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alt.culture.tuva FAQ Version 1.49 [Part 1 of 2]

( Part1 - Part2 )
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Archive-name: cultures/tuva-faq/part1
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 2001/10/15
Version: 1.49

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Anyone wishing to take a shot at improving this should go ahead and send
the edited section along to me <>. Thanks to Bernard
Greenberg [BSG] for his numerous additions and edits and to Bernard Dubriel
[BD], Alan Shrives [AS], Kevin Williams [KW], Albert Kuvezin [AK], Dr
Oliver Corff [OC], Mike Vande Bunt [MVB], Ralph Leighton [RL], Masahiko
Todoriki, Alan Leighton, Ken Simon, and Sami Jansson.

                     Alt.culture.tuva FAQ Version 1.49,
                       Part 1 of 2 (October 15, 2001)

Table of Contents - Part 1:

1: How can I get a copy of this Frequently Asked Questions list?
2. Are there any WWW sites for Tuva?
3: What is Tuva?
4: What is all the fuss about?
5: How can I contact X in Tuva?
6: What's this about two voices from one singer?
7: Where can I find out more? (Friends of Tuva)
8: Are there any video tapes about Tuva?
9: Does anyone still collect the old Tuvan stamps?
10: What can you tell me about travel to Tuva?
11: How can I learn to sing khoomei?
12: How did the "Tannu" get into "Tannu Tuva"?

Table of Contents - Part 2:

13: Any recommended reading about Tuva?
14: Any recommended reading about Feynman?
15: Are audio recordings available?

Questions and Answers:

1: How can I get a copy of this Frequently Asked Questions list?
A: You're reading it, aren't you? :-) Save it! The FAQ is posted monthly to
the Usenet newsgroup alt.culture.tuva. The latest version is also available
online at the Friends of Tuva WWW site (see below for the location).

2. Are there any WWW sites for Tuva?
A: Try the Friends of Tuva site at

This has all of the old Friends of Tuva Newsletters, along with all kinds
of neat stuff like the HTML version of this FAQ and numerous photos.

Other recommended sites are:

   * Michael Connor's Tuvan rafting trip site at   feature
     photos from a rafting trip to Tuva in the summer of 1995.
   * Connie Mueller-Goedecke's Tuva pages at
     feature extensive info on Biosintes, the Shaman Exhibition, electronic
     and musical web cards from Tuva, examples of stone carving, Sainkho
     Namchylak's homepage with RealAudio, a report and photos from the
     shaman exhibition in Antwerp (1998), RealAudio from "Tarbagan Rises on
     the Earth" by Todoriki Masahiko and Saga Haruhiko, and much more.
   * The official Huun-Huur-Tu WWW site is at
   * The official Sainkho WWW site is at
   * The "Central Asian Studies World Wide" WWW page at provides some useful background
     information for the researcher in this area, as does the Leeds
     University Centre for Russian, Eurasian and Central European Studies

3: What is Tuva?
A: The Republic of Tuva is the former Tannu Tuva, a country in south
Siberia absorbed by the former USSR in 1944. Tuva was at one time an oblast
of Russia, and then the Tuvinskaya ASSR, and is now a member of the Russian

Tuva is arguably in the centre of Asia, nestled just north of Mongolia
between the Sayan mountains in the north and the Tannu Ola mountains in the
south, with an area of 171,300 square kilometres, somewhat larger than
England and Wales. Tuva lies between 89 degrees and 100 degrees east
longitude, and 49 and 53 degrees north latitude.

Tuva's population is 308,000 (about 64 percent Tuvan and about 32 percent
Russian). The capital city of Kyzyl (pronounced stressing the second
syllable) (population 75,000) lies at the confluence of two major forks of
the Yenisei River.

Tuva was known under its Mongol name of Uriankhai until 1922 and deserves
interest for the fact that it was twice annexed by Russia within 30 years
without the world paying the slightest attention. The first annexation came
in 1914 when Russia proclaimed Tuva a protectorate of Russia, and the
second time was in 1944 when the People's Republic of Tuva was transformed
into an administrative unit of the USSR.

Since 1992 the Republic of Tuva has been a member of the Russian
Federation, but this does not imply a large degree of independence from
Russia. As one would expect of a Russian republic, the working language in
the capital and other larger centres is Russian, but in the countryside and
in less formal situations the working language is Tuvan. The Tuvan language
is closely related to certain ancient languages (Old Oghuz and Old Uighur)
and modern ones (Karagas and Yakut). Tuvan belongs to the Uighur group of
Turkic languages, forming a special Old Oghuz subgroup with Old Oghuz, Old
Uighur, and Karagas.

The ethnic composition of the Tuvan people is complex, comprising several
Turkic groups, as well as Mongol, Samoyed, and Ket elements, assimilated in
a Turkic-speaking element. These ethnic traits (Mongol, Samoyed, Ket
elements) also apply to the language. There are many Mongol loan words in
Tuvan, and many words having to do with modern Western culture has been
borrowed from Russian. The Turkic elements are common to the Tuvan, Altai,
Khakas, and Karagas peoples.

4: What is all the fuss about?
A: In 1977 Nobel Laureate (Physics) and raconteur Richard Feynman asked
"What ever happened to Tannu Tuva?" One of his friends, Ralph Leighton,
helped Feynman turn their search for information on this country into a
real adventure, as explained in Leighton's book "Tuva or Bust". Feynman's
interest originated in the 1930's when Tuva, in a philatelic orgy, issued
many oddball stamps memorable for their shapes (diamonds and triangles) as
well as their scenery (men on camels racing a train, a man on horseback
with a dirigible above him, and so on).

When they looked Tuva up in the atlas, they saw that the capital was Kyzyl,
and decided that any place with a name like that must be interesting! They
also soon found out that a monument near Kyzyl marked the centre of Asia,
and that some Tuvans sang with 2 voices - one voice usually a lower drone
and the second voice a high pitched flute-like sound, both from the same
person. This information piqued their curiosity and things snowballed.

5: How can I contact X in Tuva?
A: If you have additional addresses to share, please send them in.

   * The Lyceum in Kyzyl can be reached at:
     16 Lenina Street,
     667001 Kyzyl, Republic of Tuva,
     Russian Federation
     tel: (39422) 3-65-30
   * The Lyceum's students have made the first Tuvinian web-site in Russian
   * Khoomei scholar Dr. Zoya Kyrgys can be reached at:
     Director, International Scientific Center "Khoomei,"
     46 Shchetinkin-Kravchenko Street,
     667000 Kyzyl, Republic of Tuva,
     Russian Federation
     Fax: (7) 394-22 3-67-22.
   * Anyone in Kyzyl can be FAXed at:
     Kyzyl Business Center: 011-7-39422 36722
     Keep in mind that the recipient has to pay a fee to pick up the FAX.

6: What's this about two voices from one singer?
A: It's called ``khoomei'', or throat singing, and numerous CD's are
available. This is not unique to Tuva - singers come from Mongolia as well,
and the Tantric Gyuto Monks of Tibet (now living in India), also practice
this two-note singing in their chanting. They also have several recordings

7: Where can I find out more (Friends of Tuva)?
A: Friends of Tuva is an organization headquartered in Tiburon, California,
founded and run by Ralph Leighton. It is a central clearing-house for
information about Tuva and Tuva-related merchandise.

The FoT newsletter is no longer available by mail, but is available only on
the WWW at the FoT site (see elsewhere in this FAQ for the address).

FoT also has a variety of wonderful things for sale, including many of the
recordings and videos listed here (recordings, books, maps, etc.). The
goods are very reasonably priced, and anyone seeking to learn more about
current news related to Tuva would do well to browse through the back
issues of the newsletters available on the WWW.

Friends of Tuva can be reached at:

     Friends of Tuva
     Box 182, Belvedere, CA
     94920, USA
     phone or FAX (415) 789-1177

8: Are there any video tapes about Tuva?
A: Yes, there are. Many of these are available from Friends of Tuva.

     1. The Pleasure of Finding Things Out

          A NOVA episode about Richard Feynman. It, as well as
          "Fun to Imagine" and "Last Journey of a Genius" are
          about Feynman, although the set of Tuva-heads and the
          set of Feynman-fans has a large intersection. FoT has a
          scheme through which the first two tapes may be rented
          in the USA; the third may be purchased. Last winter the
          BBC aired a 2-part special on Feynman (sorry, no Tuva)
          that was whittled down to one episode for broadcast in
          the USA under the title "The Best Mind Since Einstein".
          The longer English version is great.

     2. They Who Know: Shamans of Tuva

          A Belgian production in English featuring "45-snowy-I"
          Ondar Daryma.

     3. Tuva TV

          Over 7 hours of broadcasts from Tuva TV, all in colour,
          with a written guide to describe the action.

     4. Tuvans Invade America

          Alt.culture.tuva's own Jeff Cook had a large hand in
          this informal documentary on the visit of 3
          extraordinary Tuvan performers to California for the
          Rose Bowl Parade on January 1, 1993. (90 minutes,

     5. Lost Land of Tannu Tuva

          Another famous PBS show, narrated by Hal Holbrook.

     6. Throat Singing In Tuva

          This 30-minute documentary from the Tuvan Ministry of
          Culture (in English) features masters past, present,
          and future. Historical footage from the 1950s shows
          Tuvans appearing in Moscow for the first time;
          contemporary scenes show Kongar-ool Ondar (pre
          shaved-head) and some of his students, including
          Bady-Dorzhu Ondar.

     7. Tuva - Shamans and Spirits

          Tuva is the setting for the reemergence of ancient
          spiritual traditions after their near extinction under
          Soviet communist repression. From the capital of Kyzyl
          to isolated nomadic yurts in remote alpine mountains,
          the Tuvan people are rediscovering their indigenous
          Shamanic and Buddhist rituals and healing arts. A group
          from the West is invited to participate in the first
          public forum and display of previously forbidden
          practices. A good insight into Tuva's recovering
          shamanism after years of Soviet repression as well as
          an interesting Tuva travelogue.

          Produced in conjunction with the 1993 visit of
          Foundation for Shamanic Studies members to Tuva, the
          documentary was completed in 1994 but was not available
          to the general public (non-members of the Foundation
          for Shamanic Studies) until 1996, which is a shame; I
          would recommend this to all those interested in
          spiritual life in modern Tuva.

          The documentary is great. Filmed in Kyzyl, Todje,
          Chadaan, and elsewhere, it is a mini-travelogue of Tuva
          that showcases various landscapes of the country. I
          would highly recommend this for anyone who wants to see
          for themselves what Tuva looks like (albeit on TV).

          The video interviews numerous practitioners and shows
          them at work, explaining the significance of their
          dress or actions. The video is as realistic and
          life-like as can be expected without actually being
          there. The shamans are open and willing to share their
          histories and their feelings about their work; a man
          who is both a Buddhist monk and a shaman provides a
          unique insight on Tuvan attitudes towards health and

          55 minutes VHS videotape, completed 1996. $30US
          including tax, shipping, and handling within the USA.
          Contact: Tom Anderson, PO Box 1119, Point Reyes, CA
          94956, USA. Fax (510) 649-9719, or call (510) 649-1485.

     8. Tuva - Two Short Videos

          Ben Lange ( has produced two short
          videos made during his two visits to Tuva; one is a
          general video of little more than 7 minutes about the
          beauty of Tuva, and the other is about a winter
          ceremony by a female shaman (also little over 7

          These videos have been shown at the Ethnographic Museum
          in Antwerp, Belgium, since October, 1997, and they are
          available for purchase from Oibibio, the new-age centre
          in Amsterdam. The video is no available directly from
          the producer: NGN produkties O.Ph.(Flip) Nagler
          Korsjespoortsteeg 16 1015 AR Amsterdam Netherlands tel:
          +31 (0)20 638 2633 fax: +31 (0)20 638 9199

          The video format is PAL (NTSC can be arranged for North
          Americans). The price is 40 NLG (Dutch Guilders): 30
          for the video and 10 postal charges. Currently, this
          would be about US$20. People can obtain a tape by
          sending a money order to the producer in Amsterdam,
          with the amount given above and with their name and
          address. The tape will be mailed after receipt of the
          money order. Eurocheques are also accepted.   This tape
          is now available via the Tuva Trader.

9: Does anyone still collect the old Tuvan stamps?
A: Yes, many stamp collectors are devoted to the old diamond-shaped and
triangular stamps of Tuva from the 1920's and 1930's. These stamps feature
many fanciful images of people, animals, machinery, and nature (sometimes
all on the same stamp!).

TTCS member Eric Slone has produced The Tuva Files, a Windows and Mac
CD-ROM with philatelic information and other data. The philatelic contents
include high-resolution scans of Tuva's stamps (early and modern issues),
postal cancels, postal stationary, covers, postcards, a collection of Tuvan
philatelic literature featuring Blekhman's postal history of Tuva (in
English) and more. The many other items of interest to Tuva-philes include
Tuvan fonts, a nearly-complete archive of all posts to alt.culture.tuva,
the contents of a few WWW sites, several maps, and more. Contact the Tuva
Trader  ( for more information.

10: What can you tell me about travel to Tuva?


     BY AIR

     Some flight information is available online at .  This includes data
     on the fabled and feared Yak-40 jet airliners.

     In Moscow in 1995 it was possible to purchase a ticket to Kyzyl
     for about $150 US (cheaper than a flight from Moscow to Abakan,
     which costs about $250 US). As of February, 1998, the asking
     price according to Victor Akiphen is $500 US for the return

     The entity that used to be Aeroflot doesn't exist any more, and
     several smaller (more regional) airlines are filling in the
     holes; some even lease their planes from Aeroflot. The Aeroflot
     in Kyzyl is a different company than the one in Moscow, and
     that's still a different company from the one in Montreal.

     Yak airlines flies once a week to and from Kyzyl, from Moscow.
     There are stops both ways in Omsk, lasting about 1.5 hours. Route
     727 flies from Moscow to Kyzyl on Saturdays. Route 728 returns
     from Kyzyl to Moscow on Sundays. The quoted price is $148.00 each
     way (please note: in general, in Russia and the former Soviet
     Union, there is no such thing as a ``round trip rate''. Round
     trip is simply twice the one-way rate.

     The Yak Flight Director, Victor Akiphen(r?), is a nice guy, a
     mountain climber, and speaks some English. He can be reached in
     Moscow at 151-66-92 or 151-89-86, or by fax at 956-16-13, and
     will be happy to provide further info and assistance. By the way,
     Yak's planes are OK, and the service is pretty decent by Russian
     standards. If you contact Victor, please give him Steve Sklar's

     As of November 1997, there were weekly flights from Moscow to
     Kyzyl on Sundays, leaving Vnukovo Airport (take Bus #511 from
     Metro Station "Yugo-Zapadnaya"), at 21:45 (9:45pm) on "Yak
     Service" flight IB 727, arriving in Kyzyl at 08:15 Monday
     mornings. Flights from Kyzyl to Moscow are on Mondays at 12:25 pm
     ("Yak Service" flight IB 728), arriving in Moscow at 14:45
     (2:25pm) Monday afternoons. This is presumably the flight that
     previously departed Moscow Saturdays (listed above) and stopped
     at Omsk enroute to Kyzyl.

     As of April, 1999, Yak Service from Moscow Vnukovo to Kyzyl is
     now non-stop. Current cost is supposedly 1500 roubles (cheap like
     borscht!). Flights are still Sunday evening to Kyzyl, Monday
     morning to Moscow.

     Other flights are still available via Abakan. Khakkasia Airlines
     fly as follows to Moscow Domodedevo:

     Moscow to Abakan Wed, Fri, Sun, dep. 22:55, arr. 07:25 1450
     roubles Abakan to Kyzyl Mon, Wed, Fri, dep. 07:05, arr. 08:00 250

     Kyzyl to Abakan Mon, Wed, Fri, dep. 08:40, arr. 09:30 250 roubles
     Abakan to Moscow Wed, Fri, dep. 09:30, arr. 10:20 1450 roubles
     Sun, dep. 19:30, arr. 20:25 1450 roubles


     In Moscow, use the blue Aeroflot transit busses to go from any
     airport to the central Aerovokzal (Airstation) where you can
     either change to another bus to another airport, or get on the
     Metro (nearest is 'Aerport' station on the 'V. I. Lenin' - pale
     green - line). The Aerovokzal is next to the Aeroflot hotel.

     Busses to and from Vnukovo cost 12 roubles plus 3 roubles for
     luggage, take 70 minutes and leave hourly between 06:10 and

     Busses to and from Sheremetevo cost 12 roubles, 3 roubles for
     luggage, take 45 minutes and leave every hour between 07:15 and

     Busses to and from Domodedevo take 1 hour 40 minutes, cost 18
     roubles plus 5 roubles for bags and leave hourly between 06:30
     and 22:30.


     From Novosibirsk, trains head south to Abakan where there are
     frequent buses to Kyzyl. The bus between Abakan and Kyzyl takes
     about 7 hours and costs 85 roubles (as of April, 1999). Some
     prefer the daytime bus, not the overnight, to arrive in Tuva
     overland, and later leaving by air to get the morning bird's eye
     view. Be warned, the bus ride looks long and challenging.


     Bring lots of new bills. Outside of Moscow and a few other large,
     western Russian cities, they don't accept American Express. Or
     Visa. Or traveller's checks. Or anything. You must have 1990 or
     newer dollars, preferably very new, and they must be unwrinkled,
     untorn and unmarked if you don't want difficulties.

     Although the exchange rate in Kyzyl is theoretically higher than
     in Moscow, you may want to exchange at least some money in
     Moscow. In previous years Kyzyl's banks sometimes had no roubles
     to exchange.

     The exchange rate "on the street" in Moscow may be better than
     that in the bank in Kyzyl or via official channels in Moscow, but
     be careful. Exchanging money on the street is illegal and the
     penalty includes a fine as well as confiscation of your money.
     You also risk being cheated (robbed or given counterfeit bills)
     or you may get a worse exchange rate than that offered by the

     Recent travellers advise that when possible, you should exchange
     your money in a bank. Problems with the availability of roubles
     do not exist any more.

     As of the summer of 1998, there is an ATM in Kyzyl - in one bank
     only, for now. It is in a main street backyard establishment (ask
     for it, in front of OVIR and Bank of Tuva). It works with Visa


     Buy your maps in your home country, or in Moscow. Topographical
     maps are hard to come by in Tuva. When you meet people along the
     road and in villages, you will be proud to show off with your 1:1
     000 000 scale map from the US Defence Mapping Agency.

     The Lonely Planet guidebook for Russia is has seven pages on Tuva
     (seven among 1200) but they are useful and include a map of

     Some experienced travellers are now leading tours into Tuva. We
     can not give first-hand recommendations for anyone, but we will
     not list anyone who has not already travelled into Tuva.

        * Gary Wintz
             o 1247 Lincoln Bl. PMB 232 Santa Monica, CA 90401 tel/fax
               310.822.7908 email:
        * Sasha Lebedev
             o An independent guide who has worked with Catapult
               Adventures for 6 years. Email:


     You don't need to have Kyzyl listed on your visa any more, but it
     is advisable and will generate less hassle.

     There is a classical process to obtain a visa in order to travel
     freely through all Russia. The classical process makes it almost
     impossible to travel there independently and without personal
     invitation. The Lonely Planet guide for Russia has a section on
     visas. This section is very complicated but details the best
     (quickest) way to get a visa - this has worked for some
     correspondents but be warned that there is some question as to
     whether this approach is completely legal.

     Patience and flexibility are the greatest of virtues. Practice
     the mantra ``we will wait, and we will see''.

11: How can I learn to sing khoomei?
A: It's not easy; the best singers begin their training before they can
walk. However, it's not impossible to learn later.

        * Dan Bennett has volunteered his advice, reproduced below.
        * Steve Sklar ( has some online instructions
        * I also recommend an excellent pamphlet, "Khoomei - How To's
          and Why's" by Michael Emory, PO Box 648, Westbury, NY, USA,
          11590. Michael's illustrations, while not exactly helpful,
          are fantastic. His text is quite useful.
        * Teachers are available for seminars or workshops in North
          America. Steve Sklar is both reachable online
          ( and willing to travel to teach.

The absolute best advice was offered by Ralph Leighton, namely, listen to
masters and imitate.

How to Sing Khoomei (by Dan Bennett, )

Khoomei is easiest for men. I *have* heard a recording of a Mongolian
Kazakh women singing khoomei, but it's simply not so easy or spectacular,
because of the higher pitch of the female voice. (Sainkho Namchylak can
sing khoomei too.)

1. Sing a steady note while saying "aah" (to start with). Pitch it in the
middle of your range, where you can give it plenty of energy, i.e. - Sing
it loudly.

2. Aim to make the sound as bright - not to say *brash* - as you can. The
more energy there is in the harmonics, the louder and clearer they'll be
when you start singing khoomei. Practise this for a while.

3. OK, with this as a basis for the sound generation, you've got to arrange
your mouth to become a highly resonant acoustic filter. My style
(self-taught, but verified for me by a professional Mongolian khoomei
singer I had a lesson with in Ulaanbaatar) is as follows:

Divide the mouth into two similar-sized compartments by raising your tongue
so that it meets the roof of your mouth, a bit like you're saying "L".
Spread your tongue a bit so that it makes a seal all the way round. At this
point, you won't be able to pass air through your mouth. Then (my
technique), break the seal on the left (or right) side of the mouth, simply
to provide a route for the air to get through.

Then (here's the most difficult bit to describe over the net - or even in
person, for that matter!), push your lips forward a bit, and by carefully
(and intuitively) adjusting the position of your lips, tongue, cheeks, jaw,
etc, you can sing Mongolian khoomei!

Put it this way: the *aim* of the khoomei singer ("khoomigch") is to
emphasize ONE of the harmonics which are already present in the sound
generated by the throat. This is achieved because he is forming a resonant
cavity, which (a) is tuned to the chosen harmonic (overtone), and (b) has a
high resonance, or "Q" factor. By adjusting the geometry and tension of
your mouth you can choose which harmonic you're emphasizing, and thus sing
a tune.

12: How did the "Tannu" get into "Tannu Tuva"?
A: Several Mongolians and the band Ozum were asked about the word "Tannu";
they did not know the word or its source. Mongolians and Tuvans both
answered "it may not be Tannu, it must be Tangdy". They opined that it must
be a Tuvan term; it is certainly not Mongolian. Their guess is that Tangdy
is the word printed on some maps as "Tannu-Ola" (in Tuvan dictionaries this
appears as "Tangdy cyny" or "Tangdy-Uula"). As you may know, tangdy
(ta"ng"dy) means "high mountain" or "taiga surrounded by high mountain" in

Here is some supporting information, mainly from a book by S. A. Shoizhelov
(Matson), Tuvinskaya Noonday Republican, Moscow 1930. (Written in Oct.

Tuva was indeed called "Tang-nu Wulianghai". The Czarist Russians called
Tuva "Uryanhai". P. 29-30 of the above mentioned book talks about a
"Russo-Uryanhai regional meeting", in which, of course, a resolution was
passed. This meeting was after, and supposedly in response to, the February
Revolution of 1917. The meeting was held in Byelotsarsk, and was convened
by the Immigrants' Administration (Pereselencheskogo Upravleniya).  Kyzyl
was called  Byelotsarsk ("White Tsar Town") from 1914 until 1918, then was
known as Khem-Beldyr until 1926, and has been called Kyzyl since then.

Article One of this resolution refers to "Tannu-Uryanh[a]i", obviously a
corruption or Russianization of "Tang-nu Wulianghai".

Once the Russians decided to call the Tuvans "Tuvans" and not "Uryanhais",
then it was a natural step for them to quit calling the place
"Tannu-Uryanhai" and call it "Tannu-Tuva" instead.

In his discussion of the first meeting of the Party in Tuva, Natsov refers
to the "Tannu-Tuva", but then afterwards it is always simply "Tuva". At the
founding of the nominally independent state, it was called the Tannu-Tuvan
People's Republic, but that soon afterward, in just a few years, the
"Tannu" was dropped.

As we all know, the first Tuvan postage stamps, issued in 1926, have "Ta
Ty" for Tangdy Tyva on them. The next issue, from 1927, has just "Tyva".

Baylan Cannol, a systems engineer from Teeli, Tuva, confirms that yes,
"Tannu" is a corrupted form of "Tangdy". During the era of the Tannu-Tyva
Arat Republic  (TAR) there was a division of Tuvan people into several
parts, depending on where the Tuvan lived.  The distinct divisions included
the  "Tangdy Tyvazy" (those living in Tuva) and the "Kalga Tyvazy" (Tuvans
living in Mongolia).  In those times, Tuvans living in different areas had
more  relations with each other as one people. Since the union of Tannu
Tuva with Russia, Tannu Tuva has almost forgotten the Kalga Tyvazy and
other groups.

Baylan also confirms that 'Tangdy Tyva' doesn't correspond with 'Tangdy
Uula', and 'Tangdy Uula' is just a mountain in the south. The word "tangdy"
means the same as the word "taiga" (subarctic coniferous forests, which are
mainly in Tannu Tuva, not in Mongolia, China etc.).

[Heroic answers provided by Masahiko Todoriki and Alan Leighton with
addition commentary from Baylan Cannol.]

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