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CTOS O/S FAQ Version .09 (July 1999)


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From: catfromdarwin@geocities.com (Dale 'Cat' Robinson)
Newsgroups: comp.sys.unisys,comp.answers,news.answers
Subject: comp.sys.unisys/CTOS FAQ July 1999
Followup-To: comp.sys.unisys
Summary: This posting describes the CTOS Operating System, as marketed
by Unisys.
Reply-To: catfromdarwin@geocities.com (Dale 'Cat' Robinson)

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Archive-name: computer/system/unisys/ctos
Posting-Frequency: every three months
Last-modified: 13 July 1999
Version: .09
URL: http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Pines/4011/faq/CtosFaq.htm
Copyright: (c) 1997 - 1999 Dale 'Cat' Robinson
Maintainer: Dale 'Cat' Robinson <catfromdarwin@geocities.com>
Disclaimer: Approval for *.answers is based on form, not content.



The CTOS FAQ July 1999
=======================

CTOS FAQ Version .09 (July 1999)
This article is an FAQ about the Unisys CTOS OS.
CTOS is a client/server based OS which runs on Unisys and Bull
Equipment.
A HTMLised version of this FAQ may be found at the CTOS FAQ site,
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Pines/4011/

The following topics are addressed:

    0) What's New with this issue!

    1) What is CTOS?
  1.1) Operating Systems

  1.2) Common software shipped with a CTOS system.
1.2.1) Context Manager
1.2.2) Standard Software
1.2.3) Video Access Method (VAM)

  1.3) How are the version numbers styled?
1.3.1) What about the "internal" BTOS/CTOS OS version numbers?
1.3.2) What are the latest patch levels?

    2) CTOS Future?
  2.1) Why was CTOS dropped?
  2.2) What were/are the significant dates in the CTOS "Halt".

    3) The Default Boot Date
  3.1) Year 2000 compliant?

    4) Machine Types
  4.1) NGEN (B-Series)
  4.2) SuperGen (SG / SGS)
  4.3) Integrated Server
  4.4) Multiprocessor systems.
  4.5) SG's with IOP boards.

    5) NGEN Module Types

    6) Lan Networking
  6.1) Daisy chain
  6.2) Spur
  6.3) Telecluster
  6.4) Cluster cable pinouts
  6.5) For further details

    7) How quick are the various processors?

    8) Boosting Performance Under CTOS

    9) Unix for CTOS?

   10) Migrating Legacy Applications
       (Cypertech, Group 3 Developments, SOFIA)

   11) Web Resources
 11.1) Mailing list.

   12) Useful commands.
 12.1) TAPE EJECT
 12.2) ZIP ARCHIVE/UNZIP ARCHIVE

   13) Converting a PC into a CTOS machine.
 13.1) Is there new hardware available?

   14) Formatting LARGE disks (4GB).

   15) Author Contact Details

   16) Acknowledgements

   17) Disclaimer



0) What's New with this issue!
-------------------------------
CTOS II WILL run pSrvr on 286's, but is only supported on 386's.
Changed the HTML address for the FAQ.
Added section 2.1-Why was CTOS dropped?
Added section 2.2-What were the significant dates in the "Halt".
Added further information re. IOP styles.
Added details on NEW CTOS hardware.
Added details re. mailing list.


1) What is CTOS?
----------------
CTOS (Convergent Technologies Operating System) is a character based,
multi-processing, preemptive multitasking, true message-based,
microkernal OS. multi-user operating system developed by Convergent.
Convergent was formed in 1979, by a small group of ex-Intel and Xerox
PARC staff.  Unisys purchased Convergent Technologies in 1986.
CTOS was supplied by BULL & Unisys.
A very well written article about CTOS may be found at BYTE
(http://www.byte.com/art/9412/sec13/art2.htm).

BTOS (B Twenty Operating System) was a licensed variant of CTOS I.
BTOS II 3.2 & CTOS/XE 3.0 & CTOS/VM 2.4 were merged to form CTOS II
3.3.

I will briefly mention the four versions of CTOS, CTOS I, XE, II &
III.


1.1) Operating Systems
----------------------
CTOS I
Real mode operating system which ran on 808x/80186 processors.
No longer supported.

CTOS/XE
Version of CTOS which runs on the XE range of processors.
Current released version is R3.4.100.

CTOS II
Protected mode operating system which ran on 286 and later chips.
The server OS is only supported on 386 chips. Could address all
memory.
Current released version is R3.4.4. EMU release is s3.4.104.

CTOS III
CTOS III was the first CTOS to be able to use a PC-based hardware
platform.
Sure, this wasn't it's only claim to fame, but for those of us looking
for "new" hardware, it sure is a plus :-) .
CTOS III is a demand paging (Virtual memory) operating system.  Memory
is divided into 4k pages.  Each "protected mode" program has it's own
32MB address space.
Memory pages are swapped in or out as required.  CTOS III swaps in
more than just the requested (4k) page.  This is to boost performance.
The latest release of CTOS III, R1.3.1, included support for IDE
drives greater than 528MB, and Adaptec 15xx SCSI cards.  This release
makes it easier to use "non qualified" hardware.


1.2) Common software shipped with a CTOS system.
1.2.1) Context Manager
------------------------------------------------
Is the program which allows you to run many programs at once on your
desktop, and you are able to switch between them.
Simply put, it's a text based task manager.
Current released version is R5.1.


1.2.2) Standard Software
------------------------
Standard Software (STD-SW) are the command line programs for CTOS. An
analogy would be to the MS-DOS commands.
STD-SW contains programs such as Path (change node/disk/directory),
Files (list files in directories), Edit (editor) & Zip (file
archiving tool).
System special s12.3.157 provides support for 4GB disk formatting.
Current released version is R12.3.120.


1.2.3) Video Access Method (VAM)
--------------------------------
VAM are the video drivers for CTOS equipment. It is a separate product
but is included in standard software. The latest version allows you
use WYSIWYG on non-WYSIWYG screens, provided you are using the correct
video hardware.
s4.3.153 & s4.4.52 provide support for the S3TRIO chip (as used in
SG2800's).
Current release version is R4.4.


1.3) How are the version numbers styled?
----------------------------------------
The version numbers seem to be set out like this:
%majorversion.minorversion.patchrelease.

%
the release type.  This can be one of the following:

R - Released.
This means that it was released to the marketplace.

c - Customer request.
A Unisys customer has requested that a workaround, fix or additional
feature to added to a product.  And paid for it.  The "Span Disk"
option in Zip Archive is an example of this.  Often the change is
"reserved" for the requesting customer's use.

x - Maintenance.
A software patch that has been released for testing by the customer,
before it becomes an "s" release.

s - Engineer Maintenance Release (EMU / "Special")
A software patch to a "R" release.  Available on request.

a(??) / b(??) - Alpha/Beta releases.
Internal (to Unisys) test releases of software.


majorversion
the major version number.

minorversion
a "minor" version release within a major release.  This can be very
deceptive as a minor release might well include support for new
hardware and software.

patchrelease
a enhancement to the release product.  Did I almost say "bug fix"? :-)


1.3.1) What about the "internal" BTOS/CTOS OS version numbers?
--------------------------------------------------------------
CTOS has an internal version number which is available to the
programmer.  These may be found in the Procedure Interface Reference
Manual.


1.3.2) What are the latest patch levels?
----------------------------------------
Cypertech publishes a list of patch levels at
http://www.cybertech-india.com/unisys/



2) CTOS Future?
---------------
Nil.
Unisys is only providing software fixes, via Cybertech, as requested.
No new hardware is being produced by Unisys.
Unisys's statement on this may be found at
http://www.marketplace.unisys.com/aquanta/support/ctos.html
Cypertech have been offering Unisys customers their "CTOS Support
Services (CSS)" recently.  This is a combination of support and
migration services.


2.1 Why was CTOS dropped?
-------------------------
While no formal announcement was made, the "CTOS Program" was "halted"
on 30 October 1996.

This was due to a number of reasons:
* CTOS would not be able to adapt to new hardware without substantial
investment.
* CTOS was reliant on a number of specific chips that were becoming
difficult to source.
* Unisys were seeking to reposition themselves as solutions providers.


2.2 What were/are the significant dates in the CTOS "Halt".
-----------------------------------------------------------
 1 Oct 1997 - Hardware becomes subject to "availability".
 1 Nov 1997 - Hardware styles are discontinued.
31 Dec 1997 - Last(?) time CTOS hardware shipped?
30 Jun 1998 - Software becomes difficult to purchase.
            - Clustercard manufacture halted.
31 Dec 1999 - CTOS software support, by Unisys, discontinued.
            - Cypertech offers support.



3) The Default Boot Date.
-------------------------
Saturday March 1 1952 12:00am
Birthdate of Greg Walsh, CTOS architect
CTOS actually stores the date as the number of 12hr periods since
March 1, 1952.  The time is stored as the number of seconds since
midnight/noon.
The maximum date is November 16, 2041. The clock will roll over to 1
March 1952.


3.1) Year 2000 compliant?
-------------------------
Unisys states that CTOS is Year 2000 compliant, with some provisos.
For further details, please refer to
http://www.corp.unisys.com/Unisys/y2k.NSF
Bull has also stated that CTOS is compliant.  Further details may be
found at http://www.eis.bull.com/year2000/ctos/index.htm
Some Unisys systems (B39) would appear to have problems.



4) Machine Types
4.1) NGEN (B-Series)
--------------------
B21: (IWS) Original model. 8086 or 8088. CPU/disk/floppy
and monitor mounted side-by-side on base. Monitor
swivels. Guts in box with copy holder. Maximum
memory 512K (8088) or 1 MB (8086). Cluster is RS422,
runs at 307 Kbps. Was able to use multibus cards.

B22: (AWS) Original model, large disk in stand. 8086.
Had bitmapped monochrome video option. The disk
drive used an SMD interface. Up to 40 MB (!) per unit.
Cluster is RS422, runs at 307 Kbps. Used multibus card.

B24: Actually, came out after the B38. Cluster-only machine
(mostly used as bank teller workstations), no disk (an
option to use AT-bus based hard cards never made it to
market), no cooling fan. 80186 at 8mhz. 512K standard,
1M max. 1.8 Mbps cluster.

B26: (CP-001) First NGEN model. 6mhz clock. X-bus (some kind
of 16-bit wide Multibus with MCA characteristics, like
auto-identification protocol, etc.). 80186. 256KB base
memory expandable to 1MB with 256K cartridges. Video
options included: standard monochrome, 720x350; color
graphics. something like 800x600x16. Cluster runs now at
1.8 Mbps but is still RS422.

B27: (CM-002) First and only F-Bus model. 80186. Up to 1MB
memory. Burroughs made these at its Flemington, NJ plant
under license from Convergent. There was a module which
allows F-Bus and X-Bus modules to be used with each other.
Cluster speed is 1.8 Mbps, RS422.

B28-CPU: (CP-002) First 80286. 8mhz clock. 1MB base memory.
Memory upgrade slices were similar to B26's, but were
1MB in size. Maximum memory was 4MB.
Cluster speed was 1.8Mbps. Revision Levels AA-AK were
RS422, while AJ onwards was RS485.

B28-EXP: (CP-0E2) 80286, 8mhz. 2MB memory standard, expandable
to 14MB. The memory expansion boards (2MB in size) fitted
into a carrier board. Cluster speed is 3.7Mbps, RS485.

B28-EV: 80286, 8Mhz. 1MB Standard, expandable to 4MB.
Enhanced Video allow colour monitors to be connected.
A webpage with some details is here:
http://www.xs4all.nl/~rimmer/b28ev.htm

B28-LCW: 80286, 8Mhz.  2MB standard, expandable to 6MB.

B28-MCP: B28 with a maths coprocessor???

286I: Convergent B39-like unit.

B38-CPU: (CP-003) 80386, 16MHz. 1MB base memory, extra memory
in same 1MB cards as B28-CPU (hence 4MB total). Uses
standard X-Bus modules. 1.8 Mbps cluster, RS422.
Revision Levels AA-AK were RS422, while AJ onwards was
RS485. Later, B38-EXP/GXP/GXL accepted up to 14MB of
memory.

B38-EXP: Similar to a B28-EXP but with a 80386 processor(?).

B38-GXP: 20Mhz 80386. In-built graphics board. Required a
B25-VKA to drive a VGA monitor and keyboard.
Graphics could be expanded to GXL standard by adding
video memory (GC-004) board.
Cluster speed is 3.7Mbps, RS485.
(picture available at the CTOS FAQ Web Site)

B38-GXL:
25Mhz 80386 NGEN module with SVGA graphics, 3.68Mbps cluster
speed, and a slot for X-Bus expansion. Direct connection of
VGA monitors is supported without need of B25-VKA.
Built-in serialized bootrom for unique identification of
each processor. Keyboard connection via monitor or by
built-in mini-DIN. 2MB base memory expandable to 14MB.
(picture available at the CTOS FAQ Web Site)

B39: 80386. (Convergent: 386i) Started at 16mhz, later models are
reportedly 25 or 33. Designed as a server with extra memory and
CPU performance. Up to 32MB memory. Has base module with CPU,
memory, SCSI controller, floppy drive, and SCSI hard drive.
Has both X-Bus and SCSI connections, so can attach SCSI
expansion, SCSI upgrade, and X-Bus modules (SCSI upgrade
modules have their own controller, and can be used on B39 as
well as earlier X-Bus models).
Cluster speed is 3.7Mbps, RS485.
(picture available at the CTOS FAQ Web Site)


4.2) SuperGen (SG / SGS)
------------------------
The Supergen series of machines are PC based CTOS machines.
SG in front of a model number means it's a SuperGen workstation.
SGS means that it was produced as a Supergen Server.
Some SG/SGS's may use CTOS I/O Processor boards.

SG5000: This is the X-Bus+ model. It has a base module with CPU
(486), memory, floppy, and hard disk, and slots where extra
hardware can be inserted and removed.
The unit also has SCSI and X-Bus expansion ports.
The SCSI expansion port allows for the connection of extra
SCSI devices. One person reports seeing a PC SCSI expansion
successfully connected and working.
The X-Bus port allows for standard X-Bus modules to be
connected. One X-Bus+ option was a card envelope where
AT-style cards can be enclosed, then mounted on the X-Bus+.
Basic video adapter combines VGA/SVGA modes with native
CTOS modes. Cluster (RS485) runs at 4 Mbps.

SG2000: 25mhz 80386.  Unique In-House CTOS design.
Diskless. Used non-standard CTOS 1MB and 2MB Memory Cards.
Maximum memory 16MB.
CTOS video with capabilities to use standard VGA Monitor
with special adapter cable.


Later machines are ISA/EISA PC-based. Can use CTOS keyboards
provided a keyboard adapter is fitted.

SG1000:  Based on AST Laptop with Intel 386/25MHz CPU.
Monochrome and Color versions available.

SG1200: "Open Notebook" laptop. 25MHz 80486SL. 4MB standard,
expandable to 32MB under CTOS. Colour VGA screen.
Built-in trackball.

SG1600: 486DX4/100MHz small footprint unit.
Single ISA slot which is used by the 
CTOS SG262-C ClusterLAN card. Non Parity 72 pin SIMMs.

SG1650: Pentium 75MHz small footprint unit.
Single shared ISA/PCI slot which is used by the
CTOS SG262-C ClusterLAN card. Non Parity 72 pin SIMMs.

SG1655: Similar specs to SG1650 but with Pentium 133.

SG2400: 80486SX. 4MB standard, expandable to 16MB. 1 spare ISA
slot. 2 drive bays. VGA/SVGA graphics.

SG2421/2431: Intel 486/SX25 MHz (SG2421)
or Intel 486DX 33 MHz (SG2431).
Parity 30 pin SIMMs. Riser card with 2 ISA Slots,
1 slot used by SG260-C CTOS ClientCard. 
Supplied as Diskless system, case has bays for one 
3.5" Floppy drive and one internal 3.5" Hard Drive.

SG2500/SG2566:
SG2500 version with Intel 486SX/33MHz processor.
SG2566 version with Intel 486DX2/66MHz or AMD 486DX2/66MHz CPU.
Parity 72 pin SIMMs. 
1 Dedicated ISA slot, 1 Shared ISA/VL slot on Riser Card.
1 External 3.5" Floppy bay, 1 Internal 3.5"x1" bay.
Cirrus Logic Video and VL-Bus IDE controller and all I/O on M/B.

SG2600: Pentium 75MHz processor.
Non parity 72 pin SIMMs.
1 External 3.5" Floppy bay, 1 External 5.25" bay, 1 Internal 3.5" bay.

SG2601: Pentium 100MHz processor.
Non parity 72 pin SIMMs.
1 External 3.5" Floppy bay, 1 External 5.25" bay, 1 Internal 3.5" bay.

SG2700: 100Mhz Pentium with 16k/256k cache. 8MB memory standard,
expandable to 128MB. 1 ISA slot & 2 PCI/ISA slots.
Onboard 1MB SVGA video controller.
1 internal drive bay & 2 external bays.
Requires VAM patch to work correctly.
(picture available at the CTOS FAQ Web Site)

SG2750: 133Mhz Pentium. Details similar to SG2700.
Requires VAM patch to work correctly.

SG2800: 166Mhz Pentium MMX with 512k cache. 8MB memory standard,
expandable to 64MB. 1 ISA slot & 2 PCI/ISA slots.
Onboard 2MB SVGA video controller.
1 internal drive bay & 2 external bays.
In testing, I have found that a SG2800 client, networked to a
SGS4250 server, will out process a B38GXL server.
Requires VAM patch to work correctly.
(picture available at the CTOS FAQ Web Site)

SG2850: 200Mhz Pentium MMX. Details similar to SG2800.
Requires VAM patch to work correctly.

SG3000: 486SX/25 processor.
Processor upgradable to 486DX2/66.
1 external 3.5" Floppy Drive Bay,
1 Internal 3.5" Hard Drive Bay and 1 External 5.25" Bay.

SG3400: 80486DX or DX2. 4MB, expandable to 16MB. 2 spare ISA
slots. 3 drive bays. VGA/SVGA graphics.

SG(S)3431/3461:
Processor was 486/DX 33 MHz (SG3431)
or 486DX2 66 MHz (SG(S)3461).
Parity 30 pin SIMMs. 
Supplied as Diskless system, case has bays for 
one 3.5" Floppy drive, one external 5.25" Drive bay
and one internal 3.5" Hard Drive.

SG(S)3500:
Processor was either an Intel 486DX2/66MHz
or AMD 486DX2/66MHz.
Parity 72 pin SIMMs.
5 Dedicated ISA slots on Riser Card.
1 External 3.5" Floppy bay,
2 External 5.25" bays, 2 Internal 3.5"x1" bays.
Cirrus Logic Video and VL-Bus IDE controller
and all I/O on motherboard.

SG(S)3600:
Pentium 90MHz with Intel Triton I chip set.
No parity 72 pin SIMMs.
3 Dedicated ISA slots, 3 Dedicated PCI slots,
1 Shared ISA/PCI slot.
Maximum configuration is 7 cards,
but 1 must be used for video so only 6 usable. 
One ISA slot used by ClusterLAN card.
1 External 3.5" Floppy bay, 2 external 5.25" bays,
2 Internal 3.5"x1" bays. 
Dual IDE controllers and all I/O on motherboard.
SCSI support via SG103-A (Adaptec 1520)
or PCI200-SCS (Adaptec 2940 with 7870 chip).

SG(S)3650:
Based on same motherboard as SG3600. 
Pentium 133MHz with Intel Triton I chip set.
No parity 72 pin SIMMs. 
3 Dedicated ISA slots, 3 Dedicated PCI slots,
1 Shared ISA/PCI slot.
Maximum configuration is 7 cards,
but 1 must be used for video so only 6 usable. 
One ISA slot used by ClusterLAN card.
1 External 3.5" Floppy bay, 2 external 5.25" bays,
2 Internal 3.5"x1" bays. 
Dual IDE controllers and all I/O on motherboard.
SCSI support via SG103-A (Adaptec 1520)
or PCI200-SCS (Adaptec 2940 with 7870 chip).

SG(S)3700:
Pentium 166MHz with Intel Triton II chip set.
Parity 72 pin SIMMs.
3 Dedicated ISA slots, 4 Dedicated PCI slots.
Maximum configuration is 7 cards,
but 1 must be used for video so only 6 usable.
One ISA slot needed for ClusterLAN card.
1 External 3.5" Floppy bay, 2 external 5.25" bays,
2 Internal 3.5"x1" bays.
Dual IDE controllers and all I/O on motherboard.
SCSI support via SG103-A (Adaptec 1520)
or PCI200-SCS (Adaptec 2940 with 7870 chip).

SG(S)3750: Similar to SG3700 but with Pentium 200.

SG4000: 80486DX/33 or DX2/66. 4MB to 128MB. 5 spare EISA slots.
3 spare drive bays.
ATI 6880 video.
Adaptec 7770 SCSI controller.

SG4100: 66MHz 80486DX. Expandable to 128MB. 7 Spare EISA slots.
7 drive bays.AIC-7770 SCSI Controller. VGA/SVGA graphics.

SG4200: 133Mhz Pentium. 8MB standard, expandable to 256MB
DRAM. 8 Expansion slots (5 EISA/ISA, 2 PCI,
1 shared EISA/PCI). Onboard SVGA video controller
(Cirrus Logic CL-5430 chipset) with 512Kb memory.
Expandable to 1Mb. Onboard Adaptec AIC-7870 SCSI
controller. Six internal bays & 3 "visible" bays.

SG4250: 166Mhz Pentium. Similar to SG4200.
Performance testing indicates that a
SG4250 Server is over 20 times faster than a
similarly configured B38-GXL.
(picture available at the CTOS FAQ Web Site)

SG6000: 80486DX2. Upgradable to Pentium processor. 8MB to 128MB.
7 spare EISA slots. 7 drive bays. Adaptec 7770 SCSI controller.
VGA/SVGA graphics (ATI 6880).

SG6100: 60Mhz Pentium with 256Kb cache. 8MB Memory standard,
expandable to 128MB memory using TIN-PLATED SIMMS.
Eight EISA/ISA bus master slots (CTOS is only able to
use the first 7 EISA as bus masters).
Onboard SVGA video controller. Adaptec AIC-7770
dual channel SCSI controller (CTOS uses channel A).
Eight internal device bays, and three bays "visible"
(ie. F0, QIC, CDROM).

SG6101: similar specs to SG6100.  Housed in different
case.

SG7000: Pentium 60MHz. Similar specs to SG6000.

SG7100: 90Mhz Pentium (P54C style) with 512kb cache.
Similar to SG6100. Some models are able to become
Integrated Servers.
(picture available at the CTOS FAQ Web Site)

SG7101: similar specs to SG7100.  Housed in different
case.


4.3) Integrated Server
----------------------
A Unisys "CTOS Qualified" server which runs Windows NT
as the primary operating system.  CTOS III is run
underneath Windows NT.
Windows NT "owns" the resources, and allows CTOS
access to them.
CTOS executes on an IOP board.
Performance would appear to match that of a B38-GXL
server.


4.4) Multiprocessor systems
---------------------------
These were the first machines to use specialised processor boards for
different tasks.  A later development of this idea was the CTOS I/O
Processor boards, as used in some SG's.

SRP, a.k.a. XE520:
Released 1982. Floor-standing, monitor-less machine. Up
to 16 specialised processors, all of them 80186. Some
dedicated to disk IO, some to data communications, etc.
Outstanding switch or cluster master. Processors are
linked through a Multibus-based backplane.

XE550: Released 1983. Hybrid machine, ran CTOS as does the
XE520, but has up to 4 UNIX processors (Motorola 68K).
Same structure as XE520, made a lot funnier to the
hardware people by the need to accommodate Intel and
Motorola processors side-by-side. Good batch performance,
abysmal responsiveness for an UNIX machine. The version
of UNIX was called CTIX.

XE530: Released 1991. Intel 80386-based version of the XE520.
Can accept most processor boards of the XE520. Adds a
20mhz 80386 board. Each board has up to 128MB of ECC
memory, two DMA-driven serial ports, two SCSI ports, two
independent Cluster comms at 4Mbps each. An option
daughterboard allows for more options -- V.35, X.21, etc.
Up to 30 processors (!!), only 8 of which can have their
SCSI channels enabled.
Cluster speed is 3.7Mbps, RS485.


4.5) SG's with IOP boards.
--------------------------
CTOS I/O Processors (IOP) are processor boards which may
be fitted to later SG equipment to provide Cluster,
Communications, Ethernet or ISDN support. I would
describe them as an X-Bus module on a board, almost.
(well in concept anyway :-) )
The IOP types I know about are:
EN386 Ethernet IOP (Intel 386 based)
SG400-P RS232C IOP
SG410-C Ethernet IOP
SG420-P Token Ring IOP
SG430-P ISDN IOP
SG450-P Cluster IOP (Intel 386 based)
SG451 Cluster IOP (Intel 486DX66 based)

The idea is for the IOP to take some of the processor load
off the main CPU. And by all accounts, this works well.
Processing power of an IOP is approximate to a B28
(B38 in case of SG451).



5) NGEN Module Types
--------------------
Modules are the expansion boxes that may be used on the NGEN series of
processors (B26, B28, B38, B39).
Due to the large number of these module types, an incomplete list may
be found at:
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Pines/4011/misc-hw/modules.htm



6) LAN Networking.
-----------------
CTOS is a versatile product, supporting it's own LAN network protocol
(Cluster Lan), and having support for Ethernet and
Token Ring.

CTOS workstations (slaves) are connected to a server (master) via
cluster cabling. This can be done either by Daisy-chain, Spur or
Telecluster cabling.


6.1) Daisy-chain
----------------
Daisy-chain cabling is, simply put, a network cable running from
workstation to workstation, in a chain. Each workstation acts as a
link in the chain. Because of this, all workstations in the chain
(except the last one) must be connected for the chain to be held up.


6.2) Spur
---------
Spur cabling uses a backbone cable and each workstation taps into the
cable, by plugging into a Spur Box. The maximum supported speed is
1.8Mbps, unless you are using "TeleGartner Y Switch Boxes".


6.3) Telecluster
----------------
Telecluster cabling relies on a telecluster hub. Each workstation, and
the server plugs into the hub. The advantages are the cheapness of the
cabling (telephone cable) and the reliability. One workstation
shouldn't cause the cluster network to hang. The downside is that
older equipment requires a Telecluster Adapter (B25-TA3), and even
older equipment may require a power supply for each Telecluster
adapter.


6.4) Cluster cable pinouts
--------------------------
Cluster cable pinouts may be found in the MISC section of the CTOS FAQ
site.


6.5) For further details
------------------------
For more details on networking, and Ethernet/Token Ring connections, I
recommend the Unisys CTOS Cluster and Network Hardware Installation
Guide, stock number 4358 6940-xxx. It is invaluable when working with
CTOS equipment and cabling.



7) How quick are the various processors?
----------------------------------------
Sometime ago, I was asked how much faster is a SGS4200 over a B38-GXL.
Using Intel's iCOMP rating, I extracted the following figures:
Processor Increase over B38-GXL iCOMP Rating
B38-GXL - 49
SGS7100 1400% 735
SGS4200 2165% 1110
SGS4250 2569% 1308

Real life testing, with a SGS4200, was then done, and the leap in
performance is better than the 2165% predicted.



8) Boosting performance under CTOS.
-----------------------------------
Add more memory! CTOS seems to disk thrash if it doesn't have enough
memory. You would be looking at a minimum of 10MB for CTOS II Servers
& 16MB for CTOS III Servers. Running 16MB in later servers means you
cannot use the SG260V video card :-(.

Caching! Use a larger cache size. A well setup cache can dramatically
increase server performance. During testing of caching on a SGS7100, I
was able to get it to process quicker than a SGS4250, all due to cache
sizing. Unisys published two white papers on caching, they may now be
be found at the CTOS FAQ website.



9) Unix for CTOS?
-----------------
In the early days there was a product called Ctix.  While Ctix
progressed though many releases, it never found widespread popularity.



10) Migrating Legacy Applications.
---------------------------------
With Unisys dropping CTOS support in 2000, many people are looking to
convert their legacy applications. Here's a list of three vendors who
offer such a service:

Cypertech
http://www.cybertech-usa.com/
Offers a migration solution.

Group 3 Developments
http://www.home.aone.net.au/group3developments/
email: g3@c031.aone.net.au
Offers a set of tools which allows you to convert your Cobol, Pascal &
C source code to a MS Windows platform.

SOFIA
http://www.sofianet.com/
Offers SOFOS for Windows, a tool to convert Cobol, Pascal & C to MS
Windows.

Other vendors may be found here:
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Pines/4011/CTOSLINKS.htm



11) Web Resources
-----------------
Not that many unfortunately.  Two sites of interest would be:
CTOS Central:
http://www.angelfire.com/ga/paulmooney/ctos.html

The CTOS FAQ Web Site:
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Pines/4011


11.1) Mailing list
------------------
A fledging email list has been created.  It is a low volume list (1-2
postings a week) which I hope will contain CTOS news/trivia as I
stumble across it.
You may subscribe by writing an email to: ctos-subscribe@egroups.com



12) Useful commands
12.1) TAPE EJECT
-------------------
Ejects the tape in the tape drive (if the drive supports eject). It's
handy to use with automated backups, as you could set your batch job
to only eject the tape if your backup is successful. Included in
Standard Software R12.3.100


12.2) ZIP Archive/UNZIP Archive
-------------------------------
A utility which allows you to compress many files into one file (much
reduced in size). I was able to ZIP 100MB of ISAM data into a 12MB
file. ZIP/UNZIP was included in the Standard Software R12.3.100
release. R12.3.120 includes an undocumented parameter for disk
spanning. Disk spanning allows you to place one archive over many
disks. It is parameter 8, and valid entries are Y N .

A earlier "freeware" version of Zip/Unzip may be found here:
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Pines/4011/CTOS-SuperZip.htm



13) Converting a PC into a CTOS machine.
----------------------------------------
I have written numerous articles regarding setting PC's up as CTOS
machines.  In the interest of brevity, I'll just list the titles here:
* ASI Pentium II 350
* Dell Dimension V333c
* PC's that seem to work with CTOS
* Thoughts about "generic" PC's
* Turning PC's into CTOS Supergen machines.

The articles are located here:
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Pines/4011/CTOS-MISC.htm


13.1) Is there new hardware available?
--------------------------------------
YES!
PRAIM ( http://www.praim.com ) are offering the PRAIM P2000
workstation.  It is a diskless workstation based on the Pentium 75
processor.



14) Formatting LARGE disks (4GB).
---------------------------------
CTOS supports disks up to a maximum of 4.2GB.  To actually format to
this size though, you will require a STD-SW patch.  I would suggest
trying to obtain at least STD-SW s12.3.157 to attempt this.
Further details may be found at
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Pines/4011/misc-hw/largedisks.htm



15) Author contact details
--------------------------
The author may be reached by email at catfromdarwin@geocities.com.
The CTOS FAQ Web site is
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Pines/4011



16) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
-------------------
I would like to thank the message writers of comp.sys.unisys, who's
names I've misplaced and/or misspelled. If you know who
you are, and would like your name here, please write.
Many people (Balaji Srinivasa, Tom Herbertson, Bert Roseberry)
mentioned that Unix under CTOS was called Ctix, not Distrix.
Larry Glamb, Tim McCaffrey, Randall Gellens (who posted the basis for
section 4 back in Oct 1995).
Scott Emmons, Arthur Thorsen, Terry Stranathan, Paul Mooney.

"If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants."
- Sir Isaac Newton (amongst others)



17) Disclaimer
--------------
This article is provided as is without any express or implied
warranties.  While every effort has been taken to ensure accuracy of
the information contained in this article, the author assumes no
responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from
the use of the information contained herein.


Dale 'Cat' Robinson - catfromdarwin@geocities.com
13 July 1999

 ,-_|\  - Dale 'Cat' Robinson  Computer analyst/programmer,
/     \   Short, fat guy.  WHO said Pizza?
\_,-\_/   Sometimes, CTOS FAQ Author.
     v    "Being ordinary and nothing special is a full time job."
              CTOS FAQ Site: http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Pines/4011/

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