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Modula-2 FAQ/part2

( Part1 - Part2 )
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Archive-name: computer-lang/Modula2-faq/part2
Version: 2.33
Last-modified: 2009 05 07
Posting-frequency: Monthly

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
                 Modula-2 Frequently Asked Questions Part 2

4.1.1 Is there source or other info available on the net?
A. Here are some net sites I have accessed at one time or another. I am not=
 sure if all are still available or what is in them. ( Home of this FAQ)

WWW sites
guages/Modula_2/ large amount of Modula-2 source as well =
as the modified Mocka-on-Linux compiler (to accept def/mod files).

4.2 What other FAQs or lists of pages are available?

4.3  Where can I find graphics libraries, etc?
A. Try the PMOS library for various platforms at one of the following sites=
:  (North America)   (South Africa) (Western Europe)   (Eastern Europe).

4.4 Are there any mathematical libraries available?
A1. See Numerical Procedures in Modula-2 -- authorized translation of Numer=
ical recipes in Pascal from PolyWare (Klara Vancso):   (wor=
k) OR   (home) The CD-ROM has the Modula-2 sources. See htt=
p:// Note that sources given in this book are of the "quick and d=
irty" variety and cannot be sold as such, only in compiled form.

A2. LMathLib is a library that defines a number of mathematical functions f=
or Modula 2 programs. Unlike other libraries of the same kind, LMathLib pat=
ches the Modula 2 compiler. All library functions are inlined as assembler =
code for the Floating Point Unit. This results in faster code compared to t=
he traditional solution with subroutine calls. Due to this machine dependen=
t technique, you can use the library ONLY with the (free) GMD Modula System=
 Mocka for Linux on INTEL based machines. You can get the LMathLib library =
via anonymous ftp from
33) Documentation is included.

A3. MATHPAK 87/32 is available for most 32-bit compilers. A lite version fo=
r Canterbury M2 is freely downloadable from
 Written fully in INTEL CPU machine language
  Math Coprocessor control
  Basic Math functions
  Vector and Vector-Scalar Routines
  Vector and Vector-Scalar 'Skip' Procedures
  Complex Number Routines
  Complex Vector and Vector-Scalar Routines
  Polynomial Manipulation Routines
  Simple Matrix and Vector-Matrix Routines
  Solving Systems of Linear and Nonlinear Equations
  Unconstrained Minimization
  Nonlinear Least-Squares Minimization
  Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
  Singular Value Decomposition
  Extrapolation of Vector-Sequences
  Statistical and Data-Fitting Rountines
  Fourier Transforms and Convolution
  Spectral Analysis Routines
  Numerical Integration
  Differential Equations

4.5  Where can I get a Modula-2 to C converter?
A: The program mtc is available from
Several of the compilers available work or can work by producing C or C++ c=
ode and can also serve this purpose. See p1, XDS and Ulm's m2c (not the sam=
e as mtc) listings for examples.

4.6  Where can I get a Modula-2 to Component Pascal converter?
A.This is available from
Note: Component Pascal is an Oberon dialect, but the translator does not us=
e any CP specific features, i.e. generates standard Oberon-2.

4.7 Are there any Modula-2 applications around?
A. Besides the items mentioned in 1.11, the Idaho National Engineering Labo=
ratory (INEL) develops and maintains a now
 ~350,000 line MODULA-2 reusable component library called SAGE. For more in=
formation on SAGE send E-Mail to or see the web site =

4.8 Are there any compiler construction tools available?
A1. Some old ones appear in

A2. Coco/R generates recursive descent parsers and their associated scanner=
s from attribute grammars. Full source code, and a variety of simple exampl=
e applications are supplied in the distribution kits. The Modula versions (=
1.50 is the latest) are available from
o/ and the Java versions are there too, at
See also:
There are versions for the MS-DOS compilers (JPI, FST, Logitech, StonyBrook=
, Gardens Point), for the Mocka compiler for Linux and FreeBSD, as well as =
for the Gardens Point Unix compilers, including Linux and FreeBSD. There is=
 also a version that produces TurboPascal units very similar to the Modula-=
2 modules. This is also FreePascal compliant now. A port for the p1 compile=
r on Mac OS 9 is also available. Latest information is available at http://= Pat Terry's textbook "Compilers and Compi=
ler Generators" that uses Coco/R is now online at

A2. A copy of the EBNF for ISO Modula-2 can be found in Appendix 3 of the s=
hareware text at:

4.9 Is there an applications framework for Windows programming?
A. Try looking at or

This software is an application framework that implements a number of class=
es that encapsulate the weirdness of the Windows C API and attempts to pres=
ent it in a cleaner way to the Modula-2 programmer.

4.10 Does there exist something to convert a C header file to a Modula-2 DE=
FINITION MODULE file for me?
A. Try looking at the XDS Ltd site for the H2D freeware product on some pla=

4.11 Where can I get the C code of a Modula-2 compiler?

A. Most Modula-2 compilers are written in Modula-2. It seems
rather strange to me that one would want to trust the compilation of a
good language to a tool written in a poor one.

4.12 What language is the linker written in?

A. That depends. If the linker is system wide (designed for multiple langua=
ges) it could be written in almost any language. If it icomes with the Modu=
laq-2 package and is designed for linking files produced by a Modula-2 comp=
iler, it may well be written in Modula-2.

4.13 What can I do with  old sources from Modula Corp?

A. From the former president Richard Ohran ( "Modula Corp=
. is dead. Do whatever you like."

4.14 Are there source code examples anywhere for Windows programmers?

A. Translations of Example Programs in Charles Petzold's book "Programming =
Windows 95" from Visual C++ to Stony Brook and XDS Modula-2 by Peter Stadle=
r, Vienna can be found at:

4.15 Isn't there a Modula-Prolog project somewhere?

A. Try ABB Corporate Research and Carlo Muller, who may license it to you f=
or non-commercial purposes.

4.16 Is C. Lins SCL library available?

A. Yes, at

4.17 Can you help me with my assignments?
A1. Some people may give you hints, but please do not subvert your professo=
r and your education by submitting work other people do for you.

A2. Here are two answers submitted to the newsgroup in response to a desper=
ate student's plea for ANY Modula-2 program. The first is rather prosaic; t=
he second a little more imaginative:
MODULE homework;


    STextIO.WriteString ("I will do my own homework.");
END homework.

    int i;

    for(i=3D0; i100; i++)
        printf("I will do my own homework.\n");


Followup Question: Is that Modula-2? I just finished my first course in Mod=
ula-2 and that don't look at all familiar. I'm not looking forward to the f=
inal exam.
A. (Pat Terry) Computer Science changes sooo rapidly. Haven't you discovere=
d Modula-2++ yet?


5.0 Where can I get general information on algorithms?
A Try the site

5.1 Where can I get an algorithm for an efficient random number generator?
A1. Pierre L'Ecuyer: Efficient and Portable Combined Random Number Generato=
rs, Communications of the ACM, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 742-749. The RNG has a p=
eriod of approximately 2.3E+18. Generating 1 000 000 numbers per second, th=
at means that it would take over 73 000 years before it repeated a sequence=

A2.Look in the PMOS library. This one uses the 'Minimal standard random num=
ber generator' described by Park & Miller, CACM 31,10,Oct 88 p1192. The cod=
e has been checked for the 10001st random as specified in Park & Miller p11=
95. One site is:

A3. A pseudo random generator using the subtractive method taken from Knuth=
, Seminumerical Algorithms, 3.2.2 and 3.6, belongs to Ulm's Modula-2 System=
 that is distributed under the terms of the GPL (and in case of the library=
 under the terms of the LGPL). More informations may be found at  http://ww=

5.2 How can I prevent NIL pointer errors?
A.First guard your reference by writing
IF (myPointer # NIL) AND (myPointer^.fieldname =3D)...etc.

Because Modula-2 has short circuited Boolean expression evaluation, the fir=
st part guards the second from being evaluated inappropriately. Then, take =
the radical, unC-like step of checking your code design for the logical err=
or that led to the incorrect reference in the first place.

5.3 Why doesn't my IF statement compile?
A.See the example in the last subsection. Boolean expressions must be delin=
eated with parentheses.

5.4 Can I assume numeric variables are set to zero and Booleans to FALSE?
A. No. The values of variables are random until your code sets them. Declar=
ing does not initialize.

5.5 Why do conversions from real to whole types sometimes crash?
A.You need to protect your conversion code by using MAX (TYPE) and MIN (TYP=
E) which are part of the ISO Modula-2 base language.

5.6 Does a CASE statement always need an ELSE clause?
A. No, but it's not a bad idea, even if you think you have covered all the =
cases. If you have, a good compiler might optimize your code away, but if y=
ou haven't, you could be in for trouble.

5.7 What are the system types to which all other parameters  are compatible=
A.Just LOC and ARRAY OF LOC (one dimension). This does not work for multidi=
mensional arrays of LOC, and there are no defined BYTE and WORD types, thou=
gh implementations may include them as well.

5.8 How do I control the serial port, mouse, network card, TCP/IP or other =
communications protocol or peripheral?
A.These are system dependent, and no modules for this can be found in the s=
tandard. A vendor MAY supply them. Ask.

5.9 Does the object model for OO-Modula-2 have garbage collection or not?
A. BOTH traced (collected) and untraced (roll your own memory management) o=
bjects are available in ISO OO Modula-2.

5.10 What is the arity of inheritance for OO-Modula-2?
A. Single inheritance only.

5.11 What do you use the generic extensions for?
A. These allow you to write code for structures such as lists or queues, or=
 for routines such as a sort, without initially specifying the data types t=
hat are in the structure or the target of the routine. The initial module i=
s called a generic module. Such modules can be refined for the specific dat=
a types by a refining separate module (library) or a refining local module.

5.12 How do I clear the screen?
A. This non-standard functionality may be present in a module called Termin=

5.13 How do redirect screen and keyboard I/O?
A. This non-standard functionality may be present in a module called InOut =
or (in an extension to ISO versions) in RedirStdIO. The procedure to use is=
 OpenInput (or OpenOutput). Unfortunately these behave differently in every=
 version (one of the reasons we built a standard). Some versions produce a =
prompt at runtime, others take a file name. The latter may or may not requi=
re a file extension. They may look for the name as you have provided it and=
 if they don't find it, try with the default extension .txt Others have a w=
ay of entering the extension. You will have to consult the documentation.

5.14 Why use the colon before the type in a VAR declaration, and why have t=
he vertical bar as a case separator rather than a semicolon?
A. The se are both "syntactic sugar" to help the compiler know what it's do=
ing. For instance, if there were no colon in a type declaration, the compil=
er would not know the last identifier is supposed to be a type name because=
 it wouldn't know it was last until checking the next token. Lookaheads are=
 expensive. Also, there was no need for subsequent committees and designers=
 to change this from Wirth's definition. After all, there is no ambiguity h=


A1. A shareware text I have written (and that MAY be the only currently mai=
ntained English language instructional text on Modula-2) is available. See =
section 1.41.4.
A2.The manuals for some of the commercial products contain much useful info=

A3. The Gardens Point sites have documentation available (see their listing=

A4. A document called Modula-2 for Pascal programmers (Postscript,10 pages)=
 may be fetched by anonymous ftp at
The author has not updated the contents for a couple of years, so there may=
 be inaccuracies in terms of the current language standard.

A5. A variety of ETH papers are stored at in /doc/diss, /do=
c/tech-reports and /pub/oberon/docu

A6. What follows is a BIBLIOGRAPHY of some published materials in a table d=
elimited by two spaces between fields:

Author  Title  City  Publisher  Year  Subject

        Adams, J. Mack Gabrini, Philippe J & Kurtz, Barry L. An Introductio=
n to Computer Science with Modula-2  Lexington, MA  D.C. Heath & Co  1988
        Backhurst, Nigel G. Mastering Modula 2  Wilmslow  Sigma  1988
        Beidler, John & Jackowitz, Paul  Modula-2  Boston  Prindle Weber & =
Schmidt  1985
        Blaschek, G. & Pomberger, G. Introduction To Programming With Modul=
a-2   Springer-Verlag  1990
        Budgen, David  Software Development with Modula-2  Reading, MA  Add=
ison-Wesley  1989
        Carmony, Lowell A. & Holliday, Robert L. A First Course In Modula-2=
  New York  Computer Science Press  c1990
        Carroll, D. W. Advanced Modula-2 Programming for the IBM PC  XT and=
 AT  Elsevier  1986
        Chirlian, Paul M. Introduction to Modula-2  Beaverton, Or. Matrix P=
        Christian, Kaare  A guide to Modula-2  New York  Springer-Verlag  1=
        Cooling, J.E. Modula-2 for Microcomputer Systems    Van Nostrand Re=
inhold  1988
        Cooper, Doug  Oh My!  Modula-2!  New York  Norton  1990
        Cornelius, Barry  Programming with TopSpeed Modula-2  Reading, MA  =
Addison Wesley  1991
        Eisenbach, Susan & Sadler, Cristopher  Program Design with Modula-2=
  Reading, MA  Addison-Wesley  1989
        Elder, Jim   Compiler Construction: A Recursive Descent model  Heme=
l Hempstead  England:  Prentice-Hall  1994
        Etling, Don  Modula-2 Programmer's Resource Book  Blue Ridge Summit=
, PA  Tab Books  1988
        Feldman, Michael B. Data Structures with Modula-2  Englewood Cliffs=
, NJ  Prentice Hall  1988
        Ford, Gary & Wiener, Richard. Modula-2: A Software Development Appr=
oach  New York  Wiley  1985
        Gabrini, Philippe J. & Kurtz, Barry L. Data Structures And Algorith=
ms With Modula-2  Lexington, MA  DC Heath  c1992
        Gleaves, Richard  Modula-2 for Pascal Programmers  New York  Spring=
er-Verlag  1984
        Gough, K. John & Mohay, George M. Modula-2: A Second Course In Prog=
ramming  Englewood Cliffs, NJ  Prentice Hall  1988
        Greenfield, Stuart B. Invitation to Modula-2    Petrocelli Books  1=
        Harrison, Rachael  Abstract Data Types in Modula-2  New York  Wiley=
  1989 Wiley
        Harter, Edward D. Modula-2 Programming. A First Course  Englewood C=
liffs, NJ  Prentice-Hall  1990
        Helman, Paul & Veroff, Robert  Walls and Mirrors: Intermediate Prob=
lem Solving and Data. Modula-2  Menlo Park, CA  Benjamin Cummings  1988
        Hewitt, Jill A. & Frak, Raymond J. Software Engineering in Modula-2=
:  an object-oriented approach   London  Macmillan  1989.
Hille, R.F. Data Abstraction and Program Development Using Modula-2  Sydney=
  Prentice Hall  1989
        Hopper, Keith. The Magic of Modula-2  Melbourne  Prentice Hall  199=
        Johnston, Chris  Applying Modula-2   Academic Press  1991
        Jones, William C. Jr. Data Structures Using Modula-2  New York  Wil=
ey  1988
        Jones, William C. Jr. Modula-2 Problem Solving and Programming with=
 Style  New York  Harper & Row  1987
        Joyce, Edward J. Modula-2: A Seafarer's Manual & Shipyard Guide  Re=
ading, MA  Addison-Wesley   1985
        Kaplan, Ian & Miller, Mike  Modula-2 Programming  Rochelle Park, NJ=
  Hayden Book Co. 1986
        Kelly-Bootle, Stan  Modula-2 Primer    Howard W. Sams & Co. 1987
        King, K.N. Modula-2: A Complete Guide  Lexington, MA  D.C. Heath & =
Co  1988
        Knepley, Ed & Platt, Robert  Modula-2 Programming  Reston, VA  Rest=
on Pub. Co. 1985
        Koffman, Elliot B. Problem Solving and Structured Programming in Mo=
dula-2  Reading, MA  Addison-Wesley  1988
        Kruse, Robert L. Programming With Data Structures Modula-2 Version =
  Englewood Cliffs, NJ  Prentice-Hall  1988
        Lawrence, Mike  Modula-2 And The Amiga  Avant-Garde Software  1990?
        Leestma, Sanford & Nyhoff, Larry  Programming & Problem-Solving in =
Modula-2  New York  Macmillan  1989
        Lins, C. (Charles)  The Modula-2 Software Component Library Volumes=
 I-IV  New York  Springer-Verlag  1989-
        Mayer, Herbert G. Programming in Modula-2. the Art & the Craft  New=
 York  Macmillan  1988
        McCracken, Daniel D. & W. Salmon  A Second Course in Computer Scien=
ce with Modula-2  New York  Wiley  1987
        Messer, P. A. & I. Marshall  Modula-2 Constructive Program Developm=
ent  Oxford  Blackwell Scientific Publications  1986
        Metrowerks, Inc. Staff  Metrowerks Modula-2 Start Pak  New York  Ma=
cmillan  1990
        Mitchell, R. J. Modula-2 Applied   London  Macmillan  1991
        Mitchell, Richard  Abstract Data Types And Modula-2  A Worked Examp=
le Of Design Using Data Abstraction   Englewood Cliffs, NJ  Prentice Hall  =
        Moore, John B. & McKay, Kenneth N. Modula-2 Text and Reference  Eng=
lewood Cliffs, NJ  Prentice-Hall  1987
        Novak, M.M. Modula-2 in Science & Engineering  London  McGraw  1990
        Nyhoff, Larry & Leestma ,Sanford  Data Structures & Advanced Progra=
mming in Modula-2  New York  Macmillan  1990
        Ogilvie, John W. L. Modula-2 Programming  New York  McGraw-Hill  19=
        Pinson, Lewis Sincovec, Richard & Weiner, Richard  A First Course i=
n Computer Science with Modula-2  New York  Wiley  1987
        Pittman, Thomas & Peters, James  The Art Of Compiler Design Theory =
And Practice  Englewood Cliffs, NJ  Prentice-Hall  1992
        Pomberger, Gustav. Software Engineering and Modula-2  Englewood Cli=
ffs, NJ  Prentice Hall  1984
        Rechenberg, P. & M=F6ssenb=F6ck, H. (tr. O'Meara, John)  A Compiler=
 Generator for Microcomputers  Englewood Cliffs, NJ  Prentice Hall / Carl H=
anser Verlag  1989
        Riley, David D. Data Abstraction and Structures: An Introduction To=
 Computer Science II  Boston  Boyd & Fraser Pub. Co. 1987
        Riley, David D. Using Modula-2: An Introduction To Computer Science=
 I  Boston  Boyd & Fraser Pub. Co. 1987
        Sale, Arthur H. J. Modula-2: Discipline & Design  Sydney  Addison-W=
esley  1986
        Sawyer, Brian & Foster, Dennis. Programming Expert Systems in Modul=
a-2  New York  Wiley  1986
        Schildt, Herbert  Advanced Modula-2  Berkeley, CA  Osborne McGraw-H=
ill  1987
        Schildt, Herbert  Modula-2 Made Easy  Berkeley, CA  Osborne McGraw-=
Hill  1986
        Schiper, Andre; (tr. Howlett, Jack)  Concurrent programming: Illust=
rated With Examples in Portal, Ada, and Modula-2    Halsted Press  1989
        Schnapp, Russell L. Macintosh Graphics in Modula-2  Englewood Cliff=
s, NJ  Prentice-Hall  1986
        Sincovec, Richard F. & Richard S. Wiener. Data Structures Using Mod=
ula-2  New York  Wiley  1986
        Sincovec, Richard F. & Wiener, Richard S. Modula-2 Software Compone=
nts  New York  Wiley  1987
        Stubbs, Daniel F. & Webre, Neil W. Data Structures With Abstract Da=
ta Types and Modula-2  Monterey, CA  Brooks/Cole Pub. Co. 1987
        Sutcliffe, Richard J. Introduction to Programming Using Modula-2  C=
olumbus, OH  Merrill  1987
Sutcliffe, Richard J.. Modula-2: Abstractions for Data and Programming Stru=
ctures (Using ISO-Standard Modula-2) Mt. Lehman: Arjay Enterprises 1996-200=
0. (1996 09 16)
Sutcliffe, Richard J. Standard Generic Modula-2 (Document ISO/IEC/JTC1/SC22=
/WG13 D235) 1996 07 12
a2CD(1996 09 16)
        Sutherland, Robert J. The Professional Programmer's Guide to Modula=
-2  London  Pitman  1988
        Terry, Patrick D. An Introduction To Programming with Modula-2  Rea=
ding, MA  Addison-Wesley  1987
        Thalmann, Daniel  Modula-2: An Introduction  New York  Springer-Ver=
lag  1985
        Tremblay, Jean-Paul DeDourek, John M. & Daoust, David A. Programmin=
g in Modula-2  New York  McGraw-Hill  1989
        Tucker, Allen B. Jr. Computer science: A Second Course Using Modula=
-2  New York   McGraw-Hill  1988
        Ullmann, Jeffrey  Compiling in Modula-2 - A First Introduction To C=
lassical Recursive Descent Compiling   Hemel Hempstead  England: Prentice-H=
all  1994
        Ural, Saim & Ural, Suzan  Introduction to Programming with Modula-2=
  New York  Harper & Row  1987
        Walker, Billy K  Modula-2 Programming With Data Structures  Belmont=
, CA  Wadsworth Pub. Co. 1986
        Walker, Robert D. Modula-2 Library Modules: A Programmer's Referenc=
e  Blue Ridge Summit, PA  Tab Books  1988
        Ward, Terry A. Advanced Programming Techniques in Modula-2  Glenvie=
w, IL  Scott Foresman  1987
        Welsh, Jim & Elder, John  Introduction to Modula-2  Englewood Cliff=
s, NJ  Prentice-Hall  1987
        Wiatrowski, Claude A. & Wiener, Richard S. From C to Modula-2--and =
Back - Bridging The Language Gap  New York  Wiley
        Wiener, Richard  Modula-2 Wizard's Programming Reference  New York =
 Wiley  1986
        Wiener, Richard & Ford, G. Modula-2 A Software Development Approach=
  New York  Wiley  1985
        Wiener, Richard & Sincovec, R. F. Software Engineering with Modula-=
2 and Ada  New York  Wiley  1984
        Willis, Claire & Paddon, Derek  Abstraction And Specification With =
Modula-2  London  Pitman  1992
        Wirth, Niklaus  Programming in Modula-2 (3rd corrected ed.)  New Yo=
rk  Springer-Verlag  1985
        Wirth, Niklaus  Algorithms and Data Structures (1986 edition)  Engl=
ewood Cliffs, NJ  Prentice-Hall  1986
        Wirth, Niklaus  Programming in Modula-2 (4th ed.)   New York  Sprin=
ger-Verlag  1990
        Woodman, Mark et al  Portable Modula-2 Programming  Maidenhead, Ber=
kshire UK  McGraw-Hill  1989


Personal: I have used, written about, and taught Modula-2 (since 1983) and =
have maintained some of the information in this list for many years. I have=
 used at least a dozen different compiler/environments in that time on five=
 different platforms, and have written numerous articles and reviews for pu=
blication. I have been a member of the ISO committee WG13 (Modula-2 standar=
dization) since its inception and have participated in all the debates and =
meetings of WG13 except for meeting #9 at Lake Wanaka, NZ. I have written a=
 text on Modula-2 (now shareware), made numerous submissions to WG13 and di=
rected an implementation of the ISO I/O library in order to verify its conc=
epts. I am the author and project editor of Standard Generic Modula-2, and =
am involved in the effort to create Objective Modula-2.

(i) I take no responsibility for anyone's use or misuse of this information=
(ii) Apart from having been a beta tester, textbook writer, programmer and =
a long time user of Modula-2, I have no financial connection with any manuf=
acturer or distributor of software. I am the author of some Modula-2 materi=
als (some of which are shareware) as noted herein, and of various other boo=
ks. Some manufacturers may distribute my shareware on CD-ROM for a previous=
ly arranged fee, but that is not an endorsement of their products by me or =
of mine by them.
(iii) In producing this material, I am NOT acting in an official capacity f=
or TWU, WG13, ABC, IEEE, ACM, comp.lang.modula2, the GNU or Objective Modul=
a-2 efforts, or any other organization.
(iv) Mention of a book or product is NOT an endorsement unless specifically=
(v) Inclusion of materials on this list is based on relevance to Modula-2 a=
nd factual content and is otherwise entirely without prejudice. I reserve t=
he right to edit all submissions for brevity, clarity, and usage.

To remain authoritative, this and all versions of this FAQ are copyright 19=
91-2009 by Rick Sutcliffe and Arjay Enterprises. This document may be freel=
y copied and distributed provided it is not altered and no fee is charged w=
ith the exception of normal downloading or copying costs.

Compiled by:
Rick Sutcliffe (aka The Northern Spy)
Trinity Western University
7600 Glover Rd.,
Langley, B.C. Canada V2Y 1Y1
1 604 888-7511 Fax 1 604 513-2018

see my web pages at
Arjay Books
The Northern Spy
Arjay Web Services
Sheaves Christian Resources

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