed veterinarian's certification of good health, to be
            received by the Recording Secretary at least forty-five (45)
            days prior to the breeding for the Board's approval.
         3. I will sell a Mastiff only to a buyer whom I believe to be
            interested in the protection of the breed and who would agree
            in writing to provide the highest quality of care for said
            Mastiff, including quality food, water, proper shelter from
            heat or cold; active companionship, appropriate exercise,
            socialization and professional veterinary care whenever
         4. An MCOA member will sell each Mastiff puppy/adult on a
            written contract signed by all parties. Said contract shall
            contain, but is not limited to the following provisions:
              a. Complete care/feeding instructions.
              b. A record of innoculations and worming with a recommended
                 continuation schedule.
              c. Provide the buyer with a five (5) generation pedigree on
                 the litter.
              d. Furnish a signed AKC registration or transfer form,
                 unless written agreement is made with the buyer that
                 such papers are withheld or are to follow.
              e. A provision that ensures that the breeder is contacted
                 whenever an owner can no longer keep a dog at anytime in
                 the dog's life.
              f. Stipulate that the buyer have a veterinary check-up
                 within five (5) working days of the sale, (or whatever
                 is applicable in your state of residence), to determine
                 that the Mastiff is healthy. If the veterinarian
                 determines that the Mastiff is not in good health, the
                 breeder will, upon the Mastiffs return, refund the
                 purchase price or replace the Mastiff.
         5. I will not knowingly sell or provide a Mastiff for resale,
            gift or prize or to a broker/agent for resale. I will not
            engage in the brokering of puppies, (selling or buying),
            EXCEPT in a case that would prevent a potential rescue
            situation. ALL SUCH CASES MUST be documented by letter to the
            MCOA Recording Secretary.
         6. I will not sell a puppy/adult who is sick, nor will I ship or
            deliver to the buyer a puppy less than eight (8) weeks of
         7. I will show good sportsmanship at all times and in all
            matters relating to Mastiffs. I will maintain the highest
            degree of honesty and integrity. I will not knowingly make a
            misstatement of fact in any serious discussion or
            advertisement of my Mastiffs or the Mastiffs of any other
            Mastiff owner, that I might have with persons not qualified
            to judge the facts for themselves.
         8. If I should find myself unable to physically take back a
            Mastiff, bred/sold by me, who has been displaced, I will
            assist MCOA Rescue or a regional club rescue program in the
            placement of said Mastiff.
         9. I will require the neutering/spaying of any puppy/adult I
            place or sell as pet quality as soon as the dog reaches the
            appropriate age.
        10. I will not sell a Mastiff for the purpose of attack training,
            fighting, or any other sport detrimental to the breed and its
        11. I will not produce more than eight (8) litters, owned or co-
            owned, in a twenty-four (24) month period. As a stud dog
            owner I will not knowingly allow my stud dog to be used in a
            program which has already produced more than eight (8)
            litters in a twenty-four (24) month period.
       Any member or non-member may prefer charges against a member for
       alleged misconduct prejudicial to the best interests of the breed
       or Club. Written charges with specifications must be filed in
       duplicate with the Recording Secretary together with a refundable
       fee of fifty (50) dollars, if charges are heard. ...
    D. _MCOA Rescue Service_
         1. What is the MCOA Rescue Service?
            The Mastiff Club of America sponsors a national Rescue
            Service for Mastiffs in need. Dogs that are available for
            adoption come from a variety of circumstances, including
            shelters. Usually they range from two to six years old.
            When a Mastiff is released to the Club, it is taken to a
            veterinarian for a medical checkup and necessary
            vaccinations. The dog's temperament is evaluated and the
            Rescue Service attempts to locate any past history of the
            dog. These dogs are neutered or spayed before being released
            to their new homes.
            The Rescue Service requests a donation for an adopted Mastiff
            based on the age and general health of the dog. In order to
            be considered as an adoptive home, a Family Profile Form must
            be completed.
            To obtain more information about adopting a rescued Mastiff,
            send a SASE to:
                      MCOA Rescue Service
                      6360 Conley Rd.
                      Concord, OH 44077
         2. MCOA Rescue Service Contacts
            To report a Mastiff in need, contact the nearest Rescue
            Coordinator listed below.
            _NATIONAL OFFICERS:_
               o _Director_
                            Gloria Cuthbert (OH)
                            phone: (216) 639-1160
               o _Assistant to the Director - Western US_
                            Paula Lange (AZ)
                            phone: (520) 476-2351
               o _Assistant to the Director - Eastern US_
                            Alma Bowman (GA)
                            phone: (706) 965-4219
               o _NORTH-WESTERN REGION_ - AK, HI, ID, OR, WA
                            Pacific Northwest Mastiff Club
                            Paul & Misty Shearon (WA)
                            phone: (360) 832-7245
               o _WESTERN REGION_ - AZ, CA, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, NV,
                 SD, UT, WY
                            Karen Flocker (AZ)
                            phone: (520) 779-0473
               o _MID-WESTERN REGION_ - IA, IL, IN, KY, MI, MN, MO, OH,
                            Debbie Greiner (IL)
                            phone: (773) 763-7793
               o _MID-SOUTHERN REGION_ - AR, LA, OK, TX
                            Janet Powell (TX)
                            phone: (214) 342-3763
               o _NORTH-EASTERN REGION_ - CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY,
                 PA, RI, VA, VT, WV
                            Gina Anelli (CT)
                            phone: (860) 283-6278
               o _SOUTH-EASTERN REGION_ - AL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC, TN
                            Deborah Martin (NC)
                            phone: (919) 556-0206
               o _www_
                            Mastiff Rescue - Southern California -
                            MCOA Rescue -
    E. _Mastiff References and Resources_
         1. Books
            Unless indicated otherwise, the in-print books can be ordered
            from most major bookstores and are also usually available
            from the following, who may also have some of the
            out-of-print items occasionally:
               o 4-M Enterprises
                            phone: (800)-487-9867
                                  - or -
               o Books
                                  - or -
               o Direct Book Service
                            phone: (800)-776-2665
                                  - or -
               o Dog Lover's Bookshop
                            phone: (212) 594-3601
            _Books in-print / available:_
               o Non-Fiction:
                    # _The Complete Mastiff_ by Betty Baxter and David
                      Blaxter (1993) pub. by Howell Book House
                    # _The Mastiff_ by Marie Moore (1978) pub. by
                      Denlinger's Publishers
                    # _The Mastiff And Bullmastiff Handbook_ by Douglas
                      B. Oliff (1988) pub. by Howell Book House
                    # _The Mastiff Club Of America Yearbook_ pub.
                      annually by the MCOA in conjunction with the
                      National Specialty
                         @ 1991 - Tampa, FL
                         @ 1992 - White Plains, NY
                         @ 1993/1994 - F. Worth, TX / Portland, OR
                         @ 1995 - Nashville, TN
                           For availability and current pricing, contact:
                                        Lavelle Knight
                                        7010 Valrie Lane
                                        Riverview, FL 33569
                                        phone: (813) 677-7991
                    # _Mastiff Stud Dog Registry_ by Debora Jones -
                      updated biannually, to order send $17.50 check
                      payable to MCOA Rescue to:
                                  D. L. Jones
                                  De Vine Farm
                                  5951 Huntingtown Rd
                                  Huntingtown, MD 20639
               o Fiction:
                    # _Henry and Mudge_ (youth) by Cynthia Rylant
                      (1987-19xx) series of 14 (plus more on the way) (pb
                      & hc) pub. by Bradbury Press
                    # _The Toby Man_ by Dick King-Smith (1991) pub. by
                      Crown Publishers
            _Books out-of-print / sometimes available (usually used):_
               o Non-Fiction:
                    # _Champions, A View of the Mastiff in America_ by
                      Joan Hahn & Judy Powers (1983) pub. by The Mastiff
                      Club of America, Inc.
                    # _Grandeur and Good Nature - The Character of the
                      Mastiff_ by Joan Hahn (1992) pub. by Joan Hahn
                    # _The History and Management Of The Mastiff_ by E.
                      Baxter & P. Hoffman (198?) pub. by Scan House
                    # _History of The Mastiff_ by M. B. Wynn (1886) pub.
                      by Wm. Loxley and Melton Mowbray
                      limited edition reprint (1988) pub. by Peregrine
                      Press (500 copies)
                    # _Making Of The Modern Mastiff_ by Norman Howard
                      Carp-Gordon (1978) pub. by North & East Mastiff
               o Fiction:
                    # _Alphonse and Archibald_ by Ruth M. Collins (1953)
                      pub. by Dodd, Mead & Co.
                    # _Dog that wanted to whistle_ by Harry Levy (1940)
                      pub. by Lothrop, Lee and Shepard
                    # _Lion, the Mastiff_ by A. G. Savigny (1896) pub. by
                      William Briggs
                    # _Pilgrim and Pluck, Dogs of the Mayflower_ by
                      Arthur C. Bartlett (1936) pub. by W. A. Wilde Co.
                    # _Rab and His Friends_ by Dr. John Brown, MD (1892,
                      1902, 1909, 1927, 1970) pub. by various
         2. Publications
               o _MCOA Journal_ - quarterly magazine - $28.00 a year,
                 outside US extra, back issues $10, for subscription
                 information contact:
                            Mary Johnson
                            Subscription Editor
                            871 Craigville Road
                            Chester, NY 10918
               o _The Mastiff Reporter_ - bi-monthly newsletter, $10.00 a
                 year, to subscribe send $10.00 check payable to Sharon
                 Krauss at:
                            Sharon Krauss
                            4910 E. Emile Zola Ave.
                            Scottsdale, AZ 85254
               o Many of the Mastiff clubs listed in Appendix I also have
                 their own newsletters. Contact the individual clubs for
                 more information.
         3. Video / Audio
               o _Mass of Love, Joy and Pride_ - Mastiff song, cassette,
                 available from 4-M Enterprises
               o _The Mastiff_ - the Official AKC video, available from
                 Direct Book Service or 4-M Enterprises
               o _See Jane Train Spot_ - one hour video featuring
                 Mastiffs in training, to order contact:
                            See Jane Videos
                            Box 555
                            Eaton, IN 47448
         4. Computer Programs & Databases
               o _Devine Farm Pedigree Program & Mastiff Database_ -
                 Contains information on over 17,000 Mastiffs, performs
                 inbreeding coefficients, relationship coefficients, can
                 print up to 9 generation pedigrees, can display and
                 visually analyze 5 generation pedigrees, allows queries
                 against the entire database, lists descendants up to 9
                 generations, lists siblings, full-siblings and can query
                 against any of these lists. Runs under DOS with a
                 mouse/keyboard interface, will also run under Win 3.1
                 and Win95. To order, send $30 check payable to Mastiff
                 Rescue to:
                            D. L. Jones
                            De Vine Farm
                            5951 Huntingtown Rd
                            Huntingtown, MD 20639
         5. Mastiffs on the Internet
              a. MCOA WWW Home Page
                  No, not yet, but we're working on it. You can, however,
                      find this FAQ at our temporary page:
                    # Mastiff Club of America -
                      And there should also always be a permanent link to
                      this FAQ (under BREEDS) at:
                    # rec.pets.dogs FAQ Homepage -
              b. MCOA Member Home Pages
                    # Avalon Mastiffs -
                    # Castlemist Old English Mastiffs -
                    # Comstock Mastiffs -
                    # De Vine Farm -
                    # Fantasy Mastiffs -
                    # Grand Traverse Mastiffs -
                    # Greiner Hall Mastiffs -
                    # Kinmor Kennels -
                    # Lamars Old English Mastiffs -
                    # Lawraleigh's Mastiffs -
                    # Nittany Mastiffs -
                    # Millennium Mastiffs -
                    # Povrlrd Kennels -
                    # Willow Run Mastiffs -
                    # Windfall Mastiffs -
              c. Other Mastiff WWW Pages
                    # Club Espanol de Molosos de Arena -
                    # Club Francais du Bullmastiff et du Mastiff -
                    # Home Page for The Mastiff -
                    # Mastiff Club Of Victoria -
                    # Mastiff Mailing List Archives -
                    # Mastiff Mailing List Member Profiles -
                    # Mastiff Picture Page -
                    # Mastiff Rescue - Southern California -
                    # Mastiff Stud Dog Register and Articles -
                    # MCOA Journal Subscription Information and Back
                      Issues -
                    # MCOA Rescue -
              d. Mastiff Mailing list
                 Matthew Kleinmann at Cornell University runs a mailing
                 list for OEM's and related breeds. Although not
                 affiliated with the MCOA, many of its members can be
                 found among the lists 300+ subscribers. To subscribe to
                 the list, send email to
        with 'subscribe'
                 in the body (leave off the quotes).
    F. _Health Tests / Certifications every Mastiff SHOULD have_
       Mastiffs, like all breeds, have problems that are genetic - i.e.,
       passed from the parents to the offspring through their genes.
       These problems range in severity from minor to major and/or life
       In order to do something about these problems, breeders must first
       be aware that the problems exist, then they must learn as much as
       they can about the problems, including how they are inherited. A
       number of excellent tools are available to help accomplish the
       task of reducing genetic disease in our dogs - health testing with
       registered or certified results published by various
       Standardized tests are the only objective and practical way to be
       sure of the health status of any dog. Keep in mind that dogs are
       not always as they appear; for example, they can be dysplastic
       without exhibiting any clinical symptoms. Dogs can also "carry"
       the genes of their relatives, not just the genes that they express
       themselves. Thus, the more relatives of a dog that are tested, the
       easier it is to evaluate the chances that that dog "carries" the
       gene(s) for a particular trait. For example, if a dog's
       full-sibling has PRA and it and its sire and dam do not, then the
       dog has a 66% chance of carrying the gene for PRA.
       Testing ALL dogs for genetic disease provides the means for
       reducing the risk of, and eventually eliminating, most genetic
       diseases. For Mastiffs, testing should be performed for hip
       dysplasia (x-ray), elbow dysplasia (x-ray), patellar luxation
       (examination), eye disease (examination), thyroid disease (blood
       draw), heart disease (examination) and von Willebrands Disease
       (vWD) (blood draw).
       While Mastiff breeders, no matter how much they test, cannot
       guarantee that their puppies will not experience these problems,
       their use of genetic testing and the breeding of only tested clear
       dogs will reduce that risk. Breeders that test all of their dogs
       and require that all puppy buyers do likewise are making a sincere
       effort to reduce the incidence of genetic disease.
       The WWW site 'Mastiff Stud Dog Register and Articles' at contains a considerable
       body of information regarding Mastiffs and these tests.
       Additional genetic disease and testing information:
          + Eliminating Genetic Diseases in Dogs: A Buyer's Perspective
            FAQ -
          + The Dog Genome Project -
          + MCOA GDCS (Genetic Data Collection Service)
                      Constance Parker
                      GDCS Coordinator
                      PO Box 531533Grand Prairie, TX 75053-1533
                      phone: (972) 660-5113fax: (972)660-5201
            The MCOA offers this service to individuals and breeders who
            are interested in researching the genetic background of their
            dogs. Inclusion on the list for the various genetic tests is
            free to all Mastiff owners regardless of their membership
            status with MCOA. Updates are published quarterly in the MCOA
            Journal and a complete listing (1972 to the present) is
            available for a fee ($15 with OFA list, $10 without OFA list)
            Send request and check (payable to MCOA) to the above to
            The MCOA GDCS currently includes OFA Preliminary Hips, OFA
            Preliminary Elbows, OFA Hips, OFA Elbows, von Willebrands
            Disease, Thyroid and CERF. Passing OFA Hips, OFA Elbows, OFA
            Patellar and CERF registration are automatically included for
            all Mastiffs, contact the above for specific requirements for
            listing other results.
          + MCOA PRA Project (Progressive Retinal Atrophy)
               o West Coast Coordinator
                            Karen Flocker
                            3228 Mehrhoff Place
                            Flagstaff, AZ 86001
                            phone: (520) 779-0473fax: (520) 779-2169
               o East Coast Coordinator
                            Debora Jones
                            De Vine Farm
                            5951 Huntingtown RdHuntingtown, MD 20639
                            phone: (301) 855-6711
               o www:
                            PRA Research -
                            James A. Baker Institute For Animal Health -
            The MCOA is backing a project by the James A. Baker Institute
            For Animal Health at Cornell University to develop a DNA test
            for PRA in Mastiffs. PRA is a recessive, genetic,
            degenerative eye disease that leads to blindness. PRA
            typically cannot be detected in Mastiffs until the dog is 1
            year old, and sometimes not until the dog is over 3 years.
            The DNA test is needed to detect carriers and those afflicted
            prior to breeding, so that breeders can guarantee that their
            pups will not have PRA and PRA can be eliminated from the
            gene pool. At present the penetration of PRA into the Mastiff
            gene pool is unknown due to the lack of adequate testing
            tools and insufficient awareness of the need for, and use of,
            those tools that are available. The MCOA is administering a
            fund and soliciting donations to aid in the development of
            this test. Contact the above for more details.
          + OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, Inc.)
                      2300 E. Nifong Blvd.
                      Columbia, MO 65201-3856
                      phone: (314) 442-0418
                      fax: (314) 875-5073
            Reviews x-rays for hip and elbow dysplasia (will consult on
            other orthopedic conditions via x-ray), certifies patellas,
            hearts and thyroid. Publishes passing results. Dogs must be
            at least 24 months for hip and elbow certification and 12
            months for patella, thyroid and heart certification.
            Preliminary x-rays of hips and elbows can be performed on an
            evaluation basis as early as six months. Fees are required
            for submission of x-rays for certification/evaluation and
            patella/thyroid/heart for certification in addition to vet
            fees for performing of x-rays and various examinations.
            OFA requires that the examination for heart certification be
            performed by a board certified cardiologist, a vet who is
            board certified in another specialty or a vet with experience
            in diagnosing heart murmurs. If at all possible try to find a
            OFA has specific requirements for certification of thyroid
            testing and specific labs that have qualified to perform
            these specific test requirements. Thyroid certification
            through OFA is a preferred option, although not necessary,
            since a full thyroid panel will provide the necessary genetic
          + CERF (Canine Eye Registration Foundation)
                      1248 Lynn Hall
                      Purdue University
                      W. Lafayette, IN 47907
                      phone: (317) 494-8179
            Certifies eyes based on examination by an ACVO (American
            College of Veterinary Ophthalmologist) diplomat (member).
            Publishes passing results. Dogs can be examined/certified at
            any age (recommend as early as possible - 8 weeks) and CERF
            recommends re-examination annually. Submission fee required
            in addition to vet fee for examination.
          + GDC (Institute for Genetic Disease Control in Animals)
                      P. O. Box 222
                      Davis, CA 95617
                      phone: (916) 756-6773
                      fax: (916) 756-6773
            Reviews x-rays for hip and elbow dysplasia (will also review
            x-rays for dysplasia of shoulders and hocks as well as
            osteochondrosis and arthrosis for all sites). Certifies eyes
            based on examination by ACVO diplomat. Certification at 12
            months of age for hips, elbows, shoulders and hocks.
            Certification of eyes same as for CERF. Reports are available
            for a fee for use by breeders, owners, prospective owners,
            breed clubs and researchers under certain rules. Reports
            include KinReport(TM) - Progeny & Sibling/half-sibling
            printout from the registries on subject dog; and Phenotype
            report on subject dog. ALL (bold, italics) results (passing
            and failing) are listed -- THIS IS AN OPEN REGISTRY. Fee for
            x-ray evaluation/certification and eye certification in
            addition to vet fees for performing x-rays or examinations.
