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rec.pets.dogs: Canine Activities: Obedience Trials FAQ


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Archive-name: dogs-faq/activities/obedience
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Last-modified: 22 Sep 1998

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                      Canine Activities: Obedience Trials
                                       
Author

   Cindy Tittle Moore, Copyright 1995.
   
Table of Contents

     * Introduction
          + History
     * Organizations that Offer Obedience Trials
          + American Kennel Club
          + American Mixed Breed Obedience Registry
          + Mixed Breed Dog Club of America
          + Australian Shepherd Club of America
          + Canadian Kennel Club
          + New England Obedience News
          + States Kennel Club
          + United Kennel Club
     * Overview of the AKC Obedience Exercises
          + Tracking is Obedience?
          + Agility is Not Obedience?
          + Upcoming new things in AKC Obedience
     * Overview of the CKC Obedience Exercises
     * Overview of the SKC Obedience Exercises
     * Overview of the UKC Obedience Exercises
     * Opportunities for Mixed Breed Dogs
     * PupPeroni Classic Tournaments (previously known as Cycle, Gaines)
     * Swedish Obedience Trials
     * Bahamas Obedience Trials
     * Stewarding
     * Common Handler Errors
          + Recall
          + Long sit/down
          + Heel on lead
          + Figure eight
          + Heel free
          + Stand
          + Generally Common Handler Errors
          + Generally Common Helpful Hints
          + Tips for dealing with Stress at the show
     * Making Treats
     * Acronym List
          + Obedience titles - AKC & CKC
          + Obedience titles - UKC (all prefixes)
          + Conversational acronyms
     * Glossary
          + Pattern training
          + Jackpots
          + Backchaining
          + Operant conditioning
          + Attention
          + Motivational training
          + Behavior shaping
          + Touchsticks and clickers
     * Resources
          + Favorite suppliers
          + Organizations
          + Magazines
          + Videos
          + Books
       
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Introduction

   Please note first that this FAQ is _heavily_ biased toward obedience
   competition in North America. If you want to send me a summary like
   the one for Swedish competition for other countries, I'll be more than
   happy to add it in!
   
   This FAQ was prepared with the extensive help of the folks on the
   original OBED-L mailing list. Particular thanks go to Judy Byron,
   Terri Hardwick, David Hendrickson, Lars Kaskija, Janet Lewis, Nancy
   Gagliardi Little, Ed Morrow, Dianne Schoenberg, Denise Mclean, and
   Kathleen Weaver.
   
   There are several mailing lists of interest to the obedience
   enthusiast, all of which are detailed in the Email List FAQ also
   posted monthly to rec.pets.dogs.info.
   
   Please note that I welcome any and all comments, corrections,
   additions and suggestions! Note also that this isn't the only source
   of online information about obedience.
   
  History
  
   In the United States, AKC obedience started in the late 1930s. It was
   promoted by several people and groups around the country. Blanche
   Saunders toured the country in a travel trailer with her black
   standard poodles giving obedience exhibitions and introducing
   obedience to the American public and the nascent conformation
   community. Her books on Novice, Open, and Utility are still in print.
   The person who was instrumental in bringing obedience to the USA,
   however, was Mrs. Whitehouse Walker.
   
   Following World War II obedience only clubs were organized and become
   member or sanctioned clubs of the AKC. Up to the middle to late 70s
   all obedience training tended to be of the punishment avoidance type
   (generally called "jerk and pull") which discouraged some people and
   did not work well with some breeds. The introduction of independent
   obedience tournaments such as Gaines in 1980 has done more to
   revolutionize AKC obedience than anything. Once these tournaments
   started the level of performance competition increased dramatically.
   The standards were raised causing people to search for training
   techniques which would produce an exacting 'happy' performance.
   Positive motivation techniques began to appear. Around that same time
   private obedience schools became more numerous and obedience seminars
   become more popular. Today it seems as if most competitive obedience
   people train at private schools where before most of the training was
   done by kennel or obedience clubs.
   
   In 1993 there were 10,973 obedience titles awarded by the AKC. In 1992
   11,397 were awarded. 84 Obedience Trial Championships were awarded in
   '93 and 92. In Europe, one of the most enduring names in obedience,
   Arthur Newman, got his start in 1941 and learned to handle Border
   Collies with sheep (but failed his first competitive trial in 1943).
   Later he began competition with Shepherds and Rottweilers in the
   British working trials, which are more like the Schutzhund sport
   without the need to do the protection phase in each class. The British
   trials are much more demanding in regard to control, food refusal,
   speak on command and recall from a running decoy. Absolute control is
   the vital element.
   
   While serving in the British Airborne for 25 years, Mr. Newman was
   able to travel to the Far East, Africa, and Europe where he always
   searched out the local obedience clubs and learned from them. Upon
   emigrating to Canada in 1970, he was shocked and surprised to see the
   standard, simple tests and proliferation of titles; but he went on to
   put 15 dogs through CD six to CDX and two to OTCH as well as working
   some Schutzund and tracking.
   
   He introduced Agility to Canada in the late 1970's and founded the now
   Agility Association of Canada with 40 clubs across the country. All of
   his working Shepherds and Rottweilers have been shown in conformation
   to prove that a 'pretty' dog can also have brains.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Organizations that Offer Obedience Trials

   While most people think of the AKC obedience ring when they think of
   obedience, the AKC is not the only game in town. There are alternative
   sources for obedience titles, including for mixed-breed dogs. These
   are listed below in alphabetic order.
   
   If you plan on competing with any of the organizations below, write or
   call them for their rules and regulations on competing in their
   organizations. This is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED. There are often
   restrictions on how the handler must behave in the ring (as well as
   what the dog should be doing), what actions cost you points, and other
   general rules that you are obliged to familiarize yourself with. This
   FAQ does NOT cover all such regulations for ANY organization!
   
  American Kennel Club
  
   The AKC is probably the most widely used organization for obedience
   trialling in the US. Most titles and classes are compared to the
   AKC's.
   
   _American Kennel Club_
   5580 Centerview Drive
   Raleigh, NC 27606
   212-696-8276
   
   also
   
   main switchboard (212)696-8200 NYC
   51 Madison Ave.
   NY, NY 10010 USA
   
  American Mixed Breed Obedience Registry
  
   AMBOR was formed about fifteen years ago to promote the participation
   of mixed breeds in obedience trials. They offer trials of their own,
   and will accept scores from designated other organization's matches
   and fun matches toward AMBOR titles. Titles offered include AMBOR-CD,
   AMBOR-CDX, and AMBOR-UD, based primarily on AKC-style rules.
   
   AMBOR accepts only neutered/spayed dogs that cannot be registered with
   any other organization (so for example if your dog can be ILP'd with
   the AKC, they ask you to try that first).
   
   In a welcome development in February of 1994, the UKC accepted AMBOR
   as the "parent club" for mixed breeds in the UKC. Therefore AMBOR
   registered dogs are *also* eligible for UKC performance titles.
   
   _American Mixed Breed Obedience Registration (AMBOR)_
   Mail to: ambor@aborusa.org.
   Or: 10236 Topanga Blvd. Suite 205, Chatsworth, CA 91311.
   
  Mixed Breed Dog Club of America
  
   Offers both obedience and agility trials for their members.
   
   _Mixed Breed Dog Club of America_
   c/o Chris Dane
   100 Acacia Ave
   San Bruno, Calif. 94066
   
  Australian Shepherd Club of America
  
   ASCA, despite its name, allows all breeds and mixed-breeds into their
   non-conformation activities.
   
   _Australian Shepherd Club of America_
   6091 Hwy 21
   Bryan, TX 77803-9652
   (409) 778-1082
   Email: asca@myriad.net
   
  Canadian Kennel Club
  
   For those of you living near Canada or willing to travel, it's easy to
   register your AKC-registered dog with the Canadian Kennel Club and
   participate in all CKC events. CKC is, of course, the most widely used
   organization in Canada (are there alternatives in Canada?).
   
   _Canadian Kennel Club_
   100 - 89 Skyway Avenue
   Etobicoke, Ontario M9W 6R4
   1-416-675-5511 (tel)
   1-416-675-6506 (fax)
   
  New England Obedience News
  
   New England Obedience News (NEON) titles mixed breed dogs, and is in
   care of Lana Pettey-Bernardi 15 Long Pond Rd Danville NH 03819.
   
  States Kennel Club
  
   The SKC seems to be most active in the southern part of the US. It is
   a multiple breed registry, overlapping somewhat with the AKC, but
   including other breeds the AKC does not.
   
   _States Kennel Club_
   Post Office Box 389
   Hattiesburg, MS 39403-0389
   (601)583-8345
   
  United Kennel Club
  
   The UKC is an alternative to AKC, with a greater emphasis on
   performance events than on conformation. It's easy to register your
   AKC-registered dog (or LP an unpapered dog OR a mixed breed) and
   compete in their obedience trials. The exercises are slightly
   different for the Novice and Open classes and substantially different
   in the Utility class. As yet, there is no obedience championship
   title, although one is in the works.
   
   _United Kennel Club_
   100 East Kilgore Road
   Kalamazoo, MI, 49001
   (616) 343-9020.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Overview of the AKC Obedience Exercises

   The Obedience Regulations may be obtained for $1 by writing to the
   AKC. Sometimes they are handed out at shows. Details on deductions,
   rules, and so on are given in this book. The regulations were last
   updated January 1994. This is a bright red booklet, given to bleeding
   pink if wet, so keeping it in a plastic baggie is advised.
   
   Note: jump heights and lengths vary according to the entered dog's
   breed and height. Dogs may be measured at the ring.
   
 Novice (A/B)
    Heel on Leash and Figure 8    - 40 pts
    Stand for Examination         - 30
    Heel Free                     - 40
    Recall                        - 30
    Long Sit                      - 30     (across ring, one minute)
    Long Down                     - 30     (across ring, three minutes)
                                   ___
    Maximum Total Score            200 pts

  Open (A/B)
    Heel Free and Figure 8        - 40 pts
    Drop on Recall                - 30
    Retrieve on Flat              - 20
    Retrieve over High Jump       - 30
    Broad Jump                    - 20
    Long Sit                      - 30      (out of sight, three minutes)
    Long Down                     - 30      (out of sight, five minutes)
                                   ___
    Maximum Total Score            200 pts

  Utility (A/B)
    Signal Exercise               - 40 pts
    Scent Discrimination #1       - 30      (leather articles)
    Scent Discrimination #2       - 30      (metal articles)
    Directed Retrieve             - 30
    Moving Stand and Examination  - 30
    Directed Jumping              - 40
                                   ___
    Maximum Total Score            200

  Requirements for titles
  
   Companion Dog (CD)
     * Dog has no previous obedience title
     * Dog earns three "legs" in the Novice Ring
     * Each leg is a qualifying score (170 or more points, at least half
       the points earned in each exercise)
       
   Companion Dog Excellent (CDX)
     * Dog has CD
     * Dog earns three "legs" in the Open Ring
     * Each leg is a qualifying score (170 or more points, at least half
       the points earned in each exercise)
       
   Utility Dog (UD)
     * Dog has CDX
     * Dog earns three "legs" in the Utility Ring
     * Each leg is a qualifying score (170 or more points, at least half
       the points earned in each exercise)
       
   Utility Dog Excellent (UDX)
     * Dog has UD
     * The UDX has 10 "legs"
     * Each "leg" is earned by qualifying in both Open B and Utility B at
       the same show
     * A qualifying score is 170 or more points and at least half the
       points earned on each exercise
       
   Obedience Trial Championship (OTCH)
     * Dog has UD
     * Dog has 100 pts from Open/Utility (according to published point
       schedules, earnable only with first or second place scores)
     * Dog must place first in Utility in an all breed obedience trial
       (no specialties) with at least 3 dogs in the competition.
     * Dog must place first in Open in an all breed obedience trial (no
       specialties) with at least 6 dogs in the competition.
     * Dog has an additional first place (total three) under the
       conditions of the above two bullets.
     * Dog won the three first places under three different judges
       
  Tracking is Obedience?
  
   Historically, the original AKC Utility ring included a tracking
   exercise that was later removed from the set of required Utility
   exercises and formed the basis for today's TD test. Because of this
   prior association, Tracking is considered a test of obedience, and the
   TD and TDX titles are considered to be obedience titles. This is also
   the reason that dogs with both UD/X and TD/X are able to combine them
   into special dual titles, including UDT, etc.
   
  Agility is Not Obedience?
  
   No. In the AKC, Agility is considered to be a performance event, and
   as such shares company with other performance trials such as Field
   Trials, Herding Trials, etc. This may or may not be true in other
   kennel clubs.
   
   Additionally, some other events commonly associated with obedience,
   such as Freestyle, are not obedience though they are obviously
   derivative. Freestyle is frequently demonstrated at the Gaines
   Classics, UKC's Top Gun, and other similar competitions. For more
   information about Freestyle, you can contact Heinz Pup-Peroni Canine
   Freestyle at PupFreSty@aol.com for more information.
   
  Upcoming new things in AKC Obedience
  
   From "Nola Ventura"
   Subject Multiple Surface Tracking
   
   I got this flyer from the WSOTC in Washington. The name has been
   changed again - originally it was like Variable ST but AKC changed it
   and who knows may still. This was sent to me earlier in the month. So
   they still had the idea of calling it VST.
   
   "The AKC Obedience Department is working to develop a new tracking
   event: 'Variable Surface Tracking'. The event can take place in a
   city, or parking lots, and in light industrial grounds. The track will
   be on grass areas about 50% of the time and on non-vegetated areas 50%
   of the time. Non-vegetated areas can include cement, asphalt and
   gravel surfaces such as driveways and parking lots. The track will be
   600-800 yards, be 1-3 hours old, have 3-4 turns and 4 articles. The
   track will not have intentional cross-tracks, but natural cross
   traffic will be considered a part of the normal track.
   
   Workshops are being held around the country to introduce this new
   event to the fancy and develop the rules do that it will become a
   practical and popular event once it is approved by the AKC Board of
   Directors. Attendance at one of these workshops is one requirement for
   grandfathering TDX judges to judge this event.
   
   John Barnard, the head of AKC tracking, is a nationally recognized
   expert on tracking and scent work. He spent three decades with the
   Baltimore Police Department K-9 unit. During that time, he trained
   other law enforcement and national security officials in the
   intricacies of canine scent work and assisted several scientific
   studies concerning the use of dogs' olfactory senses."
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Overview of the CKC Obedience Exercises

  Description of Exercises in each ring
  
  Novice:
    Heel on Leash                       35pts
      (Figure 8 is included)
    Stand for Examination               30
      (done on 6 ft leash-
       leash is not to touch ground)
    Heel Free                           45
    Recall                              30
    Long Sit (1 min)                    30
    Long Down (3 min)                   30
                                        ----
                                       200 max. pts.

  Open:
    Heel Free (Figure 8 included)       40pts
    Drop on Recall                      30
    Retrieve on Flat                    25
    Retrieve over High Jump             35
    Broad Jump                          20
    Long Sit (3 min. out of sight)      25
    Long Down (5 min. out of sight)     25

  Utility:
    Seek back (heel free w/ glove
      drop that dog has to seek
      and retrieve on command)          30 pts
    Scent discrimination #1             20
    Scent discrimination #2             20
    Scent discrimination #3             20
    (articles are wood, leather, metal)
    Signal Exercise                     35
    Directed Jumping                    40
    Group Examination                   35
      (min. 3 minutes)

   Bar and high jump: as nearly as possible the height of the dog at
   withers. Max 36 inches Broad jump: distance equal to twice the height
   of the high jump.
   
  Requirements for titles
  
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Overview of the SKC Obedience Exercises

   A dog may be entered in both the 'A' and 'B' sections of a class if
   eligible. However, only the higher qualifying score will be counted
   towards a title if the same judge officiates in both sections.
   
  Description of Exercises in each ring
  
 Novice A/B
    Heel on Leash and Figure 8    - 40 pts
    Stand for Exam                - 30 pts
    Heel Free                     - 40
    Recall                        - 30
    Long Sit (1 min)              - 30
    Long Down (3 min)             - 30
                                  (Total 200 pts)

  Open A/B
    Heel Free and figure 8        - 40pts
    Drop on Recall                - 30
    Retrieve on Flat              - 20
    Retrieve on High Jump         - 30
    Broad Jump                    - 20
    Long Sit (3 min out of sight) - 30
    Long Down(5 min out of sight) - 30

   High Jump height - equal to height of dog at withers, as determined by
   judge, min. 8 inches - max. 36 inches. Broad Jump - distance to cover
   twice the height of the high jump. 4 hurdles for 48 to 72 inches, 3
   for 28 to 44 inches, and 2 for 16 to 24 inches.
   
  Utility A/B
    Signal exercises              - 40 pts
    Scent discrimination article1 - 30
    Scent discrimination article2 - 30
        (leather and metal like AKC)
    Directed Retreive             - 30
    Directed Jumping              - 40
    Group Exam                    - 30
      (stand for exam as group -min 3 minutes for
       handler away from dog).

  Requirements for Titles
  
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Overview of the UKC Obedience Exercises

  Description of Exercises in each ring
  
  Novice U-CD
    Honor (Long Down in opposite ring
      corner while other dog doing
      Heel on Leash)                    35 pts
    Heel on Leash and Figure 8          35
    Stand for Exam                      30
    Heel off Leash                      35
    Recall over Jump                    35
    Long Sit (1 min)                    30
                                       ----
                                       200

  Open U-CDX
    Honoring (out of sight)             30 pts
    Heel Off Leash and Figure 8         40
    Drop on Recall                      30
    Retrieve on Flat                    20
    Retrieve over High Jump             30
    Broad Jump                          20
    Long Sit (3 min out of sight)       30
      On the Heel Off Leash the steward walks the same pattern
      as the handler/dog team. Also after the dog drops on the
      Drop on Recall the steward walks from the handler's side
      past the dog to the other side of the ring.


  Utility U-UD
    Signaling and Heeling               30
    Honoring                            10
    Scent Discrimination (metal)        30
    Directed 'Marked' Retrieve
        (from handlers side)            20
    Directed 'Signal' Retrieve
        (sent from handler, then
         directed)                      30
    Consecutive Recalls
        (one with and one without
          Down)                         40
    Directed Jumping                    40

   Jump heights: min 8 inches - max 24 inches. The height is set at even
   2 inch increments. A dog 17 1/2 inches jumps 16 inch high. A dog must
   jump twice its shoulder height for the Broad Jump in one inch
   increments.
   
  Requirements for titles
  
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Opportunities for Mixed Breed Dogs

   Most of the major kennel clubs (AKC, CKC, etc) do not allow mixed
   breed dogs to compete in any of their shows. While this is
   unfortunate, it is certainly their perogative (perhaps the rules will
   be relaxed someday, as any dog can do well in obedience trialling).
   
   The happy exception to this is the United Kennel Club. In an agreement
   reached with AMBOR on February 3, 1994, the UKC began issuing LP's to
   mixed breeds (who must be neutered, as all UKC LP dogs have been
   required to be) and AMBOR became the national parent club for the UKC
   mixed breed dogs. Effective May 1, 1994, all mixed breed dogs
   registered with the UKC participate in all UKC licensed Obedience
   Trials and Hunting Retreiver events and earn UKC titles and degrees.
   As additional programs are developed by the UKC, these dogs may also
   be allowed to participate. These could include Tracking, Agility, and
   Terrier (go to ground) Trials.
   
   There are a number of additional resources for the owner of a mixed
   breed dog who is interested in obedience trials. Contact any of the
   following:
   
   _American Mixed Breed Obedience Registration (AMBOR)_
   205 1st Street, S.W.
   New Prague, MN 56071
   612-758-4598
   offers titles to dogs in rings with the UKC plus it's own set of
   titles
   
   _Mixed Breed Dog Clubs of America_
   c/o Phyllis Massa
   1937 Seven Pines
   Creve Coeur, MO 63146
   offers obedience titles of their own (registered dogs must be
   neutered).
   
   Also see ASCA above.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
PupPeroni Classic Tournaments (previously known as Cycle, Gaines)

   Three regional tournaments (western, central, and eastern regions) and
   a final tournament each year. These tournaments are held in various
   cities throughout the continental United States and are organized by
   volunteers and non-profit organizations. The PupPeroni Dog Obedience
   Tournaments are a showcase of the best Obedience teams throughout the
   U.S and Canada and can be described as the "Westminster of Obedience".
   
   The Tournaments were originally sponsored by Gaines, then Cycle and
   now PupPeroni.
   
   For additional information write:
   
     Quaker Professional Services
     Pet Food Division
     P.O. Box 049001, Suite 23-1
     Chicago, IL 60604-9001
     
  Eastern, Western, and Central regional tournaments
  
   Each Regional is a two-day event comprised of three shows. Each
   exhibitor must compete in all three shows in the division in which he
   is entered. The three designated Divisions of competition are: Novice,
   Open, and Super Dog (combined).
   
   Placings in the Divisions are determined on the basis of total points
   lost, qualifying or non-qualifying with prizes to the first ten
   placements in all Divisions.
   
   Titles and scores are accepted from the American Kennel Club, the
   United Kennel Club, the Australian Shepherd Club of America
   (Australian Shepherds only), the Canadian Kennel Club, and the
   American Mixed Breed Obedience Registry. All three scores must be from
   the same registry. Dual titled dogs must compete in the division of
   the highest title.
   
    Entrance Requirements
    
   _Division I - Super Dog_
   
   An AKC Obedience Trial Champion is automatically eligible. Other dogs
   that may enter must meet the following requirements:
    1. Earned a confirmed Utility title in one of the above mentioned
       registries, prior to the closing date of the Regional.
    2. Must have earned three scores in Open B averaging 193 or better,
       and three scores in Utility A or B averaging 193 or better in
       competition at approved trials prior to the closing date of the
       Regional.
       
   The Super Dog section is limited to 60 entires in each Regional. The
   ten dogs losing the fewest number of combined points in all Open and
   Utility classes at a Regional will receive a cash prize and other
   prizes, and automatically become eligible to compete in the U.S.
   PupPeroni Dog Obedience Classic for that year.
   
   _Division II - Novice Dog_
    1. Earned a confirmed Companion Dog title in one of the above
       mentioned registries, prior to the closing date of the Regional.
       The dog must not have earned a third leg towards a CDX prior to
       the date of the Regional in which they are competing.
    2. Must have earned three scores averaging 193 or better in Novice A
       or B competition at approved trials prior to the related Regional
       closing date.
       
   The Novice Dog section is limited to 70 entries in each Regional. The
   ten dogs losing the fewest number of points in Novice competition at a
   Regional will receive a cash prize and other prizes, and automatically
   become eligible to compete in the U.S. PupPeroni Dog Obedience Classic
   for that year.
   
   _Division III - Open Dog_
    1. Earned a confirmed Companion Dog Excellent title in one of the
       above mentioned registries, prior to the closing date of the
       Regional. The dog must not have earned a third leg towards a UD
       prior to the date of the Regional in which they are competing.
    2. Must have earned three scores averaging 193 or better in Open A or
       B competition at approved trials prior to the related Regional
       closing date.
       
   The Open Dog section is limited to 60 entries in each Regional. The
   ten dogs losing the fewest number of points in Open competition at a
   Regional will receive a cash prize and other prizes, and automatically
   become eligible to compete in the U.S. PupPeroni Dog Obedience Classic
   for that year.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Swedish Obedience Trials

   Contributed by Lars Kaskija
   
   The Swedish Kennel Club has sponsored competitive obedience since the
   late 60s (imported from England?). Obedience was not particularly
   popular to start with, but it has become more and more popular,
   particularly during the last 10 years. Today there are approx. 24,000
   obedience trials carried out each year, which is quite a lot
   considering the small size of the country. Agility was introduced
   around 1986, and is now extremely popular, especially among young
   people. Most recent is Flyball, introduced 2-3 years ago.
   
   The Swedish Working Dog Association (SBK, Svenska Brukshunds-Klubben)
   also organizes competitive obedience - which it has done for a very
   long time. This form of obedience is only slightly different from that
   organized by the [Swedish] Kennel Club. Any competition, whether in
   trecking, or schutz-training etc., also includes obedience. Obedience
   is thus compulsory, no matter what special branch you are competing
   in.
   
  Levels of Obedience
  
   There are four different levels of Kennel Club obedience: Level I,
   Level II, Level III and Elite Level.
   
   In levels I and II a dog has to earn 160-200 points for 1st place,
   140-159,5 for 2nd place, and 100-139,5 for 3rd place.
   
   In levels III and Elite a dog has to earn 255-300 points for 1st
   place, 224-254,5 for 2nd place, and 192-223,5 for 3rd place.
   
   A dog that has achived a 1st place in level I can move up and compete
   in level II, or, continue to compete in level I until it has three 1st
   places, in which case it will receive an "obedience diplom" (Lp-1).
   After three 1st places in level II the dog receives an "Lp-2", and in
   level III an "Lp-3". To become an obedience champion a dog must win
   three 1st places at elite-level, and on top of that the dog must have
   the figure 2 from a conformation class (i.e. it must conform to the
   standard of its breed). Border Collies can only become obedience
   champions if they have passed a general test for herding dogs, i.e.
   they must be approved herding dogs.
   
   To participate the dog has to be at least 10 months old (for the elite
   class, 15 months old). Any dog old enough may participate, even
   non-registered dogs, mixed breed dogs, and male dogs with only one
   testicle. However, to become an obedience champion or to receive a
   CACIOB (the best 1st-place winner in an international competition) the
   dog has to be registered and non-cryptorchid.
   
   A dog that has received an obedience championship is called Svensk
   Lydnads Champion (SLCH). A dog that has become champion in any of the
   working dog branches, such as tracking, is called Svensk Bruks
   Champion (SBCH). To be a Swedish Champion because of exterior merits,
   i.e. from participation in conformation classes, is called Svensk
   Utstallnings Champion (SUCH). Especially talented and beautiful dogs
   can thus become Trippel-Champions, and this is really something.
   
  General obedience (Swedish Kennel Club style)
  
  Level I.
     Long Down (2 min)           - 30 pts   (dogs 5m apart, handlers 20m away)
     Teeth Examination           - 10
     Heel On Leash               - 20
     Heel Off Leash              - 40
     Down During Heel Off Leash  - 20   (handler walks 10m away then returns)
     Recall                      - 20   (from 15m)
     Stand During Heel Off Leash - 30
     High Jump With Heel O.L.    - 20
     General Impression          - 10
                                  ___
     Maximum Total Score          200 pts

  Level II.
    Long Down (3 minutes)        - 40 pts (handlers out of sight)
    Heel Off Leash               - 30
    Down During Heel Off Leash   - 10
    Stand On Recall              - 30
    Retrieve                     - 20 (dumbbell?)
    Signal Exercise              - 20 (sit/down on signals, handler at 5m)
    High Jump                    - 20 (jumps, sits on other side and recall)
    General Impression           - 10
                                  ___
    Maximum Total Score           180 pts

  Level III.
    Long Down (6 minutes)          40 pts  (handlers out of sight)
    Heel Off Leash               - 30  (includes two steps backwards)
    Down During Heel Off Leash   - 20  (handler is running when command given)
    Stand and Drop On Recall     - 40
    Sending with Down and Recall - 40
    Retrieve Over High Jump      - 30
    Retrieve (metal object)      - 20
    Scent Discrimination         - 40  (five identical objects, one scented)
    Signal Exercise              - 50  (sit/down/stand, handler at 15m)
    General Impression           - 10
                                  ___
    Maximum Total Score           320 pts

  Elite Level
    Long Sit    (2 min)          - 30 pts  (3m/dogs; handler out of sight)
    Long Down with Disturbance   - 30  (4 min, steward weaves between dogs)
    Heel Off Leash               - 30
    Stand/Sit/Down During HOL    - 30
    Stand and Drop on Recall     - 50
    Go-Out, Down, Recall         - 40
    Retrieve over High Jump      - 30 (heavy metal object)
    Scent Discrimination         - 30
    Signal Exercise              - 40 (down/sit/stand)
    General Impression           - 10
                                  ___
    Maximum Total Score           320 pts

     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Bahamas Obedience Trials

     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Stewarding

   From: cdm@inel.gov
   
   As one who LIKES stewarding, here's my thoughts on the matter:
    1. Expect to have the opportunity to learn A LOT.
    2. Possibly expect to get chastised if you aren't paying attention,
       especially if it becomes a habit. Most judges I've stewarded for
       are pretty forgiving, especially if you're usually there for them.
    3. The job isn't terribly difficult, but you have to pay attention.
       Remember that you can contribute to the ring running smoothly or
       you can hold it up, depending on how seriously you take the job.
    4. Hopefully, you've had some sort of training as to what to do.
    5. BE AT THE RING EARLY. I like to be there at LEAST 1/2 hour before
       judging is to start.
    6. Ask the judge for special instructions. Usually, they will tell
       you things like:
          + where each team should be positioned when they enter the
            ring.
          + where to place the gloves on the DR.
          + where to stand for the figure 8.
          + where to stand during group exercises.
          + when and where they want things like dumbbells and articles.
          + Lots of other things are likely to come up. Every judge does
            something a little different than everyone else.
    7. Expect to make mistakes at first, but remember that after the
       first couple of teams in each class things will smooth out. Every
       judge I've worked with has been more than forgiving of these
       initial mistakes.
    8. Try to think ahead. What will the judge want me to do next?
    9. Smile a lot.
   10. Expect some nasty exhibitors, but most are nice. Treat the nasty
       ones politely anyway. You might turn 'em around.
   11. Think from the perspective of the exhibitors. What would you like
       to have from the stewards? There isn't a whole lot you can do
       here, but I always make a few passes over the ring during the day
       to look for things that could distract the dogs (food, leaves,
       hairballs, candy wrappers, etc.) and remove them.
   12. Bite your tongue. Don't make comments that could make someone feel
       bad.
       
   I'm sure there's more, but this is it offhand. Remember, HAVE FUN!
   It's a good feeling at the end of the day to know you've contributed
   to a successful show.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Common Handler Errors

   More can be found in Barbara Handler's book! Fraser & Ammen's book
   lists a number of them too. These suggestions are primarily for AKC's
   obedience exercises, although they are widely applicable. Exercises
   that are specifically different in other organizations are not
   covered.
   
   (Suggestions from a number of people, especially Nancy Gagliardi
   Little; collected by Ruth Ginzberg)
   
  Recall
  
   Common handler errors:
    1. Bowing when giving command
    2. Improper hand position
    3. Body english for the finish (dipping shoulder, moving feet, etc)
    4. Head movement
    5. Moving fingers on the finish
    6. Moving arm position after voice command to finish is given
    7. Overly loud command
    8. Double commanding (signal and voice) for finish
    9. Giving the "Stay" command out of heel position (as or after
       handler steps out)
       
   Helpful hints:
    1. Don't leave your dog on the crack of the mat or a high or low spot
       if showing outdoors.
    2. After leaving the dog and going to the other side, don't look up
       at the judge until you have positioned yourself and are ready for
       the command.
    3. Ensure that there is enough room behind you for the finish.
    4. Position yourself across the ring so that the dog will not have to
       sit on the crack of the mat.
    5. Use the same tone of voice that is normally given for the recall
       command (many handlers will change the tone of their voice when
       they are nervous and the dog doesn't understand)
    6. Leave your dog by stepping out on your right foot (or which ever
       foot you normally leave on).
    7. Make sure you have your dogs full attention before leaving him so
       he doesn't get up as you leave.
    8. Make sure your command is loud enough, if there is lots of noise
       (i.e. PA system on and off, etc)
       
  Long sit/down
  
   Common handler errors:
    1. Not knowing that if dog breaks the owner SHOULD NOT return to the
       line with other competitors
    2. Late leaving dog
    3. Not returning to heel position
    4. Positioning the dog or touching the collar (you can't touch them)
    5. Handler zeros in previous exercises and doesn't return for Sits
       and Downs (you must return or ask the judge to be excused).
    6. Extra signals from across the ring.
       
   Helpful hints:
    1. Don't position your dog on the crack of the mat or (if outdoors) a
       high or low spot.
    2. Look around before getting started and pick up any debris near
       your dog to avoid sniffing.
    3. Clip your armband to your leash - and lay down so it won't get
       knocked or blown away.
    4. Make sure that your dog will lay down straight (especially if you
       are showing a large dog) to avoid having to reposition your dog.
    5. When the judge asks if everyone is ready before the exercise
       starts SPEAK UP, if you aren't ready - don't rush yourself and
       chance a zero.
    6. Cross your arms to make the exercise look different than the
       recall.
    7. If your dog doesn't go down on the first command, give another -
       the exercise doesn't start until the handlers leave (except for
       rough handling,etc).
    8. Make sure you have your dogs full attention before leaving him so
       he doesn't get up as you leave.
       
  Heel on lead
  
   Common handler errors:
    1. Tight lead (loose pts for lagging AND tight lead) This could also
       cause a zero for the exercise, if the judge feels that s/he was
       not given an opportunity to see the dog work on leash
    2. Adapting speed to dog (Especially not walking briskly.)
    3. Not changing speed
    4. Lead corrections
    5. Not heeling so DOG IS ON MAT
    6. Stepping into dog on sit
    7. Too many steps on the halt.
    8. Anticipating judges commands (going back to normal after the fast
       before the judges command, turning early, etc)
    9. Pausing or stopping on about turn (heels should never come
       together - the turn should be made in motion)
   10. Rounding corners on the left turn to avoid crowding by the dog.
   11. Checking each sit after the halts
   12. Extra body movement on the "Heel Command"
   13. Moving the leash position after starting to heel.
       
   Helpful hints:
    1. Don't stop too quickly on the halts - many handlers panic when the
       judge commands and they stop on a dime.
    2. When the judge asks if you are ready, LOOK at your dog first
       before you reply.
    3. If the dog lags (i.e. on the figure 8) don't let out the lead, let
       it tighten up - the judge will take a lag only (the dog caused the
       tight leash)
    4. Don't look back at the dog - it will only cause the dog to lag
       more.
    5. Many handlers forget to give the "Heel" command after each command
       to "Forward" by the judge.
    6. If you have questions, before the exercise starts (about anything
       - since this is the first exercise) ask the judge.
    7. Crossing the mat on the fast time. Crossing the mat is a problem
       that occurs when the handler doesn't walk or run in a straight
       line. Either the handler moves across the mat to the left (into
       the dog) which seems to be more common, or moves across the mat to
       the right (away from the dog).
       
  Figure eight
  
   Common handler errors:
    1. See Heel on Leash
    2. Slowing down when the dog is on the outside
       
   Helpful hints:
    1. Make sure to give the dog enough room when executing the inside
       post. Many handlers cut too close and the dog is forced to drop
       back into a lag.
    2. Give yourself enough room at the start of the exercise (especially
       for those with large dogs) so you can take at least two steps
       before going into the turn.
    3. Unless you have a forging dog, always start the exercise by going
       to the left. If you go immediately to the right (dog is expected
       to get up from a sit and go into a fast), it start the dog off
       into a lag.
       
  Heel free
  
   Common handler errors:
    1. See Above.
    2. Hand position - a) Both hands down and "swinging" or b) Right hand
       down and "swinging" and the left hand held up at your waist. The
       hand position can change for the fast, but must immediately return
       to the previous position on the normal.
    3. Changing hand position after starting.
       
   Helpful hints
    1. Forgetting that it's permissible to issue a second command (point
       loss but no zero/NQ)
    2. Ensure that you give the "Heel" command first before stepping out
       to avoid leaving the dog sitting behind.
       
  Stand
  
   Common handler errors:
    1. Touching while giving "stay" command
    2. Backing away
    3. Going too far (must be about 6 feet away)
    4. Not returning to heel position.
    5. Giving the "Stay" command out of heel position
    6. Returning directly into heel position (not going behind the dog
       first)
    7. Rough handling of the dog to position him
    8. Extra commands to stay - "Stay/Stay" or "Wait...Stay"
    9. Waiting for the judge to tell the handler to leave
       
   Helpful hints:
    1. Pace out the 6 foot distance ahead of time (or go about to where
       the judge is - that's usually 6 feet)
    2. After standing the dog, move to heel position and take one last
       look at the dog before giving the command to stay.
    3. If the dog doesn't stand up on the first command, physically stand
       the dog (don't use your feet)
    4. Make sure you leave your dog on the foot that your normally leave
       him on (usually the right)
    5. If the dog sits or moves from position after the judge has
       examined him and before you return, the dog has still qualified
       (lost major points, though)
       
  Generally Common Handler Errors
  
    1. Positioning the dog (knee, foot, hands) before exercises - you
       can't touch them at all to position them - even if the exercise is
       over.
    2. Collar too loose or too tight (or illegal)
    3. Handler not familiar with the rules ( when handler fills out an
       entry form and signs it, s/he is stating that s/he has read the
       rules and is familiar with them.
    4. Enter and Exit the ring on a loose leash (yes, you must clip the
       leash on your dog before exiting)
    5. Telling the judge that they are ready for an exercise when the dog
       is not in position. Always check your dog before replying that you
       are ready.
    6. Neither judges or stewards may reveal any part of your score until
       after the class is over. The judge must, however, tell you whether
       you have qualified after your sits and downs.
       
  Generally Common Helpful Hints
  
    1. Make sure you praise your dog between exercises so they don't get
       stressed This way you can also keep the dog's attention on you.
    2. If you need to, you can gently guide your dog by the collar
    3. Teach the dog pivots, so that you can position the dog without
       repeatingly turning around and around (and around,and around....)
    4. Make sure your dog is clean (judges HATE to touch dirty dogs)
    5. Tie your hair back (if it is long)
    6. Make sure your clothes don't interfere with the dog's movement.
    7. Have a pleasant expression on your face, otherwise the dog will
       react to the difference in your personality (who is this strange
       person I'm with?)
    8. Give all command in the same tone of voice as when you train.
    9. Think about your handling - try to forget about the dog. You
       should have confidence in him by now. If you worry about something
       (or dwell on something) it will probably come true. Try to keep a
       positive attitude.
   10. Always check to see if there are missing dogs (or dogs with
       conflicts) ahead of you). Never go to the steward's table with
       your dog.
   11. Keep your dog away from you until just before you show. Do a brief
       warmup, but not too much.
   12. Make sure that your dog has been exercised and will not foul the
       ring.
   13. Arrive AT LEAST one hour before you show. Walk the dog through the
       whole show area, then put him away.
   14. After the last sit and down group is complete, (if you have
       qualified), get your dog and warm them up for a run-off - no
       matter how you feel about your performance.
   15. Watch at least 2 or 3 dogs performance before you show (unless you
       are the first or second dog) and plan where you will position
       yourself. Watch carefully, where each exercise is done and what
       the judges commands are.
   16. Don't take gum into the ring (some judges consider it food). Empty
       your pockets of extra change or keys.
   17. Don't bring your dog up to the ring entrance until the judge is
       ready for you - especially don't bring him up while the other dog
       is exiting.
   18. If you place, show good sportsmanship by congratulating the other
       placers.
   19. After the class is over, approach the judge and ask her/him if
       s/he would be willing to go over your score. Most judges are more
       than willing to do this after all the paperwork is complete - but
       they are not required.
   20. You might want to get a photograph done if you get a placement or
       a C.D. that day.
   21. Always verify your score at the superintendent's table after the
       judge has turned in the book. Sometimes there are errors. If you
       placed, make sure that your number is in the correct place.
   22. If you place first, you will need to wait around until another
       class finishes with a first place that is higher than your score
       (for the High in Trial award)
   23. Check (in the catalog) to see if you are eligible for any special
       prizes. (i.e. High Scoring Hound, High Scoring Senior Citizen,
       etc). Check before the trial, as sometimes you need to sign up for
       a possible prize. Always check afterwards as well.
   24. Always verify that your dog's name (and your address) is listed
       correctly in the catalog (or on the entries that you receive in
       the mail)
       
   Hints on the Dog's Attire
    1. Metal or nylon choke chains are OK. These should fit properly and
       not hang half way down the chest.
    2. Leather buckle (flat or rolled) are OK.
    3. Nylon or fabric buckle collars are OK. Some dissent on colors:
       solid and subdued colors are your best bet.
    4. Quick snap, martingale, prong collars are not allowed. Bright
       colors dismissed by some judges. Prints, studded collars,
       decorated collars, not allowed.
    5. No tags on collars.
    6. A four to six foot fabric or leather leash is best. Again, avoid
       loud, decorated, or studded leashes.
       
  Tips for dealing with Stress at the show
  
   Margie English (1-9) & Anne Cotton (10)
    1. Keep the dog crated in the quietest spot you can find. Park your
       crate in a corner or against a wall, and cover it so your pup
       feels safe enough to sleep.
    2. Don't keep your dog on the show site any longer than necessary. If
       you're finished at noon, go back to the motel and watch the Young
       and the Restless together.
    3. Don't share a motel room with someone else who has dogs. Your pup
       has enough to do over the weekend without figuring out a new pack
       order.
    4. Spend the first evening in the motel watching TV with your pup.
       Don't just park him there and go out partying. You can party later
       after he settles in. Actually, dogs like it best if you snuggle up
       and watch TV with them every night, but, HEY, they're dogs and
       we're people. The first-night rule is especially important if lots
       of other exhibitors are staying at your motel. This means lots of
       coming and going and (sorry to say) lots of barking. You're pup
       will feel a lot better about the whole thing if you're there to
       tell him to shut up and watch TV with him.
    5. Never invite people to your motel room to party. Your dog needs
       the peace and quiet. Encourage other people to play host, and take
       them a box of wine to reinforce their hospitality.
    6. If your pup is prone to any kind of digestive upset, bring water
       from home, or put him on bottled spring water before you leave so
       you can buy more while traveling. Bring Immodium just in case.
    7. Bring some familiar toys from home for the motel room. It makes
       your pup feel at home and keeps him from shredding your luggage.
    8. Unless you have a seasoned campaigner, don't try to do much
       training over the weekend. Showing is about as much as your pup
       can take, so get him trained before you go and let him rest
       between his appearances.
    9. If your pup sleeps in a crate at home, bring the crate for him to
       sleep in at the show and in your motel room. If he usually sleeps
       on your bed at home, get a room with a big enough bed for the two
       of you and don't introduce any distractions.
   10. Give your pup plenty of time to sleep. IMO, the way dog shows take
       most of the stuffing out of dogs is by keeping the poor buggers
       awake all day. On top of that, the different evironment and
       disruption of your pup's regular routine will make him want to
       sleep even more than he does at home. So let him sleep as much as
       he wants to. And get enough sleep yourself!
   11. If you have a sleep-on-the-bed dog, BEFORE you leave home, put a
       sheet on top of the covers and let the dog sleep on top of it for
       a night or two. Then take THAT sheet, unlaundered, with you; put
       it on top of the motel bed. First, the dog will have its familiar
       smell to lie on; and second, the motel people will adore you for
       not getting hair all over everything including the bedspread.
       
   (And, as I can hear Cindy reminding, take plenty of baggies for
   pickups!)
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Making Treats

   Note: 4, 5 and 7 are essentially variations on the same recipe.
    1. Beef liver, parbroiled and then baked to dry out.
    2. Hot dogs:
          + turkey or chicken hot dogs dry out better than beef ones do
          + cut lengthwise in fours and slice for very small pieces to
            spit at dog
          + slice a hot dog very thinly (20-30 "coins"), lay on paper
            towels, sprinkle with garlic powder (NOT garlic salt), then
            put them in the microwave on high for 6-9 minutes, depending
            on the desired crunchiness
    3. Assorted:
          + Kielbasa
          + string cheese
          + plain Cheerios
          + popcorn (unsalted, unbuttered)
          + Liv-A-Snaps (they are a bit crunchy, but they break into tiny
            pieces)
          + Freeze-dried liver (commercially available: expensive but
            long-lasting; easy to break up into tiny chunks)
    4. biscuits:
       1 pound raw liver
       1 cup corn meal
       1 cup whole wheat flour
       tons of powdered garlic
       Puree the liver in the blender and mix the rest together into
       sticky gooey mess. Spread onto well greased baking pan and bake at
       300 degrees until it is fairly dried out, but not browned. If you
       want, you can poke the bubbles that form on the top to keep them
       from separating from the rest, but it works fine if you don't.
       Allow to cool and cut into 1/2 inch squares. I store most of mine
       in the freezer though a small bag, if used frequently can be kept
       in the fridge. Caution: it goes bad really fast , i.e. starts
       growing cultures of it's own, so only keep small amounts unfrozen.
    5. liver cubes Liquify (ugh) 1 lb. liver, for this I use chicken
       livers in a tub, and use all the liquid that comes with it. If you
       use vacuum packed frozed beef liver, add a tad of water. Add 1 cup
       flour, 1/2 cup corn meal, 1 tsp. onion powder, 1 tsp. minced
       garlic, 1 tsp. garlic salt, and 1 T. oregano. Spread on cookie
       sheet greased with oil (consistancy when spreading on sheet should
       be that of peanut butter. Cook at 350 degrees for 12-15 min. I
       like to make them 1/2 to 3/4 in thick. Cut up and freeze away.
       They do not take well to standing a room temp. for long periods of
       time!! So, defrost only what you will use in about 2 days.
    6. Liver Buy the beef liver, place on a real plate (not plastic) in
       the micro- wave, while still frozen, and cook till brown. This
       makes very rubbery liver which is good in the breed ring, and good
       if you want the dog to knibble on the liver while teaching for
       example, stand from a sit. If you use this method, you can put it
       in your pocket and it is no longer moist. Oh yes, don't forget to
       sprinkle garlic on it before "nuking" it.
    7. This was published in Front & Finish. Haven't met a dog that
       doesn't like them.
       
     1 lb liver (beef or pork)
     1 C Corn meal
     2 eggs
     1/2 C flour
     2-3 tea garlic powder
     2 Tbl oil
       Blend in food processor until smooth. Bake in greased 9 x 13 pan
       20 minutes at 400 degrees. Cut into squares. Keep in frig. or can
       be frozen.
       Be forewarned....the house will smell when baking.
    8. Liver pieces
       Take a pound of beef liver. Put it in water on the stove, add 1/4
       tsp of garlic powder. Boil for 1/2 hour. Then remove , put on a
       cookie sheet or something similar and bake at low heat for another
       hour or so. (200 F) After that, cut up into small pieces. Smells
       like h*** when you make it but keeps wonderfully in the freezer,
       and the doggies love it. The broth from the boiling can also be
       used on dry food as an extra treat.
       
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Acronym List

  Assumptions
  
    1. All titles are suffixes to dog's registered name if not otherwise
       noted.
    2. Acronyms listed alphabetically.
       
  Obedience titles - AKC & CKC
  
   CD
          Companion Dog
          
   CDX
          Companion Dog Excellent
          
   OTCh
          Obedience Trial Champion (prefix)
          
   TD
          Tracking Dog
          
   TDX
          Tracking Dog Excellent
          
   UD
          Utility Dog
          
   UDT
          Utility Dog title with a Tracking Dog title
          
   UDTX
          Utility Dog title with a Tracking Dog Excellent title
          
   UDX
          Utility Dog Excellent
          
   NOTE 1: The AKC OTCh is much different and more difficult to achieve
   than the Canadian (CKC) OTCh. The CKC OTCh is equivalent to getting a
   Canadian UD. In other words the CKC UD = CKC OTCh.
   
   NOTE 2: UDX is a new AKC title for dogs that qualify at both Open and
   Utility on the same day at ten different shows. Must already have UD.
   Combined titles (UDX + TD/TDX) not yet announced.
   
   NOTE 3: AKC is coming out with the VTD (variable tracking dog) title,
   where the track goes across concrete or asphalt as well as grass and
   dirt. Not yet verified/announced.
   
  Obedience titles - UKC (all prefixes)
  
   U-CD
          Companion Dog
          
   U-CDX
          Companion Dog Excellence
          
   U-UD
          Utility Dog
          
   NOTE: The UKC does not recognize any title from any other
   organization. You could have an AKC OTCH on your dog, but he would
   still have to start in Novice in UKC. The one thing they do a little
   differently is that if the dog has earned a corresponding title from
   another organization, he would have to show in the B class in UKC.
   
  Conversational acronyms
  
   BJ
          Broad Jump or Bar Jump (context)
          
   BTW
          By The Way
          
   DJ
          Directed Jumping
          
   DOR
          Drop on Recall
          
   F8
          Figure Eight
          
   FAQ
          Frequently Asked Questions
          
   IMHO
          In My Honest Opinion
          
   OTOH
          On The Other Hand
          
   ROF
          Retrieve on the Flat
          
   ROTF
          Rolling on the Floor (amusement)
          
   ROH
          Retrieve over the High Jump
          
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Glossary

  Pattern training
  
  Jackpots
  
  Backchaining
  
   Break the exercise up into small steps and start with the last one
   first until the dog has it down well. Then back up to the previous
   step, teach the dog that. At this point, when you have him do the new
   step, you can add the last step that he knows well and in this fashion
   work your way backwards through the whole exercise. It works nicely
   because the dog already knows how to do the next step, so it keeps his
   confidence and the positive tone up. This is most frequently used as a
   way to polish (and proof) an exercise the dog already knows, as
   opposed to teaching the exercise from scratch.
   
  Operant conditioning
  
  Attention
  
  Motivational training
  
  Behavior shaping
  
  Touchsticks and clickers
  
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Resources

  Favorite suppliers
  
   _ACME Machine Co._
   2901 Freemont Ave. South
   Minneapolis, MN 55408
   tel: 1-800-332-2472, 612-827-3571
   fax: 612-827-8905
   
     obedience supplies, including a dumbbell with a nylabone dowel
     
   _Capital Leashes_
   Jerusha Gurvin
   6001 Johnson Ave.
   Bethesda, MD
   301 530 2164
   
     custom made leather leashes and collars
     
   _For The Right Scent_
   Joe Feist
   2581 Crafton N.W.
   North Canton, Ohio 44720
   (216) 494-2301
   
     custom made dumbbells and scent articles
     
   _Max 200_
   Dog Obedience Equipment Co.
   114 Beach Street Building 5
   Rockaway, NJ 07866
   tel: 1-800-HI-MAX-200, 1-800-446-2920, 1-201-983-0450
   fax: 201-983-1368
   email: mlucas@skipjack.bluecrab.org
   web: http://pages.bluecrab.org/max200/
   
     leashes, collars, dumbells, jumps, specialized training equipment
     
   _The Patch Place _
   2010 E. Wren St.
   Peoria Heights, IL 61614
   
     for patches with titles
     
   _Paul's Obedience Shop_
   P.O. Box 767
   Hanover, PA. 17331
   717-630-8474
   800-367-7285
   24 hr. fax 717-630-8072
   
     high quality obedience supplies
     
   _The Pet Supply House_
   593 Main St. E.
   Milton, Ont. L9T 3J2
   
   1-800-268-3716 (canadian only?)
   
   _Ray Allen Manufacturing Co. Inc._
   P.O. Box 9281
   Colorado Springs, CO 80932-0281
   tel: 1-800-444-0404 orders only
   1-719-633-0404 cust. service
   
     working dog supplies (schutzhund, obed. ring, etc.)
     
   _Sylvia's Tack Box_
   4333 11th St A
   Moline IL 61265
   tel: 309-797-9060
   
     Obedience items for small dogs: utility gloves XX Small, Micro
     Prong collar (for all sizes), etc.
     
   _Sunshine Books_
   206-888-3737
   
     Clickers in 5-paks, Karen Pryor's books, Pryor/Willkins training
     videos
     
   _Direct Book Service_
   800-776-2665
   
     Dog books of ALL kinds (best selection) plus clickers
     
   _Soft Sided Crates_
   248-476-4411
   
     Lightweight crates for well behaved dogs.
     
   _Cabana Crates_
   800-660-2665
   
     Lightweight crates for well behaved dogs.
     
   _EEZI Crate_
   843-365-9798
   
     Lightweight crates for well behaved dogs.
     
   _Portable Pet Enclosure_
   800-772-9028
   
     Lightweight crates for well behaved dogs.
     
  Organizations
  
   _Agility Dog Assoc. of Canada (ADAC)_
   c/o Merri Lynn Gordon
   R.R. #1,
   Midland, Ont. L4R 4K3 _American Dog Owners Association_
   1654 Columbia Turnpike
   Castleton, New York 12033
   
     bimonthly newsletter; works to promote responsible dog-ownership
     and fights anti-dog legislation
     
  Magazines
  
   _Bloodlines_
   100 E.Kilgore Road
   Kalamazoo, MI 49001
   (616)343-9020
   
     6 issues per year - UKC magazine, Jan. issue contains Rules for
     year.
     
   _Front and Finish_
   P.O. Box 333
   Galesburg, IL 61402-0333
   1-309-344-1333
   
     General obedience related information, newspaper format.
     
   _National Association of Dog Obedience Instructors (NADOI, Inc.)_
   Peggy Prudden, sec'y
   P.O. Box 432
   Landing, NJ 07850
   
   _Off Lead_
   204 Lewis Street
   Canastota, NY 13032
   315 697 2749
   104501,1527@Compuserve.com
   $23.00 (US) per year 12 issues
   
   _AKC Gazette _
   5580 Centerview Dr., Suite 200
   Raleigh, NC 27606-0643
   tel: 1-919-233-9780
   
     Offical AKC publication, lists all AKC-approved shows & contains
     variety of articles
     
  Videos
  
   Comments from Terri Clingerman, Ruth Ginzberg, Nancy Little, Denise
   Mclean, Bobbi Newman, Kathleen Weaver.
   
   AKC Videos
          
          + 200?
          + A Day with An Obedience Judge
            
          These videos are out of date and rather expensive. (rg)
          
   CKC
          
          + Dogs in Canada
            
          Order from
          43 Railside Rd.,
          Don Mills, Ont. M3A 3L9
          (416)441-3228
          
   Arnold, Terri
          
          + Attention and Handling - The Birth of Teamwork
            
          Addresses attention. This video tape includes an audio cassette
          along with the video.
          
          This tape can be ordered through J&J and other catalogues.
          
   DeMello, Janice *The Around the Clock Method of Scent Discrimination
          *Massage Ear-Pinch Method of Force Retrieve *Go Outs - The
          Concept of Straight *The Eight Week course on Attention Each
          tape order includes a handout or booklet that summarizes the
          method. Each tape is very throrough in its description of the
          progression and addresses many of the common problems
          associated with teaching the exercise. I highly recommend all
          of these tapes. (ngl)
          
          (About Around the Clock Scent Discrimination) Really good and
          very useful. But she does go into excruciating detail and I
          found I fast forwarded through the middle section. I can still
          remember her saying over and over "Reheat rescent recheese!"
          But it worked very well for my dog and I recommend it. It's a
          nice alternative to the traditional tie down method. (tc)
          
          (About 8 Week Attention Course) Really good. I used her method
          and it worked well for my dog. The only thing I didn't like was
          I wished she used untrained dogs so she could show a
          correction. She would say "if Stride looked away I would do
          XXX." Well, Stride was great and never did look away! (tc)
          
          Prices:
          
          + The Eight Week course on Attention (includes the booklet)
            ($60)
          + The Around the Clock Method of Scent Discrimination ($54)
            (Reviewed by Heather Nadelman in October '94 F&F)
          + Massage Ear-Pinch Method of Force Retrieve ($54)
          + Go Outs - The Concept of Straight ($54)
          + Are You Really Ready ($50)
            (Reviewed by Nancy Gagliardi Little in October '94 of F&F)
            
          For the fastest delivery, send a money order to (the address
          was checked and confirmed in June of 1995):
          
     Janice DeMello
     Hob Nob Productions
     PO Box 458
     Alexandria, IN 46001
     
   Elliot, Rachel Page
          
          + DogSteps
            
          A fabulous video that visually shows correct and incorrect
          structure in various breeds. (ngl)
          
   Handler, Barbara
          
          + Successful Obedience Handling: The NEW Best Foot Forward
            
          This video tape is a video version of the book. The tape shows
          matches, do's and don'ts, talks about entering your dog, what
          to expect, etc. (bn)
          
   Pryor, Karen
          
          + Click!
          + Shaping
            
          With Gary Wilkes. "Click!" explores the use of the clicker as a
          secondary reinforcer and how operant conditioning can be
          applied to dog training. This was filmed at actual seminars.
          (kw)
          
          "Shaping" goes in depth on how to use shaping and secondary
          reinforcers in dog training. You should view this one first, in
          my opinion, even though it is second in the series. (kw)
          
          Available from Publishers's Book Distributors at 800-47-CLICK.
          
   Silverton, Annemarie
          
          + Puppy Training
          + Novice
          + Open
          + Utility
          + Problem Solving in Open
          + Problem Solving in Utility
          + Problem Solving in Heeling - Focused Attention
            
          These tapes are well made with an abundance of information. It
          would be handy if there were a handout with the summary, since
          the amount of information is almost overwhelming. One other
          drawback with this series is that as the tapes progress, they
          make many references to previous tapes. So if a person wanted
          to buy only the Focused Attention tape, there is alot of
          reference to the Novice and Puppy tapes. (ngl) They're full of
          good information, but you have to watch them very carefully.
          Sometimes she will show a dog doing an exercise or learning
          something but necessarily explain everything. The Puppy and
          Novice tapes go over all the foundation work. You really need
          to watch those before the Open and Utilty. Also, the Open and
          Utility tapes are shorter than Puppy and Novice and you might
          feel like you didn't get your money's work. I really liked the
          Focused Attention one since lack of attention causes problems
          in everything! (tc)
          
          These tapes can be ordered through J&J and quite possibly other
          places like R.C. Steele and other book/video catalogs.
          
   Volhard & Fisher
          
          + The Volhard & Fisher Training Video Tapes
            
          These tapes use HIGHLY trained dogs to demonstrate the
          exercises, which isn't necessarily any more useful than reading
          a description of them in a book. (rg)
          
   Wilkes, Gary
          
          + Touch!
            
          This goes with the two Pryor tapes. This he produced on his
          own. It explores how to use the Touch Stick in dog training,
          and is applied to exercises in Obedience and Agility on the
          tape. For example, he shows how to use the touch stick to teach
          the go-out. (kw)
          
          Available from Publishers's Book Distributors at 800-47-CLICK.
          
  Books
  
   Arnold, Terri, with Ann Paul. _Theory, Footwork, Handling and
   Attention_; _Novice_; _Open and Utility_. Order from Steppin' Up, 186
   Country Road, Freetown, MA 02717, 508-763-4843 ($79.95 for three
   volume set or $29.95 per book plus $6 S&H per order, MA residents add
   5% sales tax; non-US orders must be in US funds, and $12 S&H).
   
     Terri Arnold has written a series of three books (with help from
     Ann Paul) that are: "A positive and precise approach for the
     competitive trainer of the 90's. Clear, concise, and easy to
     understand. Complete step-by-step detail of each obedience exercise
     with beautiful photographs to enhance your learning."
     
   Baer, Ted. _Communicating with Your Dog_. Barron's, New York. 1989.
   ISBN 0-8120-4203-4 (oversized paperback).
   
     Heavily illustrated with color photos. A sensible approach to
     laying a good foundation for extensive obedience training (even if
     you don't take the dog any further than what's outlined in here).
     Simple instructions for teaching a 20-word language, with emphasis
     on understanding and building on previous work.
     
   Barwig, Susan, and Stewart Hilliard. _Schutzhund: Theory and Training
   Methods_. Howell Books, 1991. ISBN 0-87605-731-8.
   
   Bauman, Diane L. _Beyond Basic Dog Training_. New, updated edition.
   Howell Book House (Maxwell Maxmillan International), New York. 1991.
   ISBN: 0-87605-410-6.
   
     Emphasis is on training a "thinking" dog rather than a
     pattern-trained dog. Extensive manual on obedience training.
     Communication and understanding are discussed. A well known and
     often recommended book
     
   . Bauman, Diane L. _Beyond Basic Training - The Workbook_. Alpine
   Publications, 1994. ISBN 0-931866-74-X
   
     Includes puzzles, questions and answers, games, exercises to deal
     with nervousness in the ring, charts and tables to track your dog's
     progress, record training progress and problems. Its intended use
     is one copy for each dog you train.
     
   Benjamin, Carol Lea. _Mother Knows Best: The Natural Way To Train Your
   Dog_. Howell Book House, New York. 1985. ISBN 0-87605-666-4. $15.95
   hardcover.
   
     Most training methods rely on the foundational relationship between
     an owner and his dog, and this book profides some ideas on
     establishing that relationship while the puppy is still young. This
     book is probably the most widely recommended for puppy owners.
     
   Benjamin, Carol and Capt. Haggerty. _Dog Tricks_.
   
     This book has more tricks in it than you will even dream of
     teaching your dog, complete with descriptions of how to teach each
     trick. In the back they have a listing by breed of tricks that are
     especially suitable or unsuitable for that breed.
     
   Brahms, Ann and Paul. _Puppy Ed._. Ballantine Books. 1981.
   ISBN:0-345-33512-0 (paperback).
   
     Describes how to start teaching your puppy commands. This is a
     thoughtful book that discusses in practical detail what you can and
     cannot expect to do with your puppy in training it. They stress
     that by expecting and improving good behavior from the start,
     later, more formal training goes much easier.
     
   Burnham, Patricia Gail. _Playtraining Your Dog_. St. Martin's Press,
   175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. c1980. ISBN 0-312-61691-0 (trade
   paperback).
   
     An excellent book that describes how to use play to motivate your
     dog through obedience training. She focuses on how to teach each
     exercise in the AKC Novice, Open, and Utility classes. Her
     philosophy, though, lends itself to any type of training. Well
     written and informative. For you greyhound lovers, all her dogs and
     inside photos are of greyhounds.
     
   Button, Lue. _Practical Scent Dog Training_. Alpine Publications, Inc.
   214 19th St. SE, Loveland, CO 80537. 1990. ISBN: 0-931866-47-2.
   
     A step-by-step practical training guide for air scent, evidence
     search, disaster search and the AKC tracking test. Starts with
     young puppies. Well illustrated and methods extensively tested at
     Los Alamos' Mountain Canine Corps.
     
   Cecil, Barbara and Gerianne Darnell. _Competitive Obedience Training
   for the Small Dog_. T9E Publishing, R.R.#1, Box 176, 10092 240th
   Street, Council Bluffs, IA 51503 ($20/book, includes postage, IA
   residents add 5% sales tax)
   
     From the flyer: "COMPETITIVE OBEDIENCE TRAINING FOR THE SMALL DOG
     guides you, in over 200 pages, from puppy socialization through
     Utility in an easy-to-follow progression of inducive training. This
     new book - the only one of its kind - is a self-help manual and
     competitive edge for every small-dog owner unwilling to use
     traditional big-dog training techniques. This book is for every
     small-dog owner training in obedience; for the trainer working with
     a *soft* dog of any size; and for every trainer eager to utilize
     the *why* and *how* of inducive training."
     
   Colflesh, Linda. _Making Friends: Training your Dog Positively_,
   Illustrated by Deb Mickey ISBN 0-87605-687-7 Howell Book House,
   copyright 1990.
   
     A readable book that applies to all aspects of everyday training
     and building a good relationship with your dog. Her method
     maximizes using your dog's intelligence and your good relationship
     with your pet and minimizes the use of force. It takes things all
     the way from housebreaking the new dog through the basic obedience
     exercises and includes chapters on aggression and moving on to
     off-leash work with your dog.
     
   Dunbar, Ian, DVM. _How to Teach a New Dog Old Tricks_ (Manual for the
   Sirius PUppy Training Program). James and Kenneth Pubs., Oakland.
   1991.
   
   Fisher, John. _Dogwise_.
   
     The author is a well known UK behaviourist and ex-service dog
     trainer. _Dogwise_ follows the selection of a eight month rescue
     GSD and his Police Dog handler through a 12 week course using only
     positive reinforcement and the final exaimination qualifying the
     dog to work with the London Met to the HMSO. The focus is on the
     training methods more than on police work.
     
   Fogle, Bruce. _The Dog's Mind_.
   
     This appears to be the best, most comprehensive book summarizing
     current research on canine psychology and behavior. You won't find
     much in the way of how-to instructions, but you will find alot of
     hard facts on every aspect of the canine mind and personality. This
     book is well-written and very readable even by the layperson.
     
   Fraser, J. & A. Ammen, _Dual Ring Dog_ (Howell).
   
     Tips for dogs shown both in conformation and in obedience. Some
     good hints, particularly from Ammen.
     
   Handler, Barbara. _Successful Obedience Handling: The NEW Best Foot
   Forward_. Alpine publications.
   
     A guide to showing and handling in the obedience rings. It covers
     how to enter shows, what to do on the day, and how to avoid
     handling errors. Updated and revised from _Best Foot Forward_. A
     must for anyone participating in AKC obedience trials.
     
   Knott, T. & D.O. Cooper, _The Complete Book of Dog Training_.
   (Howell).
   
     Covers training from puppy kindergarten through utility. Good hints
     and illustrations.
     
   Koehler, William. _The Koehler Method of Dog Training_. Howell Books.
   
     Koehler's methods are considered unusually harsh and
     counterproductive by some modern trainers. On the other hand, his
     methods do have a history of success with dogs that have "hard"
     temperaments. Modern-day competitive obedience dogs are not trained
     with his methods anymore.
     
   Monks of New Skete, The. _The Art of Raising a Puppy_. Little, Brown
   and Company (1991). ISBN: 0-316-57839-8 (hardback).
   
     The monks of New Skete have put together an excellent book that
     discusses puppy development and the things that should be done at
     the appropriate stages and why. First they follow a newborn litter
     through its various stages of development and at each stage they
     discuss what is happening. They discuss testing puppies'
     temperaments and what you want to look for, under which
     circumstances. They discuss briefly dog breeds, and how to find
     reputable breeders. They then launch into a series of useful
     chapters: housebreaking, preliminary obedience, laying the
     foundations of training, understanding (reading) your dog, how to
     become the pack leader, basic training, discipline, and general
     care. A good bibliography is provided at the back.
     
   Morsell, Curt. _Training Your Dog to Win Obedience Titles_ (Howell).
   
     More inspirational than instructional.
     
   Olson, Bjorn. _Training Your Dog Step by Step_.
   
   Pryor, Karen. _Don't Shoot the Dog: The New Art of Teaching and
   Training_ by Karen Pryor. Bantam, New York. 1985. c1984.
   
     She presents different behavioralistic techniques for dealing with
     several example situations (i.e. "Dog barks all night", "Roommate
     leaves dirty laundry all over apartment," "Bus driver is rude,"
     etc.) This would NOT be a good book for someone who wanted to teach
     their dog to sit and come, but it discusses how the trainer's
     actions "shape" the trainee's responses. Definitely a must-read for
     people who are interested in "inducive" training, and should be
     thought-provoking for any trainer who is thinking about training on
     a higher level than "When the dog does this, give him a good collar
     correction"--but experienced dog trainers will find a lot to
     quibble about in what she says.
     
   Pryor, Karen. _Lads Before the Wind, Diary of a Dolphin Trainer_.
   
     This is the story of how Karen Pryor got into operant conditioning.
     It tells the story of how she trained animals, not just dolphins,
     using the principals explored in _Don't Shoot the Dog_. $12.95
     
   Rogerson, John. _Your Dog, its Development, Behaviour and Training_.
   Also, _Training Your Dog_.
   
   Rose, Tom and Gary Patterson. _Training the Competitive Working Dog_.
   1985 Giblaut Publishing Company 3333 S. Bannock, Suite 950,
   Englewood,CO 80110.
   
     The Rose book is getting obsolete, particularly the obedience
     section (Tom now uses much more motivational techniques) but here
     is still alot of good theory and practical exercises.
     
   Strickland, Winifred G. _Expert Obedience Training for Dogs_. Third
   revised edition. Howell Book House (Macmillan Publishing Company), New
   York. 1987. ISBN: 0-02-615000-X (hardback).
   
     Strickland is a well known dog trainer. Covers all aspects of
     training and competition including the formal training for AKC
     obedience trials (novice, open, utility, tracking). Includes some
     general care (health and feeding) tips. Author has also written
     Obedience Class Instruction for Dogs.
     
   Tucker, Michael. _Dog Training Step by Step_.
   
     Tucker is an ex GDB instructor and his books are easy to read and
     follow. His others are _Dog Training Made Easy_, _Solving Your Dog
     Problems_.
     
   Volhard. _Training Your Dog Step by Step_.
   
   Weston, David. _Dog Training: The Gentle Method_.
   
   Zink, M. Christine, DVM, PHD. _Peak Performance: Coaching the Canine
   Athlete_. Howell Book House, 1992. ISBN: 0-87605-757-1. Book available
   from the author at 1907 Eastridge Rd., Timonium, MD 21093.
   
     If you are doing serious obedience competition with your dog, you
     need to understand how to keep him in good shape for the work. This
     eminently readable book goes over canine physiology, both internal
     and structural. She covers how to keep your dog in general good
     shape, discusses some conditioning strategies, and finally details
     a number of possible impediments to conditioning your dog,
     including: genetic and traumatic joint problems and lameness, the
     effects of medication on your dog, and moreover lists all the
     things you need to consider when trying to keep your dog fit and
     healthy.
     
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
   
    Canine Activities: Obedience Trials
    Cindy Tittle Moore, rpd-info@netcom.com
    
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