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rec.autos.vw [W] GENERAL, FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION (FAQ)


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Archive-name: autos/vw/general-faq
Rec-autos-vw-archive-name: general-faq
Posting-Frequency: bi-monthly
Last-modified: 15 Jul 96

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

               ==========================================
                       Frequently Asked Questions
                                  for
                             Water Cooled VWs
                              -- General --
               ==========================================
                              rec.autos.vw

Version:
   1 Jan 93 = Inception, more or less.
   1 Feb 93 = tool places, other bbs's., Correction on T1/5 cars
   1 Mar 93 = Updated recall info
   1 Apr 93 = New categorization.
   1 May 93 = Updated VIN, Platform types, edits.
   1 Jun 93 = Music, GTI origins.
   1 Jul 93 = Edits, half hearted index.
   1 Aug 93 = Edits, new VIN categorization.
   1 Sep 93 = More recall info.
   1 Oct 93 = Edits.
   1 Nov 93 = VIN # adjustments. Recall info updates. Edits.
   1 Dec 93 = Edits. Diesel stuff added. 
   1 Jan 94 = Tom C's edits/cleanup, Updated recall info.
   1 Feb 94 = Copyright BS, purpose, organization, added, more product addresses
   	      More club infos.
   1 Mar 94 = Edits
   15Mar 94 = Additions to VW family.
   1 Apr 94 = Product # updated, new archives (Solid_Shifter, Vanagon Syncro
   	      alignment)
   1 May 94 = Vanagon list server change.
   1 Jun 94 = Edits. Translation table of technical terms (HELP!)
   15Jun 94 = CD changer info, translation update
   1 Jul 94 = Edits, updated archive stuff
   15Jul 94 = CA diesel fuel prob.
   1 Aug 94 = Some edits
   15Aug 94 = WWW access, updated recall list (P & EV).
   15Sep 94 = List servers updated, French additions, reorg of archives
   1 Oct 94 = Edits, Corrado TSB added, Diesel reimbursement
   1 Nov 94 = Edits
   15Nov 94 = German corrections, updated VW history.
   1 Dec 94 = Edits
   15Dec 94 = BMW WWW FAQ URL added.
   1 Jan 95 = ECs, VWTrends, Funkengroovin email/URL added.
   15Jan 95 = Jetta /// TSBs added, magazine info updates, Online TSBs
   	      through WWW, rear wheel lifts, update CA diesel claims.
   1 Feb 95 = Name, G60 & VR6 history, faq.vw.* submitted to news/rec.
   	      answers for official archival, updated Corrado mailing list
   	      info.
   15Feb 95 = Archive updates, WWW for AMSOIL, some recommendations added
   1 Mar 95 = Updated where VWs are made
   15Mar 95 = VW's URL added, Updated Corrado, G60 & VR6 origins, added
   	      "IT'S A FEATURE", 
   	      Approval received for *.answers & archival @ MIT
   1 Apr 95 = URL updates
   15Apr 95 = JT Update, update EC index
   1 May 95 = Creation of INFO - FAQ: How to access the archives & info
   15May 95 = Info FAQ established, duplicate info removed.
   15Jun 95 = Reorged the tuner section, added some info on tools.
              Jens Knickmeyer updates on rattles, ABUS & Polos.
   1 Jul 95 = Lots of additions by Jens Knickmeyer, Trying to sort out
   	      Tuners/Parts/Manufacturers...
   15Jul 95 = Still trying to sort out Tuners/Parts/Manufacturers classification
   15Aug 95 = Edits, Jud Main's addition of more part places
   1 Sep 95 = Start of cross post to rec.autos.makers.vw.watercooled
   1 Oct 95 = Minor edits if any.
   15Oct 95 = Updated Corrado Common Problems.
   15Nov 95 = Translation updates by Sven, Historicaql corrections,
   	      periodocal/book updates by David Pipes
   1 Dec 95 = VR6 TJ Recall.
   1 Feb 96 = Edits
   15Mar 96 = Edits
   1 Jun 96 = Address corrections
   15Jul 96 = South African production added (A1's produced till 94).

Initiator's Note: Please feel free to submit any additional info.

   Jan Vandenbrande
   jan@ug.eds.com (new address)
   jan@lipari.usc.edu (school address, works)
   See also the list of contributors at the end.
   Familiar with: 78R, 81S, 84S, 86GTI, 90G60, 92SLC, 92P
   
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Copyright Notice (c) -- 1993 - 1996:
All Rights Reserved

The information contained here is collectively copyrighted by the
authors.  The right to reproduce this is hereby given, provided it is
copied intact, with the copyright notice inclusive.
However, the authors explicitly prohibit selling this document, any
of its parts, or any document which contains parts of this document. 
(Inspired from faq.audio ;->)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Index
=====
General                (VIN #, Part/Perf places)
Common Problems        (Recall info, common VW ailments, Resetting oxy sensor)
Interchanging Parts/Tools (substituting parts & tools)
Fuel Injection         (Types used by VW)
Recommendations        (people's opinions on VWs over the years)
VW Types               (The VW Family)

===============================================================================

ORGANIZATION:
=============

This FAQ is divided into a preamble and a list of subjects. Each
subject is described by a list of questions and answers.  

This FAQ is split into four individual postings:

		Info FAQ
		General FAQ		<=== You are reading this file
		Technical FAQ
		Performance FAQs

This FAQ handles mostly general questions regarding Water Cooled VWs, while the 
Technical FAQ focusses mostly on the technical aspects, procedures and
tools for water cooled VWs. 
Whereas the technical FAQ deals mostly with maintaining the status
quo with your car, the fourth FAQ deals with improving upon the stock
design and performance.
The Info FAQ describes where to obtain additional information, where
the archives sites are, and other related WWW/URL sites.

Due to its origin, the FAQs are mostly geared towards the US Market,
where cars based on the Jetta/Golf/Rabbit platforms of all three generations 
are the most prevelent.
As a consequence, the focus is mostly on fuel injected cars with 
emmission control devices.

PURPOSE:
========

The purpose of this FAQ is to address frequently-asked questions as
a whole, so that rec.autos.vw volume can be reduced.  Towards this end,
we assembled a list of common questions, and some general answers to
these questions.  Most answers are assumed to be correct to some degree,
but there is absolutely no guarantee that anything is correct.
Product information is supplied for your convenience, but any product
mention is not intended as an endorsement or an advertisement.
In addition, products change, quality may improve or degrade, new ones
may supersede existing ones, and therefore all the data here is to be taken
as transient.
What is considered the best oil today may be the worst tomorrow.

==============================================================================

GENERAL
=======		

Q: Where can I retrieve these FAQs, where can I obtain the VW archives
   and other related information?
A: See the VW Info FAQ.

	
Q: What does [W] and [A] mean in the UseNet posting headers?
A: [W] = Watercooled subjects.
   [A] = Aircooled subjects.
   Please use this to allow people to filter out irrelevant articles.


Q: What are the best manuals for my car?
A: Robert Bentley Manuals:
   "Official Factory Manuals" series. Available from the publisher
   1000 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
   (800) 423-4595, (216) 572-0725 (?) (617) 547-4170
   VW & other US mailorder houses.
   Currently NOT available outside North America.
   Covers ONLY cars sold in the US & Canada.
   NOTE according to (rgolen@UMASSD.EDU) there are TWO types of
   Bentley manuals:
   VW Service Manual= Aimed for amateurs (us!)
   VW Repair Manual = Geared for experienced/professionals
   Bentley is setting up a home page. Domain name: RB.com
   Some reference #s:
   Corrado Manual: Bentley Stock No. VC94, ISBN 0-8376-0387-0, 
   		   VW Part No. LPV 800 300
   

   John Muir:
   "Complete Idiot Guide to keep your water cooled VW alive".
   John Muir Publications Inc., Box 613, Santa Fe, NM 87504
   (800) 888 9079 (?) (800) 888-7504 (?)
   or try Classic Motorbooks 1-800-826-6600, or KdF Enterprises?
   (Rumored to be out of print, A-1 cars only, but has lots of
   advice/procedures that are still valid today)

   Greg Raven:
   "Volkswagen Water-Cooled, Front-Drive Performance Book"
   Available from US mailorder houses.
   greg.ihr@kaiwan.com
   http://www.kaiwan.com/~greg.ihr
   
   [Vack] Peter Vack, The Volkswagen Buyer's Guide. 1-800-826-6600 (Motorbooks
   International), $16.95.
   Discusses the VW models and VW's technology (i.e., VR6 & G60) 
   over the years (up to the Corrado).
   It claims that: "Overall, the Corrado had a classical shape that 
   harked back to the old Ferrari 275 GTB/4 and is appreciated by 
   enthusiasts."  In general, an interesting book. 
   