                      Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory
                      P. O. Box 30076
                      Lansing, MI 48909
                      phone: (517) 353-1683
            One of major labs performing full panel for thyroid function
            (T3, T4, TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4). Recommend doing a baseline
            thyroid at 12-18 months and retest annually (see NOTE below).
          + ANTEC (formerly PAL - Professional Animal Laboratory)
                      17672-A Cowan Ave.
                      Suite 200
                      Irvine, CA 92714
                      fax: (714) 752-4935
                            (800) 542-1151 (CA)
                            (800) 745-4725 (outside CA)
            One of major labs performing full panel thyroid function test
            and von Willebrand test. Same as above on thyroid timing. Von
            Willebrand is a one time test which can be performed at any
            age (see NOTE below).
                      Diagnostic Laboratory
                      College of Veterinary Medicine
                      P. O. Box 5786,
                      Ithaca, NY 14852-5786
                      phone: (607) 253-3900
            One of major labs performing full panel thyroid function test
            and von Willebrand test. Same as above on thyroid and von
            Willebrand timing (see NOTE below).
       _NOTE:_ When having blood drawn for thyroid and/or von Willebrand
       testing, be sure that your dog is healthy, has not been vaccinated
       within the past two-four weeks, is not on any medication, is not
       in season (within 6-12 weeks) and has not been flea dipped or
       stressed such as from breeding. A number of things, such as those
       mentioned above, can affect the test outcome and the need for
       retesting is not unusual.
    G. _Questions To Ask a Mastiff Breeder_
       The following are offered as possible questions you should ask the
       breeder of a Mastiff puppy you are considering acquiring. The FAQ
       'Getting a Dog' contains additional, more general questions you
       may also wish to ask.
         1. Are the parents proven to be clear of the genetic problems
            discussed in Appendix F? Have the suggested tests been
            performed on the parents? What is the breadth of the testing
            - just the parents? older siblings? grandparents? aunts &
            uncles? The breeder should be willing and able to produce
            copies of all test results, at least for the parents - if not
            offered - ask for them!
            If the breeder doesn't test, ask why. Do NOT accept the
            answer that they don't test because they've never had a
            problem with something - how can they know they don't have a
            problem if they don't test? Do not accept their vet's opinion
            on hip dysplasia x-rays - a regular vet is not a trained
            radiologist - OFA uses three board certified radiologists to
            examine all x-rays.
         2. How old is the dam? How many times has she been bred? How far
            apart were the breedings? A Mastiff bitch should not be bred
            before 22 months of age nor after her 7th birthday; nor
            should her breedings, other than in exceptional cases, be
            closer together than 12 months.
         3. Why did they choose the stud dog they used? What traits were
            they looking for? What was the purpose of this breeding? What
            improvements were they after? Are the breeders planning on
            keeping a puppy from this litter? If not, why not? If yes,
            how did they pick which one? A reputable Mastiff breeder will
            have a good reason for every breeding, either to improve
            their line or solidify and continue traits they already have.
            A reputable breeder will NOT be breeding just to have puppies
            to sell.
         4. What faults do the dam and sire have? EVERY Mastiff has some
            faults. How has this breeding served to correct these faults?
            What are their good points?
         5. What breed clubs do the breeders belong to? At a minimum,
            they should belong to the MCOA and/or one of regional Mastiff
            clubs, thus exhibiting an interest in supporting the future
            and direction of the breed, as well as being willing to place
            themselves under the oversight of their peers through the
            mechanism of the clubs' Code of Ethics.
         6. Have the dam and sire been shown? Conformation showing is
            intended to identify the dogs that best fit the Mastiff
            standard; if the dogs haven't been shown, how do the breeders
            know, objectively, how well they are doing?
         7. What are the living conditions of the breeder's dogs? Do they
            have adequate living space and room to exercise? Are the
            quarters clean and well kept? Is fresh water available?
         8. What steps have the breeders taken to socialize the pups? Are
            they used to children? Other dogs? Other animals? Public
            places with lots of people? Early socialization is extremely
            important for a Mastiff; the lack of adequate socialization
            can cause serious problems later on.
         9. What are the pups being fed? Are they being given
            supplements? If so, why? Mastiff pups will eventually grow to
            their genetically programmed size, it is much better for
            their health if they do so slowly. Good, quality food is
            usually all they need.
        10. What are the terms of their contract? What guarantees do they
            offer? What conditions do they impose on your treatment and
            care of the dog? What penalties are imposed if you violate
            the terms of the contract? See Appendix C, section 4 of the
            MCOA Code of Ethics for a list of the minimum terms an MCOA
            breeder must include in their contract as well as other
            material they are required to supply to a puppy buyer.
    H. _Special Aspects of Raising a Mastiff Puppy_
       Even a small Mastiff is destined to be a large dog. This is
       something that must be taken into consideration when rearing it.
       As a puppy, your Mastiff should not be allowed to do anything that
       you would not wish your full grown Mastiff to do, such as laying
       on the couch. And because your puppy is going to be such a large
       dog, it is also a very, very good idea that it receive, at a
       minimum, basic obedience training. You DO NOT want a 200 pound dog
       that won't listen to you; this can lead to obvious problems.
       Mastiffs grow at such an astonishing rate that it is best not to
       force their growth with artificial vitamins and calcium
       supplements. A good quality dog food is all that they require. A
       Mastiff is going to get as large as it is going to be,
       genetically, anyway; allowing them to grow at their own pace will
       give them a more stable foundation once they get there. Many
       breeders recommend NOT feeding a 'puppy chow' beyond the first few
       months due to the high protein content.
       During growth periods your Mastiff puppy is subject to joint
       injury. You will need to be especially careful during these times
       to control excessive exercise. A puppy may play at its own rate
       but should not be encouraged to take long walks, jump obstacles,
       or any other exercise that will stress the joints. This is not to
       say the puppy has to be confined. Just use caution and do not
       allow it to over exert itself. After about 18 months the growth
       rate has decreased and the puppy has just about reached its full
       A Mastiff remains a puppy much longer than most breeds. Even
       though a Mastiff is already quite large by the time it is 6 months
       old, it is still growing and maturing rapidly. A Mastiff does not
       reach its full physical or mental maturity until around 3 years of
       You will be surprised at how much a Mastiff puppy will drink.
       Fresh water should be kept available at all times. Drool will
       accumulate in the bottom of the pup's water dish. Since the pup
       will not drink its own drool, the dish should be rinsed out at
       least daily.
       All puppies love to chew. Mastiffs have very powerful jaws, even
       as a puppy. Some chew toys that are fine for other breeds may not
       be suitable for your Mastiff. Caution should be used when choosing
       toys or chew bones because the pup could bite off pieces and
       swallow them, resulting in intestinal blockage. Mastiff puppies
       also have a tendency to chew, or swallow, rocks and sticks. They
       should be watched closely and discouraged from doing so.
    I. _Mastiff Clubs & Contacts_
         1. MCOA Officers and Contacts
               o President - Joe Margraf
               o Vice President - Bob Silvaggi
               o Treasurer - Tina Copas
               o Corresponding Secretary
                            Karen McBee
                            Rt 7, Box 520
                            Fairmont, WV 26554
               o Recording Secretary
                            Misty Shearon
                            40510 76th Ave E
                            Eatonville 98328-9515
               o Directors
                            Dave Hussey
                            John Lange
                            Liz Simon
               o MCOA AKC Delegate - Dr. William Newman
               o MCOA AKC Gazette Columnist - Joan Hahn
               o MCOA AKC Public Education Coordinator
                            Jody Greene
                            phone: (203) 966-4253
                            fax: (203) 972-0234
               o MCOA Genetic Data Collection Service Coordinator
                            Constance Parker
                            PO Box 531533
                            Grand Prairie, TX 75053-1533
                            phone: (214) 660-5113
               o MCOA Journal Editor
                            Kimberley Wall
                            18174 Wheeler Rd.
                            Springdale, AR 72762
                            phone: (501) 361-2980
               o MCOA Journal Subscription Editor
                            Mary Johnson
                            871 Craigville Road
                            Chester, NY 10918
               o MCOA Membership Chairperson (for membership information
                 and application forms)
                            Marianne Jackson
                            11401 W. Winslow Ave. Rt. 2
                            Tolleson, Az. 85353
                            phone: (602) 936-8488
                            fax: (602) 936-8467
               o MCOA Rescue National Director - Gloria Cuthbert - (see
                 Appendix D)
               o MCOA Rescue Secretary/Treasurer
                            Jill McMahon
                            4620 Durham Rd
                            Raleigh, NC 27614
               o Mastiff Information Packet includes:
                            Breed Information
                            Breeder Referral List
                            Rescue Adoption Information Packet
                            (enclose $4 check payable to MCOA to cover
                                  BRL - East
                                  391 Old Northfield Rd.
                                  Thomaston, CT 06787
                                        - or -
                                  BRL - West
                                  3434 W. Greenway #26-329
                                  Phoenix, AZ 85023-3877
         2. US Regional Mastiff Clubs (alphabetical by club name)
            The following contacts are constantly changing. If you find
            an error or know of one that's changed, please let the FAQ
            maintainer know.
               o Chesapeake Mastiff Club
                            Diane Spalding, Secretary
                            609 Fountain Rd.
                            Salisbury, MD 21801
                            phone: (410) 749-4912
                            fax: (410) 860-5013
               o Midwest Mastiff Fanciers
                            Melissa Prete, Secretary
                            4311 West Parker
                            Chicago, IL 60639
                            phone: (312) 252-2769
                            email: (Tim Plezbert)
               o Mid Atlantic Mastiff Alliance
                            Sue Blickenstaff
                            3841 Turkeyfoot Rd.
                            Westminister, MD 21158
                            phone: (410) 346-6127
               o North & East Mastiff Fanciers
                            Jennifer Modica, Corresponding Secretary
                            175 Stagecoach Rd.
                            Cape May Court House, NJ 08210
                            phone: (609) 463-0534
                            fax: same
               o Pacific Northwest Mastiff Club
                            Judy Ropes, Secretary
                            7434 Byron St. NE
                            Olympia, WA 98506-9724
                            phone: (206) 943-6718
               o Pacific Southwest Mastiff Club
                            Betsy Harvey, Secretary
                            1018 Amber Drive
                            Santa Paula, CA 93060
                            phone: (805) 525-4980
               o Redwood Empire Mastiff Club
                            Kim Lupi, Secretary
                            4480 Roop Road
                            Gilroy, CA 95020
                            phone: (408) 842-1956
               o Rocky Mt. Mastiff Fanciers
                            Kaurie Jones, Secretary
                            11053 Chase Way
                            Broomfield, CO 80020
                            phone: (303) 466-9188
               o Southern States Mastiff Fanciers
                            Anne Heyob, Secretary
                            290 Huskey Mtn. Road
                            Lacey's Spring, AL 35754
                            phone: (205) 498-3180
               o Sunshine State Mastiff Fanciers
                            Vicki Hix, Secretary
                            331 31st West
                            Bradenton, FL 34205
                            phone: (813) 747-4342
               o Three Rivers Mastiff Club
                            Mary Rosa, Treasurer
                            236 Campville Rd
                            Northfield, CT 06778
                            phone: (203) 283-0616
         3. Mastiff Clubs in Other Countries (alphabetical by country)
            The following contacts are constantly changing. If you find
            an error, know of one that's changed, or are aware of a club
            we missed, please let the FAQ maintainer know.
               o AUSTRALIA
                    # Mastiff Club of Australia and New Zealand
                                  Andy Mayne, Editor
                                  Lord St. Nikenbah M/S 763
                                  Pialba Qld. 4655 Australia
                    # Mastiff Club of New South Wales
                                  Margaret Hextall, Secretary
                                  5 Idriess Place
                                  Edensor Park, NSW 2176
                                  phone: (61) 02 9823-7248
                    # Mastiff Club of Victoria
                                  Paul Simmonds, Secretary
                                  Lot 25 Wonghee Rd.
                                  Emerald, VIC 3782, Australia
                                  phone: (61) 59 683383
               o CANADA
                    # Canadian Mastiff Club
                                  Deborah Caron, Secretary
                                  22611 Gibson Rd. RR #2
                                  Wainfleet, ON, Canada LOS 1V0
                                  phone: (905) 899-3689
                                  email: (Gail
                                  Baruzzini, VP)
               o DENMARK
                    # The Danish Mastiff Club
                                  Heinrik B. Pedersen
                                  Gullandsgade 2. 3. th.
