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comp.groupware FAQ: Bibliography5: Frequently Asked Questions

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Archive-name: comp-groupware-faq/bibliography5
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 1995.4.4
Version: 3.2
Copyright: 1989 - 1995 (C) David S. Stodolsky, PhD

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Groupware Bibliography - Part 5

Group Memory Management
From: (Nils Bundgaard)
Newsgroups: comp.groupware
Subject: Re: Group Memory, Group Memory Management
Date: 15 Sep 1994 10:42:57 GMT

Thus spake (Marcus Klosterberg):

>Hi there,

>i am looking for information, papers, books or any other kind of contributions  
>about Group Memory and Group Memory Management. I need this literature for my  

You might benefit from "Organizational Memory", an article by James P
Walsh and Gedrado Rivera Ungsen trying to frame this
concept. Organizations is here groups of people, possibly large and
distributed, sharing a common goal. In Academy of Management Review,
1991, Vol 16, No 1, p57-91.

Subject: Re: Group Memory, Group Memory Management
Message-ID: <>

Hoffer & Valacich, "Group Memory in Group Support Systems:  A Foundation
for Design," in Jessup & Valacich (eds.) _Group Support Systems:  New
Perspectives_, MacMillan, 1993, pp. 214-229.

Information & Systems Management Dept, School of Business and Management
              The University of Science and Technology
                Clearwater Bay,  Sai Kung,  HONG KONG

From: (Munir Mandviwalla)
Newsgroups: comp.groupware
Subject: Re: Group Memory, Group Memory Management
Date: 16 Sep 1994 14:24:37 GMT

Sandoe, K., Olfmanl, L. and Mandviwalla, M. Meeting in Time: Recording the
Workgroup Conversation. Proceedings of the Twelfth International
Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), 261-271, 1991. 

In addition, there is a minitrack dedicated to Organizational Memory
in the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. If you have
access to the proceedings, there were a number of interesting papers
in that track last year. 

GDSS cultural impacts
From: (
Newsgroups: comp.groupware
Subject: Re: GDSS cultural impacts
Date: 6 Sep 1994 13:57:52 GMT

In article <34g2oj$> (AlexiaM) writes:
>From: (AlexiaM)
>Subject: GDSS cultural impacts
>Date: 5 Sep 1994 17:32:03 -0400
>With this in mind, do you have research, articles, people to contact which
>deal with the cultural issues of GDSS?
  For a discussion of and experiments involving people from the Confucian
culture, see:
  1. "A Comparison of Malaysian & American Groups Using a GDSS"  Aiken, et 
      al., Journal of Information Systems, in press.
  2.  "A Chinese GDSS" Aiken, et al., International Journal of Information
      and Management Sciences, in press.
  3.  "Using GDSS to Improve Meetings: Lessons for Korean Management,"
      Aiken, et al., International Journal of Management, in press.

   I have other papers currently under review on GDSS/culture.  Of
particular interest, I believe, is how Japanese people use a GDSS.  All
experiments with the GDSS involved subjects' written native languages.
I could find no other research on Confucian groups using a GDSS.

Groupware Apps analysis & design
From: (KWLyon)
Newsgroups: comp.groupware
Subject: Re: Groupware Apps analysis & design
Date: 5 Feb 1995 22:03:01 -0500

>In article <3gg65h$>
Vacca) writes:
>>>Groupware applications are rather different from classic data 
>>>management systems. They involve, among the others,  things like 
>>>coordination, workflow...
>In article <> I wrote:
>>I would suggest starting with the Wirfs-Brock book on object oriented
>>for learning about CRC and responsibility-driven design, then Design 
>>Patterns, and then the book on ROOM, (Called "Real-Time Object-Oriented 
>I should add that for designing coordination/workflow the Speech-Act
>would apply. Look for various references authored by Flores and/or
Another important way in which groupware apps differ from traditional
information system apps is that they deal with an entirely different set
of systems.  By this I mean that while traditional information systems
improve our business processes, groupware improves our human collaboration

We've been doing the former for 50+ years now, and most everybody expects
to be applying computers to business systems.  (By business processes, I
mean whatever processes are core to an organization; that is, that give
the org its identity.  So every org has it's business processes, even if
it isn't a "business.") 

But groupware addresses collaboration processes, and few organizations
focus very much attention on these processes.  Obviously, these processes
are necessary to get anything done, but we dont' pay attention to them. 
(Ask any human resources or organizational effectiveness person how much
line managers pay attention to them.  The answer is:  "Not much!")  

So....any application of groupware must deal with the fact that not only
do we not have much of a history of applying technology to collaboration
processes, we don't have much of a history of actually doing anything to
improve our collaboration processes in the first place.  