   Haynes:
   "Modify Your Golf/GTI" (available from Rapid Parts) "VW Service Manual".
   Also available outside North America.

   Chiltons:
   Chilton Way, Radnor PA 19089
   (800) 695 12 14, (215) 964 40 00, (215) 964 47 45
   "Front Wheel Drive VW(?), 1974-1990", Item # 6962
   The main problem with Chilton is that it contains ALL FWD VWs
   from 1974-1990 in one small paper back book, using fuzzy pictures,
   and even pictures from *other* car makes.
   Chilton is generally not the preferred book to buy, but in some
   cases there may be no alternative.

   Caveat:
   For regular service, my personal [jan] preference goes to Bentley (old
   style), Muir (A1 cars), Bentley (new style).
   For newer cars, I look in the older books which gives detailed
   instructions, than turn to the new style Bentleys and try to figure out
   what to do there.
   Back issues of EuroCar/VW&P & ?? (=British car mag) also contain detailed
   tech procedures that may be of use.
   I have both Haynes and Chiltons, and find them entertaining but never use
   them.
   Naturally, your preferences may vary.

   Bentley:
   "Bosch Fuel Injection and Engine Management", Charles Probst, available
   from Classic Motorbooks, Bentley and others.
   This "Bosch Bible" fully explains the theory, troubleshooting, and 
   service of all Bosch systems from D-Jetronic through the latest Motronics.  
   Sftbd., 8" X 10", 192 pgs., 475 ill.
   More of a specialized book.
   
   Auto-Bound at (800) 523-5833 has been quoted a couple of times as
   a good supplier for some of these books.
   
   From VW's Technical Literature:
   VR6 engine                   WSP 521-402-00
   1992 model change info  	WSP 521-404-00
   The new Corrado (1990)   	WSP 521-202-00
   
   
Q: Any interesting books?
A: From David Pipes:

   "Golf GTI - First and finest of the hot hatches" by Ian Wagstaff
    published 1992 by Windrow & Greene
    ISBN 1 87200 446 6
    143 pages, lots of photos, some colour, includes chapter on USA scene

    "Classics in Colour - VW Golf GTI" by Ian Wagstaff
    published 1992 by Windrow & Greene
    ISBN 1 87200 486 5
    96 pages, all colour, includes VR6 etc.

    "VW Power and Style" by Ian Kuah
    published 1991by Motor Racing Publications
    ISBN 0 947981 49 7
    192 pages,  full of photos, some colour, includes Scirocco, Corrado etc.
    USA/Canada distributor: Motorbooks Int. Publishers & Wholesalers Inc.,
    Osceola, Wisconsin 54020

    "VW Golf and derivatives - a collector's guide" by John Blunsden
    published 1992 by Motor racing Publications
    ISBN 0 947981 63 2
    128 pages, many photos mainly black and white, mostly VW press pics.
    Full of UK spec. changes, includes Corrado, VR6 etc.
    USA/Canada distributor: Motorbooks Int. Publishers & Wholesalers Inc.,
    Osceola, Wisconsin 54020


Q: Can I get VW Service Bulletins?
A: YES, and you can get the index for free!
   Pick a flyer from your VW dealer or call: (800) 544 80 21
   The bulletins are referred to by a "V" group number - year - index
   e.g., V13-91-06
   The actual bulletins cost $4.00 for the first, US$2.00 for each subsequent
   one. You can also order a yearly subscription, in which case they also send
   you a library of all microfilmed repair manuals.
   
   Some car stores, such as SuperTrak in LA, have a computer with a 
   CDROM with all these bulletins, and allow you to scan through this data 
   base for free.
   
   There is now also an online site that provides access (for a fee).
   See the VW Info FAQ.
   

Q: What periodicals are worth reading and are relevant to VW?
A: US:
   ---
   European Car (formerly VW & Porsche): Argus Publishers Corp,
   P.O. Box 452, Mt. Morris, IL 61054-0452
   800-877-5602.
   Editor: Greg Brown, e-mail (expirmental): EditBrown@aol.com
   Article Submissions: EditMax@aol.com (Victor Max)
   Greg Raven: greg.ihr@kaiwan.com
   Freelance technical writer for European Car magazine
   PO Box 10024, Costa Mesa, CA 92627
   Another person you may see mentions there is James Sly: jamessly@aol.com
   Most relevant mag in US, [W-VWs & other European cars]
   Addressed from here on as [EC].

   Hot VWs [A some W]

   VW Trends, McMullen Publishing, P.O. Box 70015, Anaheim, CA 92825-0015
   (714) 635-9040, $18.95 US/year, [A some W]
   editordan@aol.com (EditorDan, aka Dan Leadbetter, Editor, VW TRENDS)
   vwtrends@aol.com, until 19950401, then VWTMag@aol.com
   
   EuroSport Car, McMullen Publishing, 774 S. Placentia Ave, Placentia, 
   CA 92670, (714) 572 22 55, fax (714) 572 1864. 
   New magazine. First issue published in fall 93, published quarterly.
   A direct, though less refined (busty babes), competitor of [EC].
   Many articles are almost direct duplicates of what appeared in [EC].
   Addressed from here on as [ESC].

   Some Grass roots publications:
 
   FUNKENGROOVIN - The Vee Dub Chronicles
   P.O. Box 233, Trout Lake, WA 98650 UNITED STATES
   Phone: (509) 395-2648 Fax: (509) 395-2529
   Internet: VWGroovin@aol.com
   WWW: http://www.vwgroovin.com/groovin/
   "An International Network Of Volkswagen Enthusiasts"
   Published quarterly, this magazine is "A Highly Participatory, Grass Roots,
   Reader Written Zine." Share your thoughts, insights, tricks, hints, art work,
   photography, dreams, and adventures. This is YOUR magazine. We'll publish
   whatever you send our way. Plus, you'll find Unclassified Ads, a Schedule of
   Events, contests and prizes, and much more.
   
   German Air Sucker Society/927 Liberty Street/Salem, OH  44460.
   Contact Troy Heizenrater at (216) 332-1865
   $26 (new price) for 12 issues
   Mary Smith: "The best source for up-coming events!"

   
   UK:
   ---
   VW Motoring, Stoke Orchard, Cheltenham, GL52 4SX. UK. [A & W]
   Annual subscription (twelve issues) World (airmail) 43.00 UK pounds
   Warners Group Distribution, The Maltings, West Street, Bourne, Lincs,
   PE10 9PH, U.K.
   Tel: ++ 44 1778 391153

   Volkswagen Audi Car, - strictly water cooled. VW, Audi and SEAT.
   Annual subscription (twelve issues) World (airmail) 55.00 UK pounds
   Autometrix Publications, Market Chambers, High Street, Toddington,
   Beds, LU5 6BY, U.K.
   Tel: ++ 44 1525 874019

   The Golf - what it says!
   new magazine (October '95), issue one at 2.50 UK pounds
   Link House Magazines Ltd, Dingwall Avenue, Croydon, CR9 2TA, U.K.
   Tel: ++ 44 0181 686 2599

   technik - German cars
   new magazine (Nov/Dec '95), issue one at 2.50 UK pounds
   Myatt McFarlane Publishing Ltd, Trident House, Heath Road, Hale, Ches,
   WA14 2UJ, U.K.
   Tel: ++ 44 161 928 3480

   D:
   --
   Auto Motor und Sport, DPV, Postfach 10 16 02, 2000 Hamburg 1, Germany,
   --general info but great...if you know German
   
   Gute Fahrt
   100% VW, some air cooled, text in German, good for keeping up with
   latest news from Wolfsburg
   Annual subscription (twelve issues) World DM65
   Klasing + Co GmbH, Postfach 10 16 71, 33516 Bielefeld, Germany
   Tel: ++ 49 421 55 92 89

   AUS:
   ----
   ????, GPO Box 257c, Melbourne, Vic. 3001, Australia

   SF:
   ---
   Kupla (for Tom's sake ;->, probably Finnish, this list is world wide)

Q: Is there an index of articles of the above.
A: NewDimensions has the index retrievable from their BBS.
   A:QDEXEURO.ZIP    25600 08-14-94 Eurocar Index Database for Filemaker, 
   				    Mac or Windows

   Here are a few relevant ones (mostly tech procedures
   or product reviews) in no particular order from [EC]:
   Proportioning Valve	- Aug 88, pp 16
   Scirocco Suspension	- Aug 88, pp 23
   Scirocco 		- Aug 88, pp 43
   GTI Tuning Advice	- Jun 88, pp 18
   Lower Stress Bar	- Jun 88, pp 26
   Heads		- Jun 88, pp 34
   Brakes 		- Dec 88, pp 32
   GTI Idle Speed Reg	- Jan 89, pp 12
   GTI Shifter		- Jan 89, pp 14
   Knock Sensor		- Jan 89, pp 6 & 32
   Exhausts		- Jan 89, pp 35
   Camshafts		- Apr 89, pp 7 & 32
   Tranny Grind		- Apr 89, pp 16
   Paint		- Jun 89, pp 88
   Heads		- Jun 89, pp 68
   Clutch		- Aug 89, pp 40
   Brakes		- Aug 89, pp 48
   Bearings		- Feb 90, pp 38
   Proportioning Valve	- Feb 90, pp 33
   Camsaver		- Feb 90, pp 46
   Shocks		- Apr 90, pp 4
   Trannys		- Apr 90, pp 50
   Springs		- Jun 90, pp 4
   Radiators		- Jun 90, pp 42
   Race Tires		- Sep 93
   Performance Tires	- Jul 93
   Tires Tech Talk	- Jun 93
   VR6 Perf Mods	- Sep 93
   Alignmemt		- Jan 93
   Strut Bushing	- May 93
   Variable Timing Cam	- May 93
   Wax			- Sep 92
   Alpine 8040 Alarm	- Apr 93
   Alpine 8035 Alarm	- Nov 93
   Oil Analysis		- Nov 93
   VW Engine Build 3	- Jul 92 (A1 GTI)
   Hella FF Lights	- Jul 92
   Drilled Rotors	- Aug 93
   VR6 P-Chip		- Aug 93
   CV Joint Repair	- Jan 94
   16V Techtonics Exh	- Oct 93
   16V Pchip		- Oct 93
   Colors (?)		- Jan 93
   Accumat 		- Dec 93
   
   [ESC]:
   Indexing Sparkplugs	- Fall 93
   A2 Perf Mods		- Spring 94
   Suspension Tech	- Spring 94
   

Q: Are there any VW clubs?
A: Yes. Here's the address:

   Volkswagen Club of America, Inc.
   P.O. Box 154, Dept. P
   North Aurora, IL 60542-0154, USA

   President: Shell Tomlin, 1554 Roanoke Ave., Aurora, IL 60506, 708 896-2803
   Vice Pres: Phil Williame, 4442 N. McVicker, Chicago, IL 60630 312 283-7323
   Secretary: Barbara Boltz, 11007 S. Harding, Chicago, IL 60655 312 239-2685
   Membership: Lynida Tomlin 1554 Roanoke Ave., Aurora, IL 60506, 708 896-2803

   Second Generation VW Club (Do they still exist?)
   POBox 383, Cupertino, CA 95015
   Pres: Mike Krider (408) 629 30 96
   Tech Ed: Tim Hildabrand (408) 980 16 91
   
   Canadian Volkswagen Enthusiasts Association
   CVEA
   P.O. Box 2137
   Kingston, Ontario
   K7L 5J9, Canada
   (613) 544 4412

   SCCA, (General Car Club), USA, (800) 255 5550

   Northcoast California VW Assoc.
   P.o. Box 750721
   Eureka, CA 94975-0721
   
   Southern CA VW Council
   P.O. Box 934
   Claremont, CA 91711-0934
   
   Stricktly German
   755 N Resh
   Anaheim, CA 92805
   (714) 776 43 56
   
   Watercooled VW Newsletter
   P.O.Box 90515
   East Point, GA 30364
   (404) 836 14 74 (Bill Staib)
   
   Corrado Club of America
   See http://ug.cs.dal.ca/~gajewski/corrado.html for more info.
   This club is still in the making (May 95).

Q: I am going to Germany, what can I visit that may be of interest?
A: While in Wolfsburg, make sure you go to the VW Factory Museum!!! If
   you have some time before you leave write to:
   Hans-Jurgen Klar
   Besucherdienst (Visitors' Bureau)
   Volkswagen AG
   D-38436 Wolfsburg
   (0 53 61) 9-20200	-- drop the first zero if calling from abroad
   Fax (0 53 61) 92 44 79

   Ask them for help, advise, etc. see if they can arrange for your tours
   of both the museum and the factory. Plant tours are at 1:00 pm and
   last about 1.5 hrs. Visit the VW museum...open from 9 to 5.
   When you go to the museum, make sure you have lots of film and lots
   of money. The museum store (actually three large display cases) has
   a lot of neat VW stuff!

   Automotive Museum in Sinsheim (on the autobahn A6 which runs from 
   Mannheim to Heilbron - near Heilbron).
   There they have a whole museum full of cars - the Blue Flame, a DeLorean,
   the first Wanklemotor car (rotor engine I think), it's a real treat.
   
   Make a trip to the Nrburgring race circuit west of Koblenz off
   autobahn A48 (south of Kln off autobahn A1) for the driving
   experience of a lifetime.
   For about 15DM you can drive a lap of the "Nordschleife" also known as
   the "green hell" - the original race circuit built in 1927 which snakes
   for over twelve miles through  the forests. If you don't want to drive
   (anything with wheels is accepted) take a ride in the "Ringtaxi".
   There is also an excellent motor sport museum, karting (the longest
   track in Germany) near the Grand Prix circuit (venue for the '95
   European Grand Prix).
   Phone numbers are (from outside Germany):
   (If phoning from Germany put 0 in front of the 26 and drop the
   international code)
   Local tourist office:       ++ 49 26 91 92 06 0
   Motor sport museum:   ++ 49 26 91 3 02 147
   Drive yourself:                ++ 49 26 91 3 02 144
   Karting:                            ++ 49 26 91 10 48
   Ringtaxi:                           ++ 49 26 91 3 02 179
   You're advised to phone to check opening times before making a long
   journey.

   If you're in the U.K. in early May, checkout "GTI International",
   Europe's largest gathering of GTI enthusiasts. Takes place at the
   Transport Research Laboratory  twenty five miles south west of London.
   '95 saw over 8,000 visitors over two days. Quarter mile sprint, slalom,
   tyre testing, trade hall, club stands plus some of the very best cars
   in Europe.
   Further information from the organizers, Volkswagen Audi Car
   magazine on++ 44 1525 874019

Q: What's A-1 and the A-2 designations mean I see all the time?
A: The A-1 and A-2 designate the platform/generation the car is based upon.
   A-1 (or Mark-1) were the first generation water cooled VWs such as the
   Rabbit/Golf I, Jetta I, Cabriolet, and Scirocco I & II.
   A-2 based VWs are the Golf II, Jetta II, and the Corrado.
   A-3 is the latest platform, which includes the Golf III, Jetta III/Vento,
   and the yet to be released new Cabriolet.
   VWs based on the same platform share many of the same components such as
   suspension components (rear torsion beam, sway bars).
   This however does not imply that the engines are the same within one
   platform.
   Within one platform, many different engines are available (mostly Europe.
   The old Golfs came with anything from a 1.1l to an 1.8l, including
   diesels), and across different platforms you may also find many of same
   engines (the 2.0l 16V is used in the A2 Golf GTIs and the B3 Passats).
   Therefore similar engines will share similar parts, and certain
   improvements from one platform can often be transformed to the other
   (e.g. exhaust manifolds from an 81 GTI to an 84 S).
   There's a complete list by Tom H at the end. It includes Euro & US models!

Q: What is captured in the US Vehicle Identification Number?
A: Sample US V.I.N. :
   Breakdown of VIN number for Volkswagen Products up to Model Year 1989
   (actually later than that (Ed.))
   [From: Joe Angerstein, jochena@bjsys.ersys.edmonton.ab.ca]

   FIELDS IN THE VIN

 1  2  3        4  5  6  7  8        9      10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
_______________________________________________________________________
|__|__|__|     |__|__|__|__|__|    |__|    |__|__|__|__|__|__|__|__|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

     FIELD              FIELD               FIELD            FIELD
    1  2  3               4                   5                6

   _________          _________           ___________       _________
  |Manufac'r|        |Bodystyle|         |Engine Type|     |Restraint|
  | Make    |        |by Model |          -----------      | System
   ---------          ---------                             ---------
       ___           Passenger             Listed by       ___
    _ |1VW| US       Vehicles              increasing      |0| Active
   |  |___|Pass.Car  ----------            horsepower      ___
   |   ___           ___                   available       |2| Passive-fixed
   |- |WVW| Europe   |A| 2-dr Economy      for each        ___
   |  |___|Pass.Car  ___                   model           |4| Motorized
   |   ___           |B| 2-dr Custom       A - lowest      ___
   |- |WV1| Europe   ___                       H/P Gas     |5| Airbag
   |  |___|Truck     |C| 2-dr Deluxe
VW-|   ___           ___                   G - Lowest	   ___
   |- |WV2| Europe   |D| 2-dr Sports           H/P Diesel  |9| Passive
   |  |___|MPV
   |   ___           ___
   |- |3VW| Mexico   |E| 4-dr Economy
   |  |___|Pass.Car  ___
   |   ___           |F| 4-dr Custom
   |- |9BW| Brazil   ___
   |___|Pass.Car     |G| 4-dr Delux
       ___
Audi -|WAU| Europe   ___
      |___|Pass.Car  |H| 16V / Turbo