                                  2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
                                  phone: (45) 31 59 51 05
               o ENGLAND
                    # Old English Mastiff Club
                                  Mrs. J. Critoph
                                  Norwich Road
                                  West Caistor GT Yarmouth, England NR30
                    # The Mastiff Association
                                  Mr. P. J. Sargent
                                  111 Lyttelton Rd.
                                  Stechford Birminghamn, England B33 8BN
               o FINLAND
                    # Association of Finnish Bullmastiff & Mastiffs
                                  Tuija Sorthan Kauriinrinne
                                  13 I 29 01480 VANTAA, Finland
                                  phone: 358 - 09 - 851 3757
               o FRANCE
                    # Club Francais du Bullmastiff et du Mastiff
                                  Anne Marie Class, Presidente
                                  35 rue des Pres Vendome
                                  78450 VILLEPREUX, France
                                  phone: 33 01 34 62 46 53
                                  fax: 33 01 30 56 07 80
               o GERMANY
                    # Club fuer Molosser e.v.
                                  Walter Weiss
                                  82544 Egling, Germany
                                  phone: (49) 8170 7824
                                  fax: (49) 8170 9133
                    # The German Mastiff Club
                                  Monika Reinhard, Secretary
                                  Hirzenhain-Bahnhof, Habichstrasse 29
                                  35713 Eschenburg, Germany
                                  phone: 0 27 70/26 20
                    # Old English Mastiff Club Deutchland e.v.
                                  Frau Ingid Rau
                                  Saarbruckersrt 18
                                  6601 Riegelsberg, Germany
                                  phone: (49 ) 6806 46069
               o NETHERLANDS
                    # Old English Mastiff Club Nederland
                                  Hans Rosingh
                                  Van Lierswijk 7
                                  9421 TH Bovensmilde, The Netherlands
                                  phone: (31) 592-412337
               o NEW ZEALAND (see also AUSTRALIA)
                    # All Breeds Mastiff Club
                                  Joanne Franklin, President
                                  125 Viponds Road
                                  Hibiscus Bay, New Zealand
               o NORWAY
                    # Norsk Engelsk Mastiff Klubb
                                  Kare Konradsen, President
                                  1433 Vinterbro
                                  phone: (47) 64 97 71 62
               o PORTUGAL
                    # Associacao Portuguesa Dos Caes de Tip Molossoide
               o SOUTH AFRICA
                    # Bullmastiff Club of South Africa
                                  (All Mastiff breeds)
                                  P.O. Box 4885
                                  Randburg 2125, South Africa
               o SPAIN
                    # Club Espanol de Molosos de Arena
                                  P.O. Box 175
                                  28400 Collado Villaba
                                  Madrid, Spain
                                  phone: (34) 1 8511406
               o SWEDEN
                    # Bullmastiff-och Mastiffvannera
                                  Kristina Vakkala, President
                                  P1 1086 A
                                  635 09 Eskilstuna, Sweden
                                  phone: (46) 016-35 35 98
    J. _Mastiff Varieties and Internet References_
          + Bullmastiff
               o American Bullmastiff Association -
               o Bullmastiff Fanciers Of Canada -
               o Dansk Bullmastiff Klub -
               o Bullmastiff Breed FAQ -
          + Cane Corso (Sicilian Mastiff)
          + Dogo Argentino (Argentine Mastiff)
          + Dogue de Bordeaux (French Mastiff)
               o Dogue de Bordeaux Society -
               o United States Bordeaux Corporation -
          + Fila Brasileiro (Brazilian Mastiff)
               o Fila Brasileiro Club of America -
               o FILANET -
          + Mastin Del Pirineo (Pyrenean Mastiff)
               o Pyrenean Mastiff Club of America -
               o Razas Espanolas -
          + Mastin Espanol (Spanish Mastiff)
               o Razas Espanolas -
          + Neapolitan Mastiff (Italian Mastiff)
               o American Neapolitan Mastiff Association -
               o National Board of Italian Cynophiles -
               o United States Neapolitan Mastiff Club -
               o Neapolitan Breed FAQ -
          + Perro de Presa Canario (Canary Island Dog)
               o Razas Espanolas -
          + St. Bernard
               o Saint Bernard Club of America -
               o Saint Bernard Breed FAQ -
          + Tibetan Mastiff
               o Tibetan Mastiff Association of America -
          + Tosa Inu (Japanese Mastiff)
       Mastiff FAQ
       Mike McBee,

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Whether or not you believe in God, read this message!

Throughout time, we can see how we have been strategically conditioned coming to this point where we are on the verge of a cashless society. Did you know that Jesus foretold of this event almost 2,000 years ago?

In Revelation 13:16-18, we will read,

"He (the false prophet who deceives many by his miracles--Revelation 19:20) causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666."

Referring to the last generation, this could only be speaking of a cashless society. Why? Revelation 13:17 tells us that we cannot buy or sell unless we receive the mark of the beast. If physical money was still in use, we could buy or sell with one another without receiving the mark. This would contradict scripture that states we need the mark to buy or sell!

These verses could not be referring to something purely spiritual as scripture references two physical locations (our right hand or forehead) stating the mark will be on one "OR" the other. If this mark was purely spiritual, it would indicate both places, or one--not one OR the other!

This is where it really starts to come together. It is amazing how accurate the Bible is concerning the implantable RFID microchip. Here are notes from a man named Carl Sanders who worked with a team of engineers to help develop this RFID chip:

"Carl Sanders sat in seventeen New World Order meetings with heads-of-state officials such as Henry Kissinger and Bob Gates of the C.I.A. to discuss plans on how to bring about this one-world system. The government commissioned Carl Sanders to design a microchip for identifying and controlling the peoples of the world—a microchip that could be inserted under the skin with a hypodermic needle (a quick, convenient method that would be gradually accepted by society).

Carl Sanders, with a team of engineers behind him, with U.S. grant monies supplied by tax dollars, took on this project and designed a microchip that is powered by a lithium battery, rechargeable through the temperature changes in our skin. Without the knowledge of the Bible (Brother Sanders was not a Christian at the time), these engineers spent one-and-a-half-million dollars doing research on the best and most convenient place to have the microchip inserted.

Guess what? These researchers found that the forehead and the back of the hand (the two places the Bible says the mark will go) are not just the most convenient places, but are also the only viable places for rapid, consistent temperature changes in the skin to recharge the lithium battery. The microchip is approximately seven millimeters in length, .75 millimeters in diameter, about the size of a grain of rice. It is capable of storing pages upon pages of information about you. All your general history, work history, criminal record, health history, and financial data can be stored on this chip.

Brother Sanders believes that this microchip, which he regretfully helped design, is the “mark” spoken about in Revelation 13:16–18. The original Greek word for “mark” is “charagma,” which means a “scratch or etching.” It is also interesting to note that the number 666 is actually a word in the original Greek. The word is “chi xi stigma,” with the last part, “stigma,” also meaning “to stick or prick.” Carl believes this is referring to a hypodermic needle when they poke into the skin to inject the microchip."

Mr. Sanders asked a doctor what would happen if the lithium contained within the RFID microchip leaked into the body. The doctor replied by saying a terrible sore would appear in t (...)

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM