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rec.pets.dogs: Leonbergers Breed-FAQ

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                               The Leonberger
   Caroline Bliss-Isberg, January 1995, rev. January 1996, rev. August
   1998 Copyright (c) 1995, 1996, 1998 by Caroline Bliss-Isberg. You may
   download and print a copy for your personal use; for further
   distribution you must have the written permission of the authors.
   For information beyond the scope of this FAQ, visit LeoWorld at You may also want to subscribe to the
   LEOLIST, an enthusiastic group of about 700 Leo devotees, with traffic
   of 20-25 messages a day. Subscribe by sending an email message to
   _Table of Contents_
   Introduction to Leonbergers
   Characteristics and Temperament
   Frequently Asked Questions
   Kennel Club Recognition
   Special Medical Problems
   The International Union for Leonberger Dogs
   _Introduction to Leonbergers_
   Leonbergers, or Leos, as they are known to their friends, are loyal,
   outgoing "lions" who love children, other animals, and water.
   Originating in the mid-nineteenth century in Leonberg, Germany, these
   wonderful, weatherproof family dogs are arguably the oldest of the
   German pure breeds. Although fairly well-known in France, Germany, and
   Scandinavia, they are still considered a rare breed in most countries.
   One of the giant breeds, the Leonberger is powerful and elegant.
   Females stand 26 to 28 inches at the withers and weigh more than 100
   pounds. Males are usually considerably larger, standing 28-31 inches
   and weighing as much as 150 pounds (although most are in the 120-pound
   range). Their luxurious double coat is lion-colored, ranging from a
   light sand to a rich mahogany, accented by a black mask and often
   black tips on the body fur. Their noble, impressive appearance is
   complemented by dark, almond-shaped eyes characterized by an open,
   gentle, friendly expression.
   Leos are classified by the FCI as watch dogs and working dogs (Group
   2, Section 2.2) and are considered ideal family members. They are
   exceedingly family-oriented and demonstrate an ardent need to be an
   integral member of their family "pack." They are enthusiastic
   participants in most family endeavors and are adept at hiking,
   backpacking, running, swimming, and socializing at family gatherings.
   And they work as enthusiastically as they play: Throughout the world,
   Leos have demonstrated success in such activities as water rescue,
   tracking, agility, carting, therapy, and other tasks involving great
   strength and agility coupled with gentleness. However, they are also
   content to recline quietly with their families in front of the living
   room hearth. Guido Perosino, the founder of the Italian Leonberger
   club, notes in his 1998 book, _The Leonberger_:
     "_. . . the most interesting characteristic of the Leonberger is
     his lack of specialization. Although his is the body, the strength
     and the muscle of a typical working dog, the fact that he has been
     selectively bred for the balanced temperament of a house dog . .
     rather than for any precise working task, has gifted him with a
     versatility almost unique on the present canine scene. The
     Leonberger adapts himself well and often spontaneously to various
     uses; he seems to know instinctively what is expected of him."_
   Leonbergers have been compared to those other famous German imports,
   the BMW and the Mercedes-Benz. They all come from Schwabia and they
   are all dependable, classy, stable, agile, elegant, and powerful!
   _Characteristics and Temperament_
   Noble, powerful, and gentle are the best descriptors of the Leonberger
   breed. Ideal Leos resemble one's childhood image of Nana in Peter Pan:
   big, soft, warm, protective companions, perfect for nestling into or
   clutching if you are a toddler. Leos are sometimes affectionately
   referred to as "lean-on-bergers" because of their tendency to lean
   against their loved ones.
   Leos are known for their stability. As a general rule, they are
   consistently even-tempered and generally pleasing to be around even in
   noisy and chaotic situations that would be highly stressful for some
   other breeds. A typical and impressive sight at all-breed dog shows is
   a large "pride" of Leonbergers peacefully and contentedly sitting and
   lying together in close quarters. However, on closer observation one
   will find that males and females in the midst of "hormone storms" are
   carefully separated and have been placed at opposite ends of the
   Leonbergers are excellent watchdogs, not given to frivolous barking or
   unnecessary alarms. Their imposing size and deep bark are usually
   enough to deter uninvited guests. They come from watchdog stock, and
   therefore, instinctively establish and valiantly maintain their
   household's territorial rights. However, upon receiving the OK from
   family members, strangers are accepted and welcomed.
   To become excellent family and watchdogs, Leonbergers must be well
   socialized as young puppies and extremely well-trained and under the
   control of their people at all times. It is difficult to train a dog
   that has been improperly socialized. The fear of parvo has led some
   owners to make the tragic mistake of keeping their puppies isolated
   until they have completed their vaccination series; they risk ending
   up with a fearful, timid dog that may become aggressive as an adult.
   Owners must strike a balance: Puppies, especially from birth through
   four months, MUST be exposed to a variety of people and experiences.
   There are many parvo-safe activities and places to take dogs, and new
   owners have to take the time to expose their new pups to as many of
   these as possible. This is especially true for one's second and third
   Leo; it is too easy to keep the new pup in the company of the older
   dogs, depriving him of the opportunity to develop self-confidence.
   Leos are large dogs and are frightening to many people simply by
   virtue of their size. Fear and aggression in a stranger can often
   activate a dog's protective instincts. Huge dogs can also do a great
   deal of damage just by jumping up on someone in a burst of enthusiasm.
   _When you invite a Leonberger to share your life, you bring to that
   contract the responsibility to make sure that both you and your dog
   receive excellent obedience training._
   ____Frequently Asked Questions_
   Would they make good family dogs?
   Leos are devoted family members, especially fond of children and well
   able to tolerate other household animals. They remain stable and calm
   amid noise and chaos, and will participate joyfully in almost any
   family venture, from boring shopping trips to stimulating hikes in the
   woods or swims at the beach. It is vital that these very sociable dogs
   be an integral part of family life, as they suffer more than most
   breeds if kept from family-"pack" activities.
   What about health and life-span?
   Leos are subject to the short life span and various health problems
   that plague most giant breeds. However, Leos tend to be healthier
   overall than the other giant breeds. This is true because Leo breeders
   in all countries have been health conscious. Stringent breeding
   regulations are adhered to on a voluntary basis in every country where
   the FCI issues papers. Dogs in Germany are registered with the FCI
   through the German Kennel Club, which has designated the National
   Breed club to keep the stud book and supervise registrations.
   Therefore, breeding is closely supervised, and breeders must adhere to
   the Deutsche Club für Leonberger Hunde breeding regulations for a
   puppy to be registered. In America, because the Leonberger Club of
   America maintains the stud book and issues all legitimate
   registrations, no American-born dog can be registered with the LCA
   unless the very strict breeding regulations have been followed for
   both the sire and the dam of the litter. These regulations are far
   more stringent than those required by breed clubs whose parent
   organization is the AKC. The American breeding regulations can be
   found in their entirety on the LeoWorld Web site or obtained by
   writing the LCA. Also, more details about Leonberger health can be
   found in the health section of this FAQ.
   Are they easy to train?
   Leos are not natural obedience and agility zealots; however, they are
   so loyal and conforming to their family's culture and expectations
   that they tend to participate in obedience exercises in order to
   please. Because they are so calm and stable, they perform well even
   when their handlers are stressed. They usually excel in commands like
   Down, Stay! Achieving a perfectly executed Sit and Finish is another
   story. Leos are known in obedience classes for their casual approach
   to sitting. The sitting part is not a problem, but sitting up straight
   is not a priority for a dog that prefers to be laid back and relaxed.
   Retrieving is also not a favorite activity. Chasing a ball, a toy, or
   a stick is great fun, but bringing it back is such a bother! There are
   Leos with obedience and agility titles, but these don't come as easily
   as they do for smaller dogs.
   How about grooming?
   Their long, thick coat misleads some into believing that they require
   a lot of care. They actually require less care than most dogs. Except
   for semi-annual "molts," they only shed moderately. Their coats are
   waterproof and very wear resistant. Daily brushing is necessary to
   keep their coats shining and elegant , as well as to keep clothes and
   furniture in acceptable condition. It's worth noting that grooming,
   beyond brushing, toe nail clipping, and a little trimming to even the
   fur on toe tips, is not allowed for the conformation ring in Europe.
   The natural look of a real working dog that does real work is the
   sought-after ideal.
   What questions should I ask a breeder before choosing a puppy?
   Be very sure that the breeder is a member of their country's
   Leonberger Club and is on the current list of approved breeders. That
   is your only assurance that the strict breeding standards imposed by
   most countries have been followed. The FCI does not require any more
   than the AKC in the way of breeding standards, but most of the
   national clubs are diligent in requiring adherence to very precise
   guidelines developed to minimize genetic flaws and diseases. If the
   price quoted for a Leo is out of line, either much lower or higher
   than the typical price for your country, that is a cue to be careful
   and visit several breeders. Leos are expensive (in the $1,000 range,
   regardless of country), but Leonberger breeders have been diligent
   about not letting prices get driven up to the level that greed
   interferes with good breeding practices. The current prices allow most
   breeders to recoup the costs of breeding healthy litters and also help
   keep frivolous buyers from purchasing dogs.
   Do they drool?
   No! Leos were bred with an eye toward eliminating drooling. They will
   occasionally drool when stressed or after drinking (usually with their
   heads and front paws as far as possible in the water!).
   How do I get one?
   Because Leos are carefully bred only after the age of 2 years and with
   a minimum of a year between litters for each female, they are limited
   in number and may be difficult to acquire. The typical Leonberger
   breeder is highly selective when choosing homes for the puppies. The
   best approach is to subscribe to a national Leonberger club newsletter
   and begin corresponding or conversing with breeders in your area. A
   good method is to get on a waiting list for a puppy bred by a breeder
   whose dogs you like.
   Where and in what events can Leos be shown?
   Leos can be shown in a wide variety of events in fun matches, rare
   breed shows and, of course, all FCI-sponsored events. Besides
   conformation and obedience, Leos participate and enjoy tracking,
   pulling, agility, and especially therapy work. All of the clubs listed
   in the Kennel Club Recognition_ _section below, sponsor regional,
   national and international events for Leonbergers.
   The early history of the Leonberger is clouded and tumultuous,
   revolving around the enthusiasms and exploits of Heinrich Essig
   (1809-1889). Essig was a successful politician with a genius for
   marketing and public relations. He was an alderman and a prominent
   citizen in Leonberg, a town on the outskirts of Stuttgart in southern
   Germany. (Leonberg is just 50 kilometers from Rottweil, another famous
   town that gave its name to the dog breed that originated there.) Essig
   was a successful professional animal trader who surrounded himself
   with a variety of rare and exotic animals. In dogs, he preferred large
   and imposing breeds, which he bred, bought and sold internationally.
   In our time, we would probably consider him an irresponsible
   puppy-mill owner. He bought and sold dogs for a span of fifty years,
   trading sometimes 200 to 300 dogs a year at the height of his career.
   Like other entrepreneurial individuals, Essig's strong suit was vision
   and marketing communications, not attention to detail! So,
   unfortunately, he kept no detailed logs or records of his breedings,
   nor did he believe it necessary to write a standard for the breed he
   created. What we know of the development of the Leonberger comes from
   word-of-mouth reports, copies of advertisements written by Essig and
   others, references in a handful of nineteenth and turn-of-the-century
   dog breed encyclopedias, and some very lively articles and
   correspondence found in nineteenth-century animal periodicals like
   _Hunde-sport und Jagt_, _Der Hundefreund_, and _Der Hund_, a German
   nationwide dog magazine still being published today.
   Given Essig's personality and political position, it is likely, but
   not clearly documented, that he deliberately combined his desire to
   promote his town with his desire to promote his business. Our best
   records indicate that in 1846 he declared the "creation" of the
   Leonberger as a legitimate breed of dog. The town crest of Leonberg
   contains a lion rearing up on its hindquarters. Although it is not
   known for sure if the town name refers to a lion, there is a definite
   association through the crest. The Leonberger, as we know it today, is
   lion-like in appearance. However, Essig's early versions certainly
   weren't. According to Essig, he crossbred a black-and-white female
   Landseer with a long-haired Saint Bernard that he had acquired from
   the Saint Bernard monastery in Switzerland. The puppies were, of
   course, black and white. He reportedly then crossbred these dogs for
   four generations, outcrossing with a yellow-and-white Saint Bernard
   and later a white Pyrenean Mountain Dog that he had in his kennels. He
   was striving at this early stage for an all-white dog, because they
   were very fashionable at the time. It was only many generations and
   outcrossings later that the golden color and black mask became
   typical. Early records indicate that in 1865, Essig showed a dog at
   the Octoberfest in Munich that was described as a fine dog, resembling
   a lion, yellow and brown, with black tips.