                     ___
                     |K| 2-dr Sedan
                     ___
                     |P| 4-dr Sedan (Base)
                     ___
                     |R| 4-dr Sedan (Upgrade)
                     ___
                     |T| 4-dr Sedan (Upgrade)

                     Transporter /
                     Vanagon
                     ___
                     |U| 2-dr Pickup
                     ___
                     |V| 3-dr Double Cab Pickup
                     ___
                     |W| 3-dr Del'y Van
                     ___
                     |X| 3-dr Window Van
                     ___
                     |Y| 3-dr Bus
                     ___
                     |Z| 3-dr Camper

----

   FIELD               FIELD                FIELD                  FIELD
    7 8                 9                    10                    11

  _______              _____                _____              ____________
 | Model |            |Check|              |Model|            |Plant of    |
  -------             |digit|              |Year |            |Manufacturer|
____                   -----                -----              ------------
|15| VW Cabriolet     calculated            A=1980            A = Ingolstadt
____                    per                 B=1981            B = Brussels
|1G| VW Jetta          NHTSA                C=1982            E = Emden
____                   Code                 D=1983            G = Gratz
|1G| VW Golf(89 1/2 MY)                     E=1984            H = Hannover
____     VW ex Mexico                       F=1985            K = Osnabrueck
|1H| VW Golf/Jetta(93 MY)                   G=1986            M = Mexico
      (inc Mexico?)                         H=1987            N = Neckarsulm
____                                        J=1988            P = Brazil
|16| VW Jetta(88 MY)                        K=1989            S = Stuttgart
____                                        L=1990            V = Westmoreland
|17| VW Golf/GTI(88 MY)                     M=1991            W = Wolfsburg
____                                        N=1992	      Y = Pamplona (Spain)
|24| VW Transporter                         P=1993
       (Pickups, Multivan)                  R=1994 (?)
____                                        S=1995
|25| VW Transporter (Vans)                  T=1996
     VW Vanagon				   *5=1975*
____					    6=1976
|30| VW Fox				    7=1977
____					    8=1978
|31| VW Passat				    9=1979
____
|32| VW Quantum
____
|50| VW Corrado
____
|53| VW Scirocco
____
|70| VW Eurovan
____
|43| Audi 5000 / older
____
|44| Audi 5000/100/200/V8
____
|4A| Audi S4/100CS/V8
____
|80| Polo (1986->)
____
|81| Audi 4000
____
|83| Audi 4000
____
|86| Polo, Polo sedan (->1986)
____
|87| Polo Coupe (->1986)
____
|89| Audi 90
____
|85| Audi Coupe GT
____
|8A| Audi 90
____
|8B| Audi Coupe

----

   FIELD
   12,13,14,
   15,16,17
 _____________
|Sequential   |
|Production No|
 -------------

The old one... Haven't reconciled the two yet:

This is obviously one from a '90 German build VW Corrado build at
Karmann, with the second strongest engine (G60) and motorized belts.

            Country of Origin   Check Digit
            /                   / Model Year
           /                   / /
          W V W   D B 4 5 0   8 L K   0 1 2 3 4 5
Digit #   1 2 3   4 5 6 7 8        \
                                    \
                                     Assembly Plant

   Code   Digit #1: Country of Origin      Code   Model Year
   1      United States                    B      1981
   2      Canada                           C      1982
   3      Mexico                           D      1983
   4      United States                    E      1984
   6      Australia                        F      1985
   J      Japan                            G      1986
   K      Korea                            H      1987
   L      Taiwan                           J      1988
   S      England                          K      1989
   V      France or Yugoslavia             L      1990
   W      Germany                          M      1991
   Y      Sweden                           N      1992
   Z      Italy                            P      1993
   B      Brazil (?)

   Code   Digit #3: Vehicle Type           Code   Digit #4: Line & Body Tp
   W      Passenger Car                    A      2 Door
   1/2    Truck                            B      Sedan 2 door
   F      Hatch Back 2Dr (?)
   K      Pick Up

   Code   Digit #5: Engine
   M      Sport Truck
   N      Station Wagon
   X      Combi
   Y      Bus
   Z      Camper

   Code   Digit #6: Restraint Type
   0      Active
   4      Motorized seat belts
   9      Passive

   Code   Assembly Plant (Mfg specific)     Code   Digit #7-8: Car Type
   K      Osnabrueck/Karmann                15     Convertible
   V      Westmoreland                      16     Jetta
   W      Wolfsburg                         17     Golf II
   E      Emden                             53     Scirocco I
   H      Hannover                          32     Quantum
   A      Ingolstadt                        50     Corrado
   B      Brussels (?)                      78     Passat
   G      Graz
   M      Mexico
   N      Neckarsulm
   P      Brazil
   S      Stuttgart
   Y      Spain

   NOTE: The letters "I" and "O" in the Model Year table above have been
   skipped, probably to avoid confusion with the digits "1" and "0"
   respectively.

   NOTE: Many other nations use the Chassis number only, and they can often
   be found stamped somewhere on the car's body, usually in the engine
   compartment. The format is very similar. Example 81 S:

   W V W   Z Z Z 5 3   z B K   0 1 2 3 4 5
   
   "Z" and "z" is used as a filler, there is no special meaning behind it.
   

Q: What does the Karmann badge on some VWs mean?
A: Karmann refers to the body builder for VW, which made/makes all
   Sciroccos/Cabriolets/Corrados. Karmann has been around for a long time.
   One of the most famous Karmann-VW projects was the Karmann Ghia, 
   which was a pretty thinly disguised Porsche.
   Ghia is also still around, but now works with Ford.
   Some of it from [e0ewqbwu@tuzo.erin.utoronto.ca].
   
Q: What are VWs OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturer)?
A: VW makes cars, which is an assembly of components, but not all components
   are made by VW. In fact, VW makes mainly the body and the power train, the
   rest they buy from elsewhere.
   The OEM parts can often be had for less than buying the same VW part.
   Most of the ones listed below will have a VW part number, but are also to
   be had directly from the OEM w/o the VW part number.
   For example MANN makes VW filters with the VW label, but the same filter
   also exists with the MANN label.
   In other cases, VW uses parts w/o restamping or hiding the OEM name for
   marketing reasons, e.g., Recaro seats, BBS rims.
   The OEM suppliers are (not exhaustive, changes frequently):

   ATE                    Brake components (master cylinder)
   BBS                    Rims, some cars, not restamped
   Beru                   Electrical components (rotor, cap)
   Boge                   Shocks & components
   Boka                   Waterpump, Mexican made VWs
   Bosch                  Many of the electronic components (e.g. Alternator)
                          Fuel, other filters, FI, antenna
   Continental            Drive Belts, Tires (note, they also make Uniroyal
   			  Semperit, Gislaved and General Tires)
   FAG                    Brake components, master cylinders, wheel bearings
   Fichtel & Sachs        Clutches, shocks on some cars
   Fuba                   Roof mounted antenna (flexible one)
   Gillet                 Exhaust (at least at some point)
   Girling                Front disc brakes < 81, F&R on Passat >8?, 
   			  Rear 16V GTIs
   Glazurit/Hoechst/BASF  Brand of paint used.
                          Unclear who produces water based paints in newer VWs
   Golde		  Sunroof Maker
   Hella                  Lights, markers, bulbs
   Hengst                 Oil filters VR6
   Hirschmann             Antennas, some VWs
   Keiper/Recaro          Makers of VW Seats (not *real* Recaros)
   Kesley-Hayes           Front Brake calipers most > 81 cars
   Leistritz              Exhaust (for some--usually VR6 cars)
   Loebro                 CV Joints
   M.A.N.N.               Oil & Air Filters
   Matsushita             Heidelberg (VI & others) radios.
   Motorola               Alternator in some US made cars
   Recaro                 Seats, some cars, not restamped
   Ronal                  Alloy rims some Audis/VWs
   Sekurit                Windshield, windows
   Sofica                 Radiators, Heater cores (French), prone to leaks
   TRW                    Power steering pumps
   Teves                  Rear disc brakes (GTIs, GLIs, Corrado)
                          Note: ATE = Albert Teves, div IT+T
   VDO,MotoMeter          Gauges
   Wahler                 Thermostats

Q: Where can I get used parts? 
A: To be added to this list, you must be an established bonafide
   business or mail order house. Brief user feedback as posted publically
   may also be added. 


			U S E D   P A R T S
			===================
			
   BMVW (GA):
      Atlanta
      770 969 1729 (new number?)
      404-964-1376 (general), 404-969-1729 (recycled)
      
   Bug World (CA):
      Rancho Cordova (near Sacremento)
      (800) 464 52 84
      [W] Used parts. Ask for Jim
      
   BW Dismatlers (CA):
      Roseville, CA
      (916) 969 1600, (800) 327 0888
      VW Used parts. Mailorder. 
      
   Campbell/Nelson(WA):
      Auto Wrecking
      PO Box 220
      Edmonds, WA  98020
      In state (206) 771-4931
      out of state (800) 552-2999
      VW-Porsche-Audi-BMW-Saab
      
   Coast-to-Coast Parts Locators
      Send E-Mail listing of the parts with phone and name
      to lonadar@thunder.indstate.edu (Victor E Aldridge)
      85 salvage yards across the country participate
      <No positive or negative comments yet>
      
   German Auto Salvage Inc.
      1453  4th St., Berkeley, CA.  94710
      Ph. 510-525-6000, FAX 510-525-4590, M-F 9-5, Sat 10-3  PDT
      Don't know much about them, but you can contact G. Larsh
      at glarsh@holonet.net about it. Also see note at WolfSport.
      
   German Parts and Restoration [GPR]
      San Luis Osbispo, CA
      1-800-321-5432
      Sell rubber molding and other body parts.
      
   Kohlweiss (CA):
      3150 Spring St., Redwood City, CA 94063
      They do mailorder (but not their main business)
      (415) 367 8424
   
   Motech
      Used Corrado Parts, located in VA
      800-4-MOTECH
      Don't know much about them yet.
      
   Recycled VWs (MI):
      (313) 373-2300, Used VWs only junkyard, H2O VWs mainly
      
   Wolf Sport (CA) (Formerly Recycled Rabbit):
      see PARTS.
      

Q: Where can I get DISCOUNT and PERFORMANCE parts? 
A: Many of these retailers sell the same OEM parts VW uses anywhere from 
   10% to 60% less. (See above for the OEM brand names).
   
   Always check carefully the brand before buying
   because some substitutes may be offered by other manufacturers
   but with lower quality. It's best to stick with OEM or 
   better/performance brands.
   
   NOTE: The contents of this list now also includes references of shops 
   that do more than just sell OEM parts.
   I also included retailers that sell performance parts made by some of the
   "tuners" and performance manufacturers.
   
   To be added to this list, you must be an established bonafide
   business or mail order house. Brief user feedback as posted publically
   may also be added. 
   
   [Still Under Construction...it's a tad confusing]
      
      
   			P A R T S
   			=========
   			
   Automotive Performance Systems [APS]: see TUNERS & MANUFACTURERS
      They sell a few OEM parts (e.g., brakes, shocks, thermostats, 
      car covers, ...) and Neuspeed parts
      
   AutoTech [AT]: see TUNERS & MANUFACTURERS
      They sell a few OEM parts (e.g., brakes, shocks, thermostats, ...),
      AutoTech products, and APE products
      
   Beverly Hills Motoring Accessories:
       (800) 421-0911, (800) 367-2462 (?), CA: (310) 657-4664
       Located in CA
       Sell rare and expensive stuff (bras, zymoel, covers, trinkets)
       See VW Info FAQ for URL.
       
   Classic Motorbooks:
      Books on cars, Bosch books, etc.
      1-800-826-6600
      
   Competition Limited
      Pinckney, MI
      (313) 464 14 58
      High wattage H1-H4, 9004-9006 lights
      
   Crutchfield
      Aftermarket mail order for electronic equipment (speakers, car stereos)
      CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA
      (800) 336 55 66
      
   European Import Performance Tuning, Inc. [EIP]
      "Maryland's VW Connection"
      Rich Chiavacci (owner)
      1532-B LIBERTY RD.
      ELDERSBURG, MD 21784
      "EIP TUNING@aol.com" (email)
      Info (800) 784-8100, TECH (410) 549-1748
      Neuspeed, Autotech, Zender, Eurospec, etc.
      4 & 6 Cyl VW Performance Engine builder, custom work, etc.
      11 miles outside of the Baltimore beltway (I-695 Exit 18b, on rt 26 
      near the intersection with 32)
      They offer their own innovative performance mods in addition to the 
      German-imported ABT/Oettinger/Schrick stuff, plus their prices and 
      service compare quite favourably with most of the competition [UniqueVR6]
      
   Euro Tire:
      Mailorder tires, rims. 
      From NJ: (201) 575-0080, elsewhere (800) 631 00 80
      
   GPR
      Sells VW Parts
      805-549-8525, 800-321-5432, fax: 805-549-8994
      
   New Dimensions [ND]: see TUNERS & MANUFACTURERS
      Full line of OEM parts, VW Service, Neuspeed, ND TurboSystems, 
      and others.
      
   J.C. Whitney (IL):
      VW Parts, Tools, accessories, etc.
      1917-19 Archer Avenue, P.O. Box 8410,
      Chicago Illinois 60680
      (312) 431-6102, (312) 431-5625 fax
      (Note! Some parts are NOT factory replacements. Catalog prices !=
      Actual, catalogs are free. Quality varies. Be aware of shipping/trucking
      costs. JV)
      
   JT Motorsport
      350 Easy St., Building 3
      Simi Valley, CA  93065
      (805) 579-9123, fax (805) 579-9125
      ABT dealer
      
   Marin Motorsports (aka WolfSport?)
      63 Industrial Way, Greenbrae, CA  94904
      (415) 927-7090
      Discount Car Parts, VW, Audi 

   Parts Place Inc.
      OEM VW Parts
      2300 N. Opdyke Rd.
      Auobuorn Hill, MI 48326
      (810) 373-2300, (810) 3793-5950 (fax)
      STILL problematic!!! (horror stories *persist* on the net 12/95).
      Request the catalog from the Internet and get 15% off.
      Send email to PartsPlace@aol.com with your Name,phone#, 
      address and type of car.
      
   Performance Techniques
      108 Otto Circle, Sacramento, CA  95822
      Order (916) 422-4222, fax (916) 422-1754
      Zendersport dealer
      
   PlainWrap Performance: 
      Discount Neuspeed parts (original box, no second rate quality)
      7603 Firestone, Downey, CA, (310) 608-1243 (orders)
      1111 Walnut Str, Compton (warehouse), CA, (310) 604-0970 *moved?*
      (Levin Bldg, ask for Greg or Steve)
      Note: that their actual office is in Compton
      Note: Check whether their parts carry the original warrantee and
      wherer it will be honored.
      
   Precision Auto Designs
      Sells P21S wheel cleaner.
      (800) 222-7253
      
   Rapid Parts (NY):
      OEM VW Parts
      New address: 178 RT 59 Monsey, NY 10952, (914)352-1138
      Old address: 321 Route 59,P.O. Box 371, Tallman, NY 10982,
      New phone #: (914) 357-6611 (old #? 914-352-1138)
      (lots of cheap replacement parts)
      Store Hours M-S (EST/EDT) 9 am - 6 pm
      Seems to be one of the favorites.
      
   Rally Motorsports Inc.
      533 Broadway, Westwood, NJ  07675
      (201) 666-4443
      VW, Audi and BMW specialists
      RALLYMSRPT@aol.com

   Spectra Performance:
      5152 Bolsa Ave #109, Huntington Bch, CA 92649
      (714) 379 35 60, Fax: (714) 379 35 62
      Sells Neuspeed parts & other OEM supplies at a discount
      I am not sure if they are still in business.
      
   Strictly Foreign
      5374 Hamilton Blvd., Allentown, PA  18106
      Order (800) SPEED 94, In PA (610) 391-1902
      Neuspeed, Momo, K&N, etc.

   Tele Tire:
      Mailorder tires, rims. 
      
   Timmons VW:
      Mailorder VW & Neupseed parts, Transforma Mods, K&N, and 
      "select European parts".
      Free GROUND shipping CONTINENTAL  U.S. with $75+ order.
      Mention add in EC for 10% discount on some items.
      3940 Cherry Ave, Long Beach, CA 90807
      (310) 595 46 01, (800) 266 32 47
      OEM VW Parts & Neupseed Parts, K&N, etc.
      Profile:
      It's a regular dealership that is now specializing more in parts
      distribution, and has a casual relationship with some of the
      performance shops like APS. They also deal with the magazines,
      lending out test cars.
      Some of the people that work there such as Mike Potter (parts)
      auto-x their VWs (Scirocco for Mike) and are therefore more
      "knowledgeable" than the average place.
      Don't bother Mike too much because he is very buzy.
      
   Tire Rack:
      771 W Chippewa AVe, South Bend, IN 46614
      (800) 428 83 55, (219) 287 2345, fax (219) 236 77 07
      Mailorder tires, rims. 
      Robert(ext307) (real name: Bill Ozinga) is an auto-xer and he can
      be reached at: BOzinga@aol.com or OzCS97@aol.com
      TR is an official SCCA Solo II sponsor for 95-98.
      
   Tire Warehouse:
      1-800-374-9876
      
   Ultimate Street Accessories
      710 Pressley Rd., Charlotte, NC  28217
      Info: (704) 525-4946, Order (800) 258-5269
      Suspension, accessories, exhaust, aerodynamics for Euro and Japan cars

   WholeSale Import Prts (WA):
      OEM VW Parts
      (206) 643 33 50
      
   Wolf Sport (CA) (Formerly Recycled Rabbit):
      63 Industrial Way, Greenbrae, CA. 94904
      (415) 924 83 12 (info), (800) 34-BUNNY (orders) (415) 924 7970 (fax)
      M-F 9-5
      They used to sell used parts only, but now sell new parts at a
      discount and Neuspeed parts as well!
      You can also get a list of parts on sale from these guys in conjunction
      with German Auto Salvage. 
      Send a request to: glarsh@holonet.net
      
   Euro Carparts (UK):
      +44 81-963-0555 (finally an European entry!)

   >>>OTHERS/MAILORDER?


Q: Who are the VW (performance) tuners?
A: This is surprisingly harder to answer than it may seem because it
   depends on what you mean by a "tuner". 
   For example, Neuspeed is a VW performance brand sold by APS &
   other retail outlets. APS can give you advice on their parts,
   but will not install them or do custom work on your car.
   However, AMS, ND, VWSpecialties, Velocity Tuning and others are "tuners" 
   because they will customize your car using their own products 
   (ND Turbo systems) or other "tuner/manufacturer" products (AT, Neuspeed). 
   

   This list is mostly geared to USA & Canada. Some German addresses
   are also mentioned. In the UK & D, see EU_VW_Tuners in the VW archives.
   To be added to this list, you must be an established bonafide business,
   tuner or mail order house. Brief user feedback as posted publically
   may also be added. 
   
   [Still Under Construction...it's a tad confusing]
   
   
   		T U N E R S // P E R F O R M A N C E
   		====================================
   			
   Advanced Motorsport Solutions [AMS]:
      Advanced Motorsport Solutions
      3040 S Robertson Blvd (right off the 10 FWY & National), LA, CA 90034
      (310) 559 7764, (310) 838 68 81
      Profile:
      CEO = Marc Kalaydjian (pretty much a car and computer wiz)
      Sells performance VW products, similar to other tuner's. 
      e-mail: marck@netcom.com
      Makes custom chips for cars (concentrates on the whole program
      range). Supposedly initially trained APS on how to make chips.
      Used to work for Andy King of R&A Applied Arts.
   Automotive Performance Systems [APS]:
      3300 Corte Malpaso, Camarillo, CA 93012 
      (101 & Dowson, 100 miles N of their old place :-< )
      (805) 388 71 71, (800) 423-3623 (orders only)
      (805) 388 00 30 (fax)
      Profile:
      Primary retailer of Neuspeed products and a few OEM parts (brakes, 
      lights, etc).
      Parts usually fit in stock positions and are usually CA smog legal.
      Their performance philosophy is: Make it breathe (exhaust)
      stiffen and lowered suspension (usualy Bilstein).
      They also sell chips, but some claim that they concentrate mostly
      on the top end, not the low.
      Owned by Bill Neuman (who "ruthlessly" runs the place) and aided
      by his two sons: Aaron and Gary Neuman (who are both very technically
      capable and nicer then some of the people occasionally answering
      the phone). Unlike a regular "PARTS" place they can provide advice
      on how to customize your car with their products, but they will
      not do any custom work anymore. 
      Pretty much all the parts you buy from them are good quality.
      Note: Neuspeed products can be bought elsewhere for less (e.g., ND,
      Plain Wrap, VW Specialties).
   AutoBahn Designs [ABD]:
      2900 Adams Str, Suite B27, Riverside, CA, 92504
      (909) 351-9566
      Body parts & other
   AutoTech [AT]:
      32240 E Paseo Adelanto, San Juan Capistrano, CA
      (714) 240-4000 (tech), (800) 553-1055 (Order)
      Owner: Ron Mozer
      Talk to Dana Clarck for Corrados.
      Large variety of VW products. Sells APE chips at a 
      slight discount. They are predominantly a PARTS place, but they
      can also provide you with some assistance on customizing your car.
      Like many others they also develop and test some of their own
      products.
   AutoThority Performance Engineering [APE]:
      3769-B Pickett Rd, Fairfax, VA 22031
      (703) 323-0919, (703) 323 73 25 (fax)
      Profile:
      Makers of Power Chips for many cars.
      Claims to work on the whole power band rather than the top end only.
      See the "Wired" article in the archives.
      Engineer for Corrado: Mike Kisko (sp?) ext 404
      Not all their chips and power upgrades are CA smog legal.
   Bellevue Motor Sports:
      13500 Bel-Red Rd., Bellevue, WA 98005
      (206) 747-FAST
   Drake:
      Yuma, AZ.
      Do they still exist?
   European Inc.
      Jacksonville, FL
      Rebuilds G60. Some complaints on the net for incomplete
      warrantee coverage (eg, G60 rebuilds are not covered for oil leaks).
   European Import Performance Tuning, Inc. [EIP]
      "Maryland's VW Connection"
      Rich Chiavacci (owner)
      1532-B LIBERTY RD.
      ELDERSBURG, MD 21784
      "EIP TUNING@aol.com" (email)
      Info (800) 784-8100, TECH (410) 549-1748
      Neuspeed, Autotech, Zender, Eurospec, etc.
      4 & 6 Cyl VW Performance Engine builder, custom work, etc.
      11 miles outside of the Baltimore beltway (I-695 Exit 18b, on rt 26 
      near the intersection with 32)
      They offer their own innovative performance mods in addition to the 
      German-imported ABT/Oettinger/Schrick stuff, plus their prices and 
      service compare quite favourably with most of the competition 
      [comments from UniqueVR6 who had a 3.1l engine built for his C]      
   EuroRace:
      190th near Hawthorne Blvd, Redondo Bch, CA
      (800) 722-8678; (310) 376-0247.
      NOTE: Occasional troublesome (parts don't fit right, slow responce,
      mostly geared towards aircooled VWs).
   EuroSpec:
      6205 Engle way Unit H
      Gilroy California 95020
      408-848-4203, FAX 848-2145
      See also European Car, May 1995, they sell new taller 2.0l 8V blocks.
   EuroSport:
      Moved to APS's former location:
      1464 North Hundley Street, Anaheim, CA 92806
      (714) 630 1555, (800) 783-3876, (714) 693-0864 (fax)
      Profile:
      Owner = Raffi Kazanjian, who has been auto-xing for many years.
      Currently still does in his modified yellow Rabbit.
      Sells VW performance mods, some of which parallel APS's line for a
      lower price. Ask for Raffi Kazanjian. 
   Evolution Tuning (Mexico)
      Imports Nothelle parts
   Extrudehone:
      Corp HQ = Irwin, PA, fax (412) 863 87 59
      8800 Somerset Blvd, Paramount, CA 90723
      (310) 531 29 76, fax (310) 531 84 03
      Abrasive flow machining (porting).
      Example price: Intake manifold = 700-1000US$
   GTA
      Quebec, Canada
      Did some work on VR6 and G60 Corrados!
      Dont bother asking for their Catalog or fax in a request
      on details as advertised. They rarely respond.
   Halsey Import Parts:
      7721 N.E. Halsey Portland, OR
      (800) 792-0081
   H&H Specialties, Inc.
      20 Reid Road, Chelmsford, MA 01824, (508) 256-9465
      Fabricators of stabilizer bars since the '70's
      Andy King prefers these to the Neuspeed. 
      [Jan: See the archive pictures, the may not mount in stock
      locations]
   JT Automotive:
      350 East St, Building 3, Simi Valley, CA 93065
      805-579-9123 or 9124
      Sells ABT parts (one of the major VW tuners in Germany. Note
      ABT parts are also available else where, e.g., ND if demand is high,
      and make sure you compare prices!).
      I don't know if they do any custom work.
   Motor Technik:
      Maryland
      Owner: Francis Stepneck, a former partner of EIP, goal: to make his 
      G60 reach 180+ mph.  
      He is also responsible for the bigger valves and thermal barrier coating 
      on the VR6 head.  
      410-549-0441
   New Dimensions [ND]:
      2240 De La Cruz Blvd, Santa Clara, CA, 95050
      (800) 637-2781, (408)980-1691, (408) 980-1697 (fax)
      Computer Bulletin Board (408) 980-8830
      Specializes in turbo charging VWs. Full service facility,
      Shop & Parts (Chris Lagatuta = VP, Tim Hildabrand aka Turbo Tim = owner)
      Also sells performance parts such as Neuspeed, K&N, etc.
      turbotim@newdimensions.com (old address: turbotim@aol.com)
      Web Page (still under construction, but real cool :->): 
      http://www.newdimensions.com/
   Nothelle
      Cacilientstrasse 10-12
      4330 Mulheim / Ruhr 1
      Germany
      011-49-208-42-20-789
      011-49-208-42-08-48
      Tuner.
      US Contacts: (800)453-HADE or (310)715-2448 or fax (310)715-2911
   Northern Imports:
      Any experiences with these guys as yet?
   Oettinger Technik GmbH
      Max Planck Strasse 36
      D-61381 Friedrichsdorf
      Germany, 
      + (06172) 7053-55, Fax: + (06172) 7056
      Newer #s?: 06172-7102-0, fax 06172-710240
   OilScan:
      Kit to perform oil analysis for about US$20.
   PRECISION Motorsports Limited
      31 Elaky Drive
      Chester NY 10918
                phone     914-469-8549
                fax       914-469-4855
                email     Motorsprt1@aol.com
      Reseller of Autotech, Neuspeed, MOMO, Tire Rack, Discount Tire Direct, 
      PIAA, Eibach, Remus
      Offers 10% Discount to Corrado club members.
   Rally Motorsports Inc.
      533 Broadway, Westwood, NJ  07675
      (201) 666-4443
      VW, Audi and BMW specialists
      RALLYMSRPT@aol.com
   R&A APPLIED ARTS, INC.
      555 GUTHEIL PLACE, LYNDHURST, NJ 07071
      CONTACT ANDY KING AT (201) 933-8833
      Performance Tuner
   Racing Wheel Services
      140 Bordentown Road, Tullytown, PA 19007
      (215) 945-3834  [ Also ref. European Car 10/94 p.50 for write-up ]
      excellent place for custom wheels, street/rally/race wheels
   RD Enterprises:
      Sells shocks. (800) 683-2890, In CA
   Ron's Parts Inc:
      #6-#7 1610 Langan Ave, Port Coquitlam, BC V3C 1K6
      (604) 944-0494, (604) 944-1797 (fax) 
      Parts & shop. Drops VR6's into Golfs.
   Dr. Schrick GmbH
      Dreherstrasse 3-5
      D-42899 Remscheid, Germany
      Makers of Cams. Write for catalog & prices. Buy direct for lower prices.
   SuperChips Inc:
      1958 N. County Rd 427, Longwood FL, 32750,
      (407) 260-0838, (407) 260-9106 (fax)
      Sells Power Chips (8V, 16V, VR6).
      Note: Some claims of less than reputable practices...
   Tec Auto & Sport
      (00 49) 72 31-106014 fax (00 49) 72 31-3 26 67
      This company specializes in rebuilding G-laders. They
      offer several mods to increase the G-laders performance and life. If you
      can't wait for EIP, you may want to give them a call (they are VW factory
      authorized). [comments from Hulda Jowett]
   TechTonics (TT):
      P.O.Box 295, 19592 Southwest TV Tower Road, Sheridan, OR 97378,
      (503) 843-2700, (503) 843-3933 (fax)
      Maker of performance parts. Make sure they get the order right.
      Daryl Vitone.
   Velocity Sport Tuning: 
      4613 B Manhatten Beach Bl.,  Lawndale, CA  90260.
      (310)643-0005, FAX:(310)643-0006
      Ask for Jeremy Wolf:  VELOJER@aol.com or MONSTER16V@aol.com
      or Jeff Moss: VELOJEFF@aol.com; velocitysp@aol.com
      Initial feedback seem positive.
      See also their web page: http://www.velocitysport.com/
   VW Motorsport (D): (sister co of VW who makes aftermarket parts for VW).
      Ikarusallee 7A, D-30179 Hannover, Germany
      (From the US, dial 011 49 and then delete the first 0 from the 
       number below).
       0 511 / 674 94 22 
       0 511 / 674 94 88 (fax)
   VW Specialties (Ron Wood): 
       Car service, performance alterations
       Owner: Ron Wood, pretty much a VW Guru/VW Racer/VW Tuner
       Sells and installs a variety of parts from different tuners (AST, NS) 
       and has plenty of experience.
       Last I heard he flipped his Scirocco, end over end.
       Build a Audi Quatro Coupe with a 300 BHp 16V water cooled intercooler 
       turbo VW Engine.
       17682 Gothard Str, Huntington Beach, CA 92647, 
       (714) 848 37 66, (714) 848 43 36 (fax) (714) 848 37 66 (fax?)
   VW Sport: 
      4838 Leafdale
      Royal Oak, MI 48073
      (313) 288 51 58
      (313) 288 44 12
      (Sell VW accessories (BBS, Bosch, VW), TShirts, etc)
   Zender:
      700 Pressley Rd., Charlotte, NC 28217
      (704) 525-0539, (800) 832-2411
      Body parts & performance parts

   See also the archive: EU_VW_Tuners for European addresses.
   
Q: What are some of the brand name namufacturer/product addresses?
A: It's not always clear where something belongs, e.g., 
   Zender is a product name, and a tuner. Therefore, see also the other lists. 
   There are no strict criteria to be added to this list, and to be
   listed (or not) is not meant as an endorsement!
   In addition, most of the product names mentioned are not purely
   VW related.

   Alpine:
      Gramercy Rd, Torrance, CA 90....
      (310) 326 8000
      Alarms, audio
   AMSOIL (?):
      Oil, 1 micron Filters. (715) 393-7101
      URL: http://www.xmission.com/~gastown/amsoil/index.html
   AutoTech [AT]:
      Makers of AutoTech products. See also AutoTech under TUNERS & PARTS.
   BBS:
      Maker of rims
      5320 BBS Drive, Braselton, GA 30517
      (800) 422 7972, (404) 967 9848, (404) 967 9866 (fax)
   BF Goodrich Tires:
      Racing and Marketing Dev't Dept.
      D/0653, UGB-4
      600 S Main Str, Akron, OH 44397-0001
      Note BFG is part of Michelin since 1990!
      New Order Number: (800) 847 8475 (Michelin's #) then punch in
      		        RACE BFG at the DEALER ACCOUNT NO PROMPT
      8:30-17:00 EST
      To buy their race tires you need to be a member, which
      costs nothing.
   Bilstein:
      Try Larry?
      8845 Rehco Rd, San Diego, CA 92121
      (619) 453-7723, Steve; (203) 265-2854; (800) 537-1085
      Bilstein will revalve any of their shocks to your needs, for a 
      small fee.
   Blaupunkt (part of the Robert Bosch Corp):
      2800 S 25th Ave, Broadview, IL 60153
      (800) 323-1943; (312) 865-6444; (312) 865-5488
   Boge/Fichtel & Sachs (they merged):
      Pete Mitchell deals with VW shocks
      (800) 222 26 43
   Bosch (Robert):
      (708) 865 52 00
   Bridgestone Tire:
      Consumer Tire Marketing
      POBox 140991
      Nashville, TN 37214-0991
      (800) 543 75 22
   Castrol:
      Oil Co., (201) 633-2200, Located in NJ
   Continental Tires/General Tires
      One General Street, Akron, OH 44329-0001
      (800) 338 61 86, Canada (800) 461 43 57
   Dunlop
   Dynamic Control:
      P.O. Box 15232, Hamilton, OH 45015
      (513) 829 32 51, (513) 829 32 61
      Makers of Dynamat Sound Deadening material
   Eibach Springs
      15311 Barranca Parkway, Irvine, CA 92718
      (714) 727 37 00
      Springs, sway bars.
   Flofit
      127 Business Center Drive #B, Corona, CA 91720
      Mr FLofit@aol.com, http://www.flofit.com, 1-800-FLO-FITS
      Aftermarket seats. Note that FloFit changed ownership in 1995,
      and claim to have improved their quality, using the same mfging
      processes as Recaro at 1/3 the price. Seats carry a 30 day no fault 
      return policy and a full TWO YEAR WARRANTY. 
      I have no feedback from the web about these reengineered seats.
   Hella Lights:
      201 Kelley Drive
      P.O.Box 2665
      Peachtree City, GA 30269
      (404) 631 7500
   Hoosiers
      RICK GENHART, westren us distributor 209-485-4612
      Fresno: 800-866-4612, fax 209-485-4632
   Kenwood Stereo:
      2201 E Domingues, Long Beach, CA 90221
      (310) 761 8206
   Kano
      Nashville, TN
      Makers of Kroil penetrating oil (supposedly good).
      (615) 833 4101
      (615) 833 5790 (fax)
   K&N Engineering Inc:
      P.O. Box 1329 or 561 Iowa Ave, Riverside, CA 92502
      Makers of K&N air filters
   Koni (KT)
      Shocks, Dutch Company
      Talk to Lesley for a good sense of humor (606) 727-5028
      Tech number: 606-727-5011 or (606) 727 5053 Steve Sudler
      Fax: 606-727-5001
   McGard Inc.
      3875 California Rd, Orchard Park, NY 14127-4198
      P.O. Box 102, Ft. Erie, Ontario L2A 5M6
      (800) 444 58 47, (716) 662 9617
      Makers of wheel locks.
   Meguire's
      17991 Mitchell S., Irvine, CA 92714
      (800) 347-5700 (?), (800) 854-8073.
      Waxes and polishes: (800) 545-3321
   MECA Cooling Company:
      255 Route 41 North, Sharon, CT 06069
      (203) 364-5130, Fax: (203) 364-0888
      Sell propylene glycol & special oil filters.
   Mintex (BBA Friction):
      Makers of Brake Pads
      P.O. Box 18, Hunsworth Lane, Cleckheaton, West Yorkshire
      England, BD19 3UJ
   Mobil Oil:
      (800) 662 4525, located in PA
      Lubricants, Synthetic oil
   Neuspeed: 
      Manufacturer of VW Performance parts. 
      For direct retail sales see: APS
      For all other sales (usually for less than APS) see the PARTS list.
   New Dimension Products & New Dimension (ND) Turbosystems :
      See New Dimension under TUNERS.
   RedLine:
      3450 Pancheco Blvd. Martinez, CA 94553
      (510) 228-7576, (800) 624-7958
      Synthetic Oils
   Remus:
      Aftermarket exhaust systems. Expensive but nice.
      West US: 16200 S Figueroa Str, Gardena, CA 90248 (800) 766 0064
      East US: 20 Temple Ave, Hackensack, NJ 07601 (800) 846 1144
   Schroth
     Seat belts/harnesses for racing
     (303) 447-1700    Fax (303) 447-184
   Scosche Industries:
      5160 Gabbert Road, P.o.Box 8099, Moorpark, CA 93020
      (800) 621 36 95
      Makers of Accumat Accoustical insulation (like Dynamat, no smell
      sticks better)
      AMT045 (like vinyl tyles, for doors etc), AMT250 (for car floors,
      is about 1 cm thick with foam), AMT750 (mats for hood).
   Speedline America Corporation:
      Bill Hoffman, Operations Manager
      Speedline Italian Sport Wheels
      1177 Sawgrass Corporate Parkway
      Fort Lauderdale, FL 33323
      (305) 846 9234
      Makers of rims. OEM on 93 Corrados.
   Spectro Oil
      1-800-2-GET-OIL
      High quality (synth) oils.
   Synthoil Corporation:
      High quality (synth) oils. 
      PO Box 6077
      Boise, Idaho 83707
      (800) 843-7733 (order), (208) 336-8600 (Tech)
   Tokico:
      1330 Storm Pwy, Torrance, CA 90501-5041
      (310) 534 49 34
      Shocks.
   VDO/YAZAKI Co.:
      980 Brooke Rd, P.O. Box 2897, Winchester, VA
      (703) 665-0100 FAX (703) 662-2515
      455 Welham Rd, Box 8700, Barrie, Ontario, Canada L4M4V3
      (705) 722-6400 FAX (705) 722-4407
   Valentine (radar detector & G-Analyst): 
      1-800-331-3030 for ordering
      1-513-984-8900 for questions
   Yokohama ():
      (800) 423-4544


Q: Where can I get special VW tools?
A: To be added to this list, you must be an established bonafide business,
   tool maker or mail order house. Brief user feedback as posted publically
   may also be added. The most often mentioned here are: Sears, Snap-On, and
   Schley.

   Assenmacher Specialty Tools:
      6440 Odel Place,Boulder CO 80301,
      (303) 530-2424, toll free (800) 525-2943, fax (303) 530-4720
      They sell VW specialty tools.
   BAUM TOOLS UNLIMITED INC.
      Dana J. Baum - VP R&D, danabaum@crl.com
      URL:http://www.crl.com/www/~/danabaum	(does not work for me)
      URL:http://www.crl.com:80/www/users/da/danabaum
      Manufacturers, importers and distributors of VW [A] & [W] special tools
      HAZET, STAHLWILLE, USAG, MATRA and PEISLER tools available
      3922 Murdock Avenue
      Sarasota FL 34233
      1-800-848-6657 Orders (US & Canada), 1-941-927-1414 Office
      1-941-927-1612 Fax, catalogs 1-800-848-6657
        or
      WEST COAST WAREHOUSE, 1523 38Th Avenue
      San Francisco CA 94122-3011
      1-415-566-9229 Orders, 1-415-566-0694 Fax, 1-415-298-7831 Mobile
   Griot's Garage:
      (800) 345-5789
      They sell VW specialty tools.
   J.C. Whitney (IL): see PARTS
   Schley Products Inc:
      5350 E. Hunter Ave, Anaheim Hills, CA 92807-2053
      (714) 693 76 66
      They sell VW specialty tools, and have a good reputation.
      Don't sell directly, you have to go through some distributor like
      Snap On.
   Mac Tools:
      Recommended by some. Same deal as Snap-On, you need to call them.
      They also have some VW specialty tools.
   Sears:
      All over the USA & Canada. Generally good quality (non-professional)
      handtools.
      Craftsman brand carries lifetime warrantee. 
      They have some special tools, e.g., 17mm VW tranny drain plug hex wrench
   Snap-On Tools:
      1-800-866-5748 Snap-On customer direct order program
      Snap On has fewer and fewer warehouses to obtain tools from. Typically,
      you order a catalog, then call, and then a truck will eventually
      pull up with the tool you need.
      Most of their tools are of professional quality.
      They also have some VW specialty tools (e.g., CV-Joint tool).
   S&K Tools:
   
   Zelinda Machine Tools Corp (NY): 
      66-02 Austin St, Forest Hills NY 11374,
      (718) 896 22-88
      They sell VW specialty tools.
 
   Caveat: Often a suitable replacement for these tools can be easily made.

   MAILORDER RENTAL
   ----------------
   Recycled VWs (MI):
      (313) 373-2300



Q: What are VW's related numbers and addresses?
A: VWoA = (800) 822 VW US or (800) 822 8987
   Note that this number will also provide you with recall info on your car.
   
   (800) 544 80 21 for service publications (see above)

   Pres. Clive Warrilow (new) | 3800 Hamlin Rd VWoA Auburn Hills MI 48326
   Pres. Bill Young (old)     | 3800 Hamlin Rd VWoA Auburn Hills MI 48326
   Dr. Ferd. Piech            | Postfach VWAG-TK-24 3180 Wolfsburg I Germany

   Volkswagen Canada INC
      1940 Eglinton Avenue East, Scarborough ON, M1L 2M2, Canada
      (416) 288-3000, Fax: (416) 288-3298, Telex: 06-963588

   Guaranteed Mobility/Roadside Assistance Program,
      refer to the owners warranty manual for further information
      Volkswagen:    (800) 263-7601
      Audi:          (800) 461-2834
      (USA and Canada only):

   VW Protection Plus Program (for 93+ VWs):
      For more info call: (800) DRIVE VW

   The address of the "VW World" publications/subscription dept.
      (free for new VW owners, 20US$/7years for others):
      Volkswagen World Headquarters
      PO Box 2012
      Bloomfield Hills, MI 48303-2012

   VW Mobility Access Program (disability):
      (800) 444-8987

Q: What does 'Fahrvergnuegen' mean (current commercial jingle in NA)?
A: Fahrvergnuegen (with ue=u") means 'pleasure of driving', and VW claims
   it can only be experienced in a VW. I think most of us could find
   similar pleasure in a 911 Turbo, though :-).

Q: Who did the music on the US/Canada VW commercial?
A: "Harry's Game" from the album "Anam" on Atlantic Records by the Irish group
   Clannad.

Q: Where did VW car names come from?
A: Most of the European names given to VWs came from wind names.
   In other countries, the same models may bear different names, such as
   the Golf I called the Rabbit in the US and Caribe (?) in Mexico. 
   More recently, VW started adopting other naming convetions (e.g.,
   Corrado). (Enhanced with Dennis's notes).
   
   Scirocco	- Hot North African desert wind that blows into Italy
   		  Original name was rumored to be Blizzard.
   Golf		- Gulf stream winds (a high altitude North-south 100 mmph wind)
   Jetta	- Jet stream (East/West wind, affecting Pacific air travel)
   Passat	- Trade winds
   Vento	- Blowing/windy (E/I)
   Polo		- ?
   Santana	- Hot desert blast accross the Sea of Cortez. 
   Corrado	- Not a wind, it's derived from Spanish Correr which means to 
   		  run. The original name for the car was Taifun (Typhoon)
   		  which means huricane except it was already a registered
   		  trade mark for a GM truck. 
  

Q: What does GTI, GLI and so on mean?
A: L       = Luxe (base model)
   LS      = Luxe Special, couple more do-dads
   GT      = Grand Tourisme, better equipped & usually a