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COMP.SYS.CBM: General FAQ, v3.1 Part 5/9

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 - Part6 - Part7 - Part8 - Part9 )
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Archive-name: cbm-main-faq.3.1.p5
Comp-answers-archive-name: commodore/main-faq/part5
News-answers-archive-name: commodore/main-faq/part5
Comp-sys-cbm-archive-name: main-faq/part5
Version: 3.1
Last-modified: 1996/02/18



See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
  Table of Contents (for this file)
  ---------------------------------

   6.5.  What is electronic mail?
   6.5.1.  What are mailing lists and how do I join one?
   6.5.2.  What is a Mail Server?  How do I use one?
   6.5.3.  How do I contact people on Compuserve, Genie, etc.?
   6.6.  What is USENET or NetNews?  What is a USENET newsgroup?
   6.6.1.  What news groups cater to Commodore 8-bit machines? 
   6.6.2.  What types of discussions belong in comp.sys.cbm?
   6.6.3.  Which issues does comp.sys.cbm discuss regularly?
   6.6.4.  How do I post in comp.sys.cbm?
|  6.6.5.  How can I read comp.sys.cbm through email?
+  6.6.6.  How can I read comp.sys.cbm through WWW?
   6.7.  What is a FidoNET echo?
   6.7.1.  What echoes cater to Commodore 8-bit machines? 
   6.7.2.  How do I post in an echo?
   6.8.  What is the World Wide Web?
   6.8.1.  What WWW sites have Commodore information?
   6.8.2.  What Sites have Telnet WWW Browsers?
   6.9.  What is File Transfer Protocol (FTP)?
   6.9.1.  What FTP sites have Commodore Information?
   6.9.2.  What is an FTP Mail Server?  How do I use one?
   6.9.3.  How do I send files to an FTP site?
   6.10. What is Internet Relay Chat (IRC)?
+  6.10.1. How do I access IRC?
   6.11. What else is available online?
+  6.12. I See Commercial Software Available Online.  Is That OK?
   
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------


   6.5.  What is electronic mail?
   
  Electronic mail is the online equivalent of post office mail.  Although
  email is a general term, its use is usually meant to mean "Internet email".
  To use email, you must have access to an internet email program.  On UNIX,
  these programs are called mail, elm, or pine.  BBS systems usually have a 
  special message area for Internet email.  You address a message to a user
  by using his or her internet email address, which is usually of the form
  name@machine_name.doamin_name.type_of_institution_or_country.  An example
  would be brain@mail.msen.com, which would be user "brain" at machine "mail"
  in doamin "msen" and the type "com" which means company or commercial.
  
  After addressing the message and choosing a sutiable subject, the body of
  the message is written with information meaningful to the addressee.
  Usually this information is textual in nature and reads much like a 
  personal letter.
   
  It is possible to mail people binary files.  To do this, you need access
  to a program called uuencode.  Most, if not all UNIX machines have this
  command available, and there are versions available for IBM, Amiga, and
  Macintosh. There is also a version of uuencode available for the
  Commodore 64 and 128 as part of the ACE 128/64 OS replacement. (See section
  8.3)  The uuencode program takes a binary file and expands it so that
  it only contains 7-bit ASCII characters.  This resulting file can then be
  mailed to a recipient, who then uses a similar program called uudecode
  that will transform the uuencoded file into the resulting binary file.
  This encoding technique is a standard one used across multiple platforms.
  If you want to send a file to another Commodore owner, you can use bcode,
  which is a Commodore-specific encoding available in ACE 128/64.

    
   6.5.1.  What are mailing lists and how do I join one?
   
  A mailing list is similar to a USENET newsgroup like comp.sys.cbm, in that
  it provides a place for people to talk among each other and ask questions.
  The difference is that the mechanism used is mail.  You mail a message off
  to the list, the message then gets sent out to all members of that list,
  they read and reply to the list, and the process repeats.  It is used for
  topics that are considered temporary or topics that have a limited scope and
  may not sustain an entire newsgroup being devoted to them.  It may also
  be used when people want to privately discuss some issue.

  There are a number of Commodore 8-bit mailing lists for you to join:

  cbm-unix - This is a list devoted to the discussion of alternate operating
             systems for the Commodore line that have the familiar UNIX
             shell look-and-feel. You can join this one by sending mail to
             mailserv@lists.funet.fi with the message:

             subscribe cbm-unix Jim Brain                 <use your own name>
             review cbm-unix          <this will show you who is on the list>
             help                     <this will explain how to use the list>

             you can then send mail to the list by addressing it to:
             cbm-unix@lists.funet.fi.

  old-cbm -  This is a list devoted to discussions of older Commodore
             equipment.  Typically, this list discusses issues concerning
             PETs, the VIC-20, Plus 4 and C16, and other lesser used
             machines.  You can join this one by sending mail to
             mailserv@lists.funet.fi with the message:

             subscribe old-cbm Jim Brain                  <use your own name>
             review old-cbm           <this will show you who is on the list>
             help                     <this will explain how to use the list>

             you can then send mail to the list by addressing it to:
             old-cbm-unix@lists.funet.fi.

  c64-hackers - I do not know much about this list other than it is used to
             discuss issue realting to timing and special opcodes used in
             Commodore programs. You can join this list by sending mail to
             mailserv@lists.funet.fi with the message:

             subscribe c64-hackers Jim Brain              <use your own name>
             review c64-hackers       <this will show you who is on the list>
             help                     <this will explain how to use the list>

             you can then send mail to the list by addressing it to:
             c64-hackers@lists.funet.fi.

  commodor - This is a list that is for all Commodore 8-bit computer
             discussion.  This list mirrors most of the discussion on
             comp.sys.cbm, so I would post to both places. You subscribe
             by sending a mail msg to:
             listserv@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu with the message:

             subscribe commodor Jim Brain                 <use your own name>
             review commodor          <this will show you who is on the list>
             help                     <this will explain how to use the list>

             you can then send mail to the list by addressing it to:
             commodor@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu

  c65 -      This is a list that discusses the various aspects of the
             Commodore C65 Prototype system.  There are files and
             information available through this list to C65 owners.  Note
             that this is NOT the list to ask where a C64 can be purchased
             from, since the C65 is not a product, per se, as all available
             units were in-house prototypes liquidated at a warehouse.
             You can subscribe by sending a mail msg to:
             c65list-request@dce.vic.gov.au with the subject:
 
             subscribe
 
             You can then send mail to the list by address it to:
             c65@dce.vic.gov.au 
 
  c=hacking - This list is set up to automatically mail out the latest copy
             of Commodore Hacking Online Magazine upon publication.  It is run
             through Jim Brain's mailserver.  You can subscribe by sending
             a mail message to:
 
             brain@mail.msen.com with a subject line of:

             MAILSERV with a message of:

             subscribe c=hacking Jim Brain                <use your own name>
             help                     <this will explain how to use the list>
             
  trivia -   This list is set up to automatically mail out the latest copy
             of the Commodore Trivia as soon as it is published on USENET.
             through Jim Brain's mailserver.  You can subscribe by sending
             a mail message to:
 
             brain@mail.msen.com with a subject line of:

             MAILSERV with a message of:

             subscribe trivia Jim Brain                   <use your own name>
             help                     <this will explain how to use the list>
             
  cbm-main-faq - This list is set up to automatically mail out any major
             updates to this Frequently Asked Questions List.  It is run
             through Jim Brain's mailserver.  You can subscribe by sending
             a mail message to:
 
             brain@mail.msen.com with a subject line of:

             MAILSERV with a message of:

             subscribe cbm-main-faq Jim Brain             <use your own name>
             help                     <this will explain how to use the list>
             
  c64coders - This list is for Commodore 64 coders.  Not much is known about
             the list, but here is how to join.  Send a mail message to:
             c64coders-request@uclink2.berkeley.edu with a subject line of:
              
             subscribe.
              
  6502 C compiler - This list is set up to discuss writing a C compiler
             for the 6502.  To subscribe send a message to:
              	     
             majordomo@solar.miya.cs.it-chiba.ac.jp
             
             with subject of:
             
             subscribe 6502cc
             	       
             You can send messages to the list by addressing them to:
             
             6502cc@solar.miya.cs.it-chiba.ac.jp
             
+ 64europe - This list is for Commodore 64 users who live in Europe or
+            would like to stay current on European developments.  To join,
+            send a mail message to:
+            
+            listserv@lentil.demon.co.uk
+            
+            with a subject of:
+            
+            MAILSERV
+            
+            and a body of:
+            
+            subscribe 64EUROPE
+            END
+            
+            You can then send messages to the list by addressing them to:
+            
+            64europe@lentil.demon.co.uk
+            
+ supercpu - This list is for Commodore 64 users who own or want to
+            stay current on the SuperCPU market.  To join, send a mail 
+            message to:		   
+            						   
+            listserve@giga.or.at
+            	      
+            with a subject of:
+            
+            subscribe super-cpu
+            
+            and a body of:
+            
+            subscribe super-cpu
+            
+            You can then send messages to the list by addressing them to:
+            
+            super-cpu@giga.or.at

   
   6.5.2.  What is a Mail Server?  How do I use one?
  
  A couple of people are running servers that will respond to email requests.
  Each have a limited amount of files available.  To access them send the
  following email:
  
  To:  brain@mail.msen.com
  Subject: MAILSERV
  Message Body:

  help
  quit

  That will return a list of commands.  Currently the following commands 
  are supported:

  help               retrieves a list of available commands.
  catalog            retrieves a list of files currently available.
  send <filename>    retrieves the file <filename>
  subscribe list_name Firstname Lastname
                     subscribes the user to a mailing list.
                     
+ Notes:
  
+ This MAILSERV is run by the FAQ administrator.  Any references found in
+ the FAQ to "MAILSERV" imply this service.  Due to a recent restructuring,
+ files can now contain a path.  For instance, this FAQ would be retrieved
+ via the MAILSERV with the command "send /pub/cbm/faq/faq.p*".  Most
+ documents referenced in the FAQ are in the /pub/cbm/faq directory on the
+ MAILSERV server.  However, not all are.  a complete catalog of all files
+ on the server can be retrieved by doing a "send ls-alR".  Also, this
+ server takes files from the same location as Jim Brain's WWW server's
+ /pub/cbm directory.  Therefore, if you ever see a WWW URL of the form:
+ http://www.jbrain.com/pub/cbm/...., the same file is available on the 
+ MAILSERV server.
  
   
   6.5.3.  How do I contact people on Compuserve, Genie, etc.?
   
  These online services have gateways to the Internet.  To send a message to
  someone on the following services, make sure they can receive Internet mail
  and address the message as follows:

  Service       Username        Internet Address

  Compuserve    12345,678       12345.678@compuserve.com
  GEnie         j.smith2        j.smith2@genie.geis.com
  Delphi        jsmith          jsmith@delphi.com

  FidoNet is special, since there are many fidonet nodes, so you need the
  specific node information for the system that the recipient is on.  Assume
  that Jim Brain is on a fido BBS that is node 115 on network 233 in zone
  1. (denoted in FIDO as 1:233/115)  The address would be:

  FidoNet       Jim Brain       Jim.Brain@f115.n233.z1.fidonet.org
  
  If the fido address is a point on a FIDO network (denoted as 1:233/115.200),
  then the address would be:

  FidoNet       Jim Brain       Jim.Brain@p200.f115.n233.z1.fidonet.org

  
   6.6.  What is USENET or NetNews?  What is a USENET newsgroup?
   
   USENET is a service on the Internet that presents the user with a variety
   of forums in which to place messages.  It can be viewed as the online
   equivalent of a set of bulleting "corkboards", like those in a hallway.
   Each corkboard or "newsgroup" caters to a different topic.  Users can
   place or "post" messages to the newsgroup for others to read, or followup
   to posts on the newsgroup.  
   
   
   6.6.1.  What news groups cater to Commodore 8-bit machines? 
  
  The first thing to discuss here is the dividing line between Commodore
  models.  All Commodore computers up to, but not including, the Commodore
  Amiga or the Commodore line of IBM PC Compatible computers, are
  discussed in comp.sys.cbm, which is what this FAQ covers.  The Amiga line
  of computers is covered in the separate newsgroups comp.sys.amiga.*,
  where the '*' indicates that there are a number of groups that match that
  name. The IBM PC Compatible computers are discussed in comp.sys.ibm-pc.*.

  comp.sys.cbm -
  
  This unmoderated newsgroup discusses all topics concerning Commodore
  8-bit machines, including everything from the KIM-1 to the Commodore
  65.  This is the flagship USENET newsgroup.
  
  comp.binaries.cbm  - 
  
  This moderated groups permits the distribution of uuencoded binary files 
  for the Commodore 8-bit computers.  The moderator is Mike Miller 
  (mmmiller3@gac.edu).  If you have a favorite program you wish to put up for 
  distribution, please download and read the comp.binaries.cbm FAQ (posted in 
  its respective group).  
  
  comp.emulators.cbm -
  
  This unmoderated newsgroup was created in 1994 for those who wish to
  run one of the many emulation programs available on other machines that
  emulate the C64.  This forum seems to be more appropriate for questions
  concerning operation on "foreign" hardware and file types.

  zer.z-netz.rechner.c64+c128.allgemein -
  
  This is a German newsgroup that discusses much of the same topics as
  comp.sys.cbm.  "allgemein" = general.  
  
  zer.z-netz.rechner.c64+c128.binaer -
  
  This German newsgroup parallels the function of comp.binaries.cbm.
  "binaer" = "binary".  
  
  zer.t-netz.c64 -
  
  This is a general discussion group for the c64 computer.  It has the
  description 'Der am weitesten verbreitete Rechner', which means "The most
  widely used/most popular computer."
  
  zer.z-netz.rechner.c64+c128.hardware
  
| This German newsgroup discusses hardware topics relating to the C64 and
  C128.		       
  
+ zer.z-netz.rechner.c64+c128.programmieren -
  
+ This german newsgroup discusses programming, mostly demo stuff.
    
+ zer.z-netz.rechner.c64+c128.spiele -
  
+ This german newsgroup discusses games, high scores, tips, new releases,
+ old scores, etc.
  
+ zer.z-netz.rechner.c64+c128.virus -
  
+ This german newsgroup discusses the very few viruses that have been
+ created for the 64.
  			      
   
   6.6.2.  What types of discussions belong in comp.sys.cbm?
   
  Any discussions about Commodore machines excluding the Commodore Amiga
  line, the Commodore IBM PC Clone line are encouraged in comp.sys.cbm
  These machines are commonly referred to as the Commodore 8-bit line, 
  whereas the Amiga and PC line is not 8-bit.  Please make sure any question 
  you intend on posting is not already answered in this FAQ.  Also, when 
  posting a troubleshooting question about inoperative equipment, please give 
  as much detail as possible.  Be considerate of others in the group and keep 
  questions not pertaining to some aspect of Commodore 8-bit machines and 
  peripherals out of comp.sys.cbm.  The group does realize, however, that a 
  large percentage of Commodore 8-bit owners also own another computer system 
  and might have questions about interfacing or emulations.  Just use your 
  own good judgement.


   6.6.3.  Which issues does comp.sys.cbm discuss regularly?
   
  Although comp.sys.cbm discusses all Commodore 8-bit machines at times,
  the C64 and C128 get most of the attention.

  An overview of the subjects discussed in comp.sys.cbm is available at
  http://qiclab.scn.rain.com/pub1/overview/comp/sys/cbm/.overview

   
   6.6.4.  How do I post in comp.sys.cbm?
   
  You first need to access the newsgroup comp.sys.cbm through the use of
  newsreader.  There are many available in UNIX with names like rn, nn, tin,
  and trn.  I can't begin to tell you what command each uses to construct
  a posting, but your machine administrator should be able to tell you.
  All posts should contains relevant Summary and Keyword info, as well as
  a descriptive title.  If you are posting a followup to an existing article,
  and are quoting the article, please only quote the relevant portions of the
  existing article.

  If you find that you cannot post to a newsgroup via your newsreader, but do
  have Internet electronic mail capabilities, you can post to the newsgroups
  via e-mail.  For example, to posts a message to COMP.SYS.CBM, simply mail the
  message to either comp.sys.cbm@anon.penet.fi , comp.sys.cbm@news.demon.co.uk,
  comp.sys.cbm-news@newsbase.cs.yale.edu.  It is probably best to use the 
  latter two addresses, since the other is an anonymous posting service, so 
  people won't know who originated the post.  Such disguises are 
  unnecessary in the CBM newsgroups.

   
|  6.6.5.  How can I read comp.sys.cbm through email?
   
  If you do not have access to the USENET newsgroup comp.sys.cbm and do have 
  access to Internet email, Allen Smith has graciously set up a list server
  that will mail each day's postings to you.  To use this service, email
  listserv@compsmth.soonet.ca with NO subject and ONLY   
   
  SUBSCRIBE comp-sys-cbm   

  in the body (no leading spaces, no signature) to use this service.

+ Jim Brain has graciously set up a server for those without USENET access
+ to read the three main CBM newsgroups: comp.sys.cbm, comp.emulators.cbm,
+ and comp.binaries.cbm.  Again, this service is ONLY for those without
+ other means to read USENET.  To use this service, email brain@mail.msen.com
+ with the subject of MAILSERV and the following in the message:

+ subscribe comp.sys.cbm Firstname Lastname msglen*

+ msglen is the maximum number of lines you can receive in an email message.
+ All fields MUST be filled in.     

+ To subscribe to one of the other 2 CBM newsgroups, substitute the
+ newsgroup's name for comp.sys.cbm in the above line.


|  6.6.6.  How can I read comp.sys.cbm through WWW?

+ (See Section 6.8 for a definition of WWW)

+ You can view articles and articles titles through the DejaNews service:

+ http://dejanews.com/
	 

   6.7.  What is a FidoNET echo?
  
  FidoNET is a "grass roots" network that originated to link bulletin board
  systems across the country together.  Unlike the Internet, which uses
  dedicated phone lines at high speeds to implement its network, FidoNET uses
  regular phone lines at normal modem speeds that are not dedicated to 
  providing networking to link the machine on FidoNET together.  FidoNET
  allows the exchange of messages in message bases called "echoes" among
  various boards.  To use the FidoNET echoes, you must connect to a system
  that has FidoNET access.  It is not possible to describe all the features
  of FidoNET in this FAQ, so you should consult your local User Group or BBS
  sysop for more info.  
  
  The FidoNET echoes are similar to USENET newsgroups, although the echoes
  have more strict rules about content and topics.
  
   
   6.7.1.  What echoes cater to Commodore 8-bit machines? 
   
  The relevant echoes for Commodore users are:
  
  CBM          Commodore 64 and 128 News and Discussions
| CBM-128      Commodore 128 specific News and Discussions
| CBM-GEOS     GEOS News and Discussions
  PCWRITE      Cross Platform Computing, including C64 emulators
  CBM.GER      German Fido area for CBM discussion.
  R20_8BITAR   Sweden echo for all 8-bit CBMs.
  
   
   6.7.2.  How do I post in an echo?
   
  Echoes are usually posted in the same way that you would mail a BBS
  message in any other area, although the BBS may operate differently.
  It is best to follow any online directions or consult the local BBS sysop
  for more details.
   
   6.8.  What is the World Wide Web?
   
  The World Wide Web (WWW or W3) is a Internet-wide Hypertext document 
  retrieval and display system.  To use WWW, you must have access to a 
  WWW HyperText Markup Language (HTML) browser.  Typical examples include 
  lynx, which is a ASCII browser available on UNIX, and Mosaic, a GUI 
  browser available for UNIX, Windows, Mac, and other platforms.  There
  are others, but these are a few.  Once in a browser program, point it at
  some of these WWW "pages".

  If you do not have WWW access to the Web, you can request pages be mailed
  to by sending mail to webmail@curia.ucc.ie with the subject help.  The 
  return mail should tell you how to request a WWW page.

  However, if you do have access to telnet on the Internet, you can access
  the Web.  Instructions on how to do this, in a file called wwwtelnet.txt,
  can be retrieved from Jim Brain's MAILSERV server.  See Section 5.X for 
  information on how to access the server.
  
+ All pages on the WWW are referenced by their Uniform Resource Locator,
+ also known as a URL.  The URL normally looks like:  

+ http://name.of.site.com/path/to/page.html

+ Some sites include a funny character that looks like a "squiggly snake"
+ as the first character of the path.  The squiggle looks like this:

+ ~

+ The charcater is referred to as the "tilde" character.
+ This key does not appear on the Commodore 8-bit keyboards, and is
+ not part of the PETSCII character map, so the character above will look 
+ funny if viewed on a CBM computer.  When one is running a terminal 
+ program, the program remaps a key to be the tilde key.  Here are a few
+ mappings for different programs:

+ Novaterm:     [SHIFT] up-arrow

+ If your terminal program does not remap a key to be the tilde, or if
+ you dislike trying to use the remapped key, the URL spec defines that the
+ hexadecimal equivalent of the character can be used, prefaced with the
+ percent sign.  So, instead of "/~brain/", one can use %7E instead,
+ resulting in "/%7Ebrain/" as the URL.

   
   6.8.1.  What WWW sites have Commodore information?

  There are a number of WWW sites that provide Commodore content.  Most
  of these sites are tailored to the Commodore 8-bit community as well.
| A complete listing of sites is available at CaBooM!, a Commodore meta-
+ index at:
  
| http://www.jbrain.com/caboom/
    	     			     

   6.8.1.  What Sites have Telnet WWW Browsers?

  If you do not have access to a WWW browser program, but do have access to
  Internet telnet, you can access the WWW through the following sites:

  fatty.law.cornell.edu
  www.njit.edu
  lynx.cc.akans.edu

  login: www

  
   6.9.  What is File Transfer Protocol (FTP)?
   
   to access some machines, the special user "anonymous" or "ftp" is used
   to log into another machine for ftp.  These machine, which hold public
   domain (PD), shareware, and freeware files, are called "anonymous ftp"
   sites.  To get files from these sites, you use (on most systems) a program
   called ftp.  A typical ftp session (assuming you are running from a Unix 
   system) would be as follows:

  SAMPLE SESSION:

  %ftp ccnga.uwaterloo.ca                   <ccnga.uwaterloo.ca is site name>
  Connected to ccnga.uwaterloo.ca.
  220 punisher FTP server (SunOS 4.1) ready.
  Name (cco.caltech.edu:rknop): anonymous     <Use "anonymous" for user name>
  331 Guest login ok, send ident as password.
  Password:                                   <Type your E-mail address here>
  230 Guest login ok, access restrictions apply.
  ftp> cd /pub/cbm/utilities                         <"cd" changes directory>
  250 CWD command successful.
  ftp> dir z*                             <"dir" alone lists whole directory>
  200 PORT command successful.
  150 ASCII data connection for /bin/ls (131.215.48.57,2084) (0 bytes).
  -rw-r--r--  1 root     root        15427 Apr 13 15:42 zed-128.070
  -rw-r--r--  1 root     root        14107 Apr 13 15:42 zed-128.doc
  226 ASCII Transfer complete.
  remote: z*
  134 bytes received in 0.44 seconds (0.3 Kbytes/s)
  ftp> binary                           <specifies binary files. IMPORTANT!!>
  200 Type set to I.
  ftp> get zed-128.070                            <requests file zed-128.070>
  200 PORT command successful.
  150 Binary data connection for zed-128.070 (131.215.48.57,20) (15427 bytes)
  226 Binary Transfer complete.
  local: zed-128.070 remote: zed-128.070
  15427 bytes received in 0.1 seconds (1.5e+02 Kbytes/s)
  ftp> quit                                      <quit when you are finished>
  221 Goodbye.
  %

  To submit files to an ftp site, you use the command "put".  Again, make sure
  to first specify "binary" for programs and other binary files.  Typically,
  ftp sites will only accept submissions in an "INCOMING" directory.

  To download software (files) from an anonymous ftp sites, one has to
  be aware that there are two connections to be concerned about.  The
  first connection is from your Commodore to you host computer and then
  the connection from your host to the ftp site.  In addition you need to be
  be aware of the nature of the information in the desired file, particularly
  if you are downloading programs.  If the file is not known to be in
  printable ASCII form, consider it a binary file.  It may also be be in an
  archived form, i.e. a form where it is packed with many files or in a
  shortened format.  Consider these to be binary unless it is of the "uu"
  type which is an ASCII format. 

   
   6.9.1.  What FTP sites have Commodore Information?
   
  A number of sites on Internet have areas for Commodore files. The list 
  of current Internet FTP sites can be retrieved from the Jim Brain's
  mail server as file cbm-ftp-sites.MM.YY where MM is the Month and YY is the
  year that the list is for.  (See Section 6.5.2 for directions on how to
  use the mail server).  The FTP List is maintained by Howard Herman and a 
  copy of the latest file can be obtained from him at 
  72560.3467@compuserve.com.


   6.9.2.  What is an FTP Mail Server?  How do I use one?

  If your service provider does not allow access to FTP directly, there
  are some systems that will perform the FTP session on your behalf.  These
  systems are called "ftp mail servers".  These allow the user to request
  files to be retrieved by electronically mailing a message to the server.
  
  To use the service, you must first learn how the service works.  This is
  done by mailing the server address with the word "help" in the body of
  the message This will result in the directions being sent in a message to
  you.  Then, following the directions, you can request files from any
  FTP sites through the server.  The server will send both the retrieved
  files and a message detailing the execution of your request.
  
  Here is a sample request message:
  
  To: ftpmail@decwrl.dec.com
  Subject:
  Body:
  connect ccnga.uwaterloo.ca anonymous brain@msen.com
  chdir /pub/cbm/comp.sys.cbm
  ls -l
  quit
  
  Please note the following:
  
  This service is only for retrieving files.
  
  Binary files will usually be uuencoded.  They must be decoded before use.
  
  Large files may be split into smaller pieces.  The resulting pieces must
  be editted back into one piece, and decoded if necessary.
  
  Potential ftpmail servers include:

  ftpmail@decwrl.dec.com
  bitftp@pucc.princeton.edu
+ ftpmail@ftp.sunset.se
+ ftpmail@census.gov
  
  Craig Bruce has set up a ftp mail server off his regular email address.
  Here is how you would utilize it:
   
  To: csbruce@little.uwaterloo.ca
  Subject: ftpmail
  Body:
  help
  bcode
  ftp ccnga.uwaterloo.ca
  cd /pub/cbm/os/ace
  dir
  get ace12.doc
  quit

  All of the regular FTP commands are supported, with the addition of
  the following commands:

  help       - gives help information.
  bcode      - requests the data be sent as bcoded files.
  hexcode    - requests the data be sent as hexcoded files.
+ replyto    - gives email address to reply to for broken email clients.
+ maxlines n - Returns files in messages of at most n lines.


   6.9.3.  How do I send files to an FTP site?

  If you have the Commodore 128 .sfx creator, use it.  It is part of the CS-DOS 
  public-domain software package, and it requires a Commodore-1700-compatible 
  RAM expansion unit.  If you can't make .sfx archives, upload the files as 
  straight binaries.  Text files which you include in .sfx archives should be 
  PETSCII.  Separate text files should be ASCII or ISO 8859-1.  If you are 
  uploading GEOS files, use William Coleman's Convert 2.5 program to transfer 
  the files to standard Commodore format before including them in the .sfx 
  archive.  

  You can make .sfx archives on a Unix machine by first compressing the 
  files into an .lzh or .lha archive, then using Marko Makela's LZHconvert 
  package on the LHarchive.  This technique may work on some non-Unix 
  computers.  LZHconvert is on ftp.funet.fi in directory /pub/cbm/archiving.

  Upload a .readme file separately from your program or archive.  In your 
  readme file, give a one-sentence description of each of your program(s).  
  List the lengths, starting addresses, and CRC32s of the files.  Look on 
  ftp.funet.fi in /pub/cbm/archiving for CRC-32 software.  

  People should be able to make sure easily that they have all the parts of 
  your software package.  Put a complete file list in the readme file.  Make a 
  directory on the FTP site if you can, and put all your files in that.  

  E-mail the maintainers right before you post your data.  Your message can 
  be just the .readme file with an introductory comment.  

  The following is a list of valid FTP sites as of 26 Sep 1995.  In the 
  directory names below, replace "..." with the existing name closest to the 
  purpose of your files.  "Dir" indicates whether the FTP site allows you to 
  create your own directories.  

  Destination: ftp://ccnga.uwaterloo.ca/pub/cbm/...
  Uploads:     ftp://ccnga.uwaterloo.ca/pub/cbm/INCOMING/...
  E-mail:      csbruce@ccnga.uwaterloo.ca
  Dir:         Yes

  Destination: ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/cbm/...
  Uploads:     ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/cbm/incoming/...
  E-mail:      cbm-adm@nic.funet.fi
  Dir:         No

  Destination: ftp://pitel_lnx.ibk.fnt.hvu.nl/pub/c64/...
  Uploads:     ftp://pitel_lnx.ibk.fnt.hvu.nl/pub/c64/
  E-mail:      cba@pitel_lnx.ibk.fnt.hvu.nl
  Dir:         No

  Destination: ftp://dhp.com/pub/c64/...
  Uploads:     ftp://dhp.com/pub/c64/pub/c64/incoming
  Email:       rotox@dhp.com
  Dir:         No

  Destination: ftp://ftp.giga.or.at/pub/c64/...
  Uploads:     ftp://ftp.giga.or.at/pub/c64/INCOMING (no read access here)
  E-mail:      spockie@giga.or.at
  Dir:         Yes (difficult to delete, though)

  Destination: ftp://bbs.cc.uniud.it/pub/c64/...
  Uploads:     ftp://bbs.cc.uniud.it/pub/c64/incoming
  E-mail:      playboy@bbs.cc.uniud.it
  Dir:         No


   6.10. What is Internet Relay Chat (IRC)?
  
  Internet Raley Chat (IRC) is an online version of citizen's band radio or
  BBS chat rooms.  The service is worldwide and is available on the Internet.
  To use IRC, one would normally use a client program (typically called irc on
  UNIX machines) to access the service.  
  
+ There are now 2 IRC networks: IRCNet and EFNet. IRCNet is relatively
+ new (less than a year old), and can be reached via the following servers:

+ irc.stealth.net
+ irc.hpi.net
+ irc.igcom.net
+ irc.bt.net

+ This is where most of the "regular" Commodore IRC fans hang out, in
+ channel #c-64. EFNet can still be reached with the regular IRC
+ servers, but more often than not, nobody is in #c-64, because the 
+ load on the EFNet servers is so heavy now that it's difficult to access, 
+ and even when one *can* access it, the "lag" (lag time between sending 
+ text and seeing it posted in the channel) makes most normal conersation 
+ practically useless. The exception is that the NTSC demo scene
+ conference is currently held in EFNet in channel #c64ntsc.
  
  
+  6.10.1. How do I access IRC?
       	   
+ If you are using a Unix shell account, and a IRC server daemon is 
+ compiled for public use, type this in at a shell prompt:

+ irc [ircserver]

+ The [ircserver] field is optional; usually this has a default setting. 
+ Some of the better EFNet IRC servers are irc.phoenix.net, 
+ irc.law.emory.edu, and irc.neosoft.com.

+ Whether you are connected to IRCNet or EFNet, the next thing you will do 
+ after you get a prompt is to type

+ /join #c-64

  Although the program used to access IRC varies, the commands are pretty
  much standard.  All commands are entered on the text line and begin
  with a "/" character.  Here are a few important ones:
   
| /join <channel>           Join a numbered or named channel.  For numbered
|                           channels, <channel> is simply a number.  For
|                           named channels, <channel> is #name (i.e. #c-64).
 
  /quit                     leave.
  
  /names *                  List names of all people in current channel.

  /dcc send (nickname) (filename)
                            Send a file to person (nickname).

  /dcc receive (nickname) or
  /dcc get (filename)       REceive a file from someone.

  If you need more info on how IRC works, there is a file available on
  Jim Brain's email file server called irc-info.txt that explains IRC in
  more depth.  (See Section 6.5.2 for directions on how to use the mail server)


   6.11. What else is available online?

  If you are looking for other places on the Internet to talk Commodore,
  there is the Commodore forum on CoSy, a system accessible from the 
  Internet.  To access this service, you must have access to a telnet
  program.  Here is the relevant information:

  telnet cosy.softwaords.bc.ca 
  login: cosy
  CoSy: j commodore

  This will bring up a list of topics pertaining to Commodore.  The forum
  moderator is Robert Todd and his email address is robert.todd@bbs.serve.org.
  This forum is ideally suited to discussions about the Color64 BBS 
  system and other Commodore BBS systems.  If you wish to post in the
  forum, please send email to that effect to Robert Todd.
  
  
+  6.12. I See Commercial Software Available Online.  Is That OK?

+ There are a number of reasons why you may find commercial software
+ online.  Here are a few:

+ 1 The author or developer has placed the work into the public domain
+ 2 The author or developer uses the network as a distribution medium
+ 3 A registered user or software purchaser has placed the software online
  
+ Examples of scenario #1 include CBM enthusiasts persuading authors or
+ developers of software to place it into the public domain.  Examples
+ of the 2nd scenario include new software writers, who use the Internet
+ as a cheap distribtion medium.  The software usually cannot be used
+ without a "key", that must be purchased.
  
+ Unfortunately, the third example is the most prevalent.  CBM enthusiasts
+ who have previously purchased software have created disk images and placed
+ them on FTP or WWW sites.  These actions are not done with the consent of
+ the author, developer, or distributor of he software in question.
  
+ The quick rule is to only download software that is in the public domain
+ or is stated to be shareware of some type.  However, there are a few
+ exceptions:
  
+ o If you own a copy of a software title, but your disk/manual/etc. is
+   corrupt or missing, you may download a copy of the respective software
+   or manual.  In this case, such a download is considered an archival
+   copy for a legally purchased title.
    
+ o If you are acting on behalf of another person who does not have access
+   to the title and falls into the above category, then you may download,
+   provided that you relinquish all aspects of the software title to the
+   registered owner.  (When doing this, it would be best to acquire proof
+   of purchase from your friend in case you are questioned.  If so, you
+   are considered the temporary owner of the software)
    
+ o If you have arranged with the distributor/developer/author to become
+   a registered owner of the software title and no other distribution
+   arrangements can be made, you may download a copy of the software.
+   (This is so rare it's almost not worth mentioning.)
    
+ Although the above doesn't cover all possible permutations, the first
+ item covers almost all such legal downloads.  
  
+ Any other download actions are technically considered breach of copyright
+ and are subject to applicable laws in the location of offense.  
  
+ There are a number of myths concerning copyrighted software.  Some include:
  
+ Myth:  If a company goes bankrupt, then the software is placed in the 
+        public domain.
  
+ Truth: The bankrupt company or individual still holds the copyright.  It 
+        may be sold, acquired, or traded.
  
+ Myth:  Copyrights are only good for 10 years.
  
+ Truth: Copyrights are good for many years (50 or 75, I can't remember)
+        after the copyright holder dies.
  
+ Myth:  I want to buy the software, but the company refused to sell it to
+        me, stating they don't support my machine anymore.  (A variant on
+        this has the company no longer in business)  So, my only choice
+        is to download or copy it.
         
+ Truth: Firstly, it may not be your ONLY option.  Many resellers, like
+        CMD, obtain large lots of software from closing businesses.  So,
+        please check out resellers first.  If the software is definitely
+        not available, downloading or copying it is still considered
+        copyright infringement.  If the company is still in business, you
+        might try to arrange something with them.  Most Commodore 
+        enthusiasts concede this is a bad situtation.  You're on your own
+        here.  
         
+ Myth:  Since I own the software and am allowed archival copies, my placing
+        software online does not constitute copyright infringement.  I am
+        merely storing my archives online.
         
+ Truth: It depends.  If the software is located on your online account but
+        not available to other individuals, then you are correct.  However,
+        placing links on WWW pages constitutes publishing, which is
+        forbidden in many, if not all, software agreements.  
         
+ The abundance of copyrighted software on networks today stems from the
+ ease of transferring and publishing such items online.  The ease of
+ acquiring software in this way and the lack of support by major software
+ companies has led many to believe that Commodore software is no longer
+ subject to copyright restrictions.  Rest assured, it is.  You have been
+ warned :-)
  
  		   
-- 
Jim Brain, Embedded System Designer, Brain Innovations, Inc. (BII) (online sig)
bii@mail.jbrain.com "Above views DO reflect my employer, since I'm my employer"
Dabbling in WWW, Embedded Systems, Old CBM computers, and Good Times!      -Me-
BII Home: http://www.jbrain.com          CBM Info: http://www.jbrain.com/vicug/

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