   It is important to note here that the Leonberger we know today could
   not have come from the matings that Essig initially described. As has
   been pointed out by Letellier and Luquet in France and Nijboer in
   Holland, the AY allele does not exist in the three breeds that were
   supposed to be the originating breeds. Also, from a genetic
   standpoint, the Leonberger head is morphologically much different from
   that of the Saint Bernard or Newfoundland.
   More likely, the offspring of the original crossings were bred to
   local dogs that had relatively fixed genetic characteristics but were
   not identified as a breed. Very large dogs with appropriate coloration
   and with heads shaped similarly to the Leonberger, as we know it, were
   known in the region and are described in 17th- and 18th-century
   literature. Also, intriguing documentation suggests that dogs from
   Leonberg were used at the Hospice of Saint Bernard in 1830, well
   before the origination of the Leonberger, to breed with the only Saint
   Bernard to have survived an outbreak of distemper.
   Whether Essig actually created a new breed by careful selection
   following genetically sound principles is rather doubtful. What we do
   know for certain is that Essig's marketing genius resulted in such
   widespread popularization of the breed that the Leonberger, as a
   breed, survived cries of outrage from breeders of Saint Bernards and
   Newfoundlands, from judges, and from the editors of dog magazines. At
   the same time that he was being attacked, Essig's ardent loyalists
   paid great sums for his dogs and defended him publicly. Through
   Essig's marketing skill, his dogs found their way into the castles of
   royalty, such as the Empress Elizabeth of Austria, the Prince of
   Wales, Emperor Napoleon II, Garibaldi, the King of Belgium, Bismarck,
   King Umberto of Italy, and the Czar of Russia. They were exported as
   far away as the United States, England, Newfoundland, and Japan to the
   wealthy who desired large fashionable dogs.
   Essig died in 1889 without ever having defined a standard for the
   breed or a defensible description of his breeding program. It is a
   tribute to the qualities of the Leonberger that in spite of these
   obvious deficiencies, and in the face of ever harsher critics, there
   were enough enthusiastic owners to form, beginning in 1891, the first
   Leonberger clubs. The first significant club was the International
   Leonberger Club founded in 1895 in Stuutgart. The Club President,
   Albert Kull, was an artist with an eye for detail. He wrote the first
   standard for the Leonberger; it formed the foundation for all
   subsequent standards. Kull's work did much to reestablish the
   credibility of the breed, and the Leonberger began to flourish with
   three more serious clubs being founded.
   World War I almost rendered the breed extinct. If it were not for the
   determination and dedication of two men, Herr Stadelmann and Herr Otto
   Josenhans, the breed would surely have become a mere footnote in the
   history of German dogs. After the War, Stadelmann and Josenhans
   scoured Germany searching for Leonbergers. They found 25. Of these,
   five were suitable for breeding. Because of inflation and food
   shortages, it was unlikely that individuals could have personally and
   individually supported breeding programs, so a group of seven people
   joined together in 1922 to form the Leonberger Hunde Club in Leonberg
   and a breeding cooperative known as the Leonberger Hundezucht
   Genossenschaft. The organized breeding program of the Genossenschaft
   brought about a revival of the breed brought honor to the town, and
   provided foundation stock to establish several kennels. Most notably,
   these men established the official Breed Registry, which continues
   uninterrupted today.
   Stadelmann's work progressed until the early 1930s, when the
   authoritarian control of the Third Reich began to influence the dog
   world. A Reich-governed club, the Fachschaft für Leonberger, was
   established in Sandhausen when the Reich assumed control of all breed
   registries. Surprisingly, breeding, although very reduced, continued
   throughout the war. Both dogs and accurate records survived the
   destruction. In 1945, 22 puppies were registered and in 1946, 17.
   At the end of the war it again took a group of devoted enthusiasts to
   reestablish an organized breeding program. Two rival clubs were
   established in 1946 and 1947. The club founded by Albert Kienzle, Hans
   Weigelschmidt, and Otto Lehmann became in 1948 the present-day
   Deutsche Club für Leonberger Hunde. In the early '50s, the Breeding
   Committee Chairman, Werner Lutz, and the third president of the DCLH,
   Robert Beutelspacher, wrote the modern-day standard and breeding
   regulations, which had a profound impact on the development of the
   Leonberger as we know it today. In 1975, the German Club brought all
   the Leonberger breed clubs from the major European nations together
   and founded the International Union of Leonberger Clubs. Now, clubs
   from 17 nations correspond frequently and meet annually work to insure
   the greatest possible uniformity and homogeneity of the breed
   throughout the world.
   _Leonberger Standard_
   FCI-Standard #145 1996
   Translator: Mrs. C. Seidler
   Origin: Germany
   Date of publication of the valid original standard: 04.01.1996
   Utilization: Watch, Companion and Family Dog
   Classification FCI: Group 2 Pinscher and Schnauzer, Molossian and
   Swiss Mountain and cattle dogs
   Section 2.2: Molossian, Mountain Dogs. Without Working Trial
   Due to his original use, the Leonberger is a strong, muscular, yet
   elegant dog. He is distinguished by his balanced body type and
   confident calmness, yet lively temperament. Males, in particular, are
   powerful and strong.
   Height at the withers to length of body: 9 to 10. Depth of chest is
   nearly 50% of height at withers.
   As a family dog, the Leonberger is an agreeable partner for
   present-day dwelling and living conditions, who can be taken anywhere
   without difficulty and is distinguished by his marked friendliness
   toward children. He is neither shy nor aggressive. As a companion, he
   is agreeable, obedient and fearless in all situations of life. The
   following are particular requirements of steady temperament:
     * Self assurance and superior composure.
     * Medium temperament (including playfulness).
     * Willing to be submissive.
     * Good capacity for learning and remembering.
     * Not sensitive to noise.
   On the whole deeper than long and elongated rather than stocky.
   Proportion of muzzle to skull region about 1 to 1. Skin close fitting
   all over, no wrinkles.
   Skull: In profile and seen from front, slightly arched. In balance
   with body and limbs, it is strong but not heavy. The black part of the
   skull is not substantially broader than near the eyes. Stop: Clearly
   recognizable but moderately defined.
   Nose: black.
   Muzzle: Rather long, never running to a point; nasal bridge of even
   breadth, never dipped, rather slightly arched (roman nose).
   Lips: Close fitting, black, corner of lips closed.
   Jaws/Teeth: Strong jaws with perfect, regular and complete scissor
   bite, in which the upper teeth close over the lower without any gap
   and the teeth are placed vertically in the jaw, with 42 healthy teeth,
   according to usual tooth formula (missing M3 tolerated). Pincer bite
   is tolerated; no constriction of canines in lower jaw.
   Cheeks: Only moderately developed.
   Eyes: Light brown to as dark brown as possible, medium size, oval,
   neither deep set, nor protruding, neither too close together nor too
   wide apart. Eyelids close fitting, not showing any conjunctiva. The
   white of the eye (the visible part of the sclera) not reddened.
   Ears: Set on high and not far back, pendant, medium size, hanging
   close to head, fleshy
   Flowing without break to the withers in a slight curve. Long rather
   than stocky, without throatiness or dewlap.
   Withers: Pronounced, especially in males.
   Back: Firm, straight, broad.
   Loins: Broad, strong, well muscled.
   Rump: Broad, relatively long, gently rounded, flowing to merge with
   tail set on; not in any way overbuilt.
   Chest: Broad, deep, reaching at least to height of elbows. Not too
   barrel shaped, more oval.
   Lower profile: Only lightly tucked up.
   TAIL: Very well furnished; while standing, it hangs down straight;
   also in movement it is only slightly curved and preferably should not
   be carried above the prolongation of the topline.
   LIMBS: Very strong, specially in males.
   Legs: Straight, parallel and not too close.
   Shoulder/upper arm: Long, sloping, forming a not too blunt angle, well
   muscled; elbows close fitting.
   Pastern: Strong, firm; straight, seen from front. Almost vertical seen
   from side.
   Forefeet: Straight position (turning neither in nor out), rounded,
   tight, toes well arched; black pads.
   Legs: Position when seen from rear, not too close, parallel.
   Hocks and feet: Turned neither in nor out. Dewclaws: Must be removed.
   Pelvis: Slanting position.
   Upper thigh: Rather long, slanting, well muscled. Upper and lower
   thigh form a distinct angle.
   Hocks: Strong, distinct angle between lower thigh and rear pastern.
   Feet: Standing straight, only slightly longish. Toes arched, pads
   Ground-covering, even movement in all gaits. Extending well in front,
   and good drive from hindquarters. Seen from front and behind, limbs
   move in a straight line when walking or trotting.
   Hair: Medium soft to coarse, profusely long, close fitting, never with
   a parting, letting the form of the whole body be seen despite the
   thick undercoat. Straight, slight wave still permitted; forming a mane
   on neck and chest, especially in males; distinct feathering on front
   legs and ample breeches on hind legs.
   Colour: Lion yellow, red, reddish brown, also sandy (fawn colour,
   cream colour) and all combinations in between, always with a black
   mask. Black hair tips are permitted; black must however not determine
   the dog's basic colour. Lightening up of the basic colour on the
   underside of the tail, the mane, feathering on front legs and breeches
   on hind legs must not be so pronounced as to interfere with the
   harmony of the main colour. A small white patch or stripe on chest and
   white hair on toes will be tolerated.
   Dogs (male) 72 to 80 cm (recommended average 76 cm)
   Bitches 65 to 75 cm (recommended average 70 cm)
   Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault
   and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be
   in exact proportion to its degree and consider how much the essentials
   (in particular temperament, type, balance and movement) are affected.
     * Shy and aggressive dogs.
     * Severe anatomical fault, i.e. pronounced cow hocks, pronounced
       roach back, very hollow back, extreme turning out of front feet.
       Totally insufficient angulation of shoulder, elbow, stifle or
     * Absence of teeth (with the exception of M3). Over- or undershot or
       other faults in the mouth.
     * Distinct ring tail or tail forming too high a ring.
     * Cords or strong curls.
     * Faulty colours: Brown with brown nose and brown pads; black and
       tan; silver; wild-coat colour.
     * Complete lack of mask.
     * Brown nose leather, brown pads.
     * Very strong lack of pigment in lips. Eyes without any brown.
     * Too much white (reaching from toes to pastern, white on chest
       larger than palm of hand, white in other places).
     * Entropion, Ectropion
   N.B.: Male animals must have two apparently normal testicles fully
   descended into the scrotum.
   _Kennel Club Recognition_
   FCI Federation cynologique internationale
     The worldwide federation of national dog clubs with membership
     including 19 European countries, 12 Latin American, 2 Asian and 1
     from Africa. An additional 11 countries are affiliated as associate
     members. All national Leonberger Clubs are affiliated or associated
     with the FCI. The LCA is loosely associated through its Member
     Status in the International Union of Leonberger Clubs e.V. with
     headquarters in Germany.
     FCI Federation Cynologique Internationale, Rue Leopold - II,
     14B-653, Thuin, Belgium
   The Leonberger Club of America
     The Leonberger Club of America maintains its own registry and is
     not, nor does it wish to be, affiliated with the AKC. AKC
     affiliation would eliminate mandatory adherence to the LCA's
     stringent breeding regulations. See addresses and contacts below.
   _Special Medical Problems_
   The very strict breeding guidelines and the diligent oversight of the
   national Leonberger Clubs have been successful to date in preserving
   the general health of the breed. However, there are special medical
   problems, most of which are associated with giant breeds in general,
   that every breeder, owner, and potential owner should be aware of.
   Hip Dysplasia:
   Hip and elbow dysplasia are unfortunately found in most large breeds.
   The Breeding Committees of the various national Leonberger clubs have
   been extremely diligent in education and enforcement of breeding
   regulations designed to minimize dysplasia in Leos. The OFA is now
   reporting fewer than 11% of our dogs with dysplasia. Leonbergers are
   not allowed to be bred without OFA certification and, in most
   countries, without proof of HD-free ancestors for at least three
   generations. Penn Hip ratings are currently being seriously considered
   in the United States as an additional breeding requirement.
   Eosinophilic Panosteitis:
   "Pano" is a disease with no known cause that resolves without, or in
   spite of, treatment! It is a generalized inflammation of the bones
   that is commonly referred to as growing pains. A healthy puppy
   suddenly develops an acute and painful lameness with no known history
   of trauma. The lameness often shifts from one limb to another. The
   good news is that pano is self-limiting and does not seem to result in
   any long-term damage.
   Addison's Disease:
   Addison's disease is a rare hormonal disorder of the adrenal glands.
   It has been diagnosed in both European and American Leonbergers. It is
   serious and can lead to death if undiagnosed. However, if diagnosed
   correctly, it can be very successfully managed with medication.
   Affected dogs often have periodic vomiting and diarrhea, lethargy,
   exercise intolerance, and weight loss. It can be definitively
   diagnosed with blood tests. The bloodlines that have shown evidence of
   Addison's disease are being carefully monitored in the United States
   by the LCA's Heath Committee.
   Entropion and Ectropion Eyes:
   Leonbergers are known to carry the genes for ectropionism and
   entropionism (inverted eyelids). These can be corrected with a
   relatively minor surgical procedure. This condition is considered a
   major fault, however, and dogs known to carry the gene are not allowed
   to breed.
   Bone cancer is a frequent cause of death in giant breeds, and
   Leonbergers are no exception. However, it usually does not strike
   until dogs have passed their seventh year and frequently much later.
   _The International Union for Leonberger Dogs_
   The following individuals either represented their national breed club
   at the Internationale Union Für Leonberger Hunde meeting in Leonberg,
   Germany on September 27, 1997 or are the designated international
   contact for their country.
   _Germany _
     Deutscher Club für Leonberger Hunde e. V.
  T ibor.Hlozanek/
     _Contact:_ Gerhard Zerle, Am Hang 1, D - 59229 Ahlen /Westfalen
     Telephone: +23882819
     Fax: +2388 3895
     Österreichische Club für Leonberger Hunde
     President: Christine Schilling, 3002 PURKERSDORF,
     Florian-Trautenberger-Strasse 1
     Phone: +43 (0) 2231 64525
     Breeding Committee: Peter K. Cejnek, 1090 WEIN, Schlickgasse 6
     Phone: +43 (01) 3196120
     Puppy Availability: Rita Sachslehner, 3430 TULN, Karl-Metz-Gasse 3
     Phone: +43 (0) 2272 656 72
     Leonberger Club Belgien
     Contact: Dominique Dewame, Fabriekstraat 148, 1601, Ruisbroek,
   _Czech Republic_
     Klubs der Leonbergerzuchter der Tschechischen Republik
     Contact: Daniela Kuntová, Ke hradku 5, 148 00 PRAGUE 4, Kettrádkv 5
     Telephone: 00420121/71911207
     Dansk Leonberger Club
     Contact: Jorgen Hansen, Laugoveij 44, Orby, DK. 3200 Helsinge
     Telephone: +45705162
     Suomen Leonbergindoirat
     President: Olli Kokkonen, Vesiveräjäntie 27, 37120 Nokia, Finland
     Telephone: +358-3-342 3518
     Fax: +358-422-329 019
     Breeding Committee: Kerstin Ahlskog, Riekontie 6, 02880 Veikkola,
     Telephone: +358-9-256 8125
     Fax: +358-9-813 3395
     Club Franįais du Leonberg
     Contact: Jules Guilbert, 6, Rue de la Mesange-Domaine, 76420
   _Great Britain_
     Leonberger Club of Great Britain
  e oClubGB/index.html
     Contact: Fred Inwood/Jenny Kennish, Kinghern, Silchester Road,
     Little London, Near Basingstoke, Hampshire, England, RG265EX
     Telephone: 01256 850508
     Fax: 01256 850 778
     Leonberger Club of Hungary
     Contact: Gergely Jozsef, Norcsog UTCA 1/B, 1121, Budapest, Hungary
   _Italy_ b erger/index.html
     Club Italiano del Leonberger
     President: Francesca Mavilla, Strada P Rio-P Pattoli 130, 06085
     Perugia-Cordigliano, Italy
     International Liaison: Guido Perosino, San Martino in Colle, 06070
     Perugia, Italy
     Telephone: +39 75 98 7319
     Leonbergse Honden Club Nederland
     Contact: C. Van Holland, Roghorst 345, 6708KX, Wageningen, The
     Norsk Leonberger Klubb
     Contact: Eilert Einther, Sveane 53, 5363 Ågotnes
     Telephone: 56 33 69 07
     Leonberger Club of Slovakia
     Contact: Martin Klacko, Dunajska Lucna 603, Cesko-Slovensko
     Telephone: 004207/5980735
     Club Espanol Del Leonberger
     Contact: Teresa Fernandez Estrada, Apdo. Correos no. 72, 39600
     Telephone and fax: ++34 (9)-42 586708
     Leonberger Sallskapet
     President: Gunilla Rydin Spånbacken Ullene, 521 94 Falköping,
     Telephone: 0515-440 34
     Breeding Committee:
     Petra Junehall
     Telephone: 08 510 250 90
     Lotta Petré
     Telephone: 0340-715 42
     Schweiz Leonberger Club
     Contact: President: Herrn Kurt Pabst, Postfach 2310, CH - 8021,
   _United States_
     Leonberger Club of America
     President: Glen Ferguson, 3624-204th Place, N.E. Redmond, WA 98053
     Phone: 425-836-8650
     International Liaison: Caroline Isberg, 15210 Upper Ellen Road, Los
     Gatos, CA 95033
     Telephone: +408-353-1478
     Fax: +408-353-4008
     For pictures, current approved U.S. breeders list and further
     information send $5.00 to Leonberger Club of America Corresponding
     Secretary, Emily Shank, PO Box 344,
   _Der Leonberger_,(in German) by Hannelie Schmitt and Gerhard Zerle
   (President of the German Leonberger Club and the International Union
   of Leonberger Clubs), Veriagsgesellschaft, Rudolf Muller,
   Koln-Braunsfeld, 1982, completely rev.ed. 1996.
   _The Leonberger_, (in English) by Guido Perosino, Available from the
   author or the LCA Leo Bowtique. See or write
   Dr. Perosino, Guido Perosino, San Martino in Colle, 06070 Perugia,
   _Il Leonberger_, (in Italian) by Guido Perosino, Giovanni De Vecchi,
   Milano, 1993.
   _Het houden van een Leonberger, een praktijkboek_ (in Dutch) by Ton
   Muller, The Netherlands, 1994
   _The History of the Leonberger in Great Britain_, (in English)by Larry
   Rahmer. Available from the Leonberger Club of Great Britain. (See
   above for contacts).
   _Leonbergerboken_, (in Swedish) by Margareta Gustafson-Eskner and
   Ulrika Rogert., 1996, Available from the Swedish Leonberger Club (see
   above for contacts).
   _Leonberger_, (in Czech) by Daniela Kuntová. Dona Press, Komenshého
   37, 370 01, Czech Republic, 1994, ISBN # 80-900080-2-X.
   _The Leonberger_, (in English) by Angela White, t.f.h. Books. England,
   "The Leonberger," Chapter 37 pp 141-144 of _A Celebration of Rare
   Breeds_, by Cathy J. Flamholtz, OTR Publications, PO Box 1243 Ft.
   Payne, Alabama.
   _A Practical Guide to Selecting a Large Dog_, by Joan Palmer. Tetra
   Press, London, 1987
   "The Leonberger, the golden-hearted lion dog." By Sharon Pfaumer in
   _Dog World_ (USA), July 1996, pp. 14-22.
   "The Leonberger", A special supplement in the _The New Zealand Kennel
   Gazette_, Vol.36, No.3 April, 1996.
   "The Leonberger", in _Dogs Monthly_ (UK) by Larry Rahmer, Vol. 16, No.
   4, April 1998.
   A special issue of _Der Hund_ (Germany) on the Leonberger celebrating
   the 150th anniversery of the founding of the breed. May, 1996.
   The 1994 - 1998 editions of the _Dogs USA Annual_ have full page
   announcements by the Leonberger Club of America in the Breed Gallery
   and a breed description in the USA Directory of Breeds.
   Leonberger FAQ
   Caroline Bliss-Isberg,

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