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TCP/IP over ISDN. Frequently Asked Questions


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Version: $Revision: 1.4 $
Last-Modified: $Date: 1996/06/11 09:15:40 $
FAQ: de-isdn/tcp-ip
Posting-Frequency: monthly

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
  TCP/IP over ISDN. Frequently Asked Questions
  Jan-Piet Mens	<mailto:jpm@mens.de>

  This document	describes methods which	can be used to run TCP/IP and
  related protocols over ISDN networks.	Most of	the software and proce-
  dures	described herein have only been	tested on German 1TR6 or Euro-
  ISDN (DSS1) networks.
  ______________________________________________________________________

  Table	of Contents:

  1.	  Copyright, Version and availability

  2.	  Introduction

  2.1.	  Why TCP/IP over ISDN ?

  2.2.	  What can I do	with TCP/IP over ISDN ?

  2.3.	  What possibilities do	I have of running TCP/IP over ISDN ?

  2.4.	  What solutions exist for use on an MS-DOS PC ?

  2.5.	  What solutions exist for TCP/IP over ISDN based on Unix ?

  3.	  Where	can I get a connection to a POP	(in Germany) ?

  4.	  Software and configuration samples for creating a PC router

  4.1.	  Hardware requirements

  4.2.	  Software requirements

  4.2.1.  CAPI

  4.2.2.  Packet Drivers

  4.2.3.  ISPA

  4.2.4.  PCROUTE - an IP routing program for the IBM PC

  4.2.4.1.	  What is PCROUTE ?

  4.2.4.2.	  What does PCROUTE support ?

  4.2.4.3.	  IP-Adresses for PCROUTE

  4.2.4.4.	  My ISPA and PCROUTE configuration starts dialing
  immediately without my interaction

  4.2.4.5.	  Tell me more about IP-addresses and PCROUTE

  4.2.4.6.	  How do I configure the needed	routes on UNIX ?

  4.2.4.7.	  Sample configuration for ISPA	and PCROUTE

  4.2.5.  ISPA and KA9Q

  4.2.6.  A fully functional router with all required files

  4.3.	  How can I use	two Teles.S0 ISDN cards	in a PC-router ?

  4.3.1.  PAPI Packet Driver

  4.3.1.1.	  Howto	use PAPI

  4.3.1.2.	  Sample configuration PAPI and	PCROUTE

  4.3.2.  INS/CLS software

  4.3.2.1.	  ISDNPKT

  4.3.2.2.	  IPSWITCH

  4.3.2.3.	  Configuration	tips

  4.3.2.4.	  Tested configurations

  4.4.	  Other	useful software

  4.4.1.  What is PCBRIDGE ?

  4.4.2.  How can I test my Packet-Driver/my ISPA ?

  4.4.3.  What is cFos (Fossil)	?

  4.4.4.  Are there free implementations of ISDN/IP for	Unix/Linux ?

  4.4.5.  What is SLX ?

  4.4.6.  Where	do I find ethernet packet drivers ?

  4.4.6.1.	  What ethernet	cards have packet driver support ?

  4.5.	  Where	do I find ISDN hardware	?

  4.6.	  CAPI error codes

  5.	  Contact addresses

  6.	  Resources for	IP over	ISDN

  7.	  Where	will I find the	ISDN/IP	FAQ ?

  8.	  Contributors and Credits

  9.	  Glossary
  ______________________________________________________________________

  1.  Copyright, Version and availability

  This document	is copyright (c) Jan-Piet Mens 1995, 1996.

  Unless otherwise stated, all opinions	herein are my own. The
  descriptions,	hints and tips have been gathered from all sorts of
  sources. I have tried	to give	credit where credit is due. Should you
  have contributed and feel left out, please drop me a line to be
  included in the credits.

  Contributions	are very welcome!

  This document	is posted regularly to the newsgroup de.comm.isdn

	  Version: $Revision: 1.4 $
	  Last-Modified: $Date:	1996/06/11 09:15:40 $
	  FAQ: de-isdn/tcp-ip
	  Posting-Frequency: monthly
	  Archive-name:	de-isdn/tcp-ip

  2.  Introduction

  This document	hopes to assist	during the installation	of TCP/IP over
  ISDN (ISDN/IP). Our main topics will be routers and/or gateways
  running under	the MS-DOS or MS-Windows operating systems.  The reason
  for this, is that

  o  they are cheap and

  o  I operate one of these myself :-)

  All internet addresses (IP adresses) and telephone numbers used in
  this document	are examples only. Never use one of these numbers.

  2.1.

  Why TCP/IP over ISDN ?

  The advantages of driving TCP/IP over	ISDN for coupling hosts	over WAN
  are:

  o  the transfer rate of 64Kbit/sec or	over

  o  the fast connection times (< 2sec)

  o  line capacity only	costs money while it is	in use

  o  ISDN is undergoing	an ever-increased use

  2.2.	What can I do with TCP/IP over ISDN ?

  Everything :-)

  telnet, ftp, nntp (NetNews), smtp (Mail), WWW, archie, X-Window
  System, etc. As I said: everything.

  2.3.	What possibilities do I	have of	running	TCP/IP over ISDN ?

  The long list	of methods of running TCP/IP over ISDN include free or
  almost-free software running on a cheap PC through more expensive
  commercial software routers for PCs and Unix systems,	 up to expensive
  full-featured	professional router systems (Cisco, etc.)

  Traditionally	the cheapest solution will be to use almost-free
  software on a	simple PC running the MS-DOS operating system. The
  better method	is of course to	use professional software which	usually
  runs on Unix.	 The latter is usually more flexible and scales	better.

  When I started, I did	not wish to invest over	DEM 10,000.00 in a
  software and hardware	design to connect via ISDN to the Internet. I
  wanted to start off cheaply before investing such amounts in
  equipment.  It turns out, that I still use the "cheap" version if only
  because it still works for me	(and hundreds of others).
  2.4.	What solutions exist for use on	an MS-DOS PC ?

  There	are a miriad solutions for running TCP/IP over ISDN on MS-DOS.
  Quite	apart from the several commercial solutions, I have tested the
  following combinations:

	  ISPA + PCROUTE
	  ISPA + KA9Q

  2.5.	What solutions exist for TCP/IP	over ISDN based	on Unix	?

  netCS	offers a product suite called netGW and	BinTec also has	a suite
  of software/hardware combinations that support TCP/IP	over ISDN for
  example for SCO-Unix.

  See section ``Free ISDN/IP for Unix/Linux'' for more information.

  3.  Where can	I get a	connection to a	POP (in	Germany) ?

  This is a list of Points of Presence or ISP that are willing to sell
  connectivity to either private people	or commercial institutions.

  If you want to be included in	this list, please send the following
  form to ISDN-FAQ maintainer <mailto:isdn-faq@mens.de>

	       Name of provider	or ISP:
	       Contact-Person....:
	       Tel (voice).......:
	       Email.............:
	       ca. DM/Month fix..:
	       ca. DM/MB National:
	       ISDN-access points:
	       Snail Mail........:

     PFM News &	Mail Mainz
	Contact-Person....: Bernd Hennig
	Tel (voice).......: 06131/362779
	Email.............: bernd@pfm.pfm-mainz.de
	ca. DM/Month fix..: on request
	ca. DM/MB National: on request
	ISDN-Access.......: Mainz
	Snail Mail........: Eibenweg 4,	D-55128	Mainz

     Individual	Network	- Rhein-Main.DE
	Contact-Person....: Oliver Boehmer
	Tel (voice).......: 069/39048413
	Email.............: info@rhein-main.de
	ca. DM/Month fix..: 40 DM
	ca. DM/MB National: 3 DM

     roka EDV und Datenkommunikationsberatung GmbH
	Contact-Person....: Bernward Averwald und Wilhelm Buehler
	Tel (voice).......: 02151/4975-10
	Email.............: info@roka.net
	Preise............: on request
	ISDN-Access.......: Krefeld, Duisburg, Essen
	ISDN-Access.......: Koeln-Porz,	Aachen,	Muenster
	Snail Mail........: Elbestrasse	25, D-47800 Krefeld

     prodata Ing.-Buero	Neu-Ulm	Xlink-PoP Ulm/Neu-Ulm
	Contact-Person....: Juergen Mueller, Oliver Jung
	Tel (voice).......: 0731/722426
	Email.............: info@prodata.de
	ca. DM/Month fix..: on request
	ca. DM/MB National: on request

     AllCon Gesellschaft f. Kommunikationstechnologie mbH
	Technologiezentrum Flensburg
	Contact-Person....: Herr Dirks,	Herr Jensen
	Tel (voice).......: 0461-9992-162
	Email.............: info@allcon.net
	ca. DM/Month fix..: on request
	ca. DM/MB National: on request

     Seicom GmbH
	Xlink-POP Reutlingen
	Contact-Person....: Winfried Haug / Peter Dieth
	Tel (voice).......: 07121-9770-0
	Email.............: info@seicom.de
	ca. DM/Month fix..: on request
	ca. DM/MB National: on request
	ISDN-Access.......: Reutlingen,	Tuebingen
	Snail Mail........: Laiblinsplatz 12, 72793 Pfullingen

     PEM Programmentwicklungsgesellschaft f Microcomp GmbH
	Xlink-POP Stuttgart
	Contact-Person...: Christoph Pasch
	Tel. (Voice).....: 0711/713045
	Fax..............: 0711/713047
	email............: info@pem.com	/ pasch@pem.com
	ca.DM/Month fix. : on request
	ca.DM/MB National: on request
	ISDN-Zugangspkte.: Stuttgart
	Snail Mail.......: Vaihinger Str. 49, 70567 Stuttgart

     netmbx, EUnet POP Berlin
	Contact-Person....: Ralf Moritz
	Tel (voice).......: 030-8555350
	Email.............: trepex@netmbx.de
	ca. DM/Month fix..: 20 DM + int. Volumen (+ IN Mitgliedschaft)
	ca. DM/MB National: keine (10 DM/MB int. oder hoehere Fixkosten)
	ISDN-Access.......: Berlin
	Snail Mail........: Feuerbachstr. 47/49, 12163 Berlin

     Noris Network
	Contact-Person....: Matthias Urlichs
	Tel (voice).......: 0911/9959621
	Email.............: info@noris.de
	ca. DM/Month fix..: on request
	ca. DM/MB National: on request
	ISDN-Access.......: Nuernberg
	Snail Mail........: Schleiermacherstr. 12, D-90491 Nuernberg

     TouchNET GmbH i.Gr., Contrib.Net PoP Muenchen
	Contact-Person....: Stefan Wei"s
	Tel (voice).......: 089/54471111
	Email.............: stw@touch.net
	DM/Month fix......: DM	115,00 (Waehlleitung, Zugang nur 16-9
	Uhr)
	DM  862,50 (Waehlleitung, 24h/Tag, 140h/Month)
	DM 4025,00 (SPV, ohne Einschraenkungen)

	ISDN-Access.......: M"unchen
	Snail Mail........: Ringseisstra"se 2a,	80337 Muenchen

     Freinet, Xlink-PoP	Freiburg 2i Distribution & Solution GmbH
	Contact-Person....: Dr.	Monika Paulus, Florian Wolpert
	Tel (voice).......: 0761-472850
	Email.............: info@freinet.de
	ca. DM/Month fix..: on request
	ca. DM/MB National: on request
	ISDN-Access.......: Freiburg
	Snail Mail........: Haierweg 20e, 79114	Freiburg

     Commercial	Link Systems
	Contact-Person....: Heiko Voland
	Tel (voice).......: 0431 979 01	61
	Email.............: info@cls.de
	DM/Month fix..:	50 DM (25 DM Schueler/Studenten)
	DM/MB National:	keine Unterscheidung zwischen
	national/international
	3 MB IP	in Grundgebuehr
	zusaetzlicher Traffic:	0,02 DM/kB
	(Verkehr zu ftp.maz.net	ermaessigt)
	ISDN-Access.......: Kiel
	Snail Mail........: Sternstr. 2	, 24116	Kiel

     MetaWorks Gesellschaft fuer elektronische und
	audiovisuelle Medien mbH
	Contact-Person....: Jens Hoffmann
	Tel (voice).......: 0261/37773
	Email.............: jens@metaworks.de
	ca. DM/Month fix..: on request
	ca. DM/MB National: on request
	ISDN-Access.......: Koblenz

     Inter Networking Systems
	Contact-Person....: B. Hoenig
	Tel (voice).......: 02305-356505
	Tel (fax).........: 02305-25411
	Email.............: info@ins.net
	WorldWideWeb......: http://www.ins.de/index.html
	DM/Month fix..:	50 DM (Schueler/Studenten 25 DM)
	DM/MB National:	keine Unterscheidung national/international
	3 MB IP	in Grundgebuehr
	zusaetzlicher Traffic:	0,02 DM/kB
	Nutzungsbeschr....: keine Nutzungsbeschraenkung. Private und
	kommerzielle Nutzung sowie Weitergabe erlaubt
	ISDN-Access.......: Castrop-Rauxel, Essen, weitere in
	Vorbereitung
	Snail Mail........: INS, Postfach 101312, 44543	Castrop-Rauxel

     Offenes Netz e.V. Luebeck
	Contact-Person....: Wolfgang Fahl
	Tel (voice).......: 0451/4998021
	Email.............: info@ON-Luebeck.DE
	ca. DM/Month fix..: on request
	ca. DM/MB National: on request
	ISDN-Access.......: Luebeck
	Snail Mail........: Seelandstr.	3, 23569 Luebeck

     ISC Dr.-Ing. Nepustil MAZ ISC Nuertingen
	Contact-Person....: Dr.	Ulrich Nepustil
	Tel (voice).......: 07123-93102-0
	Email ............: info@nepustil.net
	ca. DM/Month fix..: on request (keine Grundgebuehr)
	ca. DM/MB National: keine Unterscheidung National/International
	Tariffierung erfolgt diensteunabhaengig
	Verkehr	zu ftp.maz.net ermaessigt
	Nutzungsbeschr....: Keine Nutzungsbeschraenkung. Private und
	kommerzielle Nutzung sowie Weitergabe nach
	Vereinbarung erlaubt.
	ISDN Access.......: Nuertingen / Reutlingen / Tuebingen

     OMNILINK GbR  - MAZ ISC
	Contact-Person....: Holger Stegemann
	Tel (voice).......: 069/619048
	Email.............: info@omnilink.net
	ca. DM/Month fix..: 50 DM
	ca. DM/MB National: keine Unterscheidung national/international
	News komplett sowie 1 MB IP in Grundgebuehr enthalten
	zusaetzlicher Traffic: 0,03 DM/KB
	Nutzungsbeschr....: Keine Nutzungsbeschraenkung. Private und
	kommerzielle Nutzung sowie Weitergabe nach
	Vereinbarung erlaubt.
	ISDN-Access.......: Frankfurt, Dreieich, Darmstadt
	Snail Mail........: Staedelstrasse 8, 60596 Frankfurt

     CNet Internet Service Center
	Contact-Person....: Bernd Pflugrad
	Tel (voice).......: 0335/55586-0
	Email.............: info@rhnet.net
	ca. DM/Month fix..: on request
	ca. DM/MB National: on request
	ISDN-Access.......: Frankfurt (Oder)
	Snail Mail........: Rudolf Breitscheid Strasse 10,
	D-15230	Frankfurt (Oder)

  This is a list of German universities	and high schools willing to
  offer	connections to their students.

     Technische	Universitaet Berlin, FB	Informatik
	Contact-Person....: Carsten Rossenhoevel
	Tel (voice).......: nein, verschont mich bitte :-)
	Email.............: cross@cs.tu-berlin.de
	ca. DM/Monat fix..: 0
	ca. DM/MB National: 0
	ISDN-Zugangspunkte: Berlin
	Nutzungsbeschr....: Studierende/Mitarbeiter von	Berliner
	Hochschulen
	Gelbe Post........: Informatik-Rechnerbetrieb, Sekr FR 5-3
	Franklinstr. 28/29, 10587 Berlin

     Universitaet Konstanz, Rechenzentrum
	Contact-Person....: Frank Bickendorf
	Tel (voice).......: ?
	Email.............: Frank.Bickendorf@uni-konstanz.de
	WorldWideWeb......: http://www.uni-
	konstanz.de/studis/ngs/index.html
	ca. DM/Monat fix..: 0
	ca. DM/MB National: 0
	Nutzungsbeschr....: *Studierende* der *Uni* Konstanz
	ISDN-Zugangspunkte: Konstanz

     Universitaet Mannheim, Rechenzentrum
	Contact-Person....: Joachim Nerz
	Tel (voice).......: 0621-292-1433
	Email.............: nerz@rz.uni-mannheim.de
	ca. DM/Monat fix..: 0
	ca. DM/MB National: 0
	ISDN-Zugangspunkte: Mannheim
	Nutzungsbeschr....: Studierende/Mitarbeiter der	Uni-Mannheim
	Gelbe Post........: Rechenzentrum Uni-Mannheim,	L 15,16, 68131
	Mannheim

  4.  Software and configuration samples for creating a	PC router

  This chapter describes required software and hardware	for creating a
  small	router which is	able to	route packets between a	TCP/IP Ethernet
  lan and your Internet	provider via ISDN.

  The router will consist of a small and very cheap personal computer
  running the MS-DOS operating system.

  4.1.	Hardware requirements

  The hardware required	for our	router is minimal. A small personal
  computer with, eg. Intel 386/SX processor would do fine. The computer
  will only require a keyboard and a screen for	setting	up the software.
  During operation, neither a monitor nor a keyboard is	required.

     Mass storage
	A floppy disk drive with a capacity of 1.44MB is all that is
	required for operation.	Of course, if your small PC comes with a
	disk, all the better, but it is	not required.

     Network Interface
	The computer will require a network interface card (NIC). Any
	low-cost NIC will do fine, for example an NE2000 or WD8003
	compatible. In principle, any card supported by	the Clarkson
	Packet Drivers will do.

     ISDN card
	An inexpensive ISDN card will be required to connect to	the ISDN
	network. I personally use the original Teles S0	card, which at
	the time was one of the	least expensive. It is a passive card
	but produces enough throuput for our requirements. I understand
	that Creatix sells a Teles.S0 compatible card. In principle, any
	card that comes	with a CAPI 1.1	interface should do the	trick.

  4.2.	Software requirements

  The following	software will be used on our router:

     CAPI
	CAPI is	the Common ISDN	Application Programmers	Interface. This
	software is supplied together with the ISDN card.

     Packet Driver
	Freeware. A packet driver from the Clarkson Packet driver
	collection will	be required to interface with our NIC.

     ISPA
	Shareware. ISPA	is an ethernet-type packet driver which	loads on
	top of a CAPI and delivers a packet-driver interface.

     PCROUTE
	Freeware. This is the software that will do the	actual routing.
	It will	move IP	packets	from the packet	driver on the NIC to the
	packet-driver on the ISDN card.

     KA9Q
	As an alternative to PCROUTE, KA9Q can be used as well.	Please
	note that KA9Q has certain usage restrictions. Check the docs.

  4.2.1.  CAPI

  Common ISDN Application Programming Interface. It is a programming
  interface similar to NetBios and it runs between application software
  (ISPA, PAPI, etc) and	the CAPI device	driver (ISDN card) on a	PC.

  A CAPI is usually supplied by	the manufacturer of the	ISDN hardware,
  and it is a requirement for anything encountered in this document.

  4.2.2.  Packet Drivers

  4.2.3.  ISPA

  ISPA is an ethernet-type (class=1) packet-driver for IP-Routing or
  remote Ethernet bridging over	ISDN.  ISPA communicates with the ISDN
  card using the ISDN API 1.1 specification (a standard	defined	by
  German ISDN card manufacturers and the German	Telekom).  Because of
  this,	ISPA is	completely hardware independent	and has	successfully
  been tested with many	active and passive ISDN	cards.

  ISPA was initially developed for use with PCROUTE as a cheap Ethernet-
  ISDN Router. However,	it is more and more used to connect a standalone
  PC system to the Internet using ISDN.	For easy use under Windows ISPA
  comes	with a Windows utility program ISDNMON.	ISPA has successfully
  been tested with a wide range	of commercial, shareware and public
  domain TCP/IP	packages e.g. Ftp PCTCP, Sun PC-NFS, Novell LanWorkPlace
  and PDETHER, WATTCP based IP programs, NCSA &	CU -Telnet/ftp,	UMN
  gopher & popmail Trumpet WINSOCK, XFS.

  ISPA is shareware. It	will stop operation after about	15 minutes
  unless you register it. ISPA can be retrieved	from
  ftp://ftp.biochem.mpg.de/pc/

  Note that Herbert Hanewinkel,	the author of ISPA, frequently adds
  features to ISPA and its sort. It is worthwhile checking his ftp
  server on a regular basis. I personally have found him to be very
  helpful in sorting out "features" :-)

  4.2.4.  PCROUTE - an IP routing program for the IBM PC

  PCROUTE - an IP routing program from the IBM PC Vance	Morrison

  There	seem to	be differing versions. The newest I know of is 2.24.

  4.2.4.1.  What is PCROUTE ?

  PCroute is software written for an PC/XT (or AT) or clone that will
  allow	it to act as a IP router.   At present the following interfaces
  are supported.

     Ethernet
	(WD8003E card) (recommeded no more than	4 interfaces)

     Starlan
	(WD8003S card) (up to 6	interfaces)

     Localtalk
	(Apple localtalk card for the PC) (1 interface max)

     SLIP
	(COM1..COM4)  (2 interfaces max)

  4.2.4.2.  What does PCROUTE support ?

  PCroute was designed to be a fully functional	IP router. In particular
  it supports

  o  IP	routing	with Subsets (however the subnet mask must begin with
     255.255)

  o  Static routing with up to 250 routes.

  o  responds to ICMP echo (ping)

  o  Sends ICMP	TTL, Redirect, Unreachable when	appropriate

  o  Fragmentation where necessary

  o  RIP dynamic routing protocol

  o  Up	to 6 interfaces	of varying types

  o  Error logging using BSD syslog

  o  Optional proxy ARP

  o  Bootp forwarding

  o  Packet-Driver interfaces

  Note that although the software supports up to 6 interfaces, the total
  throughput of	the router is fixed by the speed of the	processor.  For
  fast boards (ethernet) this gets excessive after 4 interfaces	are
  installed.

  PCROUTE can be found on ftp://ftp.biochem.mpg.de/pc/

  4.2.4.3.  IP-Adresses	for PCROUTE

  The following	texts where produced in	German.	I have taken the liberty
  of translating them... (JPM)

	  From:	haug@seicom.de (Winfried Haug)
	  Newsgroups: de.comm.isdn

	  | IMPORTANT: PC-Route	needs 2	IP addresses out of 2 different	Class C
	  | networks. Router and Ethernet IP-adress may	not be in the same net.
	  | A router usually requires 2	addresses otherwise no routing occurs.

	  From:	heha
	  If I only route to one partner then I	can route over an interface. If
	  I have more than one partner then routing must occur over IP-addresses.
	  Since	PCroute	was developed as an Ethernet-router with several
	  partners per interface, it must route	via IP-addresses.

  4.2.4.4.  My ISPA and	PCROUTE	configuration starts dialing immediately
  without my interaction

  Wrong. ISPA only starts dialing if packets are outstanding for the
  remote connection. If	PCROUTE	is configured with RIP support (FLAGS =
  0x) then an RIP packet will go out every 30 seconds and this would
  cause	an otherwise idle ISPA to dial.

  4.2.4.5.  Tell me more about IP-addresses and	PCROUTE

	       From: juergen@hugo.rz.fh-ulm.de (TZ Juergen Mueller)

		      +-------------------------------+	     +--------------+
		  isdn|195.123.147.1	 197.234.98.21|ethern|197.234.98.28 |
	    WORLD<--->|				      |<---->|		    |
		      +-------------------------------+	     +--------------+
				   DOS				   UNIX

  DOS requires IP-addresses of two different networks otherwise	it won't
  be able to route. The	right side of the (dos)-IP's should be
  197.234.98.xxx. The destination route	for PCRoute should thus	be the
  left of the two addresses (IP	address	of the router on the far side of
  the ISDN wire)

  4.2.4.6.  How	do I configure the needed routes on UNIX ?

       # route add default	       197.234.98.21 (see above)
       # route add 197.234.98.0	       0.0.0.0

  4.2.4.7.  Sample configuration for ISPA and PCROUTE

       C:\> type isdn.bat
       call c:\telescom\starts0			       : Load CAPI

       wd8003e 0x60 0x7	0x300 0xcc00		       : Load packet driver
		 :   :	  :	:
		 :   :	  :	+------	Ram Base
		 :   :	  +------------	Base address
		 :   +-----------------	HW-IRQ of the WD-Ethernet card
		 +---------------------	Software IRQ

       ispa   -e 4 -t 120 -h 1 0x61 0691234567	       : ispa laden
		:     :	    :	:     :
		:     :	    :	:     +- Called	number
		:     :	    :	+------- ISPA's	SW-IRQ (see. wd8003e)
		:     :	    +----------- HDLC-Framing (see ispa.doc)
		:     +----------------- timeout (see ispa.doc)
		+----------------------- Incoming calls	on EAZ=4

       pcroute					       : Load pcroute

  Before loading pcroute, the PCROUTE.CFG file must be created by using
  config.exe. I	am asked for 2 interfaces. The first interface must be
  located on SW-IRQ 0x60 the second interface is located on sw-irq 0x61.
  Since	we loaded the wd8003e on 0x60 and ispa was loaded on 0x61,
  interface-1 is Ethernet and interface-2 is on	ISDN.

  C:\> type pcroute.cfg	(is created with config.exe)
  Interface 1 (ethernet)
      Address	192.109.18.21
      NetMask	255.255.255.0
      Flags	0000H
      Metric	0000H
  Interface 2 (ethernet)
      Address	193.141.147.1
      NetMask	255.255.255.0
      Flags	0000H				  : Flags = 0 means "Send
						  : Routing updates out
						  : this interface", this
						  : would case a RIP
						  : packet each	30 secs.
						  : and	ISPA starts dialing
      Metric	0000H
      The Ethenet Address 0000H
      The Ethenet Address FBAAH
      The Ethenet Address 0061H			  : 0x61
  STATIC ROUTES
      Route to network	       0.0.0.0		  : default route
      Through gateway	 193.141.147.1
      Metric 0000H
      Flags  0000H

      Route to network	  192.109.18.2
      Through gateway	 193.141.147.1
      Metric 0000H
      Flags  0000H

  Forwarding BOOTP requests to		     0.0.0.0
  Logging messages to SYSLOGD on host	192.109.18.20
  Logging level	0009H				  : A message per minute
  Logging mask 0000H

  4.2.5.  ISPA and KA9Q

       C:\> type isdn.bat
       call c:\telescom\starts0			       : Load CAPI

       wd8003e 0x60 0x7	0x300 0xcc00		       : Load packet driver
		 :   :	  :	:
		 :   :	  :	+------	Ram Base
		 :   :	  +------------	Base address
		 :   +-----------------	Hardware IRQ
		 +---------------------	Software IRQ

       ispa   -e 4 -t 120 -h 1 0x61 0691234567	       : Load ISPA
		:     :	    :	:     :
		:     :	    :	:     +- ISDN number to	call
		:     :	    :	+------- SW-IRQ	of ISPA	(see. wd8003e)
		:     :	    +----------- HDLC-Framing (see ispa.doc)
		:     +----------------- timeout (see ispa.doc)
		+----------------------- Receive calls on MSN 4

       net isdn.net				       : Load KA9Q

       C:\> type isdn.net
	       # KA9Q configuration file
       hostname	rter

       # 0x60 =	sw-irq of NIC
       attach packet 0x60 eth 10 1500
       ifconfig	eth ipaddress 192.109.18.21 broadcast 255.255.255.0
       ifconfig	eth netmask 0xffffff00

       # 0x61 =	sw-irq of ISPA
       attach packet 0x61 isdn 10 1500
       ifconfig	isdn ipaddress 193.141.147.1 broadcast 255.255.255.0
       ifconfig	isdn netmask 0xffffff00

       route add 193.129.48.20/32 eth
       route add 193.129.18.2/32 isdn
       route drop 255.255.255.0
       route add default isdn

  4.2.6.  A fully functional router with all required files

  In this section you'll find all required files for a fully functional
  router based on a Teles.S0 card, a WD8003 Ethernet card. This	router
  connects a network of	Unix and MS-Windows systems (Windows 95, Windows
  NT) to the Internet.

     CONFIG.SYS

	DEVICE=C:\DOS\HIMEM.SYS
	DEVICE=C:\DOS\EMM386.EXE I=A000-B7FF I=E000-F7FF X=D000-DFFF NOEMS
	DEVICE=C:\DOS\ANSI.SYS
	DOS=HIGH
	FILES=100
	BUFFERS=50
	FCBS=4,0
	STACKS=9,128
	SHELL=C:\COMMAND.COM C:\ /P /E:1200

     AUTOEXEC.BAT

	@ECHO OFF
	PATH=C:\DOS;C:\TELESCOM
	IPNET

     IPNET.BAT

	: Start	TELES/S.0 CAPI driver
	call c:\telescom\starts0h.bat

	: Load Packet Driver on	SW-IRQ = 0x60
	smc_wd 0x60 0x4	0x300 0xcc00

	: Load ISPA on SW-IRQ =	0x61
	ispa304	<registration-key> 0x61	ispa.ini

	: Start	KA9Q/NOS with root directory in	/
	nos11c-a -d/ autoexec.net

     ISPA.INI

	# ispa.ini
	# Configuration	file for ISPA 3.x on gateway
	-e2				# EAZ 2	(my MSN)
	-w				# Display activity
	-r193.37.22.49,193.37.22.62	# Loghost, myip
	193.138.33.1	 05123683012 -h1 -t220 -d3	# Callback
	193.138.33.1	 05123683002 -h1 -t220 -d3	# Callback (2nd	no.)
	193.138.33.1	 05123683282 -h1 -t220 -d3	# Callback (3rd	no.)

     AUTOEXEC.NET

	##########################################################################
	## AUTOEXEC.NET	for
	##	KA9q NOS version (N1BEE	921225v0.85s-beta) (CWRU/BIOGv 1.92 - axa12)
	##	configured by jpm@mens.de
	##
	isat on
	hostname gate.mens.de
	ip address 193.37.22.62
	domain suffix mens.de.

	##------------------------------------------------------------------------
	## domain nameserver (DNS) configuration
	##
	domain addserver 193.37.22.49
	domain verbose on
	domain translate off	 # don't turn name translation on
	domain cache size 20
	domain cache wait 300
	domain retry 1
	domain maxwait 90

	##------------------------------------------------------------------------
	## HOST	interface configuration	- WD8003 card with packet driver
	##
	attach packet 0x60 lan 10 1500	# packet driver	at 0x60, 5 buffers, MTU=1500
	ifconfig lan ipaddr 193.37.22.62 netmask 0xfffffff0 broadcast 193.37.22.63

	##------------------------------------------------------------------------
	## ISDN	configuration. ISPA on packet-driver-interrupt 0x61
	##

	attach packet 0x61 isdn	10 1500	 # packet driver at 0x61, 5 buffers, MTU=1500
	ifconfig isdn ipaddr 193.138.33.6 netmask 0xffffff00

	##------------------------------------------------------------------------
	## Route all packets to	MENS-NET (.48) onto interface `lan'.
	##
	route add 193.37.22.48/28 lan

	##########################################################################
	## Add a default route to interface `isdn'. This I route via 193.138.33.1,
	## because it is the address on	which ISPA is listening	for packets.
	##
	route add default isdn 193.138.33.1 1

	#################################################
	# TCP/IP parameters
	#
	ip rtimer 60
	ip ttl 255
	tcp window 2048
	tcp mss	1460
	tcp irtt 10000

  4.3.	How can	I use two Teles.S0 ISDN	cards in a PC-router ?

  From:	"Alexander Horn" ahorn@aragon.bb.bawue.de
  (translated by JPM)

	  C:\TELESCOM\TSRKRN 8192	      #	Buffer in Bytes	(*Important*)
	  C:\TELESCOM\S0TE 0 3 c800 1 5	d000  #	Controller 0: IRQ 3,
					      #		  Ram address: C800
					      #	Controller 1: IRQ 5,
					      #		   Ram address:	D000
	  C:\TELESCOM\HDLC 0 1		      #	HDLC for Controller 0 and 1
	  C:\TELESCOM\1TR6TE 0 1	      #	1TR6-Hack for Controller 0 and 1

  Konfiguration	mit ISPA 1.8.1 & PC-Route bzw. INS/CLS-Software	im
  Dauerbetrieb getestet!

  BTW, CAPI.EXE	can be loaded in upper memory ...  BUNDLE.EXE V110.EXE
  and ISO8208.EXE do not support more than one controller That's it...
  and then start S0STAT.EXE and	relax...

  4.3.1.  PAPI Packet Driver

  PAPI is a Packet driver for the isdn common API. It is an MSDOS TSR.
  The Common ISDN API (ISDN-CAPI) is an	interface defined by German
  telecom and german ISDN Cards	manufacturer.  The ISDN-CAPI supported
  is version 1.1, Profile A of 7.Sep.90	The packet interface implemented
  is version 1.09.  The	implemented class is slip.

  The newest version will always be available through
  ftp://ftp.germany.eu.net/pub/network/ISDN/../inet/ If you	do not
  have access to ftp use their mail server: send mail to archive-
  server@Germany.EU.net	and place the keyword help in the body of the
  mail.

  History - Why	I wrote	it: I use a small 286 MSDOS box	as a router to
  the Internet (EUNET).	 The box is equipped with an ISDN card and an
  ethernet card.  It connects my small network to the EUNET-POP	via
  ISDN.	 The packet driver which came with the first ISDN board	was not
  very stable.

  I found a not	too expensive ISDN board from teles Berlin.  Their
  software interface is	the ISDN-CAPI. The board is very simple	(only
  two chips from Siemens). It is not intelligent (i.e. it does not have
  a processor on board).

  I use	ka9q and pc-route as routers.  The only	part missing was a piece
  of software interfacing ISDN-CAPI and	ka9q. ka9q supports the	packet
  driver interface very	well.  papi is the missing link.

  Restrictions:

  o  only 1 application	registered per program.

  o  only 1 controller supported per computer.

  o  only 1 papi packet	driver per computer

  o  only 1 ISDN destination and the destination is fixed at the time
     the driver	is invoked.

  o  a tcp/ip packet has to be <= 2K

  o  only X75 and HDLC-UI frames as supported level 2 protocols.

  o  only tested with ka9q

  It works now with Dr.	Neuhaus	Niccy 3008 and Niccy 1000 cards.  With
  AVM-A1 and Teles S0 Boards.  I did not get to	make the packet	driver
  work stable with the Diehl implementation of the CAPI. It might be the
  problem of my	packet driver.	Anyway they sell their own packet
  driver.  The packet driver is	exercising the interrupt scheme	of a
  CAPI.	 It is working in a heavily interrupt driven environment.

  4.3.1.1.

  Howto	use PAPI

  First	install	the CAPI Interface you get with	the ISDN-Card.	Then
  install papi.	It is a	Terminate and Stay Resident (TSR) program.  Then
  install the application you want to use i.e. ka9q.

  Installation of papi:

		       papi [-v] [-x] [-u] [-o eaz] -n telno [ -N telno1 ]
			    [-p	PacketIntNo] [-c CAPIIntNo] [-w	Timeout] [-s BufSize]
			    [ -S BufSize1 ]

     -v	The packet driver is verbose when installing.

     -V	LN
	The packet driver is writing a status into line	LN of the
	display. Status	resembles the display of an ISDN-Telephone.

     -x	Layer 2	protocol X75

     -u	Layer 2	protocol UI-HDLC Frames	(default)

     -c	INT
	Soft interrupt of ISDN-CAPI (default 0xF1)

     -p	INT
	Soft interrupt of papi (default	0x60)

     -o	eaz
	The digit which	selects	calls to your card. (default 2).  Has to
	be between 1 and 8.

     -n	ISDN#
	The ISDN number	of the host you	want to	connect	to. This is the
	only host which	may call back. If you do not give a number papi
	is not installed. If the host is not identifying himself with
	his number when	calling	the call is not	accepted!  If you want
	to use Semi Permanent Circuits add an 's' to the number.  The
	ISDN number is not checked. It is passed directly to the capi.

     -N	ISDN#
	The ISDN number	of the host as it is given from	the network.
	Under certain conditions the number coming from	the network is
	different from the number you have to dial. The	packet driver is
	using this number as a sort of password.

     -i	ignore.	 Do not	check the incoming caller id.

     -w	n
	The line is disconnected when idle for n seconds. (default 10)

     -s	bytes
	maximal	size for ip packets ( default and maximum 2048).  The
	actual maximum for NICCY 3008 is 1024.

     -S	bytes
	size used for b2 protocol size.

     -P	The driver is working in a sort	of polling mode. I.e. instead of
	handling the incoming message in the interrupt only a mark is
	set and	the message is handled later in	a timer	interrupt.  The
	AVM-A1 Board is	only working with this option.

  Examples:

		       # start the capi	for your card:
		       START_S0
		       # start the packet driver:
		       c:\capi\papi -v -n 123456 -o 3 -w 240 -u	-c 0xF1	-p 0x60	-s 2048
		       # start your application	(i.e. ka9q):
		       c:\nett\net -d c:\nett c:\nett\autoexec.net

  More reasonable is:

		       c:\capi\papi -n 123456 -w 240

  Comments, Questions, Error Reports, Support, Consulting ...:
  capi@friede.de

  4.3.1.2.  Sample configuration PAPI and PCROUTE

  I don't know where this comes	from (broute.tar ???)

       A:\> type a:\autoexec.bat
       @ECHO OFF
       COMMAND /C a:\teles\starts0.bat
       a:\papi -V -v -p	0x61 -n	54990403 -N 06954990403	-o 3 -w	100 -s 2048
       a:\papi -V 1 -v -p 0x62 -n 54990404 -N 06954990404 -o 4 -w 100 -s 2048
       a:\wd8003e 0x60 -o 10 0x240 0xc800
       a:\pcroute

       A:\> config				       : pcroute config.exe
       Address for the interface [194.112.61.20]
       Subnet mask for the interface [255.255.255.196]
       Flags (Hex) [5H]
       Routing Metric (HEX) [1H]

       Address for the interface [194.112.61.65]
       Subnet mask for the interface [255.255.255.196]
       Flags (Hex) [bH]
       Routing Metric (HEX) [1H]

       Network [194.112.61.64]
       Gateway [194.112.61.65]
       Metric [9H]
       Flags [0H]

       Network [0.0.0.0]
       Gateway [194.112.61.1]
       Metric [9H]
       Flags [0H]

       Address to forward bootp	packets	[0.0.0.0]
       Host to send logging info to [194.112.61.2]
       Logging mask [0H]
       Logging Level [0H]

  4.3.2.  INS/CLS software

  Eine kommerzielle Loesungen bieten die Firmen	INS (Inter Networking
  Systems) und CLS (Commercial Link Systems). Siehe (Adressen)

  Die Loesung dieser beiden Firmen ist identisch und besteht aus einen
  Packet Driver	(ISDNPKT) und einen IP-Router (IPSWITCH) sowie einen
  Line-Monitor (ISDN-MAN) mit Online-Display und Protokollierung in
  Datei.

  ISDNPKT kostet 178,00	inkl. MwSt IPSWITCH kostet 348,00 inkl.	MwST
  ISDNPKT + IPSWITCH Bundle: 498,00 inkl. MwSt.	 ISDNPKT + IPSWITCH +
  TELES.S0 Bundle 888,00 DM inkl. MwSt

  Das "PLUS"-Paket, inkl. SNMP (MIB-II + Herstellererweiterungen),
  verfuegbar ab	CeBIT 94: ISDNPKT + IPSWITCH+ +	TELES.S0 Bundle:
  1.398,00 DM inkl. MwSt.  beinhaltet kostenlosen Upgrade auf die PLUS-
  Version des ISDNPKT, die Mitte April verfuegbar sein wird.

  4.3.2.1.  ISDNPKT

  ISDNPKT ist ein Packet-Driver	fuer PC-ISDN Adapter. Die Kommunikation
  mit der ISDN-Karte erfolgt ueber eine	CAPI-Schnittstelle. Der	DOS-
  Anwendung gegenueber stellt ISDNPKT eine Ethernet Packet-Driver
  Schnittstelle	zur Verfuegung.

  Unterstuetzt zwei ISDN-Adapter im System.  4 B-Kanaele, SPV, Gruppe 0
  Typ 4	(mit TELES.S0) 30 Gegenstellen,	Dedizierte
  eingehende/ausgehende/bidirektionale Leitungen Automatisches Callback
  Alternative Rufnummern fuer Gegenstellen "Short Hold"	(idle timeout)
  kann dynamisch an Laenge der Gebuehreneinheiten angepasst werden.

  4.3.2.2.  IPSWITCH

  IPSWITCH hat einen eigenen IP-Stack und routet zwischen Packet-Drivern
  (vergl. PCROUTE).  Alle Netzwerkadapter, fuer	die Packet-Drivern
  erhaeltlich sind, koennen eingesetzt werden. IPSWITCH	erlaubt	das
  Monitoren von	IP, ARP, TCP, und UDP sowie (seit Version 3.0)
  accounting.  RIP (Routing Information	Protocol) Im Bundle mit	ISDNPKT:
  Nach festgelegter Anzahl fehlgeschlagener Waehlverbindungen wird Route
  als "down" markiert (und propagiert).	 Source-abhaengiges Routing
  moeglich IP-Paketfilterung (fuer Firewall) nach Source, destination,
  Protokoll, Port In der PLUS-Version: SNMP (MIB-II und
  Herstellererweiterungen) Remote Konfiguration

  4.3.2.3.  Configuration tips

  Hier sollte mal etwas	*sinnvolles* stehen. Hat nicht einer der Herren
  Heinen oder Frackowiak Lust dazu ;-

  "Lust	schon... Zeit erst nach	der CeBIT 94 :("

  4.3.2.4.  Tested configurations

       : ip.bat
       : Start the Teles CAPI, a PacketDriver on my WD Ethernet	followed by
       : a PacketDriver	for ISDNPKT
       call c:\telescom\starts0.bat
       wd8003e 0x60 0x7	0x300 0xcc00
       isdnpkt	-v
       isdnman -d
       ipswitch	-v -l 192.109.18.20 -p 6 -m jpisdn -t 60 -a

       # isdnpkt.cfg Configuration file	for ISDNPKT
       # This file is shown with \ separating lines. Never the less, a
       # configuration entry must be on	*ONE* line.
       #
       #irq    Name    Prot    direct  contro  other number    match   EAZ\
       Serv.   S.add   Retries Down    idle_in idle_o  use_dy  Frag    wsize\
       laAin   laBin   laAout  laBout  B2-IN   B2-OUT  B3-IN   B3-OUT
       61      isdnpfm IP      B       0       07131834052     0000    4\
       07      00      4       180     110     110     1       2000    7\
       3       1       3       1       102     102     4       4

  Anschliessend, haben wir auf irq=0x60	ethernet, und auf irq=0x61 den
  isdnpkt. Diese nummern gelten	entsprechend in	den folgenden Files.

  # ipswitch.if	 Interface Configuration for IPSWITCH
  #
  #irq	  use-arp ip-adress	  broadcast	  netmask
  # local ethernet
  60	  0	  194.109.18.21	  193.109.18.255  ff.ff.ff.00
  # isdn-interface
  61	  1	  194.141.147.1	  194.141.147.1	  ff.ff.ff.ff

       # ipswitch.rt   Routing table for IPSWITCH
       # Thanks	to info@cls.de *and* info@ins.de for their help	on a Saturday
       # evening ;-)
       # Note, how irq=0x60 is routed to the ethernet and the default route
       # goes out to isdn.
       #
       #       Network Routes
       60      0       193.109.18.20   0.0.0.0	       ff.ff.ff.ff
       61      0       0.0.0.0	       0.0.0.0	       00.00.00.00

  4.4.	Other useful software

  This section lists software that may be useful in the	contect	of
  building a router.

  4.4.1.  What is PCBRIDGE ?

  PCBRIDE allows a PC to be used as a bridge. As with PCroute there is
  built-in support for WD/SMC and packet drivers as well as SLIP.

  4.4.2.  How can I test my Packet-Driver/my ISPA ?

  For example with WatTCP (Waterloo TCP). Either start a Packet-Driver
  or an	ISPA on	any sw-IRQ. With the following sample configuration you
  can try and ping.

       C:\> type wattcp.cfg
       print="Sample configuration file"
       hostname=foo
       my_ip=193.141.56.7
       netmask=255.255.255.0
       nameserver=193.141.56.2			       : not compulsory
       domainslist=bar.de			       : not comulsory

       C:\> wd8003e 0x60 0x2 0x280 0xd000	       : load PacketDrv
       C:\> ping 193.141.56.6			       : ping.exe

  or

  C:\> ispa .....
  C:\> ping 193.141.56.6			  : ping.exe

  4.4.3.  What is cFos (Fossil)	?

  cFos,	by M. Winkler, C. Lueders

  cFos is an ISDN CAPI FOSSIL driver. It was written to	allow FIDO
  compatible  BBS,   mailer   software	 and   FOSSIL	supporting
  terminalprograms to easyly communicate via ISDN. It also  has	 a
  build-in INT 14h emulator. A list of	programs  that	work  with cFos
  can be found in the appendix of CFOS.DOC.

  See COPYING.CF/LICENSE.DOC for warranty and licensing	terms, see
  WHATSNEW for a revision history.

  Some features:

  o  uses the CAPI to access the ISDN hardware;	thus very flexible

  o  is	optimized for HIGHEST transfer speed: 7900cps!

  o  supports multiple ISDN channels in	one driver

  o  supports both X75 and V110

  o  has it's own AT command emulator; looks like a standard modem to
     the application

  o  has it's own superfast channel bundling, which is manufacturer
     independant with up to 4 B-channels resulting in more than	30k
     Bytes per second (we tested it !)

  The most recent version of cFos may be obtained at...

	      Zaphods BBS, Bonn/Germany, Sysop Chris Lueders

		  +49-228-262894   14400bps, HST/V32b	(fido 2:2453/30)
		  +49-228-9111041  64000bps, X75/V110	(fido 2:2453/33)

	  German Internet :				Directory:
	      GAK.RHEIN.DE	     [193.175.27.1]	pub/isdn
	      FTP.DFV.RWTH-AACHEN.DE [137.226.4.111]	/pub/network/isdn/cfos

	  German CompuServe:

	      See the TELECOM forum, area Data/ISDN or,
	      see the GERNET forum, area Telecommunication.

			  Christoph Lueders	  Martin Winkler
	  Fidonet:	  2:2453/30.1		  2:2453/30.6
	  Internet:	  chris@rhein.de	  winkler@zaphod.rhein.de

  4.4.4.  Are there free implementations of ISDN/IP for	Unix/Linux ?

  Yes. Two packages that I know	of exist. They are:

     Linux-ISDN	package	of Matthias Urlichs <mailto:urlichs@noris.de>
	Documentation in the German language only.

     isdn4linux	by Fritz Elfert	<mailto:fritz@wuemaus.franken.de> and
	Jan den	Ouden
	Isdn4linux consists of a link-level-module, low-level-module for
	ICN ISDN-cards and a low-level-module for Teles-Cards by Jan den
	Ouden.	Available at ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/
	Documentation and instructions are in English and German.

  4.4.5.  What is SLX ?

  SLX is a packet driver that uses the serial line as an interface.
  Contrary to SLIP the whole ethernet frame including destination and
  source addresses as well as the type field are transferred.  This has
  the advantage	that one is independant	of the IP protocol requires an
  individual ethernet address though. Available	from:

	   RzK Doris Koepke	Fax: 0 2683  4537
	   Postfach 1200	70126,1660@compuserve.com
	   53563 Asbach	Ww.

	   for DEM 25,-	(Single	license).

  4.4.6.  Where	do I find ethernet packet drivers ?

  From Crynwr.	If you are using Ethernet hardware you can probably find
  free packet drivers for your cards via anonymous ftp to
  ftp://sun.soe.clarkson.edu/pub/drivers or in
  ftp://oak.oakland.edu/pub/msdos/

  4.4.6.1.  What ethernet cards	have packet driver support ?

  This list was	extracted from the README for pktd11.zip.

	  3C501.COM	Driver for 3COM	3C501.
	  3C503.COM	Driver for 3COM	3C503.
	  3C505.COM	Driver for 3COM	3C505.
	  3C507.COM	Driver for 3COM	3C507.
	  3C523.COM	Driver for 3COM	3C523.
	  AR450.COM	Driver for Telesystems SLW ARLAN 450.
	  ARCETHER.COM	Driver for ARCNET simulates an Ethernet	driver.
	  ARCNET.COM	Driver for ARCNET.
	  AT&T.COM	Driver for AT&T	Ethernet and Starlan.
	  AT&T_LP.COM	Driver for AT&T	LanPACER/StarStation.
	  DAVIDSYS.COM	Driver for David Systems Inc Ether-T.
	  DE600.COM	Driver for D-Link Pocket LAN Adapter.
	  DEPCA.COM	Driver for Digital Equipment DEPCA.
	  EN301.COM	Driver for Multitech EN-301.
	  ETHERSL.COM	Driver for SLIP	that emulates an Ethernet driver
	  ETHIIE.COM	Driver for ICL EtherTeam16
	  EXP16.COM	Driver for Intel EtherExpress.
	  EXPRESS.COM	Driver for Mitel Express ISDN adapter.
	  HPPCLAN.COM	Driver for HP EtherTwist.
	  IBMTOKEN.COM	Driver for IBM Token Ring Adapter.
	  IPXPKT.COM	Driver for Novell IPX code (IP over IPX).
	  ISOLAN.COM	Driver for BICC	Isolan 4110-0.
	  ISOLINK.COM	Driver for BICC	Isolan 4110-2/3.
	  LOCALTLK.COM	Driver for Apple LocalTalk PC Card, Sun/TOPS
	  NB.COM	Driver for NetBIOS.
	  NCRET105.COM	Driver for NCR ET-105.
	  NE1000.COM	Driver for Novell NE1000.
	  NE2.COM	Driver for Novell NE/2.
	  NE2000.COM	Driver for Novell NE2000.
	  NI5010.COM	Driver for Interlan NI5010.
	  NI5210.COM	Driver for MICOM-Interlan NI5210.
	  NI6510.COM	Driver for Racal/Interlan NI6510.
	  NI9210.COM	Driver for MICOM-Interlan NI9210.
	  NTI16.COM	Driver for NTI 1002/DP-16.
	  SLIP8250.COM	Driver for SLIP	driver using IBM-PC 8250.
	  TIARA.COM	Driver for Tiara LANcard/E.
	  UBNICPC.COM	Driver for Ungermann-Bass PC/NIC.
	  UBNICPS2.COM	Driver for Ungermann-Bass NIC-PS/2.
	  WD8003E.COM	Driver for Western Digital WD-8003e.

  4.5.	Where do I find	ISDN hardware ?

  At BinTec and	netCS. (see: Addresses). You will also find hardware
  ISDN cards at	Teles, Diehl and many more.

  4.6.	CAPI error codes

  Here is a list of CAPI error codes, extended by the V.110 error codes.

	    0x0000: No error

	    0x1001: Error on API_REGISTER
	    0x1002: Illegal application-id
	    0x1003: Illegal message
	    0x1004: Illegal command or subcommand
	    0x1005: Queue is full
	    0x1006: Queue is empty
	    0x1007: Queue overflow
	    0x1008: Deinstall error
	    0x1009: Windows address error

	    0x2001: Illegal Controller
	    0x2002: Illegal PLCI
	    0x2003: Illegal NCCI
	    0x2004: Illegal type

	    0x3101: B-channel erroneous
	    0x3102: Infomask erroneous
	    0x3103: Serviced-EAZ-mask erroneous
	    0x3104: Serviced-SI-mask erroneous
	    0x3105: Illegal B2 protocol
	    0x3106: Illegal DLPD
	    0x3107: Illegal B3 protocol
	    0x3108: Illegal NCPD
	    0x3109: Illegal NCPI
	    0x310A: Illegal flags

	    0x3201: General controller error
	    0x3202: non-unique LISTEN_REQs
	    0x3203: function not supported
	    0x3204: PLCI inactive
	    0x3205: NCCI inactive
	    0x3206: B2 protocol	not supported
	    0x3207: can't select B2 protocol now
	    0x3208: B3 protocol	not supported
	    0x3209: can't select B3 protocol now
	    0x320A: illegal DLPD parameters
	    0x320B: illegal NCPD parameters
	    0x320C: illegal NCPI parameters
	    0x320D: data length	not supported

	    0x3301: D channel layer 1 setup error
	    0x3302: D channel layer 2 setup error
	    0x3303: B channel layer 1 setup error
	    0x3304: B channel layer 2 setup error
	    0x3305: D channel layer 1 shutdown
	    0x3306: D channel layer 2 shutdown
	    0x3307: D channel layer 3 shutdown
	    0x3308: B channel layer 1 shutdown
	    0x3309: B channel layer 2 shutdown
	    0x330A: B channel layer 3 shutdown
	    0x330B: B channel layer 2 reestablished
	    0x330C: B channel layer 3 reestablished

	    0x3400: Normal disconnect, no cause	given by network
	    0x3480: Normal disconnect, no cause	given by network
	    0x3481: Invalid CR value
	    0x3483: Bearer service not implemented
	    0x3487: Unknown caller identity
	    0x3488: Call Identity already suspended
	    0x3489: No channel available
	    0x348a: No channel available
	    0x3490: FAC	Code unknown in	this network
	    0x3491: requested service rejected
	    0x34a0: Outgoing calls barred
	    0x34a1: User access	busy
	    0x34a2: Nonexistent	CUG
	    0x34a3: Nonexistent	CUG
	    0x34A5: Invalid or unknown destination
	    0x34b5: Destination	not obtainable
	    0x34b8: Number changed
	    0x34b9: Out	of order
	    0x34ba: No user responding
	    0x34bb: User busy
	    0x34bd: Incoming calls barred
	    0x34be: Call rejected
	    0x34d8: Invalid destination	address
	    0x34d9: Network congestion
	    0x34da: Remote user	initiated
	    0x34f0: Local procedure error
	    0x34f1: Remote procedure error
	    0x34f2: Remote suspended
	    0x34f3: Remote not suspended
	    0x34ff: Local reject of User to User info

	    0x4001: Stollmann: too many	applications
	    0x4002: Stollmann: block size too large
	    0x4003: Stollmann: error on	init of	message	queue
	    0x4004: Stollmann: no PLCI cntl block available
	    0x40ff: Stollmann: function	not allowed in current context

	    0x4101: Verlust der	Frame-Synchronisation

	    0x4201: Stollmann: can't deinstall,	not on top of int chain
	    0x4202: Stollmann: can't deinstall,	application still active

  5.  Contact addresses

  This list of contact addresses is designed to	help in	contacting
  individual providers of software and/or hardware for running TCP/IP
  over ISDN.

     INS Christa Keil &	Andreas	Frackowiak GbR
	Gaswerkstrasse 11
	44575 Castrop-Rauxel
	Tel: 02305-356505
	Fax: 02305-25411
	info@ins.de

     CLS Wiljo Heinen
	Sternstrasse 2
	24116 Kiel
	Tel: 0431-9790161
	Fax: 0431-978126
	info@cls.de, heinen@cls.de

     Teles
	Kurfuerstendamm	207-208
	10719 Berlin
	Telefon: 030-8847-30
	TeleFAX: 030-8847-31
	sales@teles.de

     netCS Informationstechnick	GmbH
	Feuerbachstr. 47/49
	12163 Berlin 41
	Tel: 030-856999-0
	Fax: 030-8555218
	info@netcs.com

     PEM Programmentwicklungsgesellschaft fuer Microcomp. mbH
	Vaihingerstrasse 49
	70567 Stuttgart
	Tel: 0711-713045
	Fax: 0711-713047
	info@PEM-Stuttgart.de

     BinTec Computersysteme GmbH
	Willstaetterstrasse 30
	90449 Nuernberg
	Tel: 0911-9673-0
	Fax: 0911-6880725
	support@bintec.de

     Dr. Herbert Hanewinkel
	Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biochemie
	D-82143	Martinsried
	Tel.: (+49)89/8578-2735
	Fax : (+49)89/8578-2479
	heha@biochem.mpg.de

  6.  Resources	for IP over ISDN

  This section lists resource locations	and documents that may help in
  setting up an	ISDN line or in	setting	up anything based on ISDN :-)

     comp.dcom.isdn FAQ
	ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/

     Frequently	asked questions	about ISDN
	http://hssun4.cs.uni-sb.de/isdn/isdn-faq-1

     Die ISDN Seiten (the ISDN pages)
	http://www.informatik.uni-bremen.de/~henker/dank.html

     ISDN on Windows 95
	Excellent! Driver and software (CAPI) for use on Windows 95.
	http://www.snafu.de/~chris/

     Drivers and programs for ISDN (WIN95)
	http://www.snafu.de/~chris/isdn/files/file.htm

     ISDN and Windows FAQ (German)
	by Andreas Kuckartz <mailto:A.Kuckartz@ping.de>	is available at
	http://www.uni-mannheim.de/unima/rum/netze/isdn/

  7.

  Where	will I find the	ISDN/IP	FAQ ?

  The FAQ is posted periodically to the	de.comm.isdn, de.comm.internet,
  and de.answers newsgroups.

  You can also contact the FAQ maintainer by mail at isdn-faq@mens.de

  8.  Contributors and Credits

  Here is a list of the	contributors to	this document. I hope the
  credits are correct.

	  heha@biochem.mpg.de (Herbert Hanewinkel)
	  haug@seicom.de (Winfried Haug)
	  info@ins.de
	  info@cls.de
	  capi@friede.de (Dietmar Friede)
	  Matthias@DFG.oln.zer.de (Matthias Watermann)
	  achim@jat.sub.org (Joachim Astel)
	  chris@rhein.de (Christoph Lueders)
	  winkler@zaphod.rhein.de (Martin Winkler)
	  oli@odb.rhein-main.de	(Oliver	Boehmer)
	  juergen@hugo.rz.fh-ulm.de (Juergen Mueller)
	  Wolli.Steiner@gatekeeper.rhein.de (Wolli Steiner)
	  marsu@palumbia.in-berlin.de (Henrik Hempelmann)
	  Wilhelm Buehler <wb@roka.de>
	  Franz	Koepke <koepke@gmd.de>
	  Oli Kai Paulus <oli.paulus@cs.tu-berlin.de>
	  cross@cs.tu-berlin.de	(Carsten Rossenhoevel)

  These	pages where formatted from an SGML source using	the Linuxdoc-
  SGML DTD <ftp://ftp.cc.gatech.edu/pub/people/gregh/>.

  9.  Glossary

     V110
	Bitratenadaption, definiert bis	9600 Baud; verfuegbar bei den
	meisten	Terminaladaptern bis 38400, z.T. auch bis 57600	Baud
	Jedes Bit auf der V24 bzw. X21.bis Seite wird in ein Bit des
	64kBit-Stromes des B-Kanals abgebildet.	Bei einigen Implemen-
	tierungen koennen langsamere Geschwindigkeiten gemultiplext
	werden;	d.h. es	gibt mehere gueltige Abbildungen.

     V120
	Aehnlich V110, jedoch zusaetzliches Entfernen von Start- und
	Stop-bits im B-Kanal-Datenstrom. Daher ist die theoretische
	moegliche Datenrate (ohne Komprimierung) 76800 Baud.

     X75
	Aehnlich X25. Auf dem B-Kanal werden HDLC-Frames verschickt, die
	numeriert, bestaetigt und moeglicherweise an mehrere Prozesse
	geroutet werden	muessen.

     CISCO
	Ein Ethernet Frame wird	als ein	HDLC-Frame auf den B-Kanal
	abgebildet. Das	ist sehr effektiv, setzt aber voraus, dass der
	Frame als solcher gleich in den	Speicher des Rechner/Routers
	gelangt.

     CAPI
	Commen Application Program Interface. Ist eine Schnittstelle
	aehnlich Netbios zwischen Anwendungssoftare und	dem CAPI-Treiber
	im PC. Hatte CAPI von 1990 noch	eine Beschreibungsvolumen von
	40kByte, so sind es jetzt schom	ueber 1MByte. Es gibt ein
	Projekt	ROLAND,	das (gegen Geld) Schulungen und	Zertifizierungen
	macht.

     S0	Vier-Draht ISDN	Schnittstelle. Wird von	der Telecom nur	noch als
	Western	(RJ45) Schnittstelle installiert. Ein Einzelgeraet kann
	bis 1km	vom NT (Netzabschluss der Telecom) entfernt ueber die
	vier Draehte angeschlossen werden, bei Busbetrieb (mehrere
	Geraete	an der gleichen	S0) kann die Ausdehnung	max. 150m
	betragen.

     HICOM
	Die vorhandene HICOM in	der GMD, kann mit Zusatzaufwand	auch
	S0-faehig gemacht werden. Die von Siemens benutzten Protokolle
	sind jedoch mitunter nur muehsam und unter erheblichen Zeitver-
	lust auf 1TR6 bzw. Euro-ISDN abbildbar.	Die Anlage ist z.Zt.
	noch nicht Telecom-seitig ISDN-faehig. Im August 94 soll die
	Umstellung der HICOM-Anlage der	GMD erfolgen.

     1TR6
	Nationales ISDN-Protokoll. Wesentliche Eigenschaften, die es von
	Euro-ISDN unterscheidet, sind semipermantente Verbindungen und
	das Subadressierungsmodell. Bis	zu acht	Geraete	am S0-Bus
	koennen	von aussen direkt angewaehlt werden. Sie werden	durch
	die Endziffer unterschieden (EAZ). Der EAZ 0 und 9 kommt einen
	Sonderbedeutung	zu.

     DDS1
	Verschiedene Rufnummern	koennen	beim Euro-ISDN einem S0
	Anschluss beliebig zugeordnet werden. Anrufweiterleitung und
	andere Dienste koennen daher je	Rufnummer geschaltet werden. Es
	gibt aber auch keinen Global-Ruf.  Von der Telecom werden dem
	Euro-ISDN-Anschluss drei Rufnummern ohne Zusatzzahlung
	zugeteilt.

     Fossil
	Beim PC	ist im Bios der	Interrupt 14 fuer die Bedienung	der
	seriellen Schnittstellen vorgesehen. Da	dieser aber so schlechte
	Funktionalitaet	und Performance	zur Verfuegeung	stellt,	gibt es
	kaum ein Programm, das hierauf zurueckgreift. In der Regel wird
	die Hardware (der serielle Port	eines PC ist durch den schon zu
	Entwicklungszeiten des PC veralteten 8250 realisiert) direkt vom
	Anwendungsprogramm programmiert.  Der Fossil-Treiber ist der
	Versuch	einer Neudefinition des	INT14 dieses Bios-Dienstes.
	Voraussetzung zur Benutzung ist	natuerlich, dass das Anwendungs-
	programm diesen	nutzt. Bei Kermit ist dies z.B.	der Fall.
	Vorteil	ist immer dann zu erwarten, wenn man hardwareunabhaengig
	sein moechte. Durch Auswechseln	des Treibers kann dann dasselbe
	Programm ueber ein LAN oder ISDN genauso weiterverwendet werden.

     CFOS
	Ist ein	Fossil-Treiber (s.o.) der auf der CAPI Schnittstelle
	aufsetzt. Zusaetzlich emuliert er ein Modem. Die CAPI wird also
	ueber entsprechende AT-Befehle und S-Register gesteuert.

     ISPA
	Ist ein	Packet-Treiber,	der auf	CAPI aufsetzt. Er kann mit
	unterschiedlichen ISDN-Gegenstellen kommunizieren. IP-Pakete
	werden je nach Parametrisierung	in X75 Pakete, in V110 Streams
	mit Byte-Stuffing als auch in HDLC-Frames verpackbar.  ISPA kann
	auch F3/F5 als auch SLX	und SLIP.
     INT14
	siehe FOSSIL

     PAPI
	Ist ein	Packet-Treiber fuer SLIP und setzt auf der CAPI	auf

     Packet-Treiber
	gehen auf eine Definition von Ftp Inc. zurueck.	Die Definition
	ist Public Domain. Russ	Nelson hat fuer	die Packet- Treiber
	Implementierung	wichtige und vereinfachende Routinen
	geschrieben, so	dass sich der Schreiber	eines neuen Treibers auf
	die Software fuer seine	Hardware konzentrieren kann. Die Folge
	ist, dass die entstandenen Treiber wiederum im Source verfuegbar
	sind und verteilt werden.  Leider gibt es noch keine Packet-
	Treiber	fuer ISDN-Karten, die meisten der verfuegbaren Treiber
	wurden fuer Ethernet Karten geschrieben.

     ODI
	Treiber	haben dieselbe Funktion	wie Packet-Treiber; da die
	Definition von Novell stammt, sind sie fuer Netware
	gebraeuchlich

     NDIS
	Treiber	haben dieselbe Funktion	wie Packet-Treiber; da die
	Definition von Microsoft stammt, sind sie fuer den Lan-Manager
	gebraeuchlich.

     X21
	definiert die serielle Schnittstelle elektrisch	als
	differentielle Signale.

     X21.bis
	definiert die serielle Schnittstelle mit V24 Signalpegeln, auch
	fuer die Datenclocks.

     Service Indicator
	wird im	D-Kanal	uebertragen, um	den Typ	des Endgeraetes
	anzuzeigen. Telefon, Fax und Modem koennen z.B.	so dieselbe
	Rufnummer haben, und wissen dann jeweils selbst, wenn sie
	gemeint	sind. Interessant ist meist der	"additional" Service
	Indikator, der von den Teilnehmereinrichtungen mitgeschickt
	werden kann. Oft sind bei den verschiedenen Herstellern	die
	Bedeutungen unter- schiedlich. Daher ist es stets sinnvoll, wenn
	der Indikator von der Endanwendung parametrisierbar ist.

     T70.NL
	Ist ein	Protokoll oberhalb von X75 (siehe oben). Spielt	eine
	Rolle in Verbindung mit	BTX und	Euro-File-Transfer.

     SPV
	Die semipermanente Verbindung ist ein Angebot der Telekom,
	aehnlich einer Festverbindung bedarfsgesteuert zu einem	vorher
	bestimmtem Partner eine	Verbindung (zu einem monatlichen
	Festpreis) aufzubauen. SPVs setzen einen 1TR6-Anschluss	voraus.

-- 
    __  _____   __  __ 
   |  ||  _  \ |  \/  |    Jan-Piet Mens                Tel: +49-521-9225922
 __|  ||  ___/ |      |    Haendelstrasse 19            Fax: +49-521-9225924
|_____||__|    |__||__|    D-33604 Bielefeld                     jpm@Mens.de

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM