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rec.pets.cats: Chartreux Breed-FAQ


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Archive-name: cats-faq/breeds/chartreux
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URL: http://www.fanciers.com/breed-faqs/chartreux-faq.html
Last-modified: 12 Mar 1997

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                             The Chartreux Cat
                                      
   
   The Chartreux is a natural French breed of great antiquity. It is
   known for its gray-blue color, wooly double coat, powerful build, and
   mild temperament. Although it is a massive cat, it has a sweet,
   smiling expression and a tiny voice. It is always gray-blue in color,
   with gold to copper eyes. Authors through the centuries have praised
   the Chartreux as a gentle cat, a quiet cat, an excellent hunter,
   devoted to its master, easy to keep and a good traveler. These
   characteristics were prized in a working breed, and are still true of
   the Chartreux today.
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
   _This document is Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 by Orca Starbuck
   (orca@lutece.com). All rights reserved. Please contact the author if
   you wish to reprint this article in whole or in part.

     _________________________________________________________________

     * History
     * Characteristics and Temperament
     * Care and Grooming
     * Special Medical Concerns
     * Chartreux and British Blues
     * Recognition
     * Breed Standard
     * Frequently Asked Questions
     * Breed Clubs
     * Bibliography/References
       
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
History

   Stories of the "blue cats of France" began during the sixteenth
   century. It is thought that these cats descend from the "Cat of
   Syria," described in the 16th century as a stocky cat with a wooly
   ash-gray coat and copper eyes, which was first brought to Europe
   during the Crusades.

   People probably began to use the name "Chartreux" for these cats
   during the 17th century. By the beginning of the 18th century, trade
   dictionaries and encyclopedias listed "Chartreux" as the common name
   of a type of blue cat whose pelt was prized by furriers. The
   naturalists, Linnaeus and Buffon, wrote of the Chartreux as the cat of
   France and gave it a Latin name (Felis Catus Coeruleus, "blue cat") to
   distinguish it from the domestic cat (Felis Catus Domesticus).

   Natural colonies of these cats were known to exist in Paris and in
   isolated regions of France until the early twentieth century. They
   were never very numerous. Although known as the cat of France, they
   were also thought of as a cat of the common people. They did not lead
   easy lives, as they were valued primarily for their pelts and meat, or
   as ratters.

   After WWI, French cat breeders became interested in preserving this
   ancient breed for posterity. The initial breeding stock came from
   geographically isolated colonies of Chartreux; one important colony
   was on an island, Belle Ile. Early breeders put together a breed
   standard based on the 18th century naturalists' descriptions. They
   were careful from the beginning to utilize only those cats that bred
   true to the standard. Chartreux from these breeding programs were
   exhibited in European shows beginning in 1928.

   By the end of WWII, there were no known natural colonies of blue cats
   left in France. Since that time Chartreux have been available only
   from breeders. They are still relatively rare, even in France. They
   are unknown in many countries including the UK. Chartreux were first
   imported to the US in the 1970s, and since then, the US is known to
   have some of the purest breeding lines of Chartreux.

   Breeders in the US and France have tried to preserve the Chartreux
   unchanged through the years. The early show cats from the 1930s could
   be Grand Champions in our shows today. This is unusual in the cat
   fancy (many breeds have changed substantially in that time). It is due
   to the continuous effort of breeders dedicated to preservation.
   Quite a few notable French have owned pedigreed Chartreux, including
   General de Gaulle, and the well-known writer, Colette. Colette's book
   La Chatte features Saha, one of her Chartreux.
   
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Characteristics and Temperament

   Chartreux are less talkative than other breeds. Many Chartreux are
   completely mute: they purr, but cannot meow. Others have a quiet, high
   pitched meow or chirp which they use infrequently. This quietness can
   be a plus, but remember that a silent cat cannot let you know when it
   is lost or in trouble.

   Neither gregarious nor shy, Chartreux are calmly attentive to the
   world, and will tend to hang back and observe, rather than rushing in.
   They are tolerant and gentle with strangers, small children, and other
   animals. They tend to withdraw from conflict rather than becoming
   fearful or aggressive. They accommodate themselves to most situations
   without complaint, travel well, and do not mind being left alone for
   long periods.

   They are natural hunters, more interested in chasing and "killing" a
   toy than in romping around or wrestling in play. Even in play they are
   efficient, watching until the perfect moment and then letting loose
   with a fast and accurate pounce. They play in short spurts, sleeping
   and relaxing the rest of the time. They are creatures of habit and
   enjoy the same games and rituals day after day.

   Towards those they love, Chartreux display a passionate devotion that
   strangers would never guess at. They prefer to be nearby, preferably
   getting their jowls scratched and giving loving head-bumps to their
   owners! They will follow you everywhere, comfort you when you are sad
   or ill, and prefer to sleep with you or on top of you. Their
   supportive, cheerful presence can be wonderful for elderly people and
   people living alone.

   Yet this devotion is never obtrusive. They do not demand attention,
   and are content to sit quietly when you are busy. They have a strong
   sense of proper behavior and strive to be "good citizens." They
   likewise appreciate courtesy from others, and remember how they have
   been treated. Chartreux are highly sensitive to scolding and praise,
   although they can sometimes be slow learners. Be patient and forgiving
   with this gentle breed.
   
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Care and Grooming

   The short thick coat does not require much maintenance. During
   shedding season you will want to spend some time brushing out dead
   hairs so that they do not cover your clothes and furniture. If you
   ever need to bathe your Chartreux, be forewarned that it will take
   time to get it wet down to the skin. The coat repels water due to its
   thickness and texture.

   Chartreux are not picky eaters, but can sometimes be sensitive to
   changes in diet or very rich food. Some Chartreux breeders switch to
   adult food around age 4 or 5 months because the premium kitten foods
   are so rich. Older Chartreux may need to be switched to a "light" cat
   food so that they do not become overweight.

   Some Chartreux have small and close-set incisors which can get pushed
   out of line when the adult teeth come in, and might need to be pulled.
   Also, some Chartreux tend to get gingivitis if their teeth are not
   well cared for. It's a good idea to bring your Chartreux to the vet
   for periodic tooth check-ups and cleaning.
   
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Special Medical Concerns

   Patellar luxation (displacement of the kneecap) is sometimes seen in
   Chartreux. This condition, when mild, does not usually cause any
   symptoms in the cat, but if it is severe, it can cause lameness.
   Because this condition is hereditary, most reputable breeders screen
   their breeding animals for it and do not use questionable animals for
   breeding. You may want to ask questions about patellar luxation when
   you talk to breeders.
   
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Chartreux and British Blues

   Some cat books claim that the Chartreux is the same cat as the British
   Blue, or that it "once was a separate breed, but has now become
   identical to the British Blue." This is not true. Not only do the two
   breeds have different physical and temperamental characteristics, but
   pedigree research and blood typing confirms that the breeds have
   distinct ancestry. These books are referring to the confusing use of
   the name "Chartreux" by certain European cat clubs to refer to the
   British Blue.

   In 1970, FIFe (the European federation of cat fanciers) decided to
   assimilate the Chartreux with the British Blue under the name
   "Chartreux" but with the breed standard of the British Blue. This
   decision came about because many of the member countries were not
   interested in the Chartreux as a breed, but preferred the name
   "Chartreux" with its long history to the less interesting name "blue
   British Shorthair." They sought to save the name and apply it to
   another breed.

   Chartreux breeders protested, and in 1977, FIFe overturned its earlier
   decision and returned to separate registries and standards for the two
   breeds. However, since the 1970s, a few "independent" (non-FIFe)
   European cat clubs have continued to use the name "Chartreux" for the
   blue British Shorthair, or for the blue European Shorthair, or for
   hybrids between these breeds and the Chartreux. This practice is more
   common in those countries like Germany where there are fewer genuine
   Chartreux available.
   
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Recognition

   Chartreux have championship status in all major associations in the US
   (CFA, TICA, ACFA, and CFF). They also have championship status in the
   major European association, FIFe. The US associations and FIFe do not
   allow hybridization with other breeds. Chartreux registered in these
   associations are pure Chartreux.

   Chartreux are not recognized by the major association in the UK
   (GCCF).

   Use caution when buying Chartreux from European breeders that are not
   FIFe affiliated. Some European cat clubs that are not affiliated with
   FIFe use the name "Chartreux" for cats of other breeds such as the
   British or European Shorthair. These "Chartreux" are not the same
   breed as the Chartreux accepted in the US and in FIFe. Some of them
   even have long hair or come in colors other than blue.

   When choosing a registered name for your Chartreux, it is customary to
   use the French naming system. The first letter of the cat's name is
   determined by the year of the cat's birth. The years follow a 20 year
   cycle (the letters K, Q, W, X, Y, and Z are not used). For example,
   1993 was an "I" year, so Chartreux born in 1993 have names like
   Isabelle and Indigo.
   
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Breed Standard

   _This is a highly condensed and edited version of the CFA breed
   standard for the 1994-1995 show year. Other US associations have
   similar standards for this breed; European standards differ slightly.
   If you want to show or breed your Chartreux, you should get a copy of
   the current breed standard from your favorite association, and study
   it carefully!_
   
   The Chartreux is a sturdy French breed coveted since antiquity for its
   hunting prowess and its dense, water repellent fur.
   Broad, rounded head with powerful jaw and full cheeks. Straight nose
   with a slight depression between the eyes. Comparatively small,
   tapered muzzle. Sweet, smiling expression. Medium sized ears set high
   on the head, with a very erect posture. Rounded, open, expressive
   eyes.

   Robust, medium-long body with broad shoulders and deep chest. Solid
   and dense. Females are medium in size, males are large. Tapering,
   moderate length tail. Comparatively short and fine-boned legs. Feet
   are round and appear almost dainty compared to body mass.
   Slightly wooly, medium-short coat (slightly longer than most
   shorthairs). Dense undercoat; longer, protective topcoat. The coat
   should clump up like sheepskin (we say the coat "breaks") at the neck
   and flanks. Silkier, thinner coat permitted on young cats and females.
   
   Color: Any shade of blue-gray from ash to slate; tips of hairs lightly
   brushed with a pale silvery color. The coat should be clear (not have
   shadow barring) although young cats may have some barring or tail
   rings. Slate gray nose leather, blue lips, rose-taupe paw pads. Eye
   color is copper to gold, with brilliant orange preferred.
   Cats with a white spot, kinked tail, green eyes, or any signs of
   lameness in the hindquarters, are disqualified and may not be shown.
   
   Point score (the relative importance of these characteristics):
   Head structure: 35
   Body structure (including legs and tail): 30
   Coat length and texture: 20
   Coat color and eye color: 15
   
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Frequently Asked Questions

   _"Are they really blue? More bluish than other gray cats?"_
          
          In the cat fancy, we use the term "blue" to refer to the
          gray-blue color also known as gray or "maltese." This neutral
          tone takes on different tints at different times, sometimes
          appearing bluish or almost lavender. The apparent tint is
          affected by variation in coat shade and texture, as well as
          variation in lighting and background. Blue cats can be
          difficult to photograph accurately!
          
   _"What other breeds come in blue?"_
          
          The Chartreux, Korat, and Russian Blue are only accepted in
          solid blue. They are known as the "blue breeds" of the cat
          fancy. The British Shorthair often appears in solid blue,
          although it can come in many other colors as well. In fact,
          solid blue can appear in almost any breed as well as in the
          "domestic" (the non-pedigreed cat). Solid blue does not
          indicate that a cat is related to the Chartreux or any other
          breed.
          
   _"Are Chartreux good for allergic people? Do they shed?"_
          
          Chartreux have a thick undercoat ("double coat"). Once or twice
          a year, they usually have some heavy seasonal shedding. Even
          though they do not shed heavily during the rest of the year,
          the short, downy undercoat hairs tend to drift through the air
          and sometimes get in your eyes and nose! For this reason,
          Chartreux are NOT recommended for allergic people, or people
          who frequently have allergic houseguests.
          
   _"How big do they get?"_
          
          Like the Maine Coon, the Chartreux is a massive, slow-maturing
          breed. The males are usually much larger than the females and
          slower to mature. Female Chartreux take about three years to
          reach their full size of 7-10 lbs. Male Chartreux usually take
          four or five years to reach their full size of 12-16 lbs or
          more. As a male Chartreux matures, his head and body broadens,
          his jowls (chubby cheeks) develop, and his coat becomes thicker
          and woolier.
          
          Looks can be deceiving with the densely built Chartreux. An
          average sized male Chartreux has the same bulk as many of the
          other large breeds, but the Chartreux appears much smaller
          because of his shorter legs, compact build, and short coat.
          Pick him up, however, and you'll be surprised at his weight!
          
   _"How much do they cost?"_
          
          Chartreux sold as pets usually cost $400-550. Because Chartreux
          are rare and demand is high, breeders often have waiting lists
          of 4-8 months for pet Chartreux. Sometimes breeders will have
          older cats available to a good home for much less; these can be
          excellent pets. If you are looking for a Chartreux to breed or
          show, spend time talking to several breeders and learn as much
          as you can about the various bloodlines before you buy.
          
   _"Where did the breed's name come from?"_
          
          Legend says that these cats were brought back from the Crusades
          by the Carthusian monks (the monks who are famous for the
          Chartreuse liqueur) and were later raised by the monks as
          companions. Although this story suits the unobtrusive
          temperament of the breed (some people even say the cats "took
          the vow of silence") the present day order of Carthusians does
          not have any record of these cats.
          
          Another hypothesis is suggested by the early mentions of the
          Chartreux as "a type of blue cat whose pelts are traded by
          furriers." The pelt was valued for the thick, wooly texture of
          the fur. It is possible that fur traders and clothing makers
          named the cat after a type of fine wool called "pile de
          Chartreux" which was considered very luxurious at the time.
          
   _"How do you pronounce the name?"_
          
          The "X" is silent!!! Most US breeders pronounce the name as
          "shar-TROO", and a few say "shar-TROW". For a better
          approximation, if you are familiar with the French
          pronunciation of "Chartreuse" (like the liqueur), "Chartreux"
          should sound the same except that you omit the final consonant
          sound.
          
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Breed Clubs

    1. _Les Amis des Chartreux (USA)_
       CFA affiliated Chartreux breed club since 1983. The club publishes
       a newsletter, "Griffonage", and gives the Gamon Award to CFA's
       highest scoring Chartreux kitten, adult, and premier. Contact:
       Kitty Kisrow, 202 Scott Ave, Nashville, TN 37206.
    2. _Club du chat des Chartreux (Europe)_
       Large, active FIFe affiliated breed club which promotes the
       Chartreux throughout Europe. Also publishes a newsletter. Contact:
       M. Simonnet, 66 rue de Ponthieu, 75008 Paris.
       
     _________________________________________________________________
                                      
Bibliography/References

    1. _The Chartreux Cat_, Jean Simonnet, 1990. This 200 page book is
       the English edition (translated by Jerry Auerbach) of Jean
       Simonnet's treatise on the breed and its history. It is available
       from: J. Auerbach, 823 Debra Street, Livermore, CA 94550
    2. "The Blue Cats of France," Genevieve Scudder, Cats Magazine,
       February 1975.
    3. "The Chartreux," Pierre Vincent, Cat Fancy, February 1978.
    4. "The Chartreux," Andrea Hawkins, Pet News, January 1980.
    5. "The Chartreux," Pierre Vincent, Cat Fancy, September 1981.
    6. "The Chartreux," Andrea Hawkins, 1981 CFA Yearbook.
    7. "The Chartreux - France's Fascinating Feline," Andrea Hawkins,
       Cats Magazine, May 1983.
    8. "The Chartreux," Andrea Hawkins, Cat Fancy, June 1985.
    9. "The Chartreux," Alexis MacPherson, 1986 TICA Yearbook.
   10. "The Chartreux - Living Legends," Debra Rexelle, Cat World, April
       1987.
   11. "The Chartreux," Phil Maggitti, Cats Magazine, August 1990.
   12. "The Chartreux - Not Just Another Blue Cat," Marcus Click, CFA
       Almanac, March 1992.
   13. "The Chartreux," Cats Magazine, June 1994.
       
     _________________________________________________________________
       
    Chartreux FAQ
    Orca Starbuck, orca@lutece.com

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