I see this as being much more a traditional "change management" problem
than it is a technology implementation problem.  I'll be giving a paper at
Groupware '95 in Boston on Monday, March 6, on how to use change
management techniques to get organizational buyin to groupware .  Hope to
see some of you there!  

As a resource, I'd recommend "Organizational Transitions:  Managing
Complex Change" by Beckhard & Harris, published as part of the Addison
Wesley OD Series.


Kenneth W. Lyon & Associates            (805) 658-7547
84 Saint Paul's Drive            Fax:  (805) 658-2193
Ventura, CA 93003           Internet:  KWLyon@AOL.COM

Virtual workgroups
Newsgroups: comp.groupware
Subject: Re: WANTED - Info on Virtual workgroups
Date: Thu, 04 Aug 94 15:30:52 PDT

I have found a good source of information is the new book Globalwork: Bridging 
Distance, Culture & Time by Mary O'Hara-Devereaux & Robert Johansen, 
Jossey-Bass, 1994 ISBN 1-55542-602-6.

Virtual Organizations
From: Andrew Luter <71672.2360@CompuServe.COM>
Newsgroups: comp.groupware
Subject: Re: REQUEST: Info on Virtual Organiza..
Date: 2 Feb 1995 14:56:38 GMT

You might want to look into the working of Chiat Day advertising. 
They have rolled out the most hyped version of the virtual 

There was a really great article about it in I.D. [Industrial 
Design] last month...and also one in Wired a few months back 
[sorry no dates]

They have taken a true look at the virtual environment both from 
a hardware/software viewpoint, as well as a workspace/environment 
point of view.

From: schneider@horus
Newsgroups: comp.groupware
Subject: Re: REQUEST: Info on Virtual Organizations
Date: Mon, 6 Feb 1995 11:20:59

In article <> Bruce Sorrell <> writes:

>Our organization is searching for information on the design and operation

try the classic (if you don't know already)
- William Davidow & Michael Malone: The Virtual Corporation, New York (Harper 
Collins) 1992,
and the brandnew
- David Birchall & Laurence Lyons: Demystifying the Virtual Organisation, 
London (Pitman) 1995.

Virtual regards,
Uli Schneider, Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme AG, Munich, Germany

Readings in Groupware and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
From: (Michael Morgan)
Subject: Baecker description

Readings in Groupware and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: 
	Assisting Human-Human Collaboration 

Written and Edited by Ronald M. Baecker (University of Toronto)

882 pages, 1993
ISBN 1-55860-241-0 

Morgan Kaufmann Publishers
340 Pine Street, San Francisco, CA 94104, 800-745-7323

Groupware is multi-user software that supports computer supported 
cooperative work (CSCW).  CSCW is computer assisted cooperative 
activity, such as problem solving or communication, carried out by 
a group of collaborating individuals.  Together, this technology 
and concept promise to revolutionize the use of computers.  This 
book is a comprehensive introduction to this rapidly expanding 

The papers in this volume represent the best of the published 
literature on groupware and CSCW.  They were chosen by the editor 
for their breadth of coverage of the field, their clarity of 
expression and presentation, their excellence in terms of technical 
innovation or behavioral insight, their historical significance and 
their utility as sources for further reading.  Taken as a whole, 
the papers and their introductions are a complete sourcebook to the 

This book will be useful for computer professionals involved in the 
development or purchase of groupware technology as well as 
researchers and managers.  It should also serve as a valuable text 
for university courses on CSCW, groupware and human-computer 

Expanded Table of Contents
Table of Contents	
Expanded Table of Contents	
I. Introduction	
1. Introduction to Computer Supported Cooperative Work	
	Groupware: Some Issues and Experiences
		Clarence Ellis, Simon Gibbs, and Gail Rein
	Computer Supported Cooperative Work: Cases and Concepts
		Mike Robinson
	CSCW: Four Characters in Search of a Context
		Liam J. Bannon and Kjeld Schmidt
	Being There: The Promise of Multimedia Communications
		David Brittan
2. The Adoption, Deployment, and Use of Groupware	
	Groupware in Practice: An Interpretation of Work Experiences
		Christine V. Bullen and John L. Bennett
	Building the Business Case for Group Support Technology
		Brad Q. Post
	Groupware and Cooperative Work: Problems and Prospects
		Jonathan Grudin
II. Behavioural Foundations and Enabling Technologies	
3. Human Behaviour in Groups and Organizations	
	Groups and Human Behavior (excerpt) from Groups: Interaction 
and Performance 
		Joseph E. McGrath
	Time, Interaction, and Performance
		Joseph E. McGrath
	How to Run a Meeting
		Antony Jay
	The Group Facilitator: A CSCW Perspective
		Stephen Viller
	Visual Communication and Social Interaction from The Social 	
		Psychology of Telecommunications 
		John Short, Ederyn Williams, and Bruce Christie
	A Typology of Tasks (excerpt) from Groups: Interaction and 	
		Joseph E. McGrath
	Communication Modes and Task Performance from The Social 	
		Psychology of Telecommunications 
		John Short, Ederyn Williams, and Bruce Christie
	A Typology of Organizational Structure
		Henry Mintzberg
4. Groupware Design and Evaluation Methodologies	
	Designing for Cooperation Q Cooperating in Design
		Morten Kyng
	Methods for the Study of Groups (excerpt) from Groups: 		
		Interaction and Performance
		Joseph E. McGrath
	Understanding Practice: Video as a Medium for Reflection and 	
		Lucy A. Suchman and Randall H. Trigg
	Ethnographic Workflow Analysis: Specifications for Design
		Danielle Fafchamps
	Grounding in Communication
		Herbert H. Clark and Susan E. Brennan
5. Case Studies of Cooperative Work
	How People Write Together
		Ilona R. Posner and Ronald M. Baecker
	Findings from Observational Studies of Collaborative Work
		John C. Tang
	Twinkling Lights and Nested Loops: Distributed Problem Solving 
		and Spreadsheet Development
		Bonnie A. Nardi and James R. Miller
	Analyzing Distributed Cognition in Software Teams: A Case 	
		Study of Team Programming During Perfective Software 	
		Nick V. Flor and Edwin L. Hutchins
	Informal Communication in Organizations: Form, Function, and 	
		Robert E. Kraut, Robert S. Fish, Robert W. Root, and 	
			Barbara L. Chalfonte
	Cooperative Support for Computer Work: A Social Perspective on 
		the Empowering of End Users
		Andrew Clement
6. Enabling Technologies and Theories
		Vinton G. Cerf
	Advances in Interactive Digital Multimedia Systems
		Edward A. Fox
	Sound Support for Collaboration
		Bill Gaver
	Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey (excerpts)
		Jeff Conklin
	What is Coordination Theory and How Can It Help Design 		
		Cooperative Work Systems
		Thomas W. Malone and Kevin Crowston
	CSCW and Distributed Systems: The Problem of Control
		Tom Rodden and Gordon Blair
III. Asynchronous Groupware	
7. Electronic Mail and Computer Conferencing	
	A Lesson in Electronic Mail from Connections
		Robert F. Sproull
	Computer-Mediated Communication Requirements for Group Support 
		Murray Turoff
	Increasing Personal Connections from Connections
		Lee S. Sproull and Sara Kiesler
	Electronic Groups at Work
		Thomas Finholt and Lee S. Sproull
	Work Group Structures and Computer Support: A Field Experiment
		J.D. Eveland and Tora K. Bikson
8. Structured Messages, Agents, and Workflows	
	The Information Lens: An Intelligent System for Information 	
		Sharing and Coordination
		Thomas W. Malone, Kenneth R. Grant, Kum-Yew Lai, Ramana 	
			Rao, and David A. Rosenblitt
	Object Lens: A Spreadsheet for Cooperative Work
		Kum-Yew Lai, Thomas W. Malone, and Ken-Chiang Yu
	Power, Ease of Use and Cooperative Work in a Practical 		
		Multimedia Message System
		Nathaniel S. Borenstein and Chris A. Thyberg
	Active Mail: A Framework for Integrated Groupware Applications
		Yaron Goldberg, Marilyn Safran, William Silverman, and 	
		Ehud Shapiro
	Computer Systems and the Design of Organizational Interaction
		Fernando Flores, Michael Graves, Brad Hartfield, and 	
			Terry Winograd
	Electronic Group Calendaring: Experiences and Expectations
		Beth M. Lange
9. Cooperative Hypertext and Organizational Memory	
	Hypertext and Collaborative Work: The Example of Intermedia 	
		George P. Landow
	Higher Levels of Agency for Children in Knowledge Building: A 	
		Challenge for the Design of New Knowledge Media 		
		Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter
	Issues in the Design of Computer Support for Co-authoring and 	
		Christine M. Neuwirth, David S. Kaufer, Ravinder 		
			Chandhok, and James H. Morris
	Building an Electronic Community System
		Bruce R. Schatz
	Capturing Organizational Memory
		E. Jeffrey Conklin
	Report on a Development Project Use of an Issue-Based 		
		Information System
		K.C. Burgess Yakemovic and E. Jeffrey Conklin
IV. Synchronous Groupware
10. Desktop Conferencing	
	WYSIWIS Revised: Early Experiences with Multiuser Interfaces
		Mark Stefik, Daniel G. Bobrow, Gregg Foster, Stan 		
		Lanning, and Deborah G. Tatar
	Design for Conversation: Lessons from Cognoter
		Deborah G. Tatar, Gregg Foster, and Daniel G. Bobrow
	Issues and Experiences Designing and Implementing Two Group 	
		Drawing Tools
		Saul Greenberg, Mark Roseman, Dave Webster, and Ralph 	
	Designing Group-enabled Applications: A Spreadsheet Example
		Irene Greif
11. System and Language Support for Desktop Conferencing	
	MMConf: An Infrastructure for Building Shared Multimedia 	
		Terrence Crowley, Paul Milazzo, Ellie Baker, Harry 		
			Forsdick, and Raymond Tomlinson
	Replicated Architectures for Shared Window Systems: A Critique
		J. Chris Lauwers, Thomas A. Joseph, Keith A. Lantz, and 	
			Allyn L. Romanow
	Collaboration Awareness in Support of Collaboration 		
		Transparency: Requirements for the Next Generation of 	
		Shared Window Systems
		J. Chris Lauwers and Keith A. Lantz
	Languages for the Construction of Multi-User Multi-Media 	
		Synchronous (MUMMS) Applications
		Ralph D. Hill
	Primitives for Programming Multi-User Interfaces
		Prasun Dewan and Rajiv Chaudhary
12. Electronic Meeting and Decision Rooms	
	Observation of Executives Using a Computer Supported Meeting 	
		Marilyn M. Mantei
	Liveboard: A Large Interactive Display Supporting Group 		
		Meetings, Presentations and Remote Collaboration
		Scott Elrod, Richard Bruce, Rich Gold, David Goldberg, 	
		Frank Halasz, William Janssen, David Lee, Kim McCall, 	
		Elin Pederson, Ken Pier, John Tang, and Brent Welch
	Electronic Meeting Systems to Support Group Work
		Jay F. Nunamaker, Alan R. Dennis, Joseph S. Valacich, 	
		Douglas R. Vogel, and Joey F. George
	Experiences at IBM with Group Support Systems: A Field Study
		Jay F. Nunamaker, Douglas R. Vogel, Alan Heminger, Ben 	
		Martz, Ron Grohowski, and Chris McGoff
	The Impact of Technological Support on Groups: An Assessment 	
		of the Empirical Research
		Alain Pinsonneault and Kenneth L. Kraemer
13. Media Spaces	
	Videoplace (excerpt) from Artificial Reality II
		Myron Krueger
	The Media Space: A Research Project into the Use of Video as a 
		Design Medium (excerpts)
		Steve Harrison and Scott Minneman
	Experiences in an Exploratory Distributed Organization
		Mark Abel
	Experiences in the Use of a Media Space
		Marilyn M. Mantei, Ronald M. Baecker, Abigail J. Sellen, 
		William A.S. Buxton, Thomas Milligan, and Barry Wellman
	Portholes: Supporting Awareness in a Distributed Work Group
		Paul Dourish and Sara Bly
	Telepresence: Integrating Shared Task and Person Spaces
		William A.S. Buxton
	Design of TeamWorkstation: A Realtime Shared Workspace Fusing 	
		Desktops and Computer Screens
		Hiroshi Ishii and Masaaki Ohkubo
	ClearBoard: A Seamless Medium for Shared Drawing and 		
		Conversation with Eye Contact
		Hiroshi Ishii and Minoru Kobayashi
	Disembodied Conduct: Communication through Video in a Multi-	
		Media Office Environment
		Christian Heath and Paul Luff
	Beyond Being There
		Jim Hollan and Scott Stornetta
V. Summary and Conclusions	
14. The Future of Groupware for CSCW	

Michael B. Morgan
Morgan Kaufmann Publishers
340 Pine Street
San Francisco, CA 94104 

Voice: 415)392-2665 ext. 305
Fax:    415)982-2665

Meeting Space
From: (Chris Hand)
Subject: Meeting Space (comp.groupware FAQ)
Date: Thu, 6 Apr 1995 22:20:07 +0200 (BST)

Interview with
Jon Callas (of WorldBenders) which also covers MeetingSpace:

C Hand, ``Meet me in Cyberspace''. Computer-Mediated Communication
Magazine, Volume 1 Number 5, September 1994.



David S. Stodolsky      Euromath Center     University of Copenhagen   Tel.: +45 38 33 03 30   Fax: +45 38 33 88 80 (C)

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