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rec.arts.bodyart: Tattoo FAQ 8/9--Misc. info

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Archive-name: bodyart/tattoo-faq/part8
Last-modified: December 3, 2006
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The rec.arts.bodyart Tattoo FAQ is broken up into 9 parts:
 2/9--Getting a tattoo
 5/9--Artist list
 6/9--Care of new tattoos
 7/9--General care/removal
 8/9--Misc. info <---YOU ARE READING THIS FILE

Subject: WHAT THIS FILE CONTAINS This file is structured as a traditional FAQ in the form of questions and answers. Questions answered in this file: Rec.arts.bodyart FAQ Part 8/9: Misc. tattoo info: Ink colors Where can I get a Japanese "irezumi" tattoo? When did tattooing start? How does a modern tattoo machine work? How long do I have to wait before I can donate blood? Tattoos and allergies Tattoos and MRI How do I temporarily cover up a tattoo? How do I become a tattoo artist? The dark side of tattooing "Rape by tattoo" Fulfilling unrequited feelings with tattoos Getting tattooed in a BDSM scene or relationship "Property of" tattoos "Culture vultures" U.S. laws regulating tattooing COPYRIGHT AND DISSEMINATION Under the Berne Convention, this document is Copyright (c) 1997 by Lani Teshima-Miller, all rights reserved. Permission is granted for it to be reproduced electronically on any system connected to the various networks which make up the Internet, Usenet, and FidoNet so long as it is reproduced in its entirety, unedited, and with this copyright notice intact. Web sites are included. Individual copies may also be printed for personal use.
Subject: INK COLORS ARE THERE GLOW-IN-THE-DARK INKS OR FLUORESCENT INKS? Fluorescent ink is not the same as glow-in-the-dark ink. Fluorescent inks glow under ultraviolet light. Phosphorescents glow after being exposed to light, and glow-in-the-dark things that glow without any outside stimulus are almost unknown. There are *no* glow-in-the dark inks. There are *no* phosphorescent inks. Starting around 1991, some tattoo artists experimented with fluorescent inks that glow under UV light. At the time, it was thought that these could be used to make tattoos that would only be visible under UV light. As it turned out, the early inks did not perform as expected. They were not invisible under normal light, and in some cases turned brown. At the same time, many people reported skin irritation problems. Apparently a lot of these problems have been solved over the years, and I have seen some successful UV tattoos since then. There is a collection of information about these inks at: WHAT COLORS ARE AVAILABLE? There are a lot more colors available now than just "Popeye green and red." Just about every color imaginable can be obtained for your design. If your artist does not have a pre-mixed color, s/he will mix the colors on the spot for you. It is not an exaggeration to say that you could specify your design by Pantone color, especially since many artists have fine arts degrees and are familiar with the various Pantone shades [Pantone shades are used by professional artists and are standard numbered colored]. ARE THERE GOLD OR SILVER INKS FOR TATTOOS? While there are some metallic inks available, these are very rare and a general answer to this question is a simple "no." If you have a design that needs to look metallic, a good artist can use other colors to make it look metallic without actually using gold or silver ink. My understanding is that artists shy away from metallic colors because of their toxic properties under the skin. CAN I GET A WHITE INK TATTOO? Most artists use white ink to highlight certain parts of your tattoo design. However, white ink is a special color that requires your artist to work closely with you. The effect of white ink differs greatly among clients, and its visibility and retention on the skin has much to do with the natural coloration of your skin. White ink seems to work best on very light-skinned people. Unfortunately, this means people with dark skin would not able to get a white ink tattoo on their skin to have a "photo negative effect" that looks like a negative of a dark colored tattoo on light skin. This is because the ink sits under your skin, and the layer of skin over the ink is tinted with your natural skin color. So if you have very dark skin, the white will be overwhelmed with your natural melanin. Those who have very light skin however, may use white ink exclusively to get tattoo designs that are very difficult to discern at first glance. This might be an interesting option for ankle or wrist tattoos, or other areas where a regular non-white tattoo would show up too easily and possibly cause problems for the wearer.
Subject: WHERE CAN I GET JAPANESE "IREZUMI" TATTOOS? Japanese "irezumi" tattoos are often associated with laborers (primarily fire fighters and carpenters) and yakuza members, who stereotypically also lack the tips of one or two digits on their hands (to signify a failed order and to show loyalty--see the movie, _Black Rain_ with Michael Douglas for an example). An excellent book to to see examples of traditional Japanese bodysuits is _The Japanese tattoo_ by Sandi Fellman (New York : Abbeville Press, 1986. 112 p.). For those interested in getting work of this magnitude done however, the general answer is "ya can't gets one." This is not only because of the time or costs involved--there is a sense of the spiritual and of propriety with the artists, who do not advertise their services in the Yellow Pages. Your best bet as a "gaijin" (foreigner) is to find a Western artist who specializes in oriental artwork. As trends go, the young Japanese are now interested in tattoos of Elvis and Chevies, anyway--the grass is greener on the other side, I guess. If you can manage to attend the larger tattoo conventions, some of the Japanese artists now travel the U.S. convention circuit regularly. KANJI [CHINESE/JAPANESE] CHARACTERS One word of warning about getting Japanese or Chinese characters--make sure that the artist who does this understands the importance of the shape and form of the letters. Unlike the roman alphabet, the essence of the Oriental characters is in the proper execution of form. The artist will have to know where the "brush strokes" of the calligraphy start and end (since stroke order also counts), as well as how angular some corners should be, etc. The worst thing would be to sport a Japanese kanji character that looks like some zygotes. How to tell if the characters are formed properly? It would help if you know how to read kanji or if you have Asian friends--otherwise, go with a reputable artist who is known for it. Beware: I read Japanese, and most of the kanji flash I've seen in shops are embarrassing to look at. Brendan Mahoney <> adds: Even were I to consider getting a kanji tattoo, mere copying just doesn't cut it (no pun intended). Chinese, like Japanese, has printing (e.g in books), hand printing (which can be very artisitic) and various forms of cursive (extremely artistic), not to mention styles--something like fonts--within each of the forms or writing. The most important aspect of fine cursive (aside from form and proportion) is what the Chinese call "flying white," that is, the white streaks created from moving the brush so rapidly. Creating a tattoo like that would require considerable shading skill in addition to appreciation for the flying white itself.
Subject: WHEN DID TATTOOING START? Paraphrased from the Globe and Mail (Toronto's National Newpaper): "A 4,000 year old man has been found in Italy near the Austrian border, (originally it was reported he was in Austria, but both countries now agree he is in Italy.) Carbon dating will take a few months, but artifacts found near him strongly suggest that he is over 4,000 years old...He is also tattooed...a small cross is behind one knee and above his kidneys there are a series of lines, about 15 cm long." [Apparently, this account it not quite correct, as later datings placed the Ice Man's age at closer to 5,300 years.] Now I knew that the Egyptians tattooed each other, but that was only 3,000 years ago. I wonder how much further back this custom goes? From "Tattoo You" by Steve Wind (Off Duty Hawaii Magazine, October '92): "The first Western references to tattoos didn't come until 1771, when Captain Cook brought the word to Europe after seeing the artform in Tahiti. Tattoos were associated with the lower class and criminal elements in Britain and America until the early 1900s when, drawn by a sense of freedom, decadence and sexual liberation, upper classes began wearing them as well." The word "tattoo" apparently comes from the Tahitian word "tatau," which was onomonopoetic for the sound their tattooing instrument made. The word was brought back by Captain Cook.
Subject: HOW DOES A MODERN TATTOO MACHINE WORK? I'd like to thank Fred Jewell <>, who did this entire section, except the diagram [which took me some time], and the needle arrangements, which is by Jesster. Please note that this information is not for the purpose of teaching people how to tattoo, but to assist in the public in becoming a more well-informed customer. The tattoo machine ('gun' is a misnomer) is really a basic doorbell circuit (you know--you push a button and somewhere in the kitchen this little arm bangs the hell out of a bell thingie). For you techies out there it's a DC coil and spring point(s) machine. Both doorbell and tat machine were invented before household current was available. __ / \ \ / <--rabbit ear w/ a screw in it _/ /____ / /_/ \ | ( )---\ \ | --- ---\\ \ \/ /_____ \\ \ __ __ ( ) \ \\ \ / \ / \ <--mechanism ============================= ^ ------------ | | | <-contact points armature (| |________________|---\___| bar -> | | _/ \_||_/ \_ / <-This whole thing is the base | | [XXXX]||[XXXX]__ __ \ coils (X)-> | | |XXXX|--|XXXX| \ / \ \ | | |XXXX|--|XXXX| / \__/ | | | |XXXX|--|XXXX| / || / =========================== <-rubber bands =========================== ___| |___|__|__|__|__/ |___((_// / //\ |\- | // | ___________________| \// /___/ --- | |___| /XXXXX\ |XXXXX| |XXXXX| |XXXXX| <--sanitary tube |XXXXX| |XXXXX| |_____| \ / | | | | | | | | | | \_| <---needles It is essentially in 3 sections: The base, the mechanism, and the sanitary tube. The base really is the bulk of the metal; a rabbit ear with a screw in it, bent at 90 degrees to hold coils. In the front there's a round hole to hold the sanitary tube. Some people think the base looks like the handle of a gun. The base houses the mechanism, which consists of two coils of wire wrapped around an iron core. At the top of the mechanism is a set of silver contact "points" (like the end of a wire); one usually on a spring mechanism, the other either the end, or on the end of a screw. The spring connects to the base and a bar, which is connected to the needle arm (90 degrees offset). The needle arm is connected to the needles (which are soldered onto the bar), and moves up and down inside the sanitary tube. The coils connect to a DC power supply (between 6 - 12VDC), via a spring coiled U-cable. The U-cable is called a "clip cord," designed to move easily between machines but also stay in place and not fall out and spark all over the place. The springs hold the cable in/onto the machine. One side of the coils is connected to the power supply, the other end to the point on the screw on the bunny ear, which is insulated from the base. Through the points, the current flows via the coils and the base of the machine. This causes the coils to become electromagnetic. The electro-magnet pulls down the bar, which does two things: pulls down the needles, and opens the points. The points being open turn off the magnet. The spring assembly brings back the bar, which causes the needles to move up *AND* make contact with the points. This causes the whole cycle to happen again making the needles go up and down. Most machines have a large capacitor across the coils/points, which keeps the points from arcing and pitting, and wearing out so quickly. A capacitor is a device that holds energy kind of like a battery, but charges and discharges much faster (parts of a second rather than 3 or 4 hours). The capacitor charges while the points are open, so when they close, the difference in voltage across them is nill. The points are really an automatic switch controlled by the spring to turn the thing off and on quickly. In old cars where there were points there was a condenser (aka capacitor) for the same reason. The sanitary tube sucks up the ink in capillary fashion, and the needles load up as long as there's ink in the small portion of the tube.It's called "sanitary" because of the cutout at the bottom of the tube, which can be rinsed out. My understanding is that there are three layers of skin: Scaly layer, epidermis, and dermis. Tattoo machines are adjusted to penetrate into the dermis layer but NOT *through* it (below it is the fat layer of the body). When the needles go into the sanitary tube they have a layer of ink on and between them. The needles make little holes in the skin, and the ink is deposited into the holes. This is why the skin has to be stretched so blobs of ink don't stay. Otherwise, the skin will latch onto the needles, grab the ink from them and generally make a mess. Ink just put into the scaly layer would be replaced quickly and fade away. While ink into the epidermis will stay, my conjecture is that the dermis makes for more ink and perhaps a more vivid image. Machines are really of two types: Liners, and shaders. They areexactly the same, but are set up differently. The gap for a liner isaround the thickness of a dime, and a shader is the thickness of a nickel. Liner needles are usually arranged on the bar in a circular pattern. Shader needles are usually straight (like a comb), although Spaulding & Rogers sells a 15-needle round shader. The needles are small sewing machine needles, usually made of stainless steel. Liners are in 1, 3, 4, 5, & 7-needle combinations, set in a round configuration. Note: There can really be any number of them but these seem to be most common. Shader needles are in a straight row and usually are in groups of 4, 6, 7, 9 needles. The sanitary tubes are designed especially for the combination of needles, so there's a special tube for each different number of needles in a needle bar assembly The following needle diagrams are from Jesse "Jesster" Parent (jesster@WPI.EDU). o is a needle . is a cut down needle (shorter & no point) Liners: Single needle 3-needle 5-needle o o o o . . o o o o o Shaders: 4-needle 6-needle oooo oooooo 8-needle shaders are grouped so that 7 needles form a circle with 1 in the middle. There are also 14-needle shaders. 8-needle Magnums: o 5-needle 7-needle o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Shaders are mounted on flat needle bars while liners are mounted on round bars There are two other types of machines. Spaulding & Rogers revolution (don't know of an artist that uses this one), which is a DC motor that turns a cam that raises and lowers the needle bar assembly through a sanitary tube. The other is the home-made machine made in prison, using a small motor from a tape recorder or VCR. Here is a picture showing an actual prison machine that was found by a corrections officer: Chris writes: "It's really pretty simple. I'm a Corrections Officer and have come across many machines in the few years I've been an Officer. Usually you only find pieces of one, but every now and then you get lucky and manage to get ahold of a complete machine. After use they break it down and hide the pieces all over the place. That way if an officer finds one piece, they only have to replace that one piece." "I'll explain it using the pic I sent as a reference. It's one of the complete machines I managed to find about a year ago. It was so nice I kept it and have used it with some of the academy classes to show them what to look for." "In pic "A" you see the entire thing. The needle at the top, the machine, and the battery. The needle (B) is usually made from a tiny spring, like the kind in a Bic lighter, straightened out and then they work slowly to sharpen one end. Usually by placing it between a rock and concrete and pulling the needle out. This way it's less likely to bend during sharpening and doesn't become weak." "The other end of the needle is wrapped into a spiral and the very end (about 1/16 - 1/8 of an inch) is straightened up and down. That tiny straight piece at the end of the spiral is fixed to the edge of the motor's post. (image C (1) ) It's usually soldered on the top of the post with melted plastic from a toothbrush or plastic fork stolen from the dining room. Because it's placed on one edge when the motor spins it caused the needle to perform the stabbing motion in and out of the tube." "You can easily see how the toothbrush melted and bend into shape holds the motor and the tube together. In this case they used electrical tape to fix the pieces to the toothbrush." "In picture "E" you can see the ink tube from the pen has been cut in half and placed back into the pen's shaft, which holds the needle more still in the shaft giving it a straighter, more fluid motion as it goes in and out of the tip. In picture "D" you can see how the "ball" was removed from the tip of the pen creating a tiny, tight hole for the needle to pass through." "And there you have it. A machine made from less than $3 worth of crap laying around the house." "In this case the motor was from a VCR." "I found this machine while it was being used. And I have to say... some of the work that comes out of there is amazing considering the tools being used." DO TATTOO NEEDLES BECOME DULL WITH USE? The following information is provided by Uncle Bud <>: Tattoo needles do not dull with age, but instead become sharper by the repetitive honing motion they experience in the tattoo machine. This happens because the metal of the sanitary tube rubs against the needles, and the softer metal (the needles) will wear. The problem with these sharpened needles is that they sharpen into flat razor-like edges, and begin cutting the skin instead of piercing small holes. Since a tattoo is created by the conical shape of the needle transferring pigment into the skin with the aid of a wetting agent, the needle's shape is as important as its sharpness. Pigment does not transfer into the skin as efficiently when the shape is altered, and can also lead to scarring. Another problem with needles is the occurrence of burs or barbs when the needles hit the side or bottom of the pigment caps. While it is possible to use the same set of needles for more than eight hours (on the same client, of course), correct needle configuration, setup, and alignment of the needle and machine are very critical.
Subject: HOW LONG DO I HAVE TO WAIT BEFORE I CAN DONATE BLOOD? The standard question they always ask at blood banks is whether you've had a piercing or tattoo within the last 12 months. A lot of discussion has been made over RAB about some centers allowing for exceptions and whatnot, but it looks like the general concensus is that you have to wait 12 months. I assume this is to wait out any incidence of hepatitis or HIV. Jonathan Allan ( says the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN won't take you if you have had: 1. Sex w/ another male since 1977 (male to male); 2. Sex w/ someone from the subtropic islands or sub-Saharan Africa since 1977; 3. Sex for money or drugs EVER; 4. Sex w/ someone who had sex w/ one of the above EVER; 5. ANY piercing or tattoo in the last 12 months.
Subject: TATTOOS AND ALLERGIES Josephine Valencia <>, on allergies to certain inks: The red reaction affects approximately 1 in every 100,000 to 300,000 people. It is characcterized by itching and sometimes swelling depending on how severe the case. This usually happens 3 to 5 years after the tattoo, although cases have been reported as early as a few months and as late as 20 years. Remedies usually involve OTC lotion or in more severe cases, medication prescribed by a dermotoligist. No one seems to know what causes it and is associated usually only with the color red. About 20 (?) years ago most red pigments contained mercury and the red reaction was much more common. It was widely believed that mercury was the cause. Mercury is no longer used in tattoo inks. Red reaction incidences decreased dramaticlly but were not eliminated. Dr. Kai Kristensen <>, on other causes for allergic reactions: Anything that the needles must go through to drive the ink into the dermis can be carried with the ink into the skin--and some people are blessed with a high degree of reaction to foreign material. Most tattoo artists use a petroleum jelly based ointment as a lubricant on the surface of the skin and tattoo through that layer. In some persons, driving any of that into the skin sets up a foreign body reaction with lumps and itching (me, for one). If that is the case, persuade your artist to tattoo "dry" without the ointment. It is perfectly satisfactory and no harder on the tattooer or tattooee. I personally cannot see the need for the "grease" layer as an added possibility for forein body reactions. [Ed.-Note that some artists use plain petroleum jelly, while others use vitamin-enhanced products.]
Subject: TATTOOS AND MRI Magenetic Resonance Imaging utilizes nuclear magnetic resonance to produce detailed images of the interior of the human body. A fairly detailed discussion of the physics of how this works can be found at The relevant issue for tattoo enthusiasts is that MRI utilizes a strong magnetic field and radio-frequency radiation which can interact with some tattoo inks containing metal salts. Several people have reported some mild discomfort during MRI. This took the form of heat in the tattooed areas. The treatment for this was to apply cold compresses to the areas to absorb the heat. Apparently, this does not affect the quality of the images recorded by the MRI.
Subject: HOW DO I TEMPORARILY COVER UP A TATTOO? If you are going to a job interview or some other event that requires you to conceal your tattoos (and clothing is not an option), there are two cosmetic products recommended: 1. Joe Blasco's line of theatrical cosmetics 2. Dermablend cover-up make-up, which is used by people who have vitiligo (Michael Jackson's mysterious melanin-loss disease), scars, birthmarks and tattoos. For Blasco products, check with your local theater supply store (or your local theater--they might be able to supply you, or refer you to their direct number). Dermablend is available at cosmetic counters.
Subject: HOW DO I BECOME A TATTOO ARTIST? Depending on how it's asked, this question probably receives the most amount of flames when posted to RAB. The general concensus is that there is only "one way" to do it, and that is to apprentice, period. There is far more to be learned about the art and business of tattooing than what can be obtained simply from a book (e.g. customer service, etiquette, running a business, dealing with emergencies). Ever seen _Karate Kid_ where the boy learns his skills through mundane, seemingly unrelated things like waxing a car? Spending eight months to a year under a well-established artist's wings can help you to really learn what's involved in being a professional tattooist, as well as in how to run your own small business. Just as you would never consider becoming a professional masseuse or an acupuncturist without proper training, neither should you try to become a professional tattooist without the proper training. Unfortunately, many people consider "proper training" to mean "good at drawing and used a tattoo machine." If you are a good illustrator, it simply means you might have a better chance at finding an artist willing to be your mentor. As far as I know, there are no reputable schools that offer instruction in tattooing. There have been a few shops that offered programs, but they were generally scams of one sort or another. So once again, you are back to having to serve as an apprentice if you want to learn tattooing. The hardest part of becoming an apprentice is in finding an artist who will take you seriously and let you work in the shop. Having a portfolio of illustrations will certainly help. You will also end up knocking on a lot of doors. Not every artist will want to have an apprentice, since that means extra work for them. To prove your commitment, you may be asked to put time in without any monetary compensation at all for a while. And for many months, all you will do might be answering the phone and mopping the floor. But remember that that is all part of your training! Wax in, wax out! Expect to devote at least two to three years to this form of training. Lastly, think very carefully about your consequences should you decide not to go with the apprentice route: o You may have difficulty becoming an established artist. o You may have difficulty finding people you can work on. o You may end up with a bad reputation for bad work. o You may not learn how to run a business, and end up having to declare bankruptcy. happy you're not trying to become a master sushi chef: They take *12 YEARS* to attain (and it takes five years just to get the privilege of cooking the rice).
Subject: THE DARK SIDE OF TATTOOING While the bulk of this FAQ looks at tattoos and tattooing very positively, I need to address the fact that tattooing can be used in harmful, negative ways. If you have ever been forced to get a tattoo you did not want, or had someone else take your idea or identity, this section will be of particular interest to you. Particular thanks to Michelle DeLio <> for assistance in this section. "RAPE BY TATTOO" "Rape by tattoo" by its definition means that someone violated you in a personal way by using a tattoo as a weapon. This could be done in two ways. One could be that you were forced to receive a tattoo you did not want. The movie, _Tattoo_, carries this theme to the extreme, with an obsessed tattoo artist kidnapping a professional model (Maude Adams) and tattooing her while she is unconscious. The movie in fact, was boycotted by some women's groups when it was first released. While genital penetration may not be involved, involuntary tattooing is an unpleasant experience for the recipient, and is very symbolic of the use of a penetrating weapon to mark an indelible stain on the victim's body. The second could happen when someone chooses to tattoo your name on their body without your full permission and cooperation. Some may think, "What's the problem? You should be flattered," However, those who have had this happen to them have noted a profound sense of loss, that part of their identity or soul was stolen from them. In one particular case, a man surprised his girlfriend with a tattoo of her name on him, and with it began the start of a stalking relationship that terrified her for years in an obsessive/possessive situation involving domestic abuse. I am hereby urging the strongest recommendation in the entire FAQ: If you want the name of your loved one tattooed on your body or your loved one wants one of your name, 150% open-hearted, voluntary permission must be given by both parties as a prerequisite. (Exceptions made for names of the deceased, or of famous people). There should be no "convincing" or "talking into" involved. If there is the slightest hesitation, please do not do this. Those who wish to have their loved one represented in a tattoo should instead use a symbolic object. FULFILLING UNREQUITED FEELINGS WITH TATTOOS There are some lonely people in this world who enjoy inflicting pain on their bodies (NOT to say all those who enjoy it are lonely!), or have wish fulfillment dreams that they try to make come true with tattoos. Michelle Delio tells the following story: "Back when he was first starting out, Shotsie Gorman says a girl came into shop--kind of shy and awkward--wanted a name tattooed around her nipple. Shotsie tried to back off, feeling weird about this, but the shop owner insisted. "So Shotsie does the tattoo. He's almost finished when he says, 'Well you and Xxxxxxxxxxx must have a really special relationship for you to be getting this kind of tattoo, right?' The girl replies, 'He doesn't even know I exist.' Shotsie said this made him physically ill. That was the start of his personal ban on doing names/slogans, because he says there's too much weirdness connected with it." GETTING TATTOOED IN A BDSM SCENE OR RELATIONSHIP There are a couple of concerns with tattooing in the BDSM context. First, there are many sanitation concerns with regard to tattooing, and just as with piercing (either play piercing or "real" piercing) during a scene, it is imperative that all sterilization procedures are correctly followed. And because of the permanency of tattoos, things such as designs, locations, and placement should be fully agreed upon prior to the start of a scene. While this may take some of the spontaneity out of things, it is a very important step that should not be omitted. Recipients of the tattooing in a scene should be fully aware during the procedure, and be able to safe-word out if the scene is not comfortable for them. Second (and within the frame of the "dark side" theme of this section) there are some tops who extend the relationship with their bottoms beyond scenes, and in some instances, bottoms may feel that they have no choice but to be tattooed (or pierced, branded, etc.) by order of their tops. While persons may enlarge their relationship boundaries beyond the actual scenes, it is important to make sure that such permanent things as tattoos are still fully agreed upon. Just as safe words exist, a bottom should still be feel comfortable when it comes to a decision to receive a tattoo as part of the relationship. The bottom should always have the final say in such matters, if only for the fact that the relationship may not always last, and because body modification affects people at very deep levels. "PROPERTY OF" TATTOOS There are (primarily) women who have "Property of ______" tattooed on their buttocks to show that they are "owned" by their partner. This has been traditional with bikers. Some women have "Property of [name of the club]" tattooed on themselves after they pass some sort of initiation (which could be having sex with every member of the club) so they could join the club (although many times, they join the club as a "hood ornament" and not as full-fledged members with the same rank and status of men). Treating women as property is both degrading and insulting. It is also a sad fact that some women feel that they are not worth as much without this stamp of approval. Do women in these situations have the capacity to know what "true consent" is? Michelle DeLio tells the tale of one such woman, who broke up with one man and married another: "As a sort of wedding present to her, they dragged the girl to the local tattooist and they inked 'CANCELED' on her butt in big black block letters, like a meat stamp (over her old 'Property of' tattoo)." "CULTURE VULTURES" The popularity of primitive designs has led to people searching anthropology books for cultural images for their tattoos. It is a very bad idea to use sacred images of a culture to which you do not belong. Using clan symbols, shields and other such images merely for visual effect is nothing short of robbing the soul of a culture. On the other hand, tattoos *inspired* by native iconography is both exciting and respectful. Otherwise, make sure you can lay claim to the image by checking your geneaology. Also, remember that some cultures have an extensive tattoo history. Beyond the images themselves, some tattoos, like the Maori moko, are considered sacred and limited only to those who are allowed to wear them. For the Maori, a foreigner who wears a moko without understanding its significance, or receiving the proper blessings, is nothing short of cultural robbery. This topic was a very hot thread in RAB during the fall of 1995. There were several differing opinions, but here are the general highlights: o The use of icons and symbols is a real sore point for people of a culture that considers the symbols sacred. Examples: Family crests, patterns indicating geneaological lineage, and religious symbols. o Many cultural images are not sacred or religious. These should be available for use by those from other cultures. o Many symbols of one culture are actually adaptations from other cultures. From this standpoint, some people feel that the use of cultural symbols should be okay. Perhaps a compromise or middle ground is best in this situation. If you are interested in a tattoo from another culture, it is suggested you: o First check to see if the image is sacred, and whether "foreigners" are allowed to wear the image. After all, if you desire to wear the image because you respect it or the culture, the last thing you want to do is offend the very people you look up to. o If the wearing of the image requires some sort of blessing from a person from that culture, do some research as to how this could be done. o Even if the image is not sacred, you should check with a person native to that culture to make sure the image looks correct. Example: Japanese kanji characters. o Above all, be respectful. Do a little research. If you find an image you like, try to learn a little bit about the culture and the image. Make sure you are not offending anyone with the tattoo idea you have.
Subject: U.S. LAWS REGULATING TATTOOING Where available, I have included the information about the laws regarding tattooing for that state. Note that some states leave this up to the cities or municipalities. This information should only be used for unofficial information purposes, and may change by each legislative session--for accurate and up-to-date information regarding the laws of your area, contact a professional tattoo shop or the department of public health. The laws regarding tattooing differ as greatly as there are states in the U.S. While a handful serve as model states for regulations, most are completely unregulated, with the exception of some laws on the minimum allowable age. There is no federal legislation regarding tattooing. To complicate things however, many states leave these regulations up to the cities, counties and municipalities. In addition, changes or amendments to existing laws crop up regularly. Laws regarding tattooing are listed at the beginning of each state's section in Part 5 of this FAQ, which is the artists list. You can view the database at If YOUR state changes its laws, please contact me. Regulations help promote professionalism, and discourage "scratchers." This is important when considering disease transmission (HIV and Hepatitis-B in particular). If you think this is a frivolous issue, consider that some states have banned tattooing altogether. If state legislators try to introduce regulations on tattooing, make sure they follow in the lines of the states with the best laws, which cover points such as: Artist requirements: Training, knowledge of sanitation, washing of hands and use of barrier gloves for every new client Facility requirements: Clean work area, availability of running water Equipment requirements: Autoclave, disposable needles, covered waste containers Procedural requirements: Customers needing to be sober, use of signed consent forms The following are the actual requirements for the state of Hawaii. The others with regulations follow in a similar vein: Facilities o Building must be clean, in good repair, have adequate lighting o Adequate ventilation required o Tattoo establishments many not be used for any non-tattoo related activities o Toilets must be provided for customers o Work area must be separate from the rest of the business, or at least separated upon request Artist Hygiene o Artists should always wash their hands before every tattoo. o Separate sink (away from the toilet facilities) must be available for artists to wash their hands o Artists must dry their hands with single use paper towels or some sort of mechanical (air) dryer o Artists with communicable diseases may not tattoo o Food, drink, and smoking not allowed in the work area o Smoking prohibited o May not tattoo in exchange for sex Equipment o Immersion in a germicidal solution as an alternative to autoclaving allowed o Use of defective, dull, or rusty equipment is banned o Disposable single-use ink containers must be used, and with any unused ink must be discarded after every customer o All dyes must be approved o Minimum number of needles and tubes must be kept on hand o Only sterilized or disposable razors allowed o Covered waste containers required o Special storage cabinets for tattooing materials required o Tattooing materials may not be stored in the restroom. Procedures o Facial tattoos may only be done by licensed physicians o Injection of chemicals into the skin by tattoo artists to remove tattoos is illegal o Customers must be sober o Signed consent forms required o Parental consent forms required for minors o Artists must keep records on every customer for at least 2 years o Oral care instructions required o Acetate stencils must be sanitized --==*-< >-*==--==*-< >-*==--==*-< >-*==--==*-< >-*==--==*-< >-*==-- This ends "rec.arts.bodyart: Tattoo FAQ 8/9--Misc. info." This should be followed by "rec.arts.bodyart: Tattoo FAQ 9/9--Bibliography."

User Contributions:

I real to know much the history of tattoo, from the begin. Please send for me the all details/summary or imformation of tattoo. You can find me also on facebook as Toto mbata chico. Thank u
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Whether or not you believe in God, this message is a "must-read"!

Throughout time, we can see how we have been carefully conditioned coming to this point where we are on the verge of a cashless society. Did you know that Jesus foretold of this event almost 2,000 years ago?

In Revelation 13:16-18, it states,

"He (the false prophet who deceives many by his miracles--Revelation 19:20) causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666."

Referring to the last generation, this could only be speaking of a cashless society. Why's that? Revelation 13:17 tells us that we cannot buy or sell unless we receive the mark of the beast. If physical money was still in use, we could buy or sell with one another without receiving the mark. This would contradict scripture that states we need the mark to buy or sell!

These verses could not be referring to something purely spiritual as scripture references two physical locations (our right hand or forehead) stating the mark will be on one "OR" the other. If this mark was purely spiritual, it would indicate both places, or one--not one OR the other!

This is where it comes together. It is shocking how accurate the Bible is concerning the implantable RFID microchip. Here are notes from a man named Carl Sanders who worked with a team of engineers to help develop this RFID chip:

"Carl Sanders sat in seventeen New World Order meetings with heads-of-state officials such as Henry Kissinger and Bob Gates of the C.I.A. to discuss plans on how to bring about this one-world system. The government commissioned Carl Sanders to design a microchip for identifying and controlling the peoples of the world—a microchip that could be inserted under the skin with a hypodermic needle (a quick, convenient method that would be gradually accepted by society).

Carl Sanders, with a team of engineers behind him, with U.S. grant monies supplied by tax dollars, took on this project and designed a microchip that is powered by a lithium battery, rechargeable through the temperature changes in our skin. Without the knowledge of the Bible (Brother Sanders was not a Christian at the time), these engineers spent one-and-a-half-million dollars doing research on the best and most convenient place to have the microchip inserted.

Guess what? These researchers found that the forehead and the back of the hand (the two places the Bible says the mark will go) are not just the most convenient places, but are also the only viable places for rapid, consistent temperature changes in the skin to recharge the lithium battery. The microchip is approximately seven millimeters in length, .75 millimeters in diameter, about the size of a grain of rice. It is capable of storing pages upon pages of information about you. All your general history, work history, criminal record, health history, and financial data can be stored on this chip.

Brother Sanders believes that this microchip, which he regretfully helped design, is the “mark” spoken about in Revelation 13:16–18. The original Greek word for “mark” is “charagma,” which means a “scratch or etching.” It is also interesting to note that the number 666 is actually a word in the original Greek. The word is “chi xi stigma,” with the last part, “stigma,” also meaning “to stick or prick.” Carl believes this is referring to a hypodermic needle when they poke into the skin to inject the microchip."

Mr. Sanders asked a doctor what would happen if the lithium contained within the RFID microchip leaked into the body. The doctor replied by saying a terrible sore would appe (...)

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