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ULTRIX Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)


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Archive-name: dec-faq/ultrix
Posting-Frequency: bi-monthly
Last-modified: July 30, 1998

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Editor's Note
============
The former "common" and "osf1" FAQs have been merged into a new
Digital-UNIX FAQ.  Some pieces of the old "common" FAQ will get merged back
into this FAQ, but I haven't done that yet.  Other pieces, now in the
"Digital-UNIX" FAQ, will still be of interest to ULTRIX users so you may want
to peruse it anyway.

Changes since last edition
==========================

Overview
========
This is the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) list for Digital's RISC ULTRIX
operating system and the hardware on which it runs.  Some additional
information relevant to RISC ULTRIX users may also be found in the
Digital-UNIX FAQ which is available in the same archive locations.

This FAQ is archived in the following locations:
    comp.answers and news.answers newsgroups
    ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/Digital/dec-faq/ultrix
    ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/dec-faq/ultrix
    http://www.supelec.fr/decus/faq/faq-ultrix.html
    CompuServe VAXFORUM, Library 9, ULTRXFAQ.TXT

The archive name for this FAQ is dec-faq/ultrix

Many FAQs, including this one, are available on the archive site
rtfm.mit.edu in the directory pub/usenet/news.answers.  The name under
which a FAQ is archived appears in the Archive-name line at the top of
the article.  This FAQ is archived in the directory dec-faq.

To make suggestions for changes or additions to this Frequently Asked
Questions list, send mail to Steve.Lionel@digital.com.  Answers are
especially appreciated.  Please do NOT send technical questions to the
editor - post them to the appropriate newsgroup instead.

An archive of recent postings to comp.unix.ultrix can be found 
at ftp://ftp.cc.rochester.edu/pub/usenet/
Thanks to folks at the University of Rochester for providing this
service.

Some general notes:

When used alone, the word "DECstation" is used to mean any of the
DECstations or DECsystems that use MIPS RISC processors.  Similarly,
"Alpha" refers to any DEC systems that use the Alpha AXP processor.

Unless otherwise specified, these answers refer to ULTRIX 4.5, which is
the current release of ULTRIX.

World-Wide Web Universal Resource Locator (URL) notation is used for FTP
addresses.

Many people have contributed to this list, directly or indirectly.  In
some cases, an answer has been adapted from one or more postings on the
comp.unix.ultrix newsgroup.  Our thanks to all of those who post answers.
The name (or names) at the end of an entry indicate that the information
was taken from postings by those individuals; the text may have been
edited for this FAQ.  These citations are only given to acknowledge the
contribution.

Although the editor of this FAQ is an employee of Digital Equipment
Corporation, this posting is not an official statement from Digital
Equipment Corporation.

AlphaGeneration, AlphaServer, AlphaStation, Alpha AXP, AXP, DEC, DECstation,
DECsystem, OpenVMS, ULTRIX, VAX and VMS  are trademarks of Digital Equipment
Corporation.  OSF/1 is a registered trademark of the Open Software Foundation.
UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries,
licensed exclusively through X/Open Company Ltd.  Other names are properties of
their respective owners.


Software
======================================================
S1. Why does dxpsview sometimes crash with an X error?
S2. How do I compile perl on RISC/ULTRIX?
S3. Is it possible to run the newer 4.3 BSD syslogd on ULTRIX?
S4. How do I build gdb on RISC/ULTRIX?
S5. Why doesn't "talk" work between DECstations and other machines?
S6. Why doesn't troff work?
S7. How are /bin/sh and /usr/bin/sh5 related?
S8. Why doesn't syslog work on ULTRIX 4.3?
S9. Is there an LSE (Language-Sensitive Editor) for ULTRIX?
S10. How can I get a core dump of a running process on ULTRIX? 
S11. Does ULTRIX have shared libraries? 
S12. Where can I get a "man" program that understands multiple directories?
S13. What does "panic: km_free: bad addr" mean?
S14. Where can I get a "vacation" program for ULTRIX?
S15. Where can I get Netscape for ULTRIX?
S16. How do I build gcc on VAX ULTRIX?

Network
======================================================
N1. What does the message "named: accept: Too many open files" in syslog mean,
	and how can I fix it?
N2. Why don't packet-filter applications like "tcpdump" or CAP work?
N3. OK, I've done all that and CAP still doesn't run.
N4. I want to run the "screend" program but I get "Operation not supported
	on socket".
N5. I want to use screend but I'm not sure how to set up the
	/etc/screend.conf configuration file.
N6. Why can't ULTRIX 4.2 mount NFS filesystems that could be mounted with
        ULTRIX 4.1?
N7. How do I change the IP address of a diskless client? 
N8. Is ONC RPC (formerly "Sun RPC") supported under ULTRIX - and what should I
	do to port my existing applications that rely on it?
N9. How can I disable forwarding of IP packets on an ULTRIX system with two
	network interfaces?
N10. How can I run network daemons from inetd as users other than root?
N11. How do I decode "stale filehandle" messages from NFS?
N12. Where can I get IP multicast support for ULTRIX? 
N13. Where can I get SLIP for ULTRIX?

Disk
======================================================
D1. Why don't ULTRIX releases prior to V4.2A work with SCSI disks 
        larger than 1 Gbyte?
D2. How can I increase the number of inodes on a filesystem? 
D3. OK, I used "newfs -i", and I didn't get more inodes?
D4. What the ^&@(%*&) is a gnode? 

Programming
======================================================
P1. Where can I get an ANSI C compiler for DECstations running ULTRIX?
P2. Where can I get a Modula-2 (or Modula-3) compiler for ULTRIX?
P3. Does mmap(2) work on plain files?

Graphics
======================================================
G1. Why does the X server use so much memory?
G2. How can I build an X11R5 server for an ULTRIX machine?
G3. How do I change or get rid of the Digital logo on the login screen of 
	my workstation?
G4. How do I run MIT X11 Software?
G5. How do I build X software that I got from the net?
G6. Why do some applications run slowly on the DECstation PX and PXG
	displays?
G7. What can I do to improve security with X? Can I use xdm? 

Hardware
======================================================
H1. Can I mix 8-Megabyte and 32-Megabyte boards in the DECstation 5000/xxx
	family?
H2. How can I find out which type of DECstation 5000 I have?
H3. How can I run a DECstation 3100 without the display?
H4. How do I reset the console (to change password, etc.)?

Miscellaneous
======================================================
M1. What is the floating-point number representation on ULTRIX?
M2. If the console is a graphics device, can it be used as a terminal for
	full-screen applications?
M3. M3. How do I read a tar image from a TK50 tape if my only TK50 is on a VMS
	machine?
M4. Why does ULTRIX restrict the number of users on the system?
M5. Where else can I discuss ULTRIX with other users?
M6. What is the part number for an ULTRIX source code license?
M7. What is the future of ULTRIX?

==============================================
S1. Why does dxpsview sometimes crash with an X error?

dxpsview will often behave better if the "Watch Progress" item is selected
from the Options menu.  You can use the following resource in your
Xdefaults file:

DPSViewer*watchProgress:		on

to make this the default behavior.  Some reports indicate that this resource
only works properly on ULTRIX 4.2A and later, however.

Some have reported that disabling the use of PostScript comments also helps:

DPSViewer*useComments:			off

==============================================
S2. How do I compile perl on RISC/ULTRIX?

The following is valid for perl 4.0, patchlevel 35.  It is probably
approximately correct for later versions as well.

The biggest trick in compiling perl on RISC/ULTRIX is fixing its
notion of "volatile".  To do this, when Configure stops and asks you
if you want to edit config.sh, do so. Search for the word "volatile"
and change the "define" on that line to "undef".  This step is reportedly
not necessary for versions perl version 4.0, patchlevel 36 and later.

On machines with a relatively small amount of memory, you may not want
to use -O on eval.c, since the compiler can end up taking a long time
to compile that file.

If the source directory is NFS-mounted, it is usually the case that you
will see the message

   io/fs..........FAILED on test 18

This is harmless and can be ignored.

perl 5.003 can be compiled on VAX Ultrix.
If you use the native C compiler (vcc), you need a patch, which change 
enums to #define in C-text. You can get this patch from:
  ftp://kiev1.ipri.kiev.ua/pub/ultrix.ports
 and in configure add to compiler flags -DUNCOMPARABLE_ENUMS

==============================================
S3. Is it possible to run the newer 4.3 BSD syslogd on ULTRIX?

A version of the 4.3BSD syslog library and daemon that detects either
4.2bsd-compatible clients (which is what the Ultrix libc.a will help
you create) or 4.3bsd-compatible clients, which are more flexible, is
available at ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/jtkohl-syslog.shar

Another version that supports regular expressions in syslog.conf is available
from ftp://decuac.dec.com/pub/DEC/syslog_mjr.tar.Z

A version integrated with Net2 code and which builds under Ultrix 4.x
is available at:
  ftp://ftp.cic.net/pub/Software/unix/ultrix-net2-syslogd.tar.gz
					[Paul Southworth]

==============================================
S4. How do I build gdb on RISC/ULTRIX?

To build gdb, you will also need to install the GNU make.

For gdb 4.0 and later: 
- unpack the tar file
- cd <tar-root>
- ./configure +subdirs decstation
- cd H-decstation/T-decstation
- gnumake

This will build the gdb binary in
<tar-root>/gdb/H-decstation/T-decstation/gdb

Install this binary in the location of your choice (e.g. /usr/local/bin)

==============================================
S5. Why doesn't "talk" work between DECstations and other machines?

The original Berkeley talk protocol did not use network byte order, so
machines with different byte order could not talk to each other.  This
was fixed in 4.3BSD, and in recent versions of ULTRIX.  Some vendors
have not fixed their software.  The 4.3BSD talk software is available
from many FTP archive sites.  ULTRIX includes a program, "otalk",
which uses the old protocol, but it only works with machines that use
little-endian byte order (e.g., VAXen, DECStations, not most others).

==============================================
S6. Why doesn't troff work?

Digital does not support troff on ULTRIX, mostly because of the way
AT&T licenses the software now.  However, you can use groff (GNU roff)
which works pretty nicely and generates pure PostScript. There's a
RISC/ULTRIX binary kit for groff available from
ftp://decuac.dec.com/pub/
					[Marcus Ranum]

==============================================
S7. How are /bin/sh and /usr/bin/sh5 related?

/bin/sh on ULTRIX is the traditional Bourne shell.  /usr/bin/sh5 is
the newer "System V" shell and has functions and a few other odds and
ends added to it. A comparison of the manual pages will give an idea
of the differences.
					[Marcus Ranum]

==============================================
S8. Why doesn't syslog work on ULTRIX 4.3?

There is a bug in the distribution: /etc/syslog.pid is owned by root.  It
should be owned by daemon.
					[Alan Rollow]

==============================================
S9. Is there an LSE (Language-Sensitive Editor) for ULTRIX?

Digital's LSE for RISC ULTRIX is no longer available.
GNU Emacs also has packages for several different languages.
				[Jean-Marc Digne]

==============================================
S10. How can I get a core dump of a running process on ULTRIX? 

Get gcore from ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/gcore.shar   This one is
known to work on ULTRIX 4.2; it should work on 4.3 as well.
						[Jeff Mogul]

==============================================
S11. Does ULTRIX have shared libraries? 

Shared libraries are not currently available for ULTRIX.  Digital UNIX
does have shared libraries.

==============================================
S12. Where can I get a "man" program that understands multiple directories?

The ULTRIX man program does not understand multiple directories.  Some that
do are:

1. The 4.3BSD man program, available from
	 ftp://decuac.dec.com/pub/sources/
2. man, from ftp://ftp.che.utexas.edu/pub/unix/man-1.1.tar.gz
	Not an FSF program, but distributed under the GNU GPL.
3. Tom Christiansen's PERL man program, from:
	   ftp://convex.convex.com/pub/perl/scripts/man.shar.Z
	(Requires perl)
4. For those with Tcl/Tk, try tkman, available from:
	ftp://ftp.cs.berkeley.edu/ucb/people/phelps/tcltk/tkman.tar.Z

Alpha OSF/1 man understands MANPATH.
				[Frank Wortner]
				[Win Treese]
				[Philip J. Tait]
				[Tom Phelps]


==============================================
S13. What does "panic: km_free: bad addr" mean?

It means that you need the patch for tcp_output.o, available from the
Customer Support Centers.

==============================================
S14. Where can I get a "vacation" program for ULTRIX?

The BSD vacation program is available from
ftp://ftp.uu.net/pub/networking/bsd-net2/usr.bin/

Another vacation program, written in perl, is available from
ftp://convex.convex.com/pub/perl/scripts/clones/vacation

Both of these are careful about to whom and how often they reply.

DEC OSF/1 includes the BSD vacation program.

				[Brian Smith]

==============================================
S15.  Where can I get Netscape for ULTRIX?

Sorry, you can't.  Netscape Communications has not released a version
for ULTRIX.

==============================================
N1. What does the message "named: accept: Too many open files" in syslog mean,
	and how can I fix it?

There is a bug in the ULTRIX version of named that causes it to run
out of file descriptors when it does too many zone transfers.

A somewhat different version of named called cra-bind that does not have this 
problem.  This version cannot use Kerberos for server-server authentication, 
as the ULTRIX version can.  It does support Hesiod data and queries.  It is 
not supported by Digital, although it is in active use on Digital's Internet 
machines.

cra-bind has been superseded by the public release of BIND 4.9.  BIND 4.9
can be obtained from ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/BSD/bind/

					[Win Treese]

==============================================
N2. Why don't packet-filter applications like "tcpdump" or CAP work?

Probably because you have not configured the packet filter into
the kernel.  The default kernel configurations do NOT include the
packet filter.  See "man 4 packetfilter" for full details, but basically
the process involves

	editing your kernel configuration file
		add "options PACKETFILTER"
		add "pseudo-device packetfilter"
	rebuilding your kernel
	installing the new kernel
	booting the new kernel
	"cd /dev; MAKEDEV pfilt" to create the required entries

You might also want to add the following lines to /etc/rc.local:
[ -f /usr/etc/pfconfig ] && {
        /usr/etc/pfconfig +p +c -a 2>&1 & echo -n ' pfconfig'   >/dev/console
}

This allows you to use promiscuous-mode applications, such as "tcpdump"
or "nfswatch".  Note that the '-a' option to pfconfig allows any user to
spy on the network.  If it is omitted, only root may do so.

There are also some patches for ULTRIX 4.2 and 4.2A for the
packetfilter code.  Call Digital's Customer Support if you need them.
The official description of the patches is below; here is some
background information. ULTRIX 4.3 has all of the patches included.
Note: these patches cause DECnet-OSI not to work.  To run DECnet-OSI
on ULTRIX 4.3, you will need the latest patched version of
net_common.o for 4.3.

Although not mentioned in the description, these patches should also
make Ultrix more forgiving of certain incorrect 802.3 packets.  Such
packets are sent by some 3rd-party implementations.  I don't think
this will fix the problem in every case, since some Digital Ethernet
interfaces filter out "bad" 802.3 packets in hardware.  The patches
should work for DECstations and most DECsystems.

Note that if you install these patches and you have been running CAP,
you should recompile CAP after removing the definition for ULT42PFBUG
from the Configure script.  The ULT42PFBUG patch to CAP will not work
once the kernel has been patched.  You should also *stop* doing

	ifconfig ln0 copyall

once you install the patches.

If you have been using tcpdump, nfswatch, or a similar monitoring
program on an FDDI network, installing these patches will probably
make that not work.  You will still be able to use tcpdump on an
Ethernet, of course.  The reason for this is that tcpdump only worked
on FDDI networks because of the bug that is fixed by these patches.

These patches are available for Ultrix 4.2 and 4.2A, and for both RISC
and VAX.  They must not be applied to previous versions of Ultrix.

Finally, note you must install new versions of BOTH net_common.o
and pfilt.o; you cannot just install one of the files.

/sys/{MIPS,VAX}/BINARY/net_common.o      
/sys/{MIPS,VAX}/BINARY/pfilt.o
-----------------------------------          
			              (v4.2 RISC & VAX, v4.2a RISC)

Listed are problem resolved by these 2 patches:

1. PACKET FILTER FAILS TO RECEIVE UNICASTS TO LOCAL HOST

The packet filter mechanism is supposed to allow a user application
to receive packets that are sent to the local host, if no other
protocol in the kernel wants to use the packet.  This worked fine
in Ultrix 4.0 and 4.1, but in Ultrix 4.2 it is broken.

Apparently, setting "copyall" with ifconfig is a workaround, but
this is an EXTREMELY inefficient workaround, and requires users
to reconfigure their systems as super-user.  This is not needed in
ULTRIX 4.3.

2. PACKET FILTER IOCTL EIOCDEVP RETURNS WRONG MTU VALUE

A change was made to increase the size for ethernet packets
from 1500 bytes to 1514 bytes which is the MAX size for the ethernet.
This will allow 1500 bytes for the message and 14 bytes for the header.

Also corrected the value returned in endevp.end_MTU by the EIOCDEVP ioctl.

3. 802.3/802.2 PACKETS NOT PROPERLY DELIVERED TO PACKET FILTER

The packet filter is defined, in its manual page, to provide packets
to user applications exactly as those packets appear on the network.
The current kernel code mangles the headers of 802.2 encapsulations
of Ethernet packets, causing several popular applications to fail.

						[Jeff Mogul]

==============================================
N3. OK, I've done all that and CAP still doesn't run.

[See the previous topic for information on relevant patches for ULTRIX.]

There are several bugs in the Ultrix 4.2 packet filter mechanism, some
of which affect CAP.  These are fixed in ULTRIX 4.3. The details are
complex, but you can solve one of them by doing (as super-user,
probably from /etc/rc.local)

	/etc/ifconfig ln0 copyall

(substitute whatever interface type you are using for "ln0").  The
other bug, which apparently only affects CAP when "Phase 2" is in use,
requires a patch to CAP.  CAP patches are available from a number of
archive sites, including gatekeeper.dec.com: in the directory named

	/pub/net/appletalk/cap/cap.patches

Another problem you may have is that some Ethernet interfaces sold for
the Macintosh occasionally send incorrect 802.3 packet headers.  (The
bug is that they send a packet whose length does not match the value
provided in the 802.3 header's length field.  Ultrix 4.2, as well as
some of Digital's Ethernet interface hardware, is strict about
checking 802.3 header, and does not accept these packets.)  As of this
writing, a patch is not yet available and there is no workaround.  If
you can, you should try to get the vendor of the nonconforming
interface to provide a solution.

Once you have obtained an up-to-date, fully patched copy of CAP 6.0,
the Configure script does not automatically switch on the workaround
code; you must manually edit the m4.setup file to turn the workaround
code on.

						[Jeff Mogul]
N3. OK, I've done all that and CAP still doesn't run.

[See the previous topic for information on relevant patches for ULTRIX.]

There are several bugs in the Ultrix 4.2 packet filter mechanism, some
of which affect CAP.  These are fixed in ULTRIX 4.3. The details are
complex, but you can solve one of them by doing (as super-user,
probably from /etc/rc.local)

	/etc/ifconfig ln0 copyall

(substitute whatever interface type you are using for "ln0").  The
other bug, which apparently only affects CAP when "Phase 2" is in use,
requires a patch to CAP.  CAP patches are available from a number of
archive sites, including gatekeeper.dec.com: in the directory named

	/pub/net/appletalk/cap/cap.patches

Another problem you may have is that some Ethernet interfaces sold for
the Macintosh occasionally send incorrect 802.3 packet headers.  (The
bug is that they send a packet whose length does not match the value
provided in the 802.3 header's length field.  Ultrix 4.2, as well as
some of Digital's Ethernet interface hardware, is strict about
checking 802.3 header, and does not accept these packets.)  As of this
writing, a patch is not yet available and there is no workaround.  If
you can, you should try to get the vendor of the nonconforming
interface to provide a solution.

Once you have obtained an up-to-date, fully patched copy of CAP 6.0,
the Configure script does not automatically switch on the workaround
code; you must manually edit the m4.setup file to turn the workaround
code on.

						[Jeff Mogul]

==============================================
N4. I want to run the "screend" program but I get "Operation not supported
	on socket".

By default, support for screend is not configured into the Ultrix 4.2
kernel, and the documentation for this is missing.  Edit your kernel
configuration file to include the line:

	pseudo-device   gwscreen

and rebuild your kernel (i.e., run /etc/config, then change to the
right directory and do "make depend" and then "make").  Install the
new kernel and reboot the system.
						[Jeff Mogul]

==============================================
N5. I want to use screend but I'm not sure how to set up the
	/etc/screend.conf configuration file.

Get a copy of NSL Network Note NN-16, "Using screend to Implement
IP/TCP Security Policies".  Send mail with "Subject: help" for
information on how to order this, or just "Subject: send postscript
nn-16" if you want to receive the PostScript file via return mail to
	nsl-techreports@pa.dec.com
     or ...!uunet!decwrl!nsl-techreports
						[Jeff Mogul]

==============================================
N6. Why can't ULTRIX 4.2 mount NFS filesystems that could be mounted with
        ULTRIX 4.1?

The version of SUN RPC shipped with ULTRIX V4.2 supports up to 32
groups per user, whereas previous versions supported 8 groups per
user.  Users that are members of more than 8 groups cannot NFS mount
file systems from NFS servers using the version of SUN RPC that only
supports 8 groups.

The error message  that nfs_mount will give you if you are in too many
groups will look like this:

nfs_mount: crltrx:/usr/local server not responding: RPC: Authentication error;
why = Invalid client credential
nfs_mount: access denied for crltrx:/usr/local

The workaround is to reduce the number of groups you are a member of
to eight or less to make NFS mounts work again.  In particular, you should
check the number of groups that "root" is in.

==============================================
N7. How do I change the IP address of a diskless client? 

The Internet address of a diskless client is determined by the network
boot block the system send as the secondary load file. This file is
initially created by DMS but at the present time DMS does not have
the capability to change an existing netblk.

NOTE: If you attempt to change the IP address of either the client or
      server without modifying the netblk then your DISKLESS CLIENTS
      WILL NOT BOOT.

The definition of the network boot block is in /usr/include/sas/mop.h and
the netblk structure is shown below.

  struct netblk   {
      char        srvname[32];            /* server hostname (boot server)*/
      unsigned long srvipadr;             /* server IP address (boot server)*/
      char        cliname[32];            /* client hostname      */
      unsigned long cliipadr;             /* client IP address    */
      unsigned long brdcst;               /* broadcast address    */
      unsigned long netmsk;               /* network mask address */
      short       swapfs;                 /* swap file system type*/
      short       rootfs;                 /* root file system type*/
      short       swapsz;                 /* swap size in 1/2 Meg units */
      short       dmpflg;                 /* dump flag 0 - disabled */
                                          /*           1 - enabled  */
      char        rootdesc[80];           /* root filesys descriptor */
      char        swapdesc[80];           /* swap file descriptor */
      char        reserved[20];           /* for later use        */
  };
                                   
In order to change the IP address of the client or of the server you will need
to modify the netblk.

The code for the boot block is in the file /etc/bootblk.c on the diskless
client.

An example of this file is:

  #include <sas/mop.h>
  struct netblk   nblk={
  "my_server",
  0x10b38001, "my_client", 0x10b3803e, 0x10b380ff, 0xffffff00,
  0,
  5,
  0,
  0,
  "/dlclient0/my_client.root",
  "rz3b",
  ""
  };

A quick cross-reference with the mop include file will tell you which fields
represent which data.

To change the IP addresses you need to use the command /usr/diskless/makpkt.

The format of this command is:

  makpkt server_IP_addr client_name client_IP_addr broadcast netmask

Here is an example of using makpkt to change the network boot block parameters.

 For a server of address 16.128.128.4 and a client called fred of address
16.128.128.19 on a class B network you'll need to use the command:

  % makpkt 16.128.19.4 fred 16.128.20.19 16.128.255.255 255.255.0.0

this will produce the output:

  0x10801304,
  "fred",
  0x10801413,
  0x1080ffff,
  0xffff0000,


You will now need to edit netblk.c and replace the line

  0x10b38001, "my_client", 0x10b3803e, 0x10b380ff, 0xffffff00,

with

  0x10801304, "fred", 0x10801413, 0x1080ffff, 0xffff0000,


The next step is to compile the new netblk.

  % cc -c netblk.c


If you are changing the client IP address then you will also need to modify
the CLIARP field in /etc/dlparam on the client.

eg.
  CLIARP="16.182.128.61"


Finally you can change the server and/or client IP address on the server
and reboot.

==============================================
N8. Is ONC RPC (formerly "Sun RPC") supported under ULTRIX - and what should I
	do to port my existing applications that rely on it?

ONC RPC (formerly "Sun RPC") is not supported under ULTRIX. This means
that not only may some library routines like "clnt_create" not exist,
but that if they do, they may not work as expected. If you need to use
RPC for an application can use the unsupported version of the RPC4.0
distribution that is available at
ftp://decuac.dec.com/pub/sources/

ONC RPC is a supported component of DEC OSF/1.

NobleNet provides ONC RPC tools and solutions for ULTRIX,
UNIX, Windows (3.1/95/NT), Macintosh, VMS, OS/2, NetWare,
VxWorks, etc.

        NobleNet, Inc.
        337 Turnpike Road
        Southboro, MA  01772
        Voice +1 508 460 8222
        Fax +1 508 460 3456
        mailto:sales@noblenet.com
        http://www.noblenet.com/

==============================================
N9. How can I disable forwarding of IP packets on an ULTRIX system with two
	network interfaces?

Put this in rc.local:

echo -n 'disabling kernel routing: ipforwarding '		>/dev/console
/usr/etc/kvar -k -wl -s ipforwarding -v 0 /vmunix		>/dev/console

==============================================
N10. How can I run network daemons from inetd as users other than root?

inetd will take a username as the fifth field.  This is not documented
on the inetd manual page.  For example:

finger	stream	tcp	nowait	nobody	/usr/etc/fingerd	fingerd

==============================================
N11. How do I decode "stale filehandle" messages from NFS?

In the message 

	NFS server: stale file handle _fs(21,154) file 4100

21 and 154 are the major and minor device numbers.  4100 is the inode number.
Running 'ls -l' on /dev will show the device numbers, so you can ask
mount what directory the filesystem is mounted on.  Then use

	find <file system> -inum <inode no> -print

to find the file.
				[Peter Mayne]
				[Greg Shapiro]

==============================================
N12. Where can I get IP multicast support for ULTRIX? 

Patches to enable IP Multicast are available from
ftp://gregorio.stanford.edu/vmtp-ip/  Patches are available for Ultrix 4.1 &
4.2a.  Binaries are available for 4.2a.  As far as is known, the
patches also work on 4.3.

The multicast patches break the ULTRIX packetfilter.  An unsupported
version of pfilt.o that works with the multicast code is in

	ftp://crl.dec.com/pub/DEC/multicast/

This patch should work with 4.2, 4.2A, and 4.3, but it is not supported.

					[Lance Berc]
					[Win Treese]

==============================================
N13. Where can I get SLIP for ULTRIX?

SLIP is in the "unsupported" kit for ULTRIX 4.2 and later.  It is
included in DEC OSF/1.

==============================================
D1. Why don't ULTRIX releases prior to V4.2A work with SCSI disks 
        larger than 1 Gbyte?

ULTRIX releases prior to V4.2A are unable to handle logical block
numbers greater than (2**21 - 1).  The left bit positions of block
numbers greater than (2**21 - 1) are effectively ignored, causing
access to wrap around to the beginning of the disk.  This means that
SCSI disks larger than 1 Gbyte (formatted) cannot be used (assuming
512 kbyte blocks), even if all partition sizes are less than 1 Gbyte.

The earliest version of ULTRIX that can handle DEC 1.3 Gbyte RZ58 drives 
on DEC RISC machine is ULTRIX 4.2A.
				[Jeffrey C. Gealow]


==============================================
D2. How can I increase the number of inodes on a filesystem? 

"newfs -i XXX" is usually used to increase the number of inodes on a
filesystem, where XXX is the desired number of bytes per filesystem. 
However, there is a not-well-known limit of 2048 inodes per cylinder
group, and newfs doesn't tell you that if you try to ask for more.

The solution is to get more cylinder groups, either by using "newfs -c XXX"
to specify the number of cylinders per group or by using 4096-byte
blocks and 512-byte fragments.

Read the newfs manual page before trying this at home or work.
					[Alan Rollow]
					[Win Treese]

==============================================
D3. OK, I used "newfs -i", and I didn't get more inodes?

The version of the Berkeley Fast File system used by the ULTRIX
Operating System has a limit of 2048 inodes per cylinder group.  This
limit is the constant MAXIPG in the include file
/usr/include/ufs/fs.h.  To change it you need to be able to recompile
from sources.

When newfs/mkfs runs it attempts to allocate enough inodes so that
there are enough for an average file size of 2 KB.  (bytes per inode =
2048).  When there are enough cylinder groups this is easy.  In fact,
if the cylinder group is small enough, it may not get close to the
MAXIPG limit.

But over the years, disks have gotten bigger.  They have more
cylinders, more tracks and the tracks have more sectors.  As a result
cylinder groups are larger and it's hard to allocate enough inodes to
meet the 2048 bytes per inode limit, with only MAXIPG available.
Since MAXIPG is fixed the effective average file size goes up.

On a News spool tree, the average file probably is around or less than
2 KB.  As a result, these large cylinder disks don't have enough
inodes for the typical file size, and, more importantly, you can't get
more, since you're already at the MAXIPG limit.  At least not easily.

But there are some solutions available...

Theme of solutions:

Inodes are allocated on a cylinder group basis.
Want more inodes, use more cylinder groups.

1.  Use fewer cylinders per group, thus getting more groups.
    See the -c option of newfs(8).

    Note: On the 2nd hand advice of Gregory Neil Shapiro 
    (gshapiro@wpi.edu) there are some disks for which
    the -c option won't work because mkfs(8) enforces a set 
    of cylinder group sizes that won't allow reducing the 
    number cylinders per below the default of 16.  This seems
    to be the case for the RZ57 and RZ58.

2.  Use a different file system block and fragment size; 4K/512a
    instead of the usual 8K/1K.  In the case of News this may work 
    best.  Since most files are small, using the smaller size may
    help reflect the smaller average file size.  It may also waste
    less space in partially filled fragments.

3.  Lie about the geometry.  If the track length or tracks
    per cylinder is nice factorable number, reduce one to
    increase the effective number of cylinders.  By playing
    games with the factors of the geometry you manage to keep
    the geometry approximately the same.

    For some disks this may not matter and you can invent whatever
    lie you want.  For example; the RZ58 uses zoned based recording
    (banding).  Depending on where you are on the disk, there will
    more or less sectors per track.  The single geometry presented
    by ULTRIX is a convient lie.
					[Allan Rollow]

==============================================
D4. What the ^&@(%*&) is a gnode? 

"Gnode" means "generic inode". Like most versions of UNIX these days,
ULTRIX has a virtual filesystem. This means the kernel can support
different types of filesystem - like the BSD FFS, the old V7-style
filesystem in System V, RFS, NFS etc.  Gnodes are similar to the vnodes
of the Sun filesystem switch.

The message "out of gnodes" usually means "out of inodes" on the
filesystem.  To fix this, you can delete files or reinitialize the
filesystem with newfs (after backing everything up!).

The message "gnode: table is full" means that the kernel table for keeping
track of open files is full.  If you need to fix this, increase the maxusers
parameter in your kernel configuration file and rebuild your kernel.
					[Jim Reid]
					[Alan Rollow]
					[Win Treese]

==============================================
P1. Where can I get an ANSI C compiler for DECstations running ULTRIX?

DEC C++ comes with a full ANSI C compiler, which is also known as DEC
C.  The GNU C compiler (gcc) also runs on DECstations with ULTRIX, as
well as under OSF/1 on Alpha platforms.  It is available from many ftp
sites.
						[Dan McCoy]
						[Mads Westermann]

==============================================
P2. Where can I get a Modula-2 (or Modula-3) compiler for ULTRIX?

A Modula-2 compiler for DECstations and VAXen developed at Digital's Western
Research Lab is available in gatekeeper.dec.com:/pub/DEC/Modula-2.

If you like Modula-2, you might be interested in Modula-3, a successor
language to Modula-2 developed at Digital's Systems Research Center and
the (now defunct) Olivetti Research Center.  A description of the language
and a portable compiler that runs on many platforms is available in
ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/Modula-3

				[Win Treese]

==============================================
P3. Does mmap(2) work on plain files?

On ULTRIX, mmap(2) only works on character special devices.
					[Win Treese]

==============================================
G1. Why does the X server use so much memory?

Xws and the other other DEC X servers generally grow larger with
workload, not because of memory leaks.  When you start an X server,
its process is quite small.  As applications are started, the server
allocates memory for a variety of reasons to service requests from
clients.  An example of this is allocating a pixmap.  When the
resource is freed, the corresponding memory is freed back to the
malloc pool, but the server image doesn't get any smaller.  This is
true of any application where you malloc memory and then free it. If
your workload is consistent, server growth is asymptotic, growing
quickly at first, then tapering off.  In other words, if you exit the
application that caused the server to allocate a lot of memory, the
server size won't shrink when the application exits, but the server
won't grow any larger if you run the same application the same way
again.

Of course it's possible that a memory leak in the server still exists.
If you think you have a memory leak, you should figure out which
application you run that triggers the leak.  You should run that
application several times, observing the server size with every
iteration.  If the server grows by an appreciable amount each time,
please file an SPR.

For workstations with minimal memory, we recommend that you use the
following server command line arguments:

	-once	(restart the server afresh for each session)
	-su 	(inhibit save unders)
	-bs 	(inhibit backing store)

The -su and -bs flags essentially trade CPU for memory, making
applications work harder in some cases to save server memory.  This
tradeoff isn't as bad as it may sound.
					[Joel Gringorten]

==============================================
G2. How can I build an X11R5 server for an ULTRIX machine?

The display device drivers changed significantly between ULTRIX 4.1
and ULTRIX 4.2.  To build an R5 server on ULTRIX 4.1 system, edit the
the file ultrix.cf in mit/config and #define OSMinorVersion to be 1.
This should cause the Xcfbpmax server to be built instead of the Xdec
server.  Xdec only runs on ULTRIX 4.2 and later.

==============================================
G3. How do I change or get rid of the Digital logo on the login screen of 
	my workstation?

To have no logo displayed at all, add this line to /.Xdefaults:

	XSessionManager*displayLogo:	no

To replace the Digital logo with a different Encapsulated PostScript
image, add the following to /.Xdefaults:

	XSessionManager*logoFile:       filename
	XSessionManager*logoFullScreen: true

Make sure that "filename" is the full path to a PostScript file.
Note that the PostScript should not end with a "showpage" or the page
will print and then disappear with the "new page."

==============================================
G4. How do I run MIT X11 Software?

If you are running with Ultrix 4.2 or later, you should have received
some sort of distribution media with "Unsupported" subsets on it.
Among those subsets are the following:

	UDXUNFONTS420 'Unsupported MIT Fonts'
        UDXUNMAN420   'Unsupported X11 Reference Pages'
        UDXUNMIT420   'Unsupported X11 Components'

These subsets, in total, provide the fonts, manual pages, and clients
from the X11 Release 4 distribution from MIT, with a few minimal
changes to fix problems that cropped up after the MIT release.

If all you want is R4 clients, load the above subsets.  These subsets
were built directly from the X Consortium sources and include all of
the public patches.  The R4 clients will be installed in /usr/bin/X11;
put that directory in your path in order to access them.  An ls on
/usr/bin/X11 will also reveal the names of the applications that are
available.

If you have a previous version of Ultrix, or if you need X11 Release
5, you will have to build from the X Consortium sources yourself.
There are some difficulties associated with building Release 4 from
source on Ultrix versions 4.0 and higher; fortunately, Release 5
corrects these problems, so be sure to start with a fresh Release 5
distribution.

Building from source should be a simple matter of editing the
mit/config/ultrix.cf file and then connecting to the toplevel
directory and typing ``Make World''.  If you are running Ultrix 4.2,
you don't need to edit ultrix.cf, but for other versions of Ultrix, be
sure to cd to mit/config and change the OSMinorVersion (and, for
versions of Ultrix prior to 4.0, the OSMajorVersion) number to the
appropriate number for your version of Ultrix.

As mentioned in another FAQ answer, the Xdec server provides
multiscreen capability for colour frame buffers, but features of
Ultrix required to support this capability are not present prior to
Ultrix 4.2; for those versions, the Xcfbpmax server will be built;
this server only supports one display per machine, and only DECstation
2100 and 3100 and DECstation 5000 models running with the CX adapter.

The Xdec server should work on the following systems:

        DECstation 2100 Monochrome or Color Workstations
        DECstation 3100 Monochrome or Color Workstations
        DECstation 5000/1xx CX, MX or HX Single or Multiscreen Workstations
	DECstation 5000/2xx CX, MX or HX Single or Multiscreen Workstations

The support for the HX option on the above platforms is limited to
direct frame buffer I/O - the graphics processor present on the HX
board will not be used.  This means that performance with the R5
server will be substantially worse than performance with the
DEC-supplied server in most cases.  Support for the PX and PXG options
is not present in R5 in any form.  Support for the MX exists, but some
problems have been reported when attempting to render non-black,
non-white pixels.

Source to X11 Release Five can be copied across the Internet from
ftp.digital.com (16.1.0.2), crl.dec.com (192.58.206.2), or
export.lcs.mit.edu (18.24.0.12).  Other internet archives may also
have full source distributions; asking around on the Usenet newsgroup
comp.windows.x will probably elicit this information.

==============================================
G5. How do I build X software that I got from the net?

If you get source code to an X application from somewhere and want to
build it, here are a few helpful hints:

First, make sure the following subsets are installed:

		UDXUNMIT420
		UDXUNFONTS420

You may also find the man pages for the previous two subsets
useful.  They're in:

		UDXUNMAN420	

Next, add the following line to the end of /usr/lib/X11/config/site.def

		#define StandardIncludes -I/usr/include/mit

If there are any README files with the source code, now is a good time
to read them, and make any changes they suggest.

If you installed the MIT X11 distribution from MIT, rather than the
ULTRIX subsets, your local configuration may be different.

If there is an Imakefile:

If the source code has a file called "Imakefile" at the top of its
directory hierarchy, typing the following in that top-level directory
should build the application:

		xmkmf
		make Makefiles
		make depend
		make

To install the application, type

		make install


If there isn't an Imakefile:

You might have to edit the Makefile to make the application compile.

If ".h" files (like those for the Athena widget set, "Xaw") are not
being found, adding "-I/usr/include/mit" to the "cc" command(s) in the
Makefile will usually do the trick.

If you are having problems linking, try using "-lXext-mit" and "-lX11-mit"
instead of "-lXext" and "-lX11" in the Makefile.

==============================================
G6. Why do some applications run slowly on the DECstation PX and PXG
	displays?

The PX and PXG graphics adapters are designed for high-speed
two-dimensional vector drawing and for high-speed three-dimensional
rotation and polygon fills, respectively.  In order to get maximum
performance in these specialized areas, both kinds of adapters have
their own intelligent on-board processor which do high-speed drawing
operations, and in the case of the PXG, a general purpose RISC
processor which does 3D rendering, scaling and rotation.

In order to optimize graphics performance, a tradeoff was made on both
of these boards which prevents your system CPU from directly accessing
display memory.  Allowing your system CPU to directly access display
memory would, at a minimum, cut the graphics accelerator performance
by a factor of two, and perhaps more.

Unfortunately, as a result, operations which involve the copying of
large images (Pixmaps) into or out of display memory are performed
much more slowly than they would be if the processor were able to
directly access system memory.

One example of this is the ever-popular background image.  The X
server keeps a Pixmap containing the pattern with which to paint the
root window; whenever an area of the root window is exposed, the X
server must copy that portion of the Pixmap over the relatively
low-performance I/O channel to the PX or PXG adapter, which then
copies it into display memory.

As a result, iconifying and deiconifying windows can become a fairly
slow experience, particularly on systems with lower TurboChannel
bandwidth.  In this case, the solution is simple; just use the
standard, boring background.  However, if an application that you use
actually needs to copy Pixmaps to the screen on a regular basis, you
will definitely experience slow performance; there's no way to fix
this problem.

Unless you need the vector performance of the PX or the 3D rendering
capabilities of the PXG, use one of the several boards DEC produces
which are optimized for windowing and imaging, such as the CX (dumb
colour frame buffer), MX (dumb monochrome frame buffer), HX (smart
colour frame buffer), or TX (imaging colour frame buffer).

						[Author lost.]

==============================================
G7. What can I do to improve security with X? Can I use xdm? 

ULTRIX 4.3 and later support the MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 authorization
protocol and include xdm as well.  Alpha OSF/1 uses xdm by default and
also supports the authorization protocol.
						[Bob Heiney]

==============================================
H1. Can I mix 8-Megabyte and 32-Megabyte boards in the DECstation 5000/xxx
	family?

All DS5000 series machines set the memory stride from the first memory
array module (this is true of the Personal DECstation and the
DS5000/1xx series and not just the DS5000/2xx machines). The only
supported configurations are those in which all of the memory array
modules are of the same capacity.

Memory array module types are:

        MS01-AA   1Mbit DRAM    DS2100,DS3100,PDS5000/20,PDS5000/25,DS5000/120,
                                DS5000/125,DS5000/133
        MS01-CA   4Mbit DRAM    PDS5000/20,PDS5000/25,DS5000/120,DS5000/125,
                                DS5000/133
        MS02-AA   1Mbit DRAM    DS5000/200,DS5000/240
        MS02-CA   4Mbit DRAM    DS5000/200,DS5000/240

However, you can place one memory array module of a smaller capacity
at the end of a series of higher capacity modules.

                Slot            Module

                 0              MS02-CA
                 1              MS02-CA
                 2              MS02-AA

This configuration will work, and be properly recognized by Ultrix,
but it is not "supported." The console will see all of the memory
modules. The operating system will be expecting memory in 32MB
segments and when it hits slot 2 it will simply believe that there are
24MB of failed memory on that module.

It will not be possible to support higher memory congigurations in the
DS5000 series machines with 16Mbit DRAM cards. The issue is that both the
physical memory address and the I/O address are provided by the same Kseg0
block (512MB) in the R3000. This will not change with the advent of the R4000
daughter cards, as it would require modification of the memory controller ASIC
(the MT chip) as well.

==============================================
H2. How can I find out which type of DECstation 5000 I have?

If /etc/sizer -c returns:
DS5000                 then it's a 5000/200.
DS5000_100             then it's a 5000/1xx (where xx={20,25,33})
DS5000_300             then it's a 5000/240.
DSPERSONAL_DECSTATION  then it's a 5000/xx.

For something more specific on the 5000/1xx and 5000/xx, you need to
look at the messages printed out at last boot time (available in the
error log; use /etc/uerf -R -r 300).

==============================================
H3. How can I run a DECstation without the display?

To turn a DECstation 2100/3100 into a DECsystem 2100/3100 you need to:

1.  Remove the Graphics board, keyboard and mouse.
2.  Put a mouse loopback connector in the hole for the mouse
    plug.

The loopback connector part number is: 12-25628-01

To make your own:

Short Transmit data to Receive Data,        o 1 
pins 2->4 as shown in the diagram.    7  o +-+  o 2
(view looking at the plug).           6  o | |  
                                      5  o +-+  o 3
                                            o 4

To run a DECstation 5000/2xx without the display:

1. Remove the graphics card, keyboard and mouse.

2.  Connect the character terminal to the serial port labelled "3".
   (9600bps, 8N1, data leads only).  If you are connecting between two
   computers, use a null modem cable.

				[Philip Tait]
==============================================
H4. How do I reset the console (to change password, etc.)?

        1) Remove the cover
        2) Look for two sets of jumpers by the main power supply line
        3) Place a jumper on the jumper with _2_ pins (I.e. not the one
                with 3 or 4)  On the 5000/120, this was labeled with
                the cryptic letters "wav".
        4) Boot the machine; reset or delete the password as suits you
                (with passwd -s or passwd -c respectively).
        5) Remove the jumper and you are ready to go.

==============================================
M1. What is the floating-point number representation on ULTRIX?

The floating point format differs depending on which architecture the
ULTRIX software is running on.

Digital's RISC machines all use IEEE floating point representation
with a little-endian byte ordering.  You can easily convert between
little and big endian ordering by reversing bytes within the floating
point number.

The VAX line uses a unique (although, given the popularity of VAXen)
quite well known floating point format.

The ULTRIX C libraries include routines which will translate between
RISC (IEEE) and VAX floating point formats.  Look under "ftoi" in
either the online or hardcopy documentation.

==============================================
M2. If the console is a graphics device, can it be used as a terminal for
	full-screen applications?

The console emulates a dumb terminal, with no ability to address the screen.
To run anything like a screen editor, you must start the window system.

==============================================
M3. M3. How do I read a tar image from a TK50 tape if my only TK50 is on a VMS
	machine?

On VMS (assuming your tape drive on VMS is MUA0:) :
 
	mount/foreign/block=10240/record=10240 mua0:
	copy mua0: file.tar
 
On Ultrix:
 
	dcp -i 'vms::where$logical:file.tar' file.tar

==============================================
M4. Why does ULTRIX restrict the number of users on the system?

The answer to this is two-fold.  The first reason is that due to
Digital's contract with AT&T, Digital pays royalties to AT&T for its
ULTRIX product on "bands" of user increments which match up to the
capacity upgrade licenses which we sell.  For every ULTRIX upgrade
license sold, Digital sends a portion of that royalty payment to AT&T.
Other vendors have worked other licensing arrangements with AT&T. 

The second reason is that Digital depends more on "personal" use of an
operating system, and tries to break up the costs of providing an
operating system depending on the number of users using it.  Rather
than charge a larger amount of money for a two-user system, Digital
charges a base amount of money, then distributes the rest of the
development costs across the per-user license base.  Digital hopes
that this gives an equitable and affordable system to all customers. 
					[Jon "maddog" Hall]

==============================================
M5. Where else can I discuss ULTRIX with other users?

The decstation-managers mailing list is a rapid-turnaround vehicle for
Ultrix (and maybe OSF/1 someday) administrators to reach a pool of
people with similar expertise who might be able to help them resolve a
problem they're having.  There's no discussion on the list--just
questions and summaries of responses to those questions.

To join the list, send a message containing:

        subscribe decstation-managers

    to majordomo@ornl.gov.  To subscribe an address other than your
    return address, such as a local exploder, add that address to the
    subscribe command, e.g.:

        subscribe decstation-managers decstation-managers@foo.bar
						[Dave Sill]

==============================================
M6. What is the part number for an ULTRIX source code license?

For educational institutions (these are not listed in the SPD):

        MODEL                                                         
        NUMBER      DESCRIPTION                   
      ----------    ----------------------------- 
   1  QB-0JRAA-E5   Ultrix/UWS Edu Source Code    
   2  QB-0JRAA-EM   Ultrix/UWS Edu Source Code    
   3  QB-0JRAE-E5   Ultrix/UWS Edu Source Code    
   4  QB-0JRAE-EM   Ultrix/UWS Edu Source Code    

This is a little confusing, since the "DESCRIPTION" of all four kits is
the same.  As far as I know, you need to order the -0JRAA- kit the
first time, and the -0JRAE- ("update") kit for subsequent releases.
Probably, this is so that you don't have go through a complete set of
paperwork for a new release.  You have to have to meet a number of other
requirements; see the Software Product Description (SPD) for more details.

The -E5 kits are on TK50, and the -EM kits are on 9-track magtape.
I don't believe that the source kits are available on any other medium.

All 4 part numbers have the same list price (not especially expensive).
I don't know if they are available outside the US.

If you're not at an educational institution, here are the corresponding
part numbers (these are listed in the SPD, by the way):
        MODEL                                                         
        NUMBER      DESCRIPTION                   
      ----------    ----------------------------- 
   1  QB-0JQAA-E5   ULTRIX WS LOC.USE SOURCE TK50 
   2  QB-0JQAA-EM   ULTRIX WS LOC.USE SOURCE 16MT 
   3  QB-0JQAE-E5   ULTRIX WS LOC.USE SOURCE TK50 
   4  QB-0JQAE-EM   ULTRIX WS LOC.USE SOURCE 16MT 

These are more expensive.
						[Jeff Mogul]

==============================================
M7. What is the future of ULTRIX?

ULTRIX V4.5, an update of V4.4 primarily with bug fixes, has begun to ship
as of December 1995.  This is likely to be the last release of ULTRIX.

				[Steve Lionel]
[End of FAQ]

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