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U.S. Civil War FAQ v9.11 (19 Mar 2002) This is part 2 (of 2) of a collection of answers to frequently asked questions (and some not-so-frequently, too!) about the Civil War. It is posted on or about the 20th of each month. It was compiled by Justin M. Sanders (email@example.com) who tried to be as complete and accurate as possible, but who is definitely human and has probably made several errors. Please send comments, suggestions, or corrections to the address above. The topics covered are (a plus means a new entry, an asterisk means a revised entry): ---Part 1--- Section 0: alt.war.civil.usa, soc.history.war.us-civil-war, and net stuff *Q0.1: What are these groups anyway? *Q0.2: Are the FAQ and Reading List archived somewhere? *Q0.3: Where can I find Civil War images, documents, and so forth on-line? Section 1: The beginning of the War Q1.1: When did state X secede? Q1.2: Was there a declaration of war or something? Q1.3: Was Texas given a right to secede by the Treaty of Annexation that brought it into the Union? Q1.4: Did the Supreme Court ever rule on the legality of secession? Q1.5: What were the populations of the states at the outbreak of the war? Section 2: Battles and fighting forces Q2.1: What are the alternative names of various battles? Q2.2: Who were the U.S. Generals at the out-break of the war, and who were the first Generals appointed after the war began? Q2.3: Who were the first C.S. Generals appointed? Q2.4: What were the naval ranks during the Civil War? Q2.5: What were the organization and strengths of various units in the armies? Q2.6: What is the difference between grapeshot and canister? Q2.7: How did prisoner exchanges and paroles work? Q2.8: What did a brevet promotion indicate, and what did an officer gain by being given a brevet? ---Part 2--- Section 3: The end of the War Q3.1: When did the war end? Q3.2: If the rebel states were never considered legally out of the Union, how was Reconstruction justified? Q3.3: When were the different states readmitted to representation in Congress? Q3.4: Who was the last surviving veteran of the Civil War? Section 4: Genealogy and Unit Histories Q4.1: My ancestor fought in the war-- how do I find out about his service? Q4.2: How can I find information about a particular regiment? Section 5: Miscellaneous Q5.1: What is the "Stars and Bars"? Q5.2: What changes to the U.S. flag occurred during the war? Q5.3: How was the state of West Virginia created? Q5.4: What war records did the post-war presidents have? Q5.5: What are the various alternative names for the war? *Q5.6: What are good books on the war? Q5.7: How can I get the soundtrack to Ken Burn's "Civil War"? Q5.8: Did U.S. Grant and R.E. Lee both own slaves and free them? Q5.9: What is the recipe for hardtack? *Q5.10: Where can I get a copy of the Sullivan Ballou letter quoted in Ken Burn's "Civil War"? *Q5.11: What were the lyrics to "Dixie", "The Bonnie Blue Flag", etc.? Q5.12: How can I get the "Official Records" on CD-ROM? Answers (Part 2) Section 3: The end of the War ------------------------------ Q3.1: When did the war end? 9 April 1865, Gen. R.E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Courthouse, VA 26 April 1865, Gen. J.E. Johnston surrendered the Army of Tennessee et al. at Durham, NC 4 May 1865, Gen. Richard Taylor surrendered Dept. of Alabama, Mississippi, and Eastern Louisiana at Citronelle, AL 13 May 1865, engagement at Palmito Ranch, near Brownsville, TX, often taken to be the last engagement of the war 2 June 1865, Gen. E.K. Smith surrendered the Trans-Mississippi Department at Galveston, TX (the surrender had been agreed to by Smith's representative, Lt Gen S.B. Buckner, in New Orleans on 26 May) 23 June 1865, Brig. Gen. Stand Watie's troops in the Indian Territory surrendered at Doaksville. Watie was the last general to surrender his troops. 13 June 1865, Pres. Johnson proclaimed the insurrection in Tennessee at an end. (Messages and Papers of the Presidents, V, p3515) 4 Nov 1865, The raider CSS Shenandoah surrendered in Liverpool to British authorities. For several months after the surrender of ground forces, this last of the CSA's naval vessels had been burning USA shipping, with her captain, James I. Waddell, still thinking the war was in progress. Her last fight was against a whaling fleet in the Bering Sea on 28 Jun 1865. After this, the vessel was the object of a worldwide search. On August 2, Waddell had contact with a British ship, whose captain informed him that the CSA was no more. With this in mind, he put guns below decks and sailed to England, where the ship was surrendered to the British Admiralty. Upon the boarding of the vessel by British authorities, the last sovereign Confederate flag was furled. [contrib. by PDunn] 2 Apr 1866, Pres. Johnson proclaimed the insurrection ended in all the former Confederate States except Texas. This was his recognition of the legitimacy of the governments formed under his Reconstruction proclamation. (Mess. & Papers, V, p3627) 20 Aug 1866, Pres. Johnson proclaimed that Texas had complied with the conditions of his Reconstruction proclamation and declared the insurrection in Texas at an end. (Mess. & Paper, V, p3632) ------------------------------ Q3.2: If the rebel states were never considered legally out of the Union, how was Reconstruction justified? Although the states remained part of the U.S., they had no loyal governments, and the authority for the federal government to provide mechanisms to erect loyal state governments was derived from Article IV, Sec. 4 of the Constitution. That section provides that the United States shall guarantee to each state a republican form of government. Another important provision of the Constitution was Article I, Sec. 5 which provides that each House of Congress shall be the judge of the qualifications of its members. This allowed the Congress to refuse to seat delegations from former rebel states until the states had met the conditions of the Reconstruction Acts. The authoritative constitutional justification for reconstruction can be found in the Supreme Court's decision in Texas v. White (74 U.S. 700) delivered 12 Apr 1869. The entire decision is available on the Web at http://supct.law.cornell.edu/supct/cases/historic.htm ---------------------------- Q3.3: When were the different states readmitted to representation in Congress? For the dates that follow: "Act" is the date of the act which declared the state entitled to Congressional representation (the Act of 25 June 68 was conditional upon the states' ratifying the 14th and 15th amendment, the other acts required no additional state action). "S" and "R" are the dates on which the first Senator and first Representative were seated. "Mil" is the date on which the military turned over all authority to the state government. Tennessee did not undergo Congressional Reconstruction. TN-- Act 24 July 1866 AR-- Act 22 June 1868; S 23 Jun 68, R 24 Jun 68; Mil 30 Jun 68 NC-- Act 25 June 1868; S 17 Jul 68, R 6 Jul 68; Mil 24 Jul 68 SC-- Act 25 June 1868; S 22 Jul 68, R 18 Jul 68; Mil 24 Jul 68 LA-- Act 25 June 1868; S 17 Jul 68, R 18 Jul 68; Mil 13 Jul 68 AL-- Act 25 June 1868; S 25 Jul 68, R 21 Jul 68; Mil 14 Jul 68 FL-- Act 25 June 1868; S 30 Jun 68, R 1 Jul 68; Mil 29 Jun 68 VA-- Act 25 Jan 1870; S 26 Jan 70, R 26 Jan 70; Mil 28 Jan 70 MS-- Act 23 Feb 1870; S 25 Feb 70, R 25 Feb 70; Mil 28 Feb 70 TX-- Act 30 Mar 1870; S 31 Mar 70, R 31 Mar 70; Mil 16 Apr 70 GA-- Act 25 June 1868; S rejected 25 Jan 69; R 25 July 1868; 2nd Reconstruction 22 Dec 1869; Act 15 July 1870; S Feb 1871, R Dec 1870. The seating of Georgia's delegations was complicated by the fact that it was placed under military rule for a second time in 1869. This delayed final seating of the delegations until late 1870 and early 1871. ---------------------------- Q3.4: Who was the last surviving veteran of the Civil War? [this entry was originally written by the late Paul Cowan, but it has been extensively revised by JMS] 1. Albert Woolson of Minnesota was the last authenticated survivor of the Civil War. Woolson served as a Union drummer boy and died in 1956. 2. Determining the last Confederate veteran is more difficult. The most recent and thorough study by William Marvel, published in "Blue and Gray" magazine in Feb. 1991, finds that the last authenicated veteran of the Confederate army was Pleasant Crump of the 10th Alabama, who died on 31 Dec 1951. Previous claims to be the last veteran of the Confederate army (and of the whole War) were made for Walter Washington Williams (died 19 Dec 1959) of Texas and for John Salling (died 19 Mar 1959) of Virginia. However, Marvel concluded that their claims must be rejected, since (among other reasons) census records indicated that, in 1860, Williams was only 5 years old and Salling was just 2 years old. 3. The last surviving Civil War general was Union Brig.Gen. Adelbert Ames, who died in 1933 at age 97. 4. The last surviving Confederate general was Brig.Gen. John McCausland, who died on 22 Jan 1927 at age 91. Felix H. Robertson, who was appointed B.G. in 1864, who served at such, but whose nomination was rejected by the CSA Senate in 1865, died on 20 Apr 1928 at age 89. Sources: William Marvel in "Blue and Gray", Feb 1991; Jim Epperson (firstname.lastname@example.org); Ron Kolakowski (email@example.com ); Stephen E. Brown (firstname.lastname@example.org); _The Civil War Notebook_, by A.A. Nofi; _New York Times_ article, Dec. 19, 1959;_Civil War Dictionary_, by M.M. Boatner;_Handbook of Texas_. Section 4: Genealogy and Unit Histories ----------------------------- Q4.1: My ancestor fought in the war-- how do I find out about his service? [Thanks to Geoff Walden and Lynn Berkowitz for updated information.] First, here are two good reference books that contain much more information than can be given in this FAQ: (1) George K. Schweitzer, Civil War Genealogy, available from: G.K. Schweitzer, 7914 Gleason C-1136, Knoxville, TN 37919 (2) B.H. Groene, Tracing Your Civil War Ancestor ISBN 0-345-36192-X An additional reference dealing in Confederate records is James C. Neagles, Confederate Research Sources: A Guide to Archive Collections (ISBN 0-916489-11-6, Ancestry Publications, P.O. Box 476, Salt Lake City, UT 84110) The basic facts on your ancestor that you will need to know are his name, state, regiment, and (if possible) company, for example: Levi Lindsey Sanders, 6th Texas Cavalry (CSA), Company I. If you don't know the regiment name, you can often find it in 19th century county histories for the county your ancestor lived in. Also be careful with Confederate regiments; they were frequently referred to by the commander's name when they in fact had a numerical designation, for example: 2nd Texas Partisan Rangers a.k.a. Stone's Regiment a.k.a. Chisum's Regiment. There are frequently indexes listing all the soldiers from a state which were published in the 19th century as well (this is almost without exception for the Union states, more rare for the Confederate states). The National Archives has published a Consolidated Index to Compiled Confederate Service Records on microfilm which is available in many large historical libraries (the service records themselves are also frequently on microfilm at the library). A useful bibliography of regimental and state histories is C.E. Dornbusch, _Military Bibliography of the Civil War_ (4 vols). Assuming that you have the above information, you can obtain copies of your ancestor's service records by writing to the National Archives. Write to: General Reference Branch (NNRG-P) National Archives and Records Administration 7th and Pennsylvania Ave. Washington, DC 20408 and request NATF Form 80. Or you may request NATF Form 80 by sending e-mail to: email@example.com Give your name, (snail) mailing address, phone number and netid. Whether you request NATF Form 80 by e-mail or regular mail, you may wish to request 3 or more copies, especially if you are researching a Union veteran or multiple veterans. When you have the forms, fill one out as completely as possible and check "military service" (Schweitzer recommends that you write in red ink next to the veteran's name "Please send complete contents of files.") If your ancestor fought for the Union, he may have a pension file; you may fill out a second Form 80 and check "pension record" (again Schweitzer recommends requesting the entire contents of the file). (The National Archives will not have pension records for Confederate veterans, but some former Confederate state did give pensions and their archives may have the records, details can be found in the above references especially Neagles.) Some weeks later, the Archives will send you a letter indicating what they have located and how much it will cost to copy it (typically about $10). ------------------------------ Q4.2: How can I find information about a particular regiment? For the Union side, the definite first place to look for a brief history of a regiment is F.H. Dyer, _A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion_, 2 vols. It contains, among lots of other useful information, brief histories of just about every Northern regiment. On the Confederate side, the nearest equivalent to Dyer is Stewart Sifakis, _Compendium of the Confederate Armies_(New York: Facts on File, 1991-1994?), 11 vols. The volumes in this series are for VA; TN; AL; FL and AR; NC; LA; MS; TX; SC and GA; KY, MD, MO and Indian units; and a volume of Tables of Organizations. Another useful work is Joseph H. Crute Jr., _Units of the Confederate States Army_, (Midlothian, VA: Derwent Books, 1987) Crute's work is not quite as comprehensive as Sifakis', but it has the advantage of having everything in one volume. A useful bibliography of regimental histories, both North and South, is C.E. Dornbusch, _Military Bibliography of the Civil War_, 4 vols. It contains entries on books and articles which have been written about Civil War regiments through about 1987. It is strongly recommeded that you consult this work. If you would like to see if others on the internet have an interest in the same unit that you do, consult Carol Botteron's Civil War Units file. The CWUNITS file is described as follows: "The purpose of the CWUNITS file is to let people list the units they are interested in and have at least some information on (from pension records, books, etc.). Typically the contact person had an ancestor who was in the unit, but re-enactors, history buffs, et al are welcome. (This is _not_ a file of re-enactment units.) If you see a listing for a unit you are interested in, you can send the contact person email and share information. The idea is not necessarily to find people with the same ancestor; people can share info on what action the unit was involved in, how the soldiers lived, etc." The file is currently divided into 5 parts (3 Union, 2 Confederate) by states. To get a copy of the file by e-mail, send e-mail to: ROOTS-Lfirstname.lastname@example.org Subject: archive Text is: get genealog.cwunits get genealog.cwunits1 up to "get genealog.cwunits5". Note! This mail server is *case sensitive*, so make sure to use only the capital letters used above. The Civil War Units file is also available over WWW from: http://sunsite.utk.edu/civil-war/warweb.html#rosters Ms. Botteron updates the file approximately every two months. Finally, you can consult the Index volume to the _Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies_ and start wading through the O.R. This may be your only alternative for particularly obscure units. The index lists the regiments by state. It is a good idea to check the index for the name of the regiment's commander and perhaps for the brigade commander. Keep in mind the regiment's place in the army structure. Histories of battles or campaigns may not mention every regiment, but they may mention the brigade or division the regiment is in. As an example, Ludwell Johnson's _Red River Campaign_ indexes very few regiments, but the brigade commanders are indexed, and the brigades are shown on the maps. The 2nd Texas Partisan Rangers was in Major's cavalry brigade and Green's division, so its activities can be inferred by following the action at the brigade or division level even though the regiment itself is not mentioned anywhere in the book. Section 5: Miscellaneous ------------------------------ Q5.1: What is the "Stars and Bars"? The "Stars and Bars" IS NOT the familiar "rebel" flag one sees adorning license plates and often carried by the KKK-- that is the CS Naval Jack, based on the CS battle flag. The Stars and Bars design was approved by a committee of the Provisional Congress on 4 Mar 1861, but was never made official by law. The bottom red stripe ran the entire length of the flag and was 6 units long and 1 unit wide. Above it, and to the left was a blue square, 2 units on a side. In the blue square, a circle of stars (one for each state, initially seven, to represent the original seven Confederate States, eventually thirteen). To the right of the square, two stripes, white below, red above, each 1 unit wide and 4 units long. The Stars and Bars' similarity to the U.S. flag caused problems of mistaken identity at 1st Bull Run/Manassas, so a battle flag for the Army of Northern Virginia was designed. It was blue saltire ("X" shape) on a red SQUARE field. On the saltire was placed stars equal to the number of Confederate States (in principle, eleven at the time of the initial design, but up to thirteen by the end of 1861). This flag design was soon picked up by the other armies and branches of service. The CS Navy flew an oblong version as a Naval Jack which is identical to the oblong "rebel" flags seen today. By a law approved 1 May 1863, a new national flag was adopted by the Confederate States-- the "Stainless Banner". It was a field of white twice as long as wide, in the upper left was the battle flag (square) with a side two-thirds the width of the field. This flag had the drawback that when partially wrapped around the flagstaff, the non-white part was covered. This made it look like a white flag of surrender. Furthermore, its length to width ratio of 2 to 1 made it an unusually long flag which exacerbated the problem. A law approved 4 Mar 1865, modified the "Stainless Banner" to correct its problems. The revised flag was 10 units wide and 15 units long. In the upper left was an oblong battle flag 6 units wide and 7 units long. The field was white, as before, except on the fly end there was a vertical red bar 4 units wide. The above dimensions, in terms of units, are derived from the much more convoluted description given by the flag act. This flag was the last national flag of the Confederacy. ------------------------------ Q5.2: What changes to the U.S. flag occurred during the war? The admission of two states affected the U.S. flag during the war. By the Flag Act of 1818, a new star was added on the 4 July following the admission of a state. Stars were added on 4 July 1861 for Kansas (admitted 29 Jan 1861, the 34th state) and on 4 July 1863 for West Virginia (admitted 20 June 1863, the 35th state). Nevada, the 36th state, was admitted during the war on 31 Oct 1864, so its star was added 4 July 1865 after hostilities were over (more or less, see Q3.1). ------------------------------ Q5.3: How was the state of West Virginia created? On 17 Apr 1861, the Va Secession Convention passed an ordinance of secession (to be ratified by the people). A mass meeting was held in Clarksburg and called for a Convention of western/unionist counties to meet in Wheeling. The 1st Wheeling Convention met 13 May 1861 with 425 delegates from 25 counties, it decided to adjourn until after the vote on the secession ordinance. The ordinance of secession was ratified by popular vote on 23 May 1861 at which time new legislators were also elected. The 2nd Wheeling convention met 11 June 1861 and included the western counties' members-elect to the VA legis. On 19 June, the convention passed an ordinance "reorganizing" the state government (creating a "loyal" one), and on 20 June, Francis Pierpont was chosen governor. On 1 July 1861, the members of the legislature elected on 23 May and some holdovers from the old legislature met, finished the organization of the Reorganized state govt., and elected 2 U.S. Senators-- this government was recognized as legitimate by the U.S. On 6 Aug, the Wheeling convention reconvened, and on 20 Aug 1861 passed an ordinance to divide the state. The division ordinance was ratified by the people on 24 Oct. From 26 Nov 1861 to 18 Feb 1862, the convention wrote a constitution for the proposed new state which was approved by the voters on 11 Apr 1862. Lincoln signed the enabling act on 31 Dec 1862 which admitted W.VA on the condition that its constitution include a provision for the gradual abolition of slavery. The Convention reconvened yet again, and on 12 Feb 1863 amended the state constitution to abolish slavery. This amendment was approved by the voters on 26 Mar 1863. Lincoln proclaimed (on 20 Apr 1863) that W.Va would officially be admitted in 60 days. During the interval, W VA elected new officers-- A.I. Boreman was elected 1st governor, and VA unionist government under Gov. Pierpont was moved to Alexandria. On 20 June 1863, West Virginia was officially admitted to the Union. In 1866, Virginia repealed the act approving the division, and brought suit in the U.S. Sup. Crt. to have the division overturned. In particular, it wanted Berkeley and Jefferson Cos. returned. On 10 Mar 1866, Congress passed a joint resolution approving the previous transfer of the counties to W.Va. In 1871 the Supreme Court decided in favor of W.Va., thus settling the matter of division. Source: Virginia and West Virginia articles in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 10th ed. ------------------------------ Q5.4: What war records did the post-war presidents have? From: email@example.com (Dominic J. Dal Bello) I have looked up what the presidents after Lincoln and up to McKinley did in the war (from _The Complete Book of US Presidents_ or something like that.) ANDREW JOHNSON: In March, 1862, President Lincoln appointed Johnson military governor of Tennessee with the rank of brigadier general. ULYSSES GRANT: No intro necessary (lieut. general) RUTHERFORD B. HAYES: served with the 23d Ohio Infantry from June, 1861, entering service as a major. October '61: promoted to lt. colonel; Oct. '62 promoted to colonel, commanding the 23d. After Cedar Creek (Oct. '64), promoted to brigadier general of vols. Received one of the infinitely many brevets dated March 13, 1865 to major general, vols. Resigned June, 1865. JAMES GARFIELD: Commissioned a lt. col in the 42nd Ohio, Aug. 1861, and promoted to Col. in November, '61. Commanded the 18th Brig. at Middle Creek, Jan. '62, defeating superior numbers, and was subsequently promoted to brigadier general. January, 1863-- appointed Chief of Staff to Rosecrans, "In a daring ride under enemy fire, during which his horse was wounded, he conveyed vital information from flank to flank. For this he was promoted to major general." Rosecrans said of him: "I feel much indebted to him for both counsel and assistance in the administration of this army...He possesses the instinct and energy of a great commander." Elected to Congress in Sept., 1863 Garfield resigned in Dec., 1863. CHESTER A. ARTHUR: Served in New York State militia from Feb. '58 to Dec. '62, rising from brigade judge advocate to quartermaster genl. In Jan, '61, appointed engineer-in-chief with rank of brigadier general. Apr, '61, promote asst. QM genl; Feb '62 inspect. genl; July `62, QM general. Spring `62 inspected NY troops in Virginia. War Gov. Edwin D Morgan said: "He was my chief reliance in the duties of equipping and transporting troops and munitions of war. In the position of Quarter Master General he displayed not only great executive ability and unbending integrity, but great knowledge of Army Regulations. He can say No (which is important) without giving offense." GROVER CLEVELAND: Drafted, but purchased a substitute. Paid $150 to George Brinske (or Benninsky), a 32-year-old Polish immigrant to serve in his place. BENJAMIN HARRISON: Was approached by Indiana Governor Oliver P. Morton in early July, 1862 to raise a regiment in the congressional district in and around Indianapolis. Was given a provisional recruiting commission as 2nd Lt. on 9 July 1862, promoted to Captain on 22 July, and commissioned Colonel of the 70th Indiana Volunteer Infantry regiment on 7 Aug 1862 when the regiment was full. The commissions as Lt. and Capt. were essentially pro forma, as Harrison understood that he was to have command of the 70th IVI. Commanded a brigade under Hooker in the Atlanta campaign. Hooker recommended him for promotion to brigadier general for foresight, discipline and fighting spirit. He was brevetted Brigadier General 23 Jan 1865, and mustered out of the service 8 June 8 1865. He said, "I am not a Julius Caesar, nor a Napoleon, but a plain Hoosier colonel, with no more relish for a fight than for a good breakfast and hardly so much." [Additional info contributed by Steve Towne, <STEVE_TOWNE_at_ICPRLAN@IMA.ISD.STATE.IN.US>] WILLIAM McKINLEY: 23d Ohio Infantry from June 61 to July '65, starting out as a private. April '62 commissary sergeant; for valor at Antietam (in getting rations to the men) promoted to 2nd Lt. commd'g Co. D, but put on Col. Rutherford Hayes' staff. Feb 63, promoted 1st Lt.; July 64, promoted captain. Served on staffs of George Crook and Winfield S Hancock. March, 1865, breveted major. In uniform, cast his first vote in 1864 (for Lincoln). Hayes said of him: "Young as he was, we soon found that in the business of a soldier, requiring much executive ability, young McKinley showed unusual and unsurpassed capacity, especially for a boy of his age. When battles were fought or service was to be performed in warlike things, he always filled his place." ------------------------------ Q5.5: What are the various alternative names for the war? From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Patrick L Dunn) From Davis, B. (1982), _The Civil War: Strange and Fascinating Facts_ (Originally published as "Our Incredible Civil War). ISBN 0-517-37151-0 Chapter 13. Which War? pp. 79-80. The War for Constitutional Liberty The War for Southern Independence The Second American Revolution The War for States' Rights Mr. Lincoln's War The Southern Rebellion The War for Southern Rights The War of the Southern Planters The War of the Rebellion The Second War for Independence The War to Suppress Yankee Arrogance The Brothers' War The War of Secession The Great Rebellion The War for Nationality The War for Southern Nationality The War Against Slavery The Civil War Between the States The War of the Sixties The War Against Northern Aggression The Yankee Invasion The War for Separation The War for Abolition The War for the Union The Confederate War The War of the Southrons The War for Southern Freedom The War of the North and South The Lost Cause The War Between the States The Late Unpleasantness The Late Friction The Late Ruction The Schism The Uncivil War and of course.... THE War, "as if the planet had not heard a shot fired in anger since '65." Yet another alternative name: The Slaveowners' Rebellion ----------------------------- Q5.6: What are good books on the war? Steve Schmidt (email@example.com) has compiled a recommended reading list which will be posted monthly as a supplement to this FAQ. Other lists are archived at ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/academic/history/marshall/military/civil_war_usa/ in that directory are two files civ_war_biblio_1.txt, which is an annotated bibliography of Civil War bibliographies, and civ_war_biblio_2.txt, which is a bibliography of Civil War books arranged by subject, similar to Schmidt's, but without descriptions. ----------------------------- Q5.7: How can I get the soundtrack to Ken Burn's "Civil War"? From Wayne J. Warf (WWARF@ucs.indiana.edu): <Original Soundtrack Recording> The Civil War <A Film by Ken Burns> Elektra Nonesuch #9 79256-2 copyright 1990 ISBN# 0-681-92609-0 Songs of the Civil War Produced by Ken Burns and Don DeVito Columbia #CK 48607 Copyright 1991 by Sony Music Entertainment no ISBN# listed ------------------------------ *Q5.8: Did U.S. Grant and R.E. Lee both own slaves and free them? [from the late Paul Cowan and James Epperson with amendments by JMS] 1. R. E. Lee personally owned at least one slave, an elderly house servant that he inherited from his mother. It is said that Lee continued to hold the slave as a kindness, since he was too feeble to have made his way as a free man. Although it is commonly believed that Lee owned the Arlington Plantation and the associated slaves, these and two other plantations totalling over 1,000 slaves were the property of Lee's father-in-law, George Washington Parke Custis. Upon Mr. Custis's death in 1858, Lee did not personally inherit either the plantations or slaves, but was named the executor of the estate. Mr. Custis willed that his slaves should be freed within 5 years. Legal problems with the fulfillment of other terms of the will led Lee to delay in the execution of the terms of manumission until the latest specified date. On 29 Dec 1862, Lee executed a deed of manumission for all the slaves of the Custis estate who were still behind Confederate lines (Arlington was in Union hands by then). Sources: _Lee & Grant_, by Gene Smith; _R.E. Lee: A Biography_, by D.S. Freeman. 2. In 1858, while attempting to make a go in civilian life as a farmer near St. Louis, MO, U.S. Grant acquired a slave named William Jones, probably from his father-in-law, although the record is not entirely clear. In March, 1859, Grant gave Jones his freedom despite the fact that Grant desperately needed the money he might have recovered by selling him. Grant's wife, Julia, had the use of four slaves as personal servants; the record is unclear as to who held legal title to them (it could well have been Julia's father). In her own memoirs, Julia states that these were freed at the time of the Emancipation Proclamation. Sources: _Captain Sam Grant_, by Lloyd Lewis; _The Personal Memoirs of Julia Dent Grant_, by Julia Grant; _Let Us Have Peace, etc._ by Brooks D. Simpson. ------------------------------ Q5.9: What is the recipe for hardtack? Recipes for hardtack vary from extremely simple to more elaborate. The simplest is: 6 parts flour to 1 part water, mix, knead, roll out thin, and bake until hard. From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Dominic J. Dal Bello) For about 10 crackers (1 ration): 3 cups flour 1 1/2 or so tsp baking soda 1 1/2 tsp salt water to form to a workable dough. Kneed the dough. Crackers should be cut to about 3"x3" (although some contractors made 'em 5x5, even 7x7). When you cut the dough, I have found that it should not "pull away" - if it does, it is still too wet. With a nail, or similar object, punch about 16 holes in each cracker (4x4 pattern - although this was not the only way to do it). Put in oven at about 375F for about 50 minutes - this is what I find to work for me; different ovens may act differently. In any event, it should be brownish on the bottom. Your not "baking" cookies here, you are essentially trying to heat all the water out of the cracker. Take out and cool. - they should get hard. "Evidence" indicates that hardtack was made with "self-rising" flour. If I recall right, however, no specifications have been found as to what the government actually called for. Some recipes call for oil, but I have found that it has no effect on the final product. In any event, experiment with kneeding, etc., time to bake to get a final product which is a nice hard slab of flour. From: email@example.com (Jeff Zurschmeide) 2 cups flour 1/2 cup buttermilk 2 tbsp baking soda 2 tbsp vegetable oil salt to taste water to consistency Mix up well, (dry ingredients first, then wet) roll out thin, bake at 450 degrees about 15 minutes, or to tooth-breaking quality. From Merle Kirck: We make it for our Living History programs. here it is: 3 cups milk 8 cups plain flour 8 tbl spoons shortening (crisco) 6 tea spoon brown sugar (opt) 3 tea spoon salt Mix, roll on floured board, to 1/2" thickness. cut into 3" squares, punch holes 3 rolls of 3 with ice pick, Lightly grease baking pan, Bake in oven 400 deg for 45 min or till golden brown, cool in open air. Don't store in plastic (no plastic in 1800's) because of moisture. This recipe is the same they used except the sugar. We have found that a good dose of cinnamon, and not cooking it as long is good eatin'. ------------------------------ Q5.10: Where can I get a copy of the Sullivan Ballou letter quoted in Ken Burn's "Civil War"? The text of Maj. Ballou's letter can be found at the follwoing web site: http://www.hillsdale.edu/dept/History/Documents/War/America/Civil/1861-Ballou.htm ------------------------------ Q5.11: What were the lyrics to "Dixie", "The Bonnie Blue Flag", etc.? Kathie Fraser has the lyrics to several songs on her homepage of songs and poetry: http://www.erols.com/kfraser/index.html ------------------------------ Q5.12: How can I get the "Official Records" on CD-ROM? There are currently three publishers who have the "Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies" on CD-ROM. Guild Press of Indiana 435 Gradle Drive Carmel, IN 46032 (317) 848-6421 firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.guildpress.com Broadfoot Publishing Co. 1907 Buena Vista Circle Wilmington, NC 28405 Order Line (800) 537-5243 Fax Line (910) 686-4379 General Information (910) 686-4816 email@example.com http://broadfoot.wilmington.net/ H-Bar Enterprises 1442 Davidson Loop Oakman, AL 35579 1-800-432-7702 http://www.hbar.com Guild Press and H-Bar have several other Civil War-related titles on CD-ROM as well, while Broadfoot is well-known for its reprints (in paper) of essential Civil War reference materials. ***End of U.S. Civil War FAQ Justin M. Sanders "I shot an arrow into the air. It fell Dept. of Physics to earth I know not where." --Henry Univ. of South Alabama Wadsworth Longfellow confessing firstname.lastname@example.org to a sad ignorance of ballistics.