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If you don't have one, you can post news and search for past articles on http://groups.google.com/: news:comp.publish.cdrom.hardware news:comp.publish.cdrom.software news:comp.publish.cdrom.multimedia news:alt.comp.periphs.cdr The HTML version of this FAQ is available from: http://www.cdrfaq.org/ Some translations are available (may be somewhat out of date): German: http://www.dvddemystifiziert.de/cdr/faq.html Turkish: http://www.tarman.ws/ Hungarian: http://delfin.klte.hu/~nagysz/cdrgyik/ French: http://www.lagravuredecd.com/ Italian: http://web.tiscali.it/marzonaontheweb/faq/faq.html Russian: http://members.tripod.com/greatkorzhik/cdrfaq.htm If a Usenet news posting appears to be cut off at the bottom, and you read news with a browser like Netscape Navigator, you may need to increase a buffer size. Please DO NOT post copies of the HTML version on your web site. I occasionally get e-mail from people reading versions that are several months old. Please use a link to the www.cdrfaq.org site instead. Contents ========  Introduction [0-1] Legal noise (disclaimers and copyrights) [0-2] What does this FAQ cover (and not cover)? [0-3] What's new since last time? [0-4] Is the FAQ only available in English? [0-5] Appropriate use of the newsgroups [0-6] I'm having trouble, how do I ask for help? [0-7] Spelling and name conventions [0-8] Can I advertise on the FAQ pages? [0-9] Can you mail the FAQ to me?  Simple answers to simple questions [1-1] What's CD-R? CD-RW? [1-2] Are they identical to normal CDs? [1-3] Can I create new audio and data CDs? [1-4] Can I use it to copy my CDs? [1-5] How much can they hold? [1-6] Can I just copy files onto a CD-R like I would to a floppy? [1-7] What can you tell me about DVD, DVD-R, DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, etc? [1-8] Can I copy DVDs with a CD recorder? [1-9] What's the cheapest recorder and best place to buy media? [1-10] Can I get step-by-step installation and use instructions? [1-11] Can I download MP3s from the Internet and make an audio CD? [1-12] What does this term mean? Is there a glossary? [1-13] Do I need "music" blanks to record music? [1-14] How do I learn more? Is there a good book for beginners? [1-15] Why is this FAQ so far out of date?  CD Encoding [2-1] How is the information physically stored? [2-2] What is XA? CDPLUS? CD-i? MODE1 vs MODE2? Red/yellow/blue book? [2-3] How do I know what format a disc is in? [2-4] How does copy protection work? [2-4-1] ...on a data CD-ROM? [2-4-2] ...on an audio CD? [2-4-3] ...on an audio CD (Macrovision - SafeAudio) [2-4-4] ...on an audio CD (SunnComm - MediaCloQ and MediaMax CD3) [2-4-5] ...on an audio CD (Midbar Tech - Cactus Data Shield) [2-4-6] ...on an audio CD (Key2Audio / Sony DADC) [2-4-7] ...on an audio CD (BayView Systems - Duolizer) [2-4-8] ...on an audio CD (Sanyo) [2-4-9] How does the Doc-Witness OpSecure CD-ROM work? [2-4-10] What's the Sony BMG rootkit (First 4 Internet XCP)? [2-5] What's a multisession disc? [2-6] What are subcode channels? [2-7] Are the CD Identifier fields widely used? [2-8] How long does it take to burn a CD-R? [2-9] What's the difference between disc-at-once and track-at-once? [2-10] Differences between recording from an image and on-the-fly? [2-11] How does an audio CD player know to skip data tracks? [2-12] How does CD-RW compare to CD-R? [2-13] Can DVD players read CD-Rs? [2-14] Should I buy a DVD recorder instead? [2-15] What are "jitter" and "jitter correction"? [2-16] Where can I learn more about the history of CD and CD-R? [2-17] Why don't audio CDs use error correction? [2-18] How does CD-R compare to MiniDisc? [2-19] What does finalizing (and closing and fixating) do? [2-20] How are WAV/AIFF files converted into Red Book CD audio? [2-21] What does MultiRead mean? MultiPlay? [2-22] If recording fails, is the disc usable? [2-23] Why do recorders insert "00" bytes at the start of audio tracks? [2-24] How many tracks can I have? How many files? [2-25] Will SCMS prevent me from making copies? [2-26] Is a serial number placed on the disc by the recorder? [2-27] What's a TOC? How does it differ from a directory? [2-28] What's an ISO? A CIF? BIN and CUE? .DAT? [2-29] Why was 74 minutes chosen as the standard length? [2-30] Why is there a visibly unwritten strip near the CD-R hub? [2-31] What is "BURN-Proof"? "JustLink"? "Waste-Proof"? [2-32] Can playing CD-Rs in a DVD player hurt the discs? [2-33] Who *really* made this CD-R blank? [2-34] Can I make copies of DTS-encoded CDs? [2-35] Why 44.1KHz? Why not 48KHz? [2-36] What format are .CDA files in? [2-37] What are DD-R and DD-RW? [2-38] What's an ATIP? [2-39] What are "ML" discs and devices? [2-40] What's CD-MRW? Mount Rainier? EasyWrite? [2-41] What's Audio Master Quality (AMQ) recording? [2-42] Can I draw pictures on a disc with the recording laser? [2-43] What are the gory details about how are 1s and 0s encoded? [2-43-1] How does the laser read or write a disc? [2-43-2] How do pits and lands turn into 1s and 0s? What's EFM? [2-43-3] What's a frame? CIRC encoding? How does ECC work? [2-43-4] What's in a sector? [2-43-5] What's in a subcode channel? [2-43-6] I want even more details [2-44] Digital is better than analog, right? [2-44-1] What is "digital" and "digitization", anyway? [2-44-2] How does this relate to CD-DA? [2-45] What's a CDR-ROM? CD-PROM? [2-46] What's HD-BURN? GigaRec? [2-47] What are C2 errors? What do they say about disc quality? [2-48] What are CD+R and CD+RW? [2-49] What's HighMAT? [2-50] What's VariRec? [2-51] Will my CDs work on players in other countries? [2-52] Do CD-Rs have deeper pits? Are "shallow burns" bad? [2-53] What's a stacking ring?  How Do I... [3-1] How do I copy a CD-ROM? [3-1-1] Why can't I just do a block copy like a floppy? [3-2] How do I extract tracks from ("rip") or copy an audio CD? [3-2-1] How do I remove the voice from a CD track, leaving just music? [3-2-2] How do I encode a CD track to MP3? [3-3] How do I get rid of hisses and clicks on audio CDs? [3-4] How do I copy game console discs (e.g. Playstation, Dreamcast) [3-5] How do I get long filenames onto a disc? [3-5-1] ISO-9660 [3-5-2] Rock Ridge [3-5-3] HFS/HFS+ and Macintosh extensions to ISO-9660 [3-5-4] Joliet [3-5-5] Romeo [3-5-6] ISO/IEC 13346 and ISO/IEC 13490 [3-5-7] ISO-9660:1999 [3-6] How do I use a CD-i disc on a PC? [3-7] How can I extract disc and track titles from an audio CD? [3-8] How do I write more than 80 minutes of audio or 700MB of data? [3-8-1] How well do 80-minute CD-R blanks work? [3-8-2] How well do 90-minute and 99-minute CD-R blanks work? [3-8-3] How can I exceed the stated disc capacity ("overburning")? [3-9] How do I put photographs onto CD-ROM? [3-9-1] How do I create a PhotoCD? [3-9-2] How can I set up a photo album on CD-ROM? [3-9-3] How can I show digital photos on my DVD player? [3-10] How do I make a CD that will work on a PC or a Mac? [3-11] How do I access different sessions on a multi-session CD? [3-12] How do I transfer my records or cassettes to a CD? [3-12-1] ...with a stand-alone audio CD recorder? [3-12-2] ...with a CD recorder attached to my computer? [3-12-3] How can I clean up the audio before recording? [3-13] How do I transfer an audio DAT tape to CD? [3-14] How do I put audio and data on the same CD? [3-15] How do I make a bootable CD-ROM? [3-16] How do I convert home movies into video on CD? [3-16-1] How do I create a VideoCD from AVI or MPEG files? [3-16-2] How do I create an SVCD? [3-16-3] How do I create an AVCD? [3-17] How can I burn several copies of the same disc simultaneously? [3-18] Can I make copies of copies? [3-19] How can I compress or encrypt data on a CD-ROM? [3-20] Can I do backups onto CD-R? [3-21] How do I automatically launch something? Change the CD icon? [3-21-1] How does Windows "autorun" work? [3-21-2] How do I launch a document (like a web page)? [3-21-3] What autorun software is available? [3-22] How can I be sure the data was written correctly? [3-23] How do I create, copy, or play Audio Karaoke/CD+G discs? [3-24] How do I copy a CD-ROM with 3GB of data on it? A huge VideoCD? [3-25] How do I get my CD-R pressed into a real CD? [3-26] How do I make a CD without that two-second gap between tracks? [3-27] How can I record RealAudio (.ra), MIDI, WMA, and MP3 on a CD? [3-28] How do I add CD-Text information? [3-29] Can I distribute a web site on a CD-ROM? [3-30] How do I clean my CD recorder? [3-31] Is it better to record at slower speeds? [3-32] Where do I get drivers for my CD recorder? [3-33] Can I copy discs without breaking the law? [3-33-1] ...in the United States of America? [3-33-2] ...in Canada? [3-34] Can CD-Rs recorded at one speed be read at a different speed? [3-35] How do I make my CD-ROM work on the Mac, WinNT, and UNIX? [3-36] How do I put "hidden tracks" and negative indices on audio CDs? [3-37] Do I need to worry about viruses? [3-38] How do I cover up a bad audio track on a CD-R? [3-39] How do I duplicate this hard-to-copy game? [3-40] Should I erase or format a disc? How? [3-41] How do I equalize the volume for tracks from different sources? [3-42] How do I make a bit-for-bit copy of a disc? [3-43] How do I put punctuation or lower case in CD-ROM volume labels? [3-44] How do I extract audio tracks from an "enhanced" CD on the Mac? [3-45] How do I disable DirectCD for Windows? [3-46] How do I specify the order of files (e.g. sorting) on ISO-9660? [3-47] How do I put a password on a CD-ROM? [3-48] Can I record an audio CD a few tracks at a time? [3-49] How do I copy DVDs onto CD-R? [3-49-1] I heard about software that copies DVDs with a CD recorder! [3-50] How do I copy Mac, UNIX, or "hybrid" CD-ROMs from Windows? [3-51] How do I copy something in "RAW" mode? What's DAO-96? [3-52] How do I do cross-fades between audio tracks? [3-53] How do I create a CD with my favorite songs on it? [3-54] How do I record directly onto CD from a microphone? [3-55] Is it okay to record a CD from MP3? [3-56] How can I test a disc image before recording? [3-57] How do I clear the "read-only" flag under Windows? [3-58] How do I share a CD recorder across a network? [3-59] How do I write a large file across multiple discs? [3-60] What's the safest, most reliable way to write data to CD-R?  Problems [4-1] What does "buffer underrun" mean? [4-1-1] What's the deal with Windows Auto-Insert Notification (AIN)? [4-1-2] What's all this about Win9x VCACHE settings? [4-2] I can't get long Win95 filenames to work right [4-3] I can't read the multisession CD I just made [4-4] Write process keeps failing N minutes in [4-5] Why did my CD-R eject and re-load the disc between operations? [4-6] My CD-ROM drive doesn't like *any* CD-R discs [4-7] How do I avoid having a ";1" on my ISO-9660 discs? [4-8] I keep getting SCSI timeout errors [4-9] I'm having trouble writing a complete disc [4-10] What's the CDD2000 Write Append Error / spring problem? [4-11] Getting errors reading the first (data) track on mixed-mode CD [4-12] My recorder ejects blank discs immediately [4-13] I'm getting complaints about power calibration [4-14] My Adaptec 2940 pauses after finding my recorder [4-15] I can't see all the files on the CD-R [4-16] My multi-session disc only has data from the last session [4-17] I'm getting SCSI errors [4-18] Why doesn't the copy of an audio CD sound the same? [4-18-1] Why doesn't the audio data on the copy match the original? [4-18-2] The audio data matches exactly, why do they sound different? [4-19] Digital audio extraction of a track is shifted slightly [4-20] I can't play extracted audio files by double-clicking in Win95 [4-21] I can't read an ISO-finalized packet-written disc [4-22] I'm finding corrupted files on the CD-ROMs I write [4-23] Having trouble playing an audio CD in a home or car player [4-24] Having trouble using a CD-ROM on a different machine [4-25] I can't copy a VideoCD [4-26] The test write succeeds, but the actual write fails [4-27] I can no longer erase a particular CD-RW disc [4-28] Having trouble formatting discs with DirectCD [4-29] I can't write CD-Rs after installing Windows 98 [4-30] I can't use the copy of a CD-ROM after installing Windows 98 [4-31] The disc I was writing with DirectCD is now unreadable [4-32] I'm getting a message about 100 form transitions [4-33] My system hangs when I insert a blank disc [4-34] My CD-R discs don't work in my DVD player [4-35] I need help recovering data from a CD-ROM [4-36] What does "not convertible to CD quality" mean? [4-37] I inserted a CD-ROM but Windows thinks it's an audio CD [4-38] I get read errors when trying to copy a game [4-39] Restarting or shutting Windows down after recording causes hang [4-40] Why do CD-Rs play poorly when anti-skip protection is enabled? [4-41] I'm having trouble recording under Windows 2000 or WinXP [4-42] I formatted a CD-RW and only have about 530MB free [4-43] My CD recording software keeps crashing [4-44] Do I need to update my ASPI layer? [4-45] The write process completes, but the disc is still blank [4-46] My CD-RW drive doesn't work with my CD-RW blanks [4-47] Audio discs have crackling sounds on the last few tracks [4-48] Files in deep directories can be seen but not opened [4-49] My CD-ROM drive stopped working after uninstalling software [4-50] Audio CDs recorded from MP3s play back fast and high-pitched [4-51] Windows says access denied, can't create or replace file [4-52] I can't see any files on a CD-R or CD-RW from MS-DOS [4-53] My OS doesn't support ISO-13346 "UDF" [4-54] Why don't I get disc and track titles on my CD-Rs?  Hardware [5-1] Which CD recorder should I buy? [5-1-1] Yamaha [5-1-2] Sony [5-1-3] Smart & Friendly [5-1-4] Philips [5-1-5] Hewlett-Packard (HP) [5-1-6] Plasmon [5-1-7] Kodak [5-1-8] JVC [5-1-9] Pinnacle [5-1-10] Ricoh [5-1-11] Pioneer [5-1-12] Olympus [5-1-13] Optima [5-1-14] Mitsumi [5-1-15] DynaTek Automation Systems [5-1-16] Microboards of America [5-1-17] Micro Design International [5-1-18] MicroNet Technology [5-1-19] Procom Technology [5-1-20] Grundig [5-1-21] Plextor [5-1-22] Panasonic (Matsushita) [5-1-23] Teac [5-1-24] Wearnes [5-1-25] Turtle Beach [5-1-26] Creative Labs [5-1-27] Taiyo Yuden [5-1-28] Memorex [5-1-29] Hi-Val [5-1-30] Dysan [5-1-31] Traxdata [5-1-32] BenQ (nee Acer) [5-1-33] Waitec [5-1-34] BTC [5-1-35] Caravelle (Sanyo) [5-1-36] Micro Solutions [5-1-37] Pacific Digital [5-1-38] Iomega [5-1-39] Goldstar (LG Electronics) [5-1-40] AOpen [5-1-41] Toshiba [5-1-42] TDK [5-1-43] Lite-On [5-1-44] CenDyne [5-1-45] VST (SmartDisk) [5-1-46] ASUS [5-1-47] Samsung [5-1-48] APS / LaCie [5-2] How long do CD recorders last? [5-3] What kind of PC is recommended? [5-4] What kind of Mac is recommended? [5-5] Which standard CD-ROM drives work well with CD-R? [5-6] What kind of HD should I use with CD-R? Must it be AV-rated? [5-7] What SCSI adapter should I use with a CD recorder? [5-7-1] Adaptec - 1510/1522A/1540/1542CF [5-7-2] Adaptec - 2840/2910/2920/2930/2940 [5-7-3] ASUS - SC-200/SC-875 [5-7-4] Tekram - DC-390U/DC-390F [5-7-5] Adaptec - 1350/1460/1480 [5-8] Can I use a CD recorder as a general-purpose reader? [5-9] To caddy or not to caddy? [5-10] Can I burn CDs from a Jaz drive? Tape drive? [5-11] What is "Running OPC"? [5-12] What's the story with stand-alone audio CD recorders? [5-13] What's firmware? How and why should I upgrade my recorder? [5-14] How well do parallel-port, USB, and 1394 recorders work? [5-15] How should I configure my system for an ATAPI CD recorder? [5-15-1] Should I have DMA enabled for an ATAPI recorder in Windows? [5-16] How important is CD-RW? [5-17] What is an "MMC Compliant" recorder? [5-18] What do I need to record on a UNIX (Linux, Solaris, etc) system? [5-19] What do I need for recording CDs from a laptop? [5-20] I need to make *lots* of copies [5-21] How do I connect two drives to one sound card in a PC? [5-22] How fast is 1x? What are CAV, CLV, PCAV, and ZCLV? [5-23] Will playing CD-Rs damage my CD player? [5-24] Can I "overclock" my CD recorder? [5-25] I need some help installing the drive [5-26] How much power does a CD recorder use? [5-27] Will the laser in my drive wear out?  Software [6-1] Which software should I use? [6-1-1] Adaptec - Easy-CD, Easy-CD Pro, and Easy-CD Pro MM ("ECD") [6-1-2] Adaptec - CD-Creator ("CDC") [6-1-3] Gear Software - GEAR Pro [6-1-4] Roxio - Toast [6-1-5] CeQuadrat - WinOnCD [6-1-6] Young Minds, Inc. - CD Studio+ [6-1-7] Golden Hawk Technology (Jeff Arnold) - CDRWIN [6-1-8] Optical Media International - QuickTOPiX CD [6-1-9] Creative Digital Research - CDR Publisher [6-1-10] mkisofs [6-1-11] Asimware Innovations - MasterISO [6-1-12] Newtech Infosystems, Inc. (NTI) - CD-Maker [6-1-13] Cirrus Technology/Unite - CDMaker [6-1-14] Hohner Midia - Red Roaster [6-1-15] Dataware Technologies - CD Author [6-1-16] CreamWare - Triple DAT [6-1-17] MicroTech - MasterMaker [6-1-18] Angela Schmidt & Patrick Ohly - MakeCD [6-1-19] Liquid Audio Inc. - Liquid Player [6-1-20] Jörg Schilling - cdrecord [6-1-21] Prassi Software - CD Rep and CD Right [6-1-22] Zittware - CDMaster32 [6-1-23] Dieter Baron and Armin Obersteiner - CD Tools [6-1-24] PoINT - CDwrite [6-1-25] PoINT - CDaudio Plus [6-1-26] Roxio - Easy Media Creator (was Easy CD Creator Deluxe "ECDC") [6-1-27] Padus - DiscJuggler [6-1-28] Ahead Software - Nero [6-1-29] CharisMac Engineering - Discribe [6-1-30] István Dósa - DFY$VMSCD [6-1-31] RSJ Software - RSJ CD Writer [6-1-32] James Pearson - mkhybrid [6-1-33] JVC - Personal Archiver Plus [6-1-34] Roxio - Jam [6-1-35] Pinnacle Systems - InstantCD/DVD (was VOB) [6-1-36] Sony - CD Architect [6-1-37] Eberhard Heuser-Hofmann - CDWRITE [6-1-38] CeQuadrat - JustAudio! [6-1-39] Digidesign - MasterList CD [6-1-40] Thomas Niederreiter - X-CD-Roast [6-1-41] Jesper Pedersen - BurnIT [6-1-42] Jens Fangmeier - Feurio! [6-1-43] Iomega - HotBurn [6-1-44] DARTECH, Inc - DART CD-Recorder [6-1-45] Interactive Information R&D - CDEveryWhere [6-1-46] DnS Development - BurnIt [6-1-47] Andreas Müller - CDRDAO [6-1-48] Tracer Technologies - (various) [6-1-49] SlySoft - CloneCD [6-1-50] IgD - FireBurner [6-1-51] Jodian Systems & Software - CDWRITE [6-1-52] Erik Deppe - CD+G Creator [6-1-53] Micro-Magic - CD Composer [6-1-54] Earjam, Inc. - Earjam IMP [6-1-55] Emagic - Waveburner [6-1-56] Zy2000 - MP3 CD Maker [6-1-57] Integral Research - Speedy-CD [6-1-58] Desernet Broadband Media - Net-Burner and MP3-Burner [6-1-59] Stomp, Inc. - Click 'N Burn [6-1-60] Steinberg Media Technologies - Clean! plus [6-1-61] Enreach - I-Author for VCD/SVCD [6-1-62] VSO Software - Blindread/Blindwrite [6-1-63] Microsoft - Windows XP [6-1-64] An Chen Computers - CD Mate [6-1-65] E-Soft - Alcohol [6-1-66] Stomp Inc. - RecordNow MAX [6-1-67] James Mieczkowski - Cheetah CD Burner [6-1-68] Blaze Audio - RipEditBurn [6-1-69] Acoustica, Inc. - MP3 CD Burner [6-1-70] MagicISO, Inc. - MagicISO [6-1-71] Simone Tasselli - Burn4Free [6-1-72] Sonic Solutions - Record Now! [6-1-73] Freeridecoding - BurnAgain [6-1-74] PowerKaraoke - Power CD+G Burner, PowerKaraoke [6-2] What other useful software is there? [6-2-1] Optical Media International - Disc-to-Disk [6-2-2] Gilles Vollant - WinImage [6-2-3] Asimware Innovations - AsimCDFS [6-2-4] Steven Grimm - WorkMan [6-2-5] Cyberdyne Software - CD Worx [6-2-6] Arrowkey - CD-R Diagnostic [6-2-7] DC Software Design - CDRCue Cuesheet Editor [6-2-8] Astarte - CD-Copy [6-2-9] Frank Wolf - CDR Media Code Identifier [6-2-10] Logiciels & Services Duhem - MacImage [6-2-11] Erik Deppe - CD Speed 2000 [6-2-12] Andre Wiethoff - Exact Audio Copy (EAC) [6-2-13] Earle F. Philhower, III - cdrLabel [6-2-14] Adobe - Audition (formerly Cool Edit) [6-2-15] Elwin Oost - Burn to the Brim [6-2-16] Mike Looijmans - CDWave [6-2-17] ECI - DriveEasy [6-2-18] Jackie Franck - Audiograbber [6-2-19] High Criteria - Total Recorder [6-2-20] Smart Projects - IsoBuster [6-2-21] GoldWave Inc. - GoldWave [6-2-22] Naltech - CD Data Rescue [6-2-23] Jufsoft - BadCopy Pro [6-2-24] CDRoller Soft Co. - CDRoller [6-2-25] FlexiMusic - Wave Editor [6-2-26] Nic Wilson - DVD Info Pro [6-2-27] Audacity [6-3] What is packet writing (a/k/a DLA - Drive Letter Access)? [6-3-1] What's UDF? [6-3-2] Do I want to do packet writing? [6-4] What packet writing software should I use? [6-4-1] Roxio - Drag-to-Disc (a/k/a DirectCD) [6-4-2] CeQuadrat - PacketCD [6-4-3] SmartStorage - SmartCD for Recording [6-4-4] Gutenberg Systems - FloppyCD [6-4-5] Pinnacle Systems - InstantWrite (was VOB) [6-4-6] Prassi - abCD [6-4-7] Ahead - InCD [6-4-8] Oak Technologies - SimpliCD ReWrite [6-4-9] NewTech Infosystems, Inc. (NTI) - File CD [6-4-10] Veritas - DLA (Drive Letter Access) [6-4-11] BHA - B's CLiP [6-5] Can I intermix different packet-writing programs? [6-6] I want to write my own CD recording software [6-6-1] PoINT - CDarchive SDK [6-6-2] Golden Hawk Technology (Jeff Arnold) [6-6-3] Gear Software - GEAR.wrks [6-6-4] VOB - CD-Wizard SDK [6-6-5] Dialog Medien - ACDwrite.OCX [6-6-6] ECI - The Engine [6-6-7] NUGROOVZ - CDWriterXP [6-6-8] Ashampoo - DiscForge Plug & Burn [6-6-9] NuMedia Soft - NMSDVD Burning SDK [6-6-10] Sonic Solutions - AuthorScript [6-7] What software is available for doing backups? [6-7-1] Adaptec - Easy-CD Backup [6-7-2] D.J. Murdoch - DOSLFNBK [6-7-3] Dantz - Retrospect [6-7-4] Veritas - Backup Exec [6-7-5] Symantec - Norton Ghost [6-7-6] PowerQuest - Drive Image Special Edition for CD-R [6-7-7] Centered Systems - Second Copy [6-7-8] FileWare - FileSync [6-7-9] Novastor - NovaDISK [6-7-10] Roxio - Take Two [6-7-11] NTI - Backup NOW! [6-7-12] CeQuadrat - BackMeUp LT [6-7-13] Duncan Amplification - disk2disk [6-7-14] Pinnacle Systems - InstantBackup (was VOB) [6-7-15] Microsoft - Backup [6-7-15] Portlock Software - Storage Manager [6-7-16] Willow Creek Software - Backup To CD-RW [6-7-17] TeraByte Unlimited - Image for Windows [6-8] How do I get customer support for bundled recording software?  Media [7-1] What kinds of media are there? [7-2] Does the media matter? [7-3] Who manufactures CD-R media? [7-4] Which kind of media should I use? [7-4-1] What's the best brand of media? [7-5] How long do CD-Rs and CD-RWs last? [7-6] How much data can they hold? 650MB? 680MB? [7-7] Is it okay to write on or stick a label on a disc? [7-7-1] Can I write on them? What kind of pen should I use? [7-7-2] Are labels okay? [7-8] How do CD-Rs behave when microwaved? [7-9] What can I do with CD-R discs that failed during writing? [7-10] Where can I find jewel cases and CD sleeves? [7-11] What's "unbranded" CD-R media? [7-12] How do I repair a scratched CD? [7-13] What's this about a Canadian CD-R tax? [7-14] Can I get 80mm (3-inch "cd single") CD-Rs? [7-15] Where can I find CD-ROM business cards and "shaped" CDs? [7-16] Can you tell pressed CDs and silver CD-Rs apart? [7-17] What's the difference between "data" and "music" blanks? [7-18] How do I convert data CD-Rs into "consumer audio" blanks? [7-19] Is translucent media bad? [7-20] How do I destroy CD-R media beyond all hope of recovery? [7-21] Can I recycle old CDs, CD-Rs, and CD-RWs? [7-22] Is there really a fungus that eats CDs? [7-23] How do I clean CD-R and CD-RW discs? [7-24] Are "black" discs different from other discs? [7-25] My disc just shattered in the CD drive! [7-26] How do I tell which side on a silver/silver disc is up? [7-27] How should I handle and store CDs? [7-28] What causes the rainbow effect when looking at the data side? [7-29] Can I print directly on a CD-R?  Net Resources and Vendor Lists [8-1] Information resources [8-2] Magazines and other publications [8-3] Net.vendors [8-3-1] Consumer software, hardware, and media [8-3-2] Net.vendors (duplication services and hardware) [8-4] News sources & mailing lists  Contributors The last-modified date of each section is shown below the Subject line. The date format used is YYYY/MM/DD. The date stamps were added on 1998/04/06, so you won't find any older than that.