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[FAQ] FileMaker Pro - database for Macintosh and Windows
Section - 8 Miscellaneous Tips

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8.1   Removing password
 
 Contact Claris. They can do it for you, but it may take some time (> 2
 weeks). They have a form for you to fill out.
 The actual release is rather safe against hackers, but successful cracks
 were reported.
   
8.2   Undocumented features
 
 Shortcuts:
 Control-C exits a field (like clicking in the record area)
 Control-[ deletes the current field (like Select All & Delete)
 Control-_ selects within the field to the end of the field text
 (From Sam Malenfant <Sam_Malenfant@CARLETONBE.OTTAWA.ON.CA>)
 In the Define fields dialog, the default button changes to Done (instead
 of Create or Change) if you hit the delete key or erase the name of the
 selected field.
 (reported by JoelBowers@eWorld)
 Shortcuts that work both in ScriptMaker and Sort, Export/Import:
 Tab toggles control between the steps and the script
 In the steps, type the first letter to move to a step
 In the steps, use up and down arrow keys to move to next step
 When the step is highlighted, use the spacebar to trigger move step to
 script
 In the script, spacebar triggers the "specify" dialog for the
 highlighted script step
 To move a highlighted step up or down in the script, use command key +
 up/down arrows
 (From Sheila Kliewer)
 Script steps:
 A Copy[] line in a Script without a specific field when not in any field
 produces a tab and repeating-char delimited string of the whole record,
 which can in turn be pasted into a specific field (where for instance it
 might be parsed to get at Field'n' or Field'n'Repetition'm').
 (From Sam Malenfant <Sam_Malenfant@CARLETONBE.OTTAWA.ON.CA>)
 Invisible characters, such as tab or repeating-separator-29 can be
 pasted into a text field and used in calculations with Position() for
 instance to find and replace. With scripting or "default data", a field
 call TAB for instrance, might be useful for parses.
 (From Sam Malenfant <Sam_Malenfant@CARLETONBE.OTTAWA.ON.CA>)
   
8.3   Shortcuts
 
 A new tip for FMP3 for Macintosh:
 When in layout mode you can hold down the control key when selecting a
 layout object. Depending on the object, you will be presented with a
 popup menu of actions that you can take on that layout object. These
 include the text attributes, colors and formatting, setting of a
 portal's relations etc..
 Undocumented Shortcuts, most of them collected from FMP2.1 for Macintosh
 release:
 Control-C exits a field (like clicking in the record area)
 Control-[ deletes the current field (like Select All & Delete)
 Control-_ selects within the field to the end of the field text
 (From Sam Malenfant <Sam_Malenfant@CARLETONBE.OTTAWA.ON.CA>)
 In the Define fields dialog, the default button changes to Done (instead
 of Create or Change) if you hit the delete key or erase the name of the
 selected field.
 (reported by JoelBowers@eWorld)
 Escape is even faster...
 Shortcuts that work both in ScriptMaker and Sort, Export/Import:
 Tab toggles control between the steps and the script
 In the steps, type the first letter to move to a step
 In the steps, use up and down arrow keys to move to next step
 When the step is highlighted, use the spacebar to trigger move step to
 script
 In the script, spacebar triggers the "specify" dialog for the
 highlighted script step
 To move a highlighted step up or down in the script, use command key +
 up/down arrows
 (From Sheila Kliewer)
 Documented Shortcuts from the Quick Reference:
 c = /command/apple, o = option, s = shift
 * Layout Mode:
 Fields:
 Redefine a field on a layout                        o-double click
 Objects:
 Constrain resizing to horizontal or vertical        s-drag a handle
 Duplicate by dragging                               o-drag an object
 Move selected objects by one pixel at a time        Arrow keys
 Release grid while resizing                         c-resize
 Reset default format of an object                   c-click
 Squares object being resized                        o-resize
 Select all objects of same type                     c-o-A
 Parts:
 Drag selected layout part across objects            o-drag
 Reorder selected part                               s-drag
 Reorient part labels                                c-click
 T-square on/off                                     c-T
 Tools:
 Constrain line tool to horizontal or vertical       o-drag
 Constrain oval tool to a circle                     o-drag
 Constrain rectangle tool to a square                o-drag
 * Browse Mode
 Edit:
 Copy                                                c-C
 Copy found set                                      c-o-C
 Delete without confirmation                         c-E
 Delete without confirmation                         c-o-E
 Paste                                               c-V
 Paste without style                                 c-o-V
 Paste from last record                              c-'
 Paste from last record and move to next field       c-s-'
 (German release: use  instead of ')
 Move:
 Next field                                          Tab
 Previous field                                      s-Tab
 Next Record / Request / Layout                      c-Tab
                                                  or o-Tab
 Previous Record / Request / Layout                  c-s-Tab
                                                  or o-s-Tab
 Text:
 multiple for Align left/right/center/full, Bold, Italics, Underline etc.
 Next point size up                                  c-s->
 Next point size down                                c-s-<
 One point larger                                    c-o-s->
 One point smaller                                   c-o-s-<
 (how about the German keyboard where > is s-<?)
 Delete one character left of cursor                 Delete
 Delete one word left of cursor                      o-Delete
 Move cursor by one word                             o-Left/Right
 Move cursor to beginning/end of line                c-Left/Right
 Misc:
 Help                                                c-?
 Network dialog box                                  c-o-O
 Show/Hide status area                               c-o-S
 Zoom Window Full/Previous Size                      c-s-Z
   
8.4   Compatibility between DOS and Mac release
 
 There's not much problem about.
 Check the manuals, appendix E, "Cross-Platform Considerations".
 Have another look at
 <http://www.claris.com/TS/Featured/CrossPlat/Article.html>
 - take care to use 8.3 file names,
 - use the same fonts:
 Different fonts and small differences within the same font family may
 produce different display. Take care of proper alignment and use a
 little wider fields
 The standard setup of Mac contains Helvetica, while on Windows a similar
 font is named Arial (same for Times and Courier). There's a translation
 table to use the equivalent font. See [FontSubstitutes] section of the
 WIN.INI file, e.g.:
 [FontSubstitutes]
 Helv=MS Sans Serif
 Tms Rmn=MS Serif Times=Times New Roman
 Helvetica=Arial
 Monaco=Courier New
 Otherwise, the standard translation is
 PC                   Mac:
 MS Serif             Times
 Times New Roman      Times
 Times                New York
 Tms                  Rmn Times
 Courier New          Courier
 Courier              Monaco
 Commercial equivalent font packages are available.
 I recommend TTConverter to translate TrueType fonts between Mac and PC
 <ftp://ftp.switch.ch//mirror/umich-mac/util/font/>
 - Printing: expect slightly different results
 - Pictures: on PCs use the setting "Store Macintosh picture formats" to
 display as PICT on Macs;
 - other problems due to specific platforms:
 Differences in character sets (e.g. not equal, greater than or equal)
 and exact color mapping.
 Certain ScriptMaker commands work different (e.g. send mail, page setup)
 AppleScript is not supported on PCs, PC batch commands don't work for
 Mac.
 JPEG and QuickTime are special.
   
8.5   Buttons
 
 - You may use any text and picture within a layout as button. Select an
 object and use the menu Scripts / Define Button (for FMP2.1) to assign a
 script to the button.
 - Fields may not be used as buttons for FMP2.1. You may create a proper
 background for a field that looks like a button and place an invisible
 button above the field.
 For FMP3 you may group a field with a button function. This will not
 permit to select this field by mouse click, but by script or tab order
 only. There is no status function to detect what field you clicked on.
 If you need this information, you'll have to create one script per
 button & field.
 - An invisible button is an object that doesn't contain any visible
 information, e.g. a rectangular box without filling and outline.
 - Objects created by the layout tools of FMP get displayed very fast
 while using little memory.
 - Since the drawing capabilities of FMP are limited, you may take
 virtually any other application to create objects and to paste them on
 FMP layouts.
 - Objects created by other tools may use very complex picture formats
 and increase processing time and memory requirements. Take care to use
 the minimum resolution (e.g. 72 dpi for screen buttons), the minimum of
 components and the minimum color depth.
 - As an option you may design complete button areas and backgrounds by
 separate tools, paste them on a layout and place invisible buttons above
 the according area.
 * Example: The buttons of the [FAQ]FMP database (faq.fm) were created
 e.g. by drawings within FMP itself, designed at 400 %, displayed at 100
 %. The color depth was set to 16 colors by the control panel "monitors".
 Then a screenshot was made by cmd-shift-3. The screenshot picture was
 opened by SimpleText and a rectangular button selected and copied
 directly from that display, pasted to an FMP layout and defined as a
 button. The buttons were marked as non-printing objects.
 - Try to assign a different line color to a button. Thus you may get
 variations of a button easily. The greyed buttons within faq.fm were
 produced by assigning a dark grey to them. This function is gone for
 FMP3
   
8.6   Resources for dialog boxes
 
 (from Dale Saukerson <sauke001@GOLD.TC.UMN.EDU>)
 FileMaker is great, but I find myself doing excessive amounts of
 scrolling thru the various dialog boxes when revising a database'
 structure and layout. Many of the dialog boxes are minimal size, even
 for a small 14" monitor. To correct this, I used ResEdit to increase the
 size of the offending dialog boxes.
 Listed below are the numbered DLOG resources for common dialog boxes,
 for version 2.1v1 of FileMaker Pro for the Macintosh.
 By opening these, you can drag the elements around and increase their
 relative length, much like you would move objects around in a FileMaker
 layout. If you have even minimal ResEdit skills (like myself) you can
 easily perform the necessary modifications yourself with no fear of
 destruction of data. However, ResEdit is a powerful tool and could be
 dangerous in the hands of the ignorant, so the usual warnings apply.
 DLOG 514
 Script definition. Larger list of the script names shown when you select
 "ScriptMaker" from the "Script" menu
 DLOG 511
 Define scripts. Shows the individual steps assigned to a script. Now
 almost half of the possible script steps will be shown--two clicks of
 the mouse and you can
 see ALL of the script step choices. Nice.
 DLOG 5000
 Define fields. Create a larger list of the fields and reduce the amount
 of scrolling. Also allows you to see the full length of the name in the
 list of the fields instead of only in the "name" box portion of the
 dialog box.
 DLOG 5020
 Reorder layouts. View more of the layout names in the dialog box and
 minimize scrolling. Does NOT prevent trunctuating of the layout name in
 the layout name pop up menu portion of the toolbox area. Two mouse
 clicks to see all 67 layouts in my pet project database.
 DLOG 5022
 Sort records. View more of the field names before scrolling, though it
 is only a modest increase.
 DLOG 5039
 Specify field order for import. View more fields with less scrolling.
 DLOG 5040
 Specify field order for export. View more fields with less scrolling.
   
8.7   The special name "-" as list separator
 
 Whenever you use the "-" as a name, it may get displayed as a dotted
 line within popup list views. You may use it to group similar or related
 items. Within FMP you may use it for
 * Predefined value lists of fields
 Example for music storage media:
 (every value is within a unique line, separated by <Carriage Return>)
 CC
 CC 60
 CC 90
 CC 100
 -
 CD
 CD single
 CD maxi
 CD Box
 CD Set
 etc.
 * Field Names
 You may use the "-" as name, but it's not useful any more after you
 sorted by any type / name etc. I recommend to sort by name and group
 field names by a leading character or type, e.g. all parts of a name by
 Name, Name_First, Name_Title, Name_Sex, Name_SSN etc.
 Personally, I name fields for internal usage, such as date of creation
 or serial number, within rectangular brackets, e.g. [date_of_creation]
 I name calculation fields by a leading underscore, e.g.
 _previous_serial_number = [serial_number] - 1 (That's a useful construct
 to lookup values from the previous record)
 There is no need to compose names as a single word, but within
 calculations it's more useful just to double-click a name in order to
 highlight it. For that reason I use the underscore as delimiter.
 Others use e.g. a leading number or a leading character for the type of
 the field, e.g. C for calculations, S for summary.
 * Script Names
 The "-" is very useful to structure the display of lists. There may
 still be a real script behind this name. It may get called by other
 scripts as usual. Use an ordinary name first, then edit any other
 "perform script [name]" by selecting this script. You may change the
 name afterwards to "-" again, but the reference won't get lost (I assume
 the internal reference is not by name). BTW this works as well for
 layouts and fields.
 Warning: AppleScript references scripts by name:
 Do Script "-" -- will perform the first script that is named "-"
 * Layouts
 Here the name "-" is most useful to hide layouts that contain
 statistical fields or dialogs. You don't have direct access to them in
 browse, finde and preview mode. Thus a user won't get confused by that
 type of layout.
 You may grant access to those layouts when you create scripts and link
 them to buttons. As mentionned before use "Goto Layout [name]" by using
 an ordinary name first, then change the name to "-".
 My private solution is to jump to a layout by its number. For that
 purpose I use a field named [mark]:
 copy [select all, [mark]]  -- thus the field gets selected, its content
 gets buffered
 paste literal ["3"]  -- this is the number of a hidden layout
 go to layout [take number from field [mark] ]
 paste[select all, [mark]]  -- thus the original contents get pasted to
 [mark] again.
 Within layout mode you may select hidden layouts by entering the layout
 number, stepping through layouts by cmd-tab or dragging the handle of
 the book.
   
8.8   WWW, HTML and CGI
 
 How to link FileMaker Pro to the World Wide Web:
 First, you will need a Web Server, such as WebStar.
 Then, you will have to link FMP to it.
 One solution is direct exchange of data via AppleEvents, AppleScript or
 Frontier.
 The other solution is to create a html output from within FMP:
 * You may add html tags to fields by using simple calculations
 Example:
 _header = "<H3>" & header & "</H3>"
 _text   = "<P>"  & text
 Then export the html-formatted calculation fields instead of the
 original field
 * You may add or modify html tags by other applications
 Consider simple find/replace tools, mail merge export and formatting,
 AppleScript etc.
 * You may add all tags to a html layout and use this data
 The simple solution is to place the tags around the fields and use a
 layout dump, e.g. by preview/copy all (information as PICT), or by
 printing to a text file with Print2Pict.
 For further information check the sections on FMPRO-CGI and ROFM CGI.
 See also
 http://edb518ea.edb.utexas.edu/scripts/cgix/cgix.html
 http://www.uwtc.washington.edu/Computing/WWW/Mac/CGI.html
 http://www.biap.com/machttp/examples/fmpro.sit.hqx
 http://www.claris.com/TS/TIJ/fmcgi/article.html "Publish your database
 on the Web"
   
8.8.1  HTML text conversion
 
   
8.9   Comments within calculations
 
 Filemaker has no facility for this, yet it may [be] useful to annotate,
 in order to remember what the calc was supposed to do.
 Begin the calc field with:
   If(1=1 ,"","My solution") &
 (from jjl@knoware.nl (J. J. Lodder))
   If (1, "", "Your description") &
 should do as well.
 Another one is
   Left ("Yet another textual description", 0)
   
8.10   Empty fields
 
 Find empty fields:
 Enter an equal symbol as search parameter. This will check on exact
 match to virtually nothing.
 Number fields:
 Their value is zero when no numerical values are included. You may use
 other characters, but they won't get indexed. Thus a find on characters
 within a number field will fail.
 Calculation fields:
 A calculation does not take place when the fields it relies on are
 empty.. If (Test, "Yes", "No") thus will not produce a "No" while the
 Test is empty. Previous calculated values may get kept instead of
 deleted.
 "Important: If Test refers to a field that does not yet contain a value,
 then the If function is skipped and returns an empty result."
 (from the FMP User's Guide, A-25)
 You may force the calculation by forcing a value:
 - If (Qualifier & "x" = "x", "Yes", "No"). This will force the
 recalculation on existing, but empty fields, but it will still fail on
 new emtpty records.
 - Autoenter a value, e.g. default " " to Qualifier:
   If (Trim(Qualifier) = "" , "Yes", "No")
 Surprisingly enough, even by only marking the default value checkbox
 without data made it work
 - Use a special field, e.g. autoenter " " to a field named BLANK
   If (Qualifier & Blank = " ", "Yes", "No")
 FMP 3.0 offers options whether or not to calculate on empty fields.
   
8.11   Sort Order
 
 The general sort order of records is [0-9][A-Z].
 Any symbol that resembles an alphanumeric string gets sorted as its
 equivalent, e.g. both upper and lower characters A and a as A,  (=AE)
 as A,  (= copyright) as C.
 All other characters get ignored while sorting, such as leading strings.
 One special exception it the non-breaking space " " (character ID 220,
 option-space). It is sorted first. Next is the space itself, including
 all other characters that get indexed as space (see section on
 indexing). Last come empty fields.
 As a side effect you may find all filled fields not only by a search on
 omitting all empty records (find field with contents that match exactly
 nothing '=' & omit), but much faster by a search on greater equal 0 (
 0)
 If you'd like to sort case-sensitive, you may create an additional sort
 criterion, e.g.
 sort (calculation, result number) =
 If(Exact(Upper(Left(text,1), Left(text,1)), "1: upper", "0: lower")
 Then sort on text and sort instead on text alone.
   
8.12   Switch printers
 
 FMP does not offer a built-in option to switch printers.
 The Chooser is not scriptable itself.
 QuicKeys is capable of receiving AppleEvents out of FileMaker and has a
 very fast Chooser Switching utility.
 KeyQuencer can do that as well. However, KeyQuencer can't choose between
 network printers, just select a printer driver.
 Yet another tool: Tempo
 There is also an AppleScript extension (OSAX) called XCMD OSAX that will
 accept commands to change the printer driver. It's available at:
 http://www.scriptweb.com/scriptweb/osaxen/default.html
 "Basically, to choose a printer, just drop the osax into your Scripting
 Additions Folder (inside your extensions folder--you need Applescript)
 and then go to Filemaker 3.0 and create a script with an Applescript
 step like this:"
   Choose Printer DriverName "LaserWriter 8" PrinterName "My Printer"
 Zone "EtherTalk"
 (from Paul Fabris <pfabris@ASTRAL.MAGIC.CA>)
 "There is a OSAX called "Set Printer to" as part of the GTQ Scripting
 Library v1.2 that does this. You need AppleScript and the OSAX
 installed. Here is the OSAX library:"
 set printer to: chooses the specified device type
         set printer to  string  -- device type name
                 [named  string]  -- name of device
                 [using  printer port/modem port]  -- which serial port
 to use
                  (valid for serial devices only)
                 [zone  string]  -- zone where device is
 (from ehsan saffari <aa074@sfn.saskatoon.sk.ca>)
 Comment: the page setup is stored within the FMP ScriptMaker command
 "Page Size".
   
8.13   Error Codes
 
 An Error Code is available immediately after its occurence and may get
 requested by Status(Error Code),
 e.g. within scripts as
 If ["Status (CurrentError) <> 0"]
 The Error Code is lost after the next step, since the next step may
 return e.g. "0" again. Thus one may buffer the status to a certain field
 [Status Current Error] of type global/number:
 Set Field[[Status Current Error], Status (CurrentError)]
 Here is a list of error codes taken from the helputility of FMP3 (by
 romero@atlas.odyssee.net (Frank Romero))
 Errors:
 -1      Unknown error
 0       No error
 1       User canceled action
 2       Memory error
 3       Command is unavailable (e.g., wrong operating system, wrong
 mode, etc.)
 4       Command is unknown
 5       Command is invalid (e.g., a Set Field script step does not have
 a calculation specified)
 100     File is missing
 101     Record is missing
 102     Field is missing
 103     Relation is missing
 104     Script is missing
 105     Layout is missing
 200     Record access is denied
 201     Field cannot be modified
 202     Field access is denied
 203     No records in file to print or password doesn't allow print
 access
 204     No access to field(s) in sort order
 205     Cannot create new records; import will overwrite existing data
 300     The file is locked or in use
 301     Record is in use by another user
 302     Script definitions are in use by another user
 303     Paper size is in use by another user
 304     Password definitions are in use by another user
 305     Relationship or value list definitions are locked by another
 user
 400     Find criteria is empty
 401     No records match the request
 402     Not a match field for a lookup
 403     Exceeding maximum record limit for demo
 404     Sort order is invalid
 405     Number of records specified exceeds number of records that can
 be omitted
 406     Replace/Reserialize criteria is invalid
 407     One or both key fields are missing (invalid relation)
 408     Specified field has inappropriate data type for this operation
 409     Import order is invalid
 410     Export order is invalid
 411     Cannot perform delete because related records cannot be deleted
 412     Wrong version of FileMaker used to recover file
 500     Date value does not meet validation entry options
 501     Time value does not meet validation entry options
 502     Number value does not meet validation entry options
 503     Value in field does not meet range validation entry options
 504     Value in field does not meet unique value validation entry
 options
 505     Value in field failed existing value validation test
 506     Value in field is not a member value of the validation entry
 option
 value list
 507     Value in field failed calculation test of validation entry
 option
 508     Value in field failed query value test of validation entry
 option
 509     Field requires a valid value
 510     Related value is empty or unavailable
 600     Print error has occurred
 601     Combined header and footer exceed one page
 602     Body doesn't fit on a page for current column setup
 603     Print connection lost
 700     File is of the wrong file type for import
 701     Data Access Manager can't find database extension file
 702     The Data Access Manager was unable to open the session
 703     The Data Access Manager was unable to open the session; try
 later
 704     Data Access Manager failed when sending a query
 705     Data Access Manager failed when executing a query
 706     EPSF file has no preview image
 707     Graphic translator can not be found
 708     Can't import the file or need color machine to import file
 709     QuickTime movie import failed
 710     Unable to update QuickTime file reference because the database
 is read-only
 711     Import translator can not be found
 712     XTND version is incompatible
 713     Couldn't initialize the XTND system
 714     Insufficient password privileges do not allow the operation
 800     Unable to create file on disk
 801     Unable to create temporary file on System disk
 802     Unable to open file
 803     File is single user or host cannot be found
 804     File cannot be opened as read-only in its current state
 805     File is damaged; use Recover command
 806     File cannot be opened with this version of FileMaker
 807     File is not a FileMaker file or is severely damaged
 808     Cannot open file because of damaged access privileges
 809     Disk/volume is full
 810     Disk/volume is locked
 811     Temporary file cannot be opened as FileMaker file
 812     Cannot open the file because it exceeds host capacity
 813     Record Synchronization error on network
 814     File(s) cannot be opened because maximum number is open
 815     Couldn't open lookup file
 816     Unable to convert file
 900     General spelling engine error
 901     Main spelling dictionary not installed
 902     Could not launch the Help system
 903     Command cannot be used in a shared file
   
8.14   Get User's Name / Limit Access to Certain Users
 
 Date:         Wed, 10 Jan 1996 11:37:50 -0500
 From: Chris Moyer <fmpro@MINDSPRING.COM>
 Subject:      Re: Password Question
 Q: [...] limit access to people using the app to just those employees
 that work at that particular location. [...]
 A: Unfortunately, FileMaker 3.0 doesn't have a status function for
 current group or password, so that part is a little funky, but the rest
 is pretty straight up.
 To work around the lack of password status functions, you need to use an
 extremely modified variation on Michael Singer's old password trick.  In
 your case, you would set up groups that denoted location, then assign
 individual passwords to a specific group.  You need to create a
 calculation field for each group, with the calculation equalling 1, 2,
 3, 4, 5, etc. It doesn't matter what the values are, but they need to
 corresponds with whatever code you currently use to denote location in
 your Regular Location field.  You need to have one more field, a global
 field (either text or number format should work okay) called Location.
 In your Access Privileges, you need to set up groups for each location.
 For the purposes of this example, I'll refer to them as Location 1, 2,
 3, etc.  In the Access Privileges Overview, select the Location 1 group
 and shut off access to all the location calcs except its own.  Do the
 same for the rest of the location groups.
 In the ScriptMaker, you need to create a twisted version of a looping
 script called Startup (or Fred or Lulu - you can call it whatever the
 heck you want...) that has these steps:
 Allow User Abort [Off]
 Loop
 Set Field ["Location", "Location 1"]
 Exit Loop If ["Location>0"]
 Set Field ["Location", "Location 2"]
 Exit Loop If ["Location>0"]
 Set Field ["Location", "Location 3"]
 Exit Loop If ["Location>0"]
    etc....
 Exit Loop If ["Location=0"]
 End Loop
 Since you have access turned off for all of the location calculations
 except one, all of those Set Field commands except one will fail,
 returning a 0.  I stuck a final Exit Loop If global does equal 0 in
 there just so you can get out of the script if something went wrong.
 Hypothetically, that step should never get executed.  Just in case,
 though....
 If you had a ton of locations, you could make this into a regular loop,
 but you'd have to use a layout and the go to next field step, and
 another global.  This way's a little more bullet-proof.
 So...now you know what location a user belongs to, and they have no idea
 how you know, so they probably won't be able to figure out how to defeat
 your script even if they wanted to.  What good does the location do you?
 I'll tell you.  By using calculated validations, you can selectively
 lock records in a database that otherwise can be edited.  Suppose you
 have a Name field.  Go into Define Fields, click Options, switch to
 Validation options, select a calculated validation, and use this
 formula:
 Location = Regular Location
 That's it.  Set Strict Validation and give users a message explaining
 that they can only edit records for their location, and you're done.
 Oh, you do need to make that startup script a startup script in
 Preferences, but after that you're done.  You'll need to set this
 validation up for every field that you want to restrict entry on.
   
8.15   Use // as literal text
 
 The literal "//" within a text object is a place holder for the actual
 date. Other special characters are e.g. "::" for the time, "||" for the
 user name, "##" for the page number, "@@" for the record number.
 But you need "//" in URLs, such as
 <ftp://ftp.th-darmstadt.de//pub/database/filemaker-pro/faq.fm.sit>.
 FileMaker Pro does not support characters, such as the regular
 expression "\//", to escape a special meaning.
 But there are various workarounds:
 * place a space between both slashes: "/   /". When you format the space as
 font size 1 point it's almost invisible.
 * another solution is to use two separate text objects. The first object
 ends with a slash, the second objects starts with a slash: "text1/"
 "/text2"
 You may place them one aside the other so that no space between is
 visible. Tip: Verify the position by the position/size info and group
 both objects together.
 * Get the full URL or the double slash from a field.
 FMP3 permits the usage of a global field, e.g. Double Slash = "//" to
 store this value.
 FMP3 also permits the usage of merged text where you may place fields
 within a text's object environment: "text1 <<Double Slash>> text2".
 * headds@world.net (David Head) reported to select the text object, then
 assign to it the DATE format "none/none/none". This will use the actual
 date, but display it as //.
   
8.16   Faster Screen Redraw
 
 Here are some suggestions that may speed up the redraw of layouts:
 Fields:
 - Do not use border lines
 - Do not use background colors
 Fonts:
 - Use a minimum of different fonts and styles
 Picture Objects:
 - Use the fastest drawing type of object.
 - Objects drawn by FMP layout tools itself usually are optimized
   for that job
 - Objects drawn within other applications should be made
   as small as possible:
 - Use the minimum required resolution.
   Cuts from screenshots (cmd-shift-3, rectangles may be cut even
   within SimpleText) with 72 dpi are well suited.
 - Use the minimum required color map
   Personally, I switch to 16 color mode before I take a screenshot.
   This will reduce memory, increase speed and does not require any
   color mapping or dithering.
 - use the minimum of objects
 Example: you don't have to build a button from multiple drawing objects,
 or a group of buttons by single buttons, each defined as a graphical
 object and button of its own, but you may create them as a single
 picture object (with minimum requirements) and place transparent FMP
 objects  (e.g. rectangles or circles) as buttons above
 Other:
 - Don't use background part colors
 - Keep your layouts simple
 - Instead of layouts filled with all fields, use several special
   layouts with the required fields only
 - Use the minimum window size
 - hide unused applications and windows
 - Maybe using a compressed database copy or a resorted clone can
   speed up portals and lists.
 - Assign more memory to FMP3 (less useful for FMP2.1).
 - Use scripts to freeze the window while you modify multiple fields.
 Screen redraw of lists became slower for FMP3, compared to FMP2.1.
 "Use bring to front and send to back to layer things -
 - layer all your static graphics (and text) to the back
 - then layer all the local fields next
 - layer the related fields on top of everything else
 It won't actually reduce the total redraw time, but it will subjectively
 feel faster."
 (From: Eric Scheid <ironclad@planet.net.au>)
   
8.17   Date calculation
 
 As indicated before the internal representation of dates is a continuous
 number of days from 1.1.0001 on. This makes calculations on dates very
 easy, since you may use them just as numbers.
 The number of days between two dates is e.g.
    StartDate - StopDate
 A person's age thus may get computed e.g. by
   Status(CurrentDate) - Birthday / 365
 This will ignore the effect of leap years. A better estimation is
   Status(CurrentDate) - Birthday / 365.25
 The best suggestion, reported by  hp.robin@infoboard.be (Henri-Pierre
 Robin), is:
   Year(Status(CurrentDate)) - Year(BirthDate)
   - (Status(CurrentDate)  < DayofYear(BirthDate))
 It takes the boolean result 0 or 1 if the actual date is before the
 birthday date of the year, indicating that it's not a full year yet.
 For FMP3 you may use both Status(CurrentDate), perferable for the
 unstored calculation, and Today, that gets updated on opening a
 database.
 FMP2.1 only offers the time consuming Today function. This function will
 update the Today value within every calculation field and record,
 regardless whether you are interested in its value. As a workaround you
 should avoid the Today function, but use a scripted solution to paste
 the actual date whenever required to a suitable "ThisDay" field.
   
8.18   Displaying Data as a Table
 
 FMP is not a spreadsheet tool, but a record based database while there
 is little dependency between the lines. Thus building tables is not a
 simple job.
 You have various choices to display your data as a table. The normal
 format is to use a header line within a header part and display in list
 view the records below as the selected and sorted lines of a table.
 You may unify matching headers by subsummary parts. They get only
 displayed in a list when you print or preview a page that is sorted as
 specified for the subsummary part.
 When an object's topmost line touches a part, it belongs to this part,
 regardless how many other parts below it overlaps. This may get used to
 make an object, such as a field, drawing or label, as belonging to a
 header part, while it is displayed within the part below.
 For FMP2.1 you could group objects together and the topmost line of the
 group determined the part. This is gone for FMP3, but with merge text
 you may get a similar output.
 You then may build tables by multiple columns, e.g. to display in order
 [leading    ---------
   text       1  |  3
  object]    ---   ---
              2  |  4
             ---   ---
 Example: HTML table
 It may get used to produce the html source code for a WWW page.
 This object is within the header or subsummary part (pate break after
 every occurence):
   <HTML><HEAD><TITLE>My html database</TITLE></HEAD><CENTER>
   <table width=99% border=1 cellpadding=1 cellspacing=1>
 This single text object touches the header:
   </TR><TR><TD><B>Label1
   </TR><TR><TD><B>Label2 </B>
   </TR><TR><TD><B>Label3 </B>
 Now place single objects within the body
   <TD> [Field1]
   <TD> [Field2]
   <TD> [Field3]
 Those objects are on the same height as the labels that you want to use.
 As a multicolumn preview, printed e.g. to a file, you may obtain a html
 table with its central part similar to
 <TR><TD><B>Label1        <TD> 1.1 <TD> 2.1 <TD> 3.1 </TR>
 <TR><TD><B>Label2 </B>   <TD> 1.2 <TD> 2.2 <TD> 3.2 </TR>
 <TR><TD><B>Label3 </B>   <TD> 1.3 <TD> 2.3 <TD> 3.3 </TR>
 where "1.3" is the content of the third field of the first record. The
 text object </Table> should be somewhere in the footer.
 But what to do if you want neither a display by lines, nor by columns:
 FMP3 offers the mechanism of related records and portals. Thus a simple
 solution is to build a relation for every cell of a table and display
 the matching information within.
 Example: TimeTable
 Day: Monday
 Time:      8-9   9-10   10-11 ...
 room 1    user1  user2
 room 2           user3
 room 3
 You got one database "Table" that holds the table, another "Records"
 that holds the combinations:
 Day, Period, Room, User:
 Monday,  8-9, 1, user1
 Monday, 9-10, 1, user2
 A proper relation is e.g.
 Table:"Mon-08-1"  to Records:keyfield
 keyfield = Day & Period & Room
 (formatted with additional text operations)
 The second relation is
 Table:"Mon-08-2"  to Records:keyfield
 etc. up to
 Table:"Mon-17-99" to Records:keyfield
 You now place the related field user as
            8-9                9-10
 room1     [relation1::user]
 room2     [relation2::user]
 etc. Use the feature that you may convert a time period, such as "8-11",
 to three one-hour periods, separated by a carriage return for a proper
 many-to-many keyfield, resulting e.g. in
 "Tue-8-1Tue-9-1Tue-10-1"
 It's cumbersome to define all these single relations, but straight
 forward. But instead of many relations there may be suitable solutions
 that use portals and multiple rows as well.
   
8.19   Zoom window size
 
 In case you want to adjust and resize the window for an optimum size,
 maybe even while switching layouts, you may use the Toggle Window [zoom]
 command.
 Create an invisible "frame" the size that you want your windows to
 display. Use e.g. a rectangular object of the desired outer size with
 "line: none" and lock it.
 FMP will zoom to the outer edge of the frame.  Therefore, everytime the
 user goes to a different screen, they get the screen size that you want
 them to see.
 Of course there may be no other objects outside the frame. If you have
 to use some "hidden" fields, place them hidden or invisible e.g. at the
 top left edge.
 This auto-zoom solution counteracts the user who likes to manually
 resize the window. Thus you may perform e.g. a special "Zoom" script
 instead of the Toggle Window script command:
  If[GlobalZoom]
   Toggle Window[Zoom]
  End If
 Global Zoom here is a global number field where you may assign a boolean
 value whether or not to zoom windows.

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM