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U.S. Civil War FAQ, Part 2/2

( Part1 - Part2 )
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Archive-name: civil-war-usa/faq/part2
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Last-modified: 2002/3/19
Version: 9.11

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
U.S. Civil War FAQ v9.11 (19 Mar 2002)

This is part 2 (of 2) of a collection of answers to frequently asked
questions (and some not-so-frequently, too!) about the Civil War. It is
posted on or about the 20th of each month. It was compiled by Justin M.
Sanders (jsanders@jaguar1.usouthal.edu) who tried to be as complete and
accurate as possible, but who is definitely human and has probably made
several errors. 

Please send comments, suggestions, or corrections to the address above.

The topics covered are (a plus means a new entry, an asterisk means a
    revised entry):
               ---Part 1---
Section 0: alt.war.civil.usa, soc.history.war.us-civil-war, and net stuff
   *Q0.1:  What are these groups anyway?
   *Q0.2:  Are the FAQ and Reading List archived somewhere?
   *Q0.3:  Where can I find Civil War images, documents, and so
          forth on-line?
Section 1: The beginning of the War
    Q1.1:  When did state X secede?
    Q1.2:  Was there a declaration of war or something?
    Q1.3:  Was Texas given a right to secede by the Treaty of Annexation
           that brought it into the Union?
    Q1.4:  Did the Supreme Court ever rule on the legality of secession?
    Q1.5:  What were the populations of the states at the outbreak of
          the war?
Section 2: Battles and fighting forces
    Q2.1:  What are the alternative names of various battles?
    Q2.2:  Who were the U.S. Generals at the out-break of the war, and
          who were the first Generals appointed after the war began?
    Q2.3:  Who were the first C.S. Generals appointed?
    Q2.4:  What were the naval ranks during the Civil War?
    Q2.5:  What were the organization and strengths of various units
          in the armies?
    Q2.6:  What is the difference between grapeshot and canister? 
    Q2.7:  How did prisoner exchanges and paroles work?
    Q2.8:  What did a brevet promotion indicate, and what did an officer
          gain by being given a brevet?
               ---Part 2---
Section 3: The end of the War
    Q3.1:  When did the war end?
    Q3.2:  If the rebel states were never considered legally out of the
	  Union, how was Reconstruction justified?
    Q3.3:  When were the different states readmitted to representation in
          Congress? 
    Q3.4:  Who was the last surviving veteran of the Civil War?
Section 4: Genealogy and Unit Histories
    Q4.1:  My ancestor fought in the war-- how do I find out about 
          his service?
    Q4.2:  How can I find information about a particular regiment?
Section 5: Miscellaneous
    Q5.1:  What is the "Stars and Bars"?
    Q5.2:  What changes to the U.S. flag occurred during the war?
    Q5.3:  How was the state of West Virginia created?
    Q5.4:  What war records did the post-war presidents have?
    Q5.5:  What are the various alternative names for the war?
   *Q5.6:  What are good books on the war?
    Q5.7:  How can I get the soundtrack to Ken Burn's "Civil War"?
    Q5.8:  Did U.S. Grant and R.E. Lee both own slaves and free them?
    Q5.9:  What is the recipe for hardtack?
   *Q5.10:  Where can I get a copy of the Sullivan Ballou letter quoted 
           in Ken Burn's "Civil War"?
   *Q5.11:  What were the lyrics to "Dixie", "The Bonnie Blue Flag", etc.? 
    Q5.12:  How can I get the "Official Records" on CD-ROM?

Answers (Part 2)
Section 3: The end of the War
------------------------------
Q3.1:  When did the war end?

9 April 1865, Gen. R.E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia at 
    Appomattox Courthouse, VA 
26 April 1865, Gen. J.E. Johnston surrendered the Army of Tennessee et al.
    at Durham, NC
4 May 1865, Gen. Richard Taylor surrendered Dept. of Alabama, 
    Mississippi, and Eastern Louisiana at Citronelle, AL
13 May 1865, engagement at Palmito Ranch, near Brownsville, TX, often
    taken to be the last engagement of the war
2 June 1865, Gen. E.K. Smith surrendered the Trans-Mississippi Department
    at Galveston, TX (the surrender had been agreed to by Smith's
    representative, Lt Gen S.B. Buckner, in New Orleans on 26 May)
23 June 1865, Brig. Gen. Stand Watie's troops in the Indian Territory 
    surrendered at Doaksville.  Watie was the last general to surrender
    his troops. 
13 June 1865, Pres. Johnson proclaimed the insurrection in Tennessee 
    at an end. (Messages and Papers of the Presidents, V, p3515)
4 Nov 1865, The raider CSS Shenandoah surrendered in Liverpool to British 
    authorities.  For several months after the surrender of ground forces,
    this last of the CSA's naval vessels had been burning USA shipping,
    with her captain, James I. Waddell, still thinking the war was in
    progress.  Her last fight was against a whaling fleet in the Bering 
    Sea on 28 Jun 1865. After this, the vessel was the object of a
    worldwide search.  On August 2, Waddell had contact with a British
    ship, whose captain informed him that the CSA was no more. With this 
    in mind, he put guns below decks and sailed to England, where the 
    ship was surrendered to the British Admiralty.  Upon the boarding of 
    the vessel by British authorities, the last sovereign Confederate 
    flag was furled. [contrib. by PDunn]
2 Apr 1866, Pres. Johnson proclaimed the insurrection ended in all the 
    former Confederate States except Texas.  This was his recognition of
    the legitimacy of the governments formed under his Reconstruction 
    proclamation. (Mess. & Papers, V, p3627)
20 Aug 1866, Pres. Johnson proclaimed that Texas had complied with the 
    conditions of his Reconstruction proclamation and declared the 
    insurrection in Texas at an end. (Mess. & Paper, V, p3632)

------------------------------
Q3.2:  If the rebel states were never considered legally out of the
       Union, how was Reconstruction justified?

   Although the states remained part of the U.S., they had no loyal 
governments, and the authority for the federal government to provide 
mechanisms to erect loyal state governments was derived from Article IV, 
Sec. 4 of the Constitution.  That section provides that the United States 
shall guarantee to each state a republican form of government.
   Another important provision of the Constitution was Article I, Sec. 5
which provides that each House of Congress shall be the judge of the
qualifications of its members.  This allowed the Congress to refuse to
seat delegations from former rebel states until the states had met the
conditions of the Reconstruction Acts. 
   The authoritative constitutional justification for reconstruction can
be found in the Supreme Court's decision in Texas v. White (74 U.S. 700) 
delivered 12 Apr 1869.  The entire decision is available on the Web at
http://supct.law.cornell.edu/supct/cases/historic.htm

----------------------------
Q3.3:  When were the different states readmitted to representation in
       Congress? 

For the dates that follow: "Act" is the date of the act which declared the
state entitled to Congressional representation (the Act of 25 June 68 was
conditional upon the states' ratifying the 14th and 15th amendment, the
other acts required no additional state action). "S" and "R" are the dates
on which the first Senator and first Representative were seated.  "Mil" is
the date on which the military turned over all authority to the state
government.  Tennessee did not undergo Congressional Reconstruction. 

TN-- Act 24 July 1866
AR-- Act 22 June 1868; S 23 Jun 68, R 24 Jun 68; Mil 30 Jun 68
NC-- Act 25 June 1868; S 17 Jul 68, R 6 Jul 68; Mil 24 Jul 68
SC-- Act 25 June 1868; S 22 Jul 68, R 18 Jul 68; Mil 24 Jul 68
LA-- Act 25 June 1868; S 17 Jul 68, R 18 Jul 68; Mil 13 Jul 68
AL-- Act 25 June 1868; S 25 Jul 68, R 21 Jul 68; Mil 14 Jul 68
FL-- Act 25 June 1868; S 30 Jun 68, R 1 Jul 68; Mil 29 Jun 68
VA-- Act 25 Jan 1870; S 26 Jan 70, R 26 Jan 70; Mil 28 Jan 70
MS-- Act 23 Feb 1870; S 25 Feb 70, R 25 Feb 70; Mil 28 Feb 70
TX-- Act 30 Mar 1870; S 31 Mar 70, R 31 Mar 70; Mil 16 Apr 70

GA-- Act 25 June 1868; S rejected 25 Jan 69; R 25 July 1868;
       2nd Reconstruction 22 Dec 1869; Act 15 July 1870; S Feb 1871,
       R Dec 1870.
The seating of Georgia's delegations was complicated by the fact that it 
was placed under military rule for a second time in 1869.  This delayed 
final seating of the delegations until late 1870 and early 1871.

----------------------------
Q3.4:  Who was the last surviving veteran of the Civil War?

[this entry was originally written by the late Paul Cowan, but it has 
been extensively revised by JMS]
   1.  Albert Woolson of Minnesota was the last authenticated survivor of
the Civil War.  Woolson served as a Union drummer boy and died in 1956. 
   2.  Determining the last Confederate veteran is more difficult.  The
most recent and thorough study by William Marvel, published in "Blue and
Gray" magazine in Feb. 1991, finds that the last authenicated veteran of
the Confederate army was Pleasant Crump of the 10th Alabama, who died on
31 Dec 1951.  Previous claims to be the last veteran of the Confederate
army (and of the whole War) were made for Walter Washington Williams (died
19 Dec 1959) of Texas and for John Salling (died 19 Mar 1959) of Virginia.
However, Marvel concluded that their claims must be rejected, since (among
other reasons) census records indicated that, in 1860, Williams was only 5
years old and Salling was just 2 years old. 
   3. The last surviving Civil War general was Union Brig.Gen. Adelbert
Ames, who died in 1933 at age 97. 
   4. The last surviving Confederate general was Brig.Gen. John
McCausland, who died on 22 Jan 1927 at age 91.  Felix H. Robertson, who
was appointed B.G. in 1864, who served at such, but whose nomination was
rejected by the CSA Senate in 1865, died on 20 Apr 1928 at age 89. 
   Sources: William Marvel in "Blue and Gray", Feb 1991; Jim Epperson
(epperson@math.uah.edu); Ron Kolakowski (rkola@ida.org ); Stephen E. Brown
(sebrown@prairienet.org); _The Civil War Notebook_, by A.A. Nofi; _New
York Times_ article, Dec. 19, 1959;_Civil War Dictionary_, by M.M.
Boatner;_Handbook of Texas_. 

Section 4: Genealogy and Unit Histories
-----------------------------
Q4.1:  My ancestor fought in the war-- how do I find out about his service?

[Thanks to Geoff Walden and Lynn Berkowitz for updated information.]
   First, here are two good reference books that contain much more
information than can be given in this FAQ:
  (1) George K. Schweitzer, Civil War Genealogy, 
       available from: G.K. Schweitzer, 7914 Gleason  C-1136,
       Knoxville, TN 37919
  (2) B.H. Groene, Tracing Your Civil War Ancestor
       ISBN 0-345-36192-X
An additional reference dealing in Confederate records is
     James C. Neagles, Confederate Research Sources: A Guide to Archive 
      Collections (ISBN 0-916489-11-6, Ancestry Publications, P.O. Box 
      476, Salt Lake City, UT  84110)

   The basic facts on your ancestor that you will need to know are his
name, state, regiment, and (if possible) company, for example: 
  Levi Lindsey Sanders, 6th Texas Cavalry (CSA), Company I.  
If you don't know the regiment name, you can often find it in 19th century
county histories for the county your ancestor lived in.  Also be careful
with Confederate regiments; they were frequently referred to by the
commander's name when they in fact had a numerical designation, for
example: 2nd Texas Partisan Rangers a.k.a. Stone's Regiment a.k.a.
Chisum's Regiment.  There are frequently indexes listing all the soldiers
from a state which were published in the 19th century as well (this is
almost without exception for the Union states, more rare for the
Confederate states).  The National Archives has published a Consolidated
Index to Compiled Confederate Service Records on microfilm which is
available in many large historical libraries (the service records
themselves are also frequently on microfilm at the library).  A useful
bibliography of regimental and state histories is C.E. Dornbusch,
_Military Bibliography of the Civil War_ (4 vols). 

   Assuming that you have the above information, you can obtain copies of 
your ancestor's service records by writing to the National Archives.  
Write to:
   General Reference Branch (NNRG-P)
   National Archives and Records Administration
   7th and Pennsylvania Ave.
   Washington, DC  20408
and request NATF Form 80.  Or you may request NATF Form 80 by sending 
e-mail to:
   inquire@arch2.nara.gov
Give your name, (snail) mailing address, phone number and netid.  Whether
you request NATF Form 80 by e-mail or regular mail, you may wish to
request 3 or more copies, especially if you are researching a Union
veteran or multiple veterans. 
 
   When you have the forms, fill one out as completely as possible and
check "military service" (Schweitzer recommends that you write in red ink
next to the veteran's name "Please send complete contents of files.") If
your ancestor fought for the Union, he may have a pension file; you may
fill out a second Form 80 and check "pension record"  (again Schweitzer
recommends requesting the entire contents of the file).  (The National
Archives will not have pension records for Confederate veterans, but some
former Confederate state did give pensions and their archives may have the
records, details can be found in the above references especially Neagles.)
Some weeks later, the Archives will send you a letter indicating what they
have located and how much it will cost to copy it (typically about $10). 

------------------------------
Q4.2:  How can I find information about a particular regiment?

   For the Union side, the definite first place to look for a brief
history of a regiment is
      F.H. Dyer, _A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion_, 2 vols.
It contains, among lots of other useful information, brief histories of 
just about every Northern regiment.

   On the Confederate side, the nearest equivalent to Dyer is
      Stewart Sifakis, _Compendium of the Confederate Armies_(New 
      York: Facts on File, 1991-1994?), 11 vols.
The volumes in this series are for VA; TN; AL; FL and AR; NC; LA; MS; TX;
SC and GA; KY, MD, MO and Indian units; and a volume of Tables of
Organizations.  Another useful work is
      Joseph H. Crute Jr., _Units of the Confederate States Army_, 
      (Midlothian, VA: Derwent Books, 1987)
Crute's work is not quite as comprehensive as Sifakis', but it has the
advantage of having everything in one volume. 

   A useful bibliography of regimental histories, both North and South, is
      C.E. Dornbusch, _Military Bibliography of the Civil War_, 4
      vols.
It contains entries on books and articles which have been written about 
Civil War regiments through about 1987.  It is strongly recommeded that 
you consult this work.

   If you would like to see if others on the internet have an interest in 
the same unit that you do, consult Carol Botteron's Civil War Units file.
The CWUNITS file is described as follows:
  
"The purpose of the CWUNITS file is to let people list the units they are
interested in and have at least some information on (from pension records,
books, etc.). Typically the contact person had an ancestor who was in the
unit, but re-enactors, history buffs, et al are welcome.  (This is _not_ a
file of re-enactment units.) If you see a listing for a unit you are
interested in, you can send the contact person email and share
information.  The idea is not necessarily to find people with the same
ancestor; people can share info on what action the unit was involved in,
how the soldiers lived, etc." 

The file is currently divided into 5 parts (3 Union, 2 Confederate) by 
states.  To get a copy of the file by e-mail, send e-mail to:

ROOTS-L-request@rootsweb.com
Subject: archive 
Text is:  
get genealog.cwunits 
get genealog.cwunits1 

up to "get genealog.cwunits5".  Note! This mail server is *case 
sensitive*, so make sure to use only the capital letters used above.  

The Civil War Units file is also available over WWW from:
http://sunsite.utk.edu/civil-war/warweb.html#rosters

Ms. Botteron updates the file approximately every two months.

   Finally, you can consult the Index volume to the _Official Records of
the Union and Confederate Armies_ and start wading through the O.R.  This
may be your only alternative for particularly obscure units.  The index
lists the regiments by state.  It is a good idea to check the index for
the name of the regiment's commander and perhaps for the brigade
commander. 

   Keep in mind the regiment's place in the army structure.  Histories of 
battles or campaigns may not mention every regiment, but they may mention 
the brigade or division the regiment is in.  As an example, Ludwell 
Johnson's _Red River Campaign_ indexes very few regiments, but the 
brigade commanders are indexed, and the brigades are shown on the maps.  
The 2nd Texas Partisan Rangers was in Major's cavalry brigade and Green's 
division, so its activities can be inferred by following the action at 
the brigade or division level even though the regiment itself is not 
mentioned anywhere in the book.

Section 5: Miscellaneous
------------------------------
Q5.1:  What is the "Stars and Bars"?

   The "Stars and Bars" IS NOT the familiar "rebel" flag one sees 
adorning license plates and often carried by the KKK-- that is the CS 
Naval Jack, based on the CS battle flag.
   The Stars and Bars design was approved by a committee of the
Provisional Congress on 4 Mar 1861, but was never made official by law. 
The bottom red stripe ran the entire length of the flag and was 6 units
long and 1 unit wide.  Above it, and to the left was a blue square, 2
units on a side.  In the blue square, a circle of stars (one for each
state, initially seven, to represent the original seven Confederate
States, eventually thirteen).  To the right of the square, two stripes,
white below, red above, each 1 unit wide and 4 units long. 
   The Stars and Bars' similarity to the U.S. flag caused problems of
mistaken identity at 1st Bull Run/Manassas, so a battle flag for the Army
of Northern Virginia was designed.  It was blue saltire ("X" shape) on a
red SQUARE field.  On the saltire was placed stars equal to the number of
Confederate States (in principle, eleven at the time of the initial
design, but up to thirteen by the end of 1861).  This flag design was soon
picked up by the other armies and branches of service.  The CS Navy flew
an oblong version as a Naval Jack which is identical to the oblong "rebel"
flags seen today. 
   By a law approved 1 May 1863, a new national flag was adopted by the
Confederate States-- the "Stainless Banner".  It was a field of white
twice as long as wide, in the upper left was the battle flag (square) with
a side two-thirds the width of the field.  This flag had the drawback that
when partially wrapped around the flagstaff, the non-white part was
covered.  This made it look like a white flag of surrender.  Furthermore,
its length to width ratio of 2 to 1 made it an unusually long flag which
exacerbated the problem. 
   A law approved 4 Mar 1865, modified the "Stainless Banner"  to correct
its problems.  The revised flag was 10 units wide and 15 units long.  In
the upper left was an oblong battle flag 6 units wide and 7 units long. 
The field was white, as before, except on the fly end there was a vertical
red bar 4 units wide.  The above dimensions, in terms of units, are
derived from the much more convoluted description given by the flag act. 
This flag was the last national flag of the Confederacy.

------------------------------	  
Q5.2:  What changes to the U.S. flag occurred during the war?

   The admission of two states affected the U.S. flag during the war.  By
the Flag Act of 1818, a new star was added on the 4 July following the
admission of a state.  Stars were added on 4 July 1861 for Kansas
(admitted 29 Jan 1861, the 34th state) and on 4 July 1863 for West
Virginia (admitted 20 June 1863, the 35th state).  Nevada, the 36th state,
was admitted during the war on 31 Oct 1864, so its star was added 4 July
1865 after hostilities were over (more or less, see Q3.1). 

------------------------------
Q5.3:  How was the state of West Virginia created?

   On 17 Apr 1861, the Va Secession Convention passed an ordinance of
secession (to be ratified by the people).  A mass meeting was held in
Clarksburg and called for a Convention of western/unionist counties to
meet in Wheeling.  The 1st Wheeling Convention met 13 May 1861 with 425
delegates from 25 counties, it decided to adjourn until after the vote on
the secession ordinance.  The ordinance of secession was ratified by
popular vote on 23 May 1861 at which time new legislators were also
elected.
   The 2nd Wheeling convention met 11 June 1861 and included the western
counties' members-elect to the VA legis.  On 19 June, the convention
passed an ordinance "reorganizing" the state government (creating a
"loyal" one), and on 20 June, Francis Pierpont was chosen governor.  On 1
July 1861, the members of the legislature elected on 23 May and some
holdovers from the old legislature met, finished the organization of the
Reorganized state govt., and elected 2 U.S. Senators-- this government
was recognized as legitimate by the U.S.
   On 6 Aug, the Wheeling convention reconvened, and on 20 Aug 1861 passed
an ordinance to divide the state.  The division ordinance was ratified by
the people on 24 Oct.  From 26 Nov 1861 to 18 Feb 1862, the convention
wrote a constitution for the proposed new state which was approved by the
voters on 11 Apr 1862.  Lincoln signed the enabling act on 31 Dec 1862
which admitted W.VA on the condition that its constitution include a
provision for the gradual abolition of slavery.
	   The Convention reconvened yet again, and on 12 Feb 1863 amended
the state constitution to abolish slavery.  This amendment was approved by
the voters on 26 Mar 1863.  Lincoln proclaimed (on 20 Apr 1863) that W.Va
would officially be admitted in 60 days.  During the interval, W VA
elected new officers-- A.I. Boreman was elected 1st governor, and VA
unionist government under Gov. Pierpont was moved to Alexandria.  On 20
June 1863, West Virginia was officially admitted to the Union.
   In 1866, Virginia repealed the act approving the division, and brought
suit in the U.S. Sup. Crt. to have the division overturned.  In
particular, it wanted Berkeley and Jefferson Cos. returned.  On 10 Mar
1866, Congress passed a joint resolution approving the previous transfer
of the counties to W.Va.  In 1871 the Supreme Court decided in favor of
W.Va., thus settling the matter of division. 

   Source: Virginia and West Virginia articles in Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, 10th ed.

------------------------------
Q5.4:  What war records did the post-war presidents have?

From: tecump@sulu.ucsb.edu (Dominic J. Dal Bello)

   I have looked up what the presidents after Lincoln and up to McKinley
did in the war (from _The Complete Book of US Presidents_ or something
like that.)

ANDREW JOHNSON:  In March, 1862, President Lincoln appointed Johnson
military governor of Tennessee with the rank of brigadier general. 

ULYSSES GRANT:  No intro necessary (lieut. general)

RUTHERFORD B. HAYES:  served with the 23d Ohio Infantry from June, 1861,
entering service as a major.  October '61: promoted to lt. colonel; Oct.
'62 promoted to colonel, commanding the 23d.  After Cedar Creek (Oct.
'64), promoted to brigadier general of vols. Received one of the
infinitely many brevets dated March 13, 1865 to major general, vols. 
Resigned June, 1865. 

JAMES GARFIELD:  Commissioned a lt. col in the 42nd Ohio, Aug. 1861, and
promoted to Col. in November, '61.  Commanded the 18th Brig. at Middle
Creek, Jan. '62, defeating superior numbers, and was subsequently promoted
to brigadier general.  January, 1863-- appointed Chief of Staff to
Rosecrans, "In a daring ride under enemy fire, during which his horse was
wounded, he conveyed vital information from flank to flank.  For this he
was promoted to major general."  Rosecrans said of him: "I feel much
indebted to him for both counsel and assistance in the administration of
this army...He possesses the instinct and energy of a great commander." 
Elected to Congress in Sept., 1863 Garfield resigned in Dec., 1863. 

CHESTER A. ARTHUR:  Served in New York State militia from Feb. '58 to Dec.
'62, rising from brigade judge advocate to quartermaster genl.  In Jan,
'61, appointed engineer-in-chief with rank of brigadier general.  Apr,
'61, promote asst. QM genl; Feb '62 inspect. genl; July `62, QM general. 
Spring `62 inspected NY troops in Virginia.  War Gov. Edwin D Morgan said:
"He was my chief reliance in the duties of equipping and transporting
troops and munitions of war.  In the position of Quarter Master General he
displayed not only great executive ability and unbending integrity, but
great knowledge of Army Regulations.  He can say No (which is important)
without giving offense." 
		 
GROVER CLEVELAND:  Drafted, but purchased a substitute.  Paid $150 to
George Brinske (or Benninsky), a 32-year-old Polish immigrant to serve in
his place. 

BENJAMIN HARRISON:  Was approached by Indiana Governor Oliver P.  Morton
in early July, 1862 to raise a regiment in the congressional district in
and around Indianapolis.  Was given a provisional recruiting commission as
2nd Lt. on 9 July 1862, promoted to Captain on 22 July, and commissioned
Colonel of the 70th Indiana Volunteer Infantry regiment on 7 Aug 1862 when
the regiment was full.  The commissions as Lt. and Capt. were essentially
pro forma, as Harrison understood that he was to have command of the 70th
IVI. Commanded a brigade under Hooker in the Atlanta campaign.  Hooker
recommended him for promotion to brigadier general for foresight,
discipline and fighting spirit. He was brevetted Brigadier General 23 Jan
1865, and mustered out of the service 8 June 8 1865. He said, "I am not a
Julius Caesar, nor a Napoleon, but a plain Hoosier colonel, with no more
relish for a fight than for a good breakfast and hardly so much." 
[Additional info contributed by Steve Towne,
<STEVE_TOWNE_at_ICPRLAN@IMA.ISD.STATE.IN.US>]

WILLIAM McKINLEY:  23d Ohio Infantry from June 61 to July '65, starting
out as a private.  April '62 commissary sergeant; for valor at Antietam
(in getting rations to the men) promoted to 2nd Lt. commd'g Co. D, but put
on Col. Rutherford Hayes' staff.  Feb 63, promoted 1st Lt.; July 64,
promoted captain.  Served on staffs of George Crook and Winfield S
Hancock.  March, 1865, breveted major.  In uniform, cast his first vote in
1864 (for Lincoln).  Hayes said of him:  "Young as he was, we soon found
that in the business of a soldier, requiring much executive ability, young
McKinley showed unusual and unsurpassed capacity, especially for a boy of
his age.  When battles were fought or service was to be performed in
warlike things, he always filled his place." 

------------------------------
Q5.5:  What are the various alternative names for the war?

From: pdunn@magnus.acs.ohio-state.edu (Patrick L Dunn)

From Davis, B. (1982), _The Civil War: Strange and Fascinating Facts_ 
(Originally published as "Our Incredible Civil War).  ISBN 0-517-37151-0
Chapter 13. Which War? pp. 79-80.

The War for Constitutional Liberty
The War for Southern Independence
The Second American Revolution
The War for States' Rights
Mr. Lincoln's War
The Southern Rebellion
The War for Southern Rights
The War of the Southern Planters
The War of the Rebellion
The Second War for Independence
The War to Suppress Yankee Arrogance
The Brothers' War
The War of Secession
The Great Rebellion
The War for Nationality
The War for Southern Nationality
The War Against Slavery
The Civil War Between the States
The War of the Sixties
The War Against Northern Aggression
The Yankee Invasion
The War for Separation
The War for Abolition
The War for the Union
The Confederate War
The War of the Southrons
The War for Southern Freedom
The War of the North and South
The Lost Cause
The War Between the States
The Late Unpleasantness
The Late Friction
The Late Ruction
The Schism
The Uncivil War

and of course.... THE War, "as if the planet had not heard a shot fired 
in anger since '65."

Yet another alternative name: The Slaveowners' Rebellion

-----------------------------
Q5.6:  What are good books on the war?

   Steve Schmidt (schmidsj@unvax.union.edu) has compiled a recommended
reading list which will be posted monthly as a supplement to this FAQ. 
   Other lists are archived at
      ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/academic/history/marshall/military/civil_war_usa/      
in that directory are two files
      civ_war_biblio_1.txt, 
which is an annotated bibliography of Civil War bibliographies, and
      civ_war_biblio_2.txt, 
which is a bibliography of Civil War books arranged by subject, similar 
to Schmidt's, but without descriptions.

-----------------------------
Q5.7: How can I get the soundtrack to Ken Burn's "Civil War"?

From Wayne J. Warf (WWARF@ucs.indiana.edu):
  <Original Soundtrack Recording> The Civil War <A Film by Ken Burns>
  Elektra Nonesuch #9 79256-2 copyright 1990
  ISBN# 0-681-92609-0
        
  Songs of the Civil War
  Produced by Ken Burns and Don DeVito
  Columbia #CK 48607
  Copyright 1991 by Sony Music Entertainment
  no ISBN# listed

------------------------------
*Q5.8:  Did U.S. Grant and R.E. Lee both own slaves and free them?

[from the late Paul Cowan and James Epperson with amendments by JMS]
   1.  R. E. Lee personally owned at least one slave, an elderly house
servant that he inherited from his mother.  It is said that Lee continued
to hold the slave as a kindness, since he was too feeble to have made his
way as a free man. Although it is commonly believed that Lee owned the
Arlington Plantation and the associated slaves, these and two other
plantations totalling over 1,000 slaves were the property of Lee's
father-in-law, George Washington Parke Custis. Upon Mr. Custis's death in
1858, Lee did not personally inherit either the plantations or slaves, but
was named the executor of the estate. Mr. Custis willed that his slaves
should be freed within 5 years. Legal problems with the fulfillment of
other terms of the will led Lee to delay in the execution of the terms of
manumission until the latest specified date. On 29 Dec 1862, Lee executed 
a deed of manumission for all the slaves of the Custis estate who were 
still behind Confederate lines (Arlington was in Union hands by then).
    Sources: _Lee & Grant_, by Gene Smith; _R.E. Lee: A Biography_, by 
D.S. Freeman.

2.  In 1858, while attempting to make a go in civilian life as a farmer
near St. Louis, MO, U.S. Grant acquired a slave named William Jones,
probably from his father-in-law, although the record is not entirely
clear.  In March, 1859, Grant gave Jones his freedom despite the fact that
Grant desperately needed the money he might have recovered by selling him.
Grant's wife, Julia, had the use of four slaves as personal servants; the
record is unclear as to who held legal title to them (it could well have
been Julia's father).  In her own memoirs, Julia states that these were
freed at the time of the Emancipation Proclamation.
   Sources:  _Captain Sam Grant_, by Lloyd Lewis; _The Personal Memoirs of
Julia Dent Grant_, by Julia Grant; _Let Us Have Peace, etc._ by Brooks D. 
Simpson. 

------------------------------
Q5.9:  What is the recipe for hardtack?

Recipes for hardtack vary from extremely simple to more elaborate.
The simplest is:
 6 parts flour to 1 part water, mix, knead, roll out thin, and bake until 
  hard.

From: tecump@sulu.ucsb.edu (Dominic J. Dal Bello)
For about 10 crackers (1 ration):
   3 cups flour
   1 1/2 or so tsp baking soda
   1 1/2 tsp  salt
   water to form to a workable dough.
Kneed the dough.  Crackers should be cut to about 3"x3" (although some
contractors made 'em 5x5, even 7x7).  When you cut the dough, I have found
that it should not "pull away" - if it does, it is still too wet.  With a
nail, or similar object, punch about 16 holes in each cracker (4x4 pattern
- although this was not the only way to do it).  Put in oven at about 375F
for about 50 minutes - this is what I find to work for me; different ovens
may act differently.  In any event, it should be brownish on the bottom. 
Your not "baking" cookies here, you are essentially trying to heat all the
water out of the cracker.  Take out and cool. - they should get hard. 
   "Evidence" indicates that hardtack was made with "self-rising" flour.
If I recall right, however, no specifications have been found as to what
the government actually called for. Some recipes call for oil, but I have
found that it has no effect on the final product.  In any event,
experiment with kneeding, etc., time to bake to get a final product which
is a nice hard slab of flour. 

From: zursch@solaris.wpd.sgi.com (Jeff Zurschmeide)
  2 cups flour
  1/2 cup buttermilk
  2 tbsp baking soda
  2 tbsp vegetable oil
  salt to taste
  water to consistency 
Mix up well, (dry ingredients first, then wet) roll out thin, bake at 450
degrees about 15 minutes, or to tooth-breaking quality. 

From Merle Kirck:
We make it for our Living History programs. here it is:
  3 cups milk
  8 cups plain flour
  8 tbl spoons shortening (crisco)
  6 tea spoon brown sugar (opt)
  3 tea spoon salt
Mix, roll on floured board, to 1/2" thickness. cut into 3" squares, punch
holes 3 rolls of 3 with ice pick, Lightly grease baking pan, Bake in oven
400 deg for 45 min or till golden brown, cool in open air. Don't store in
plastic (no plastic in 1800's) because of moisture. 
   This recipe is the same they used except the sugar. We have found that
a good dose of cinnamon, and not cooking it as long is good eatin'. 

------------------------------
Q5.10:  Where can I get a copy of the Sullivan Ballou letter quoted 
         in Ken Burn's "Civil War"?

The text of Maj. Ballou's letter can be found at the follwoing web 
site:

http://www.hillsdale.edu/dept/History/Documents/War/America/Civil/1861-Ballou.htm

------------------------------

Q5.11:  What were the lyrics to "Dixie", "The Bonnie Blue Flag", etc.?

Kathie Fraser has the lyrics to several songs on her homepage of songs 
and poetry:

http://www.erols.com/kfraser/index.html

------------------------------

Q5.12:  How can I get the "Official Records" on CD-ROM?

There are currently three publishers who have the "Official Records of 
the Union and Confederate Armies" on CD-ROM.  

Guild Press of Indiana
435 Gradle Drive
Carmel, IN  46032
   (317) 848-6421
sales@guildpress.com
http://www.guildpress.com

Broadfoot Publishing Co.
1907 Buena Vista Circle 
Wilmington, NC  28405
   Order Line (800) 537-5243 
   Fax Line (910) 686-4379
   General Information (910) 686-4816
bropubco@wilmington.net
http://broadfoot.wilmington.net/

H-Bar Enterprises 
1442 Davidson Loop 
Oakman, AL 35579 
   1-800-432-7702
http://www.hbar.com

Guild Press and H-Bar have several other Civil War-related titles on
CD-ROM as well, while Broadfoot is well-known for its reprints (in paper)
of essential Civil War reference materials. 

***End of U.S. Civil War FAQ

Justin M. Sanders           "I shot an arrow into the air.  It fell 
Dept. of Physics               to earth I know not where." --Henry
Univ. of South Alabama           Wadsworth Longfellow confessing
jsanders@jaguar1.usouthal.edu     to a sad ignorance of ballistics.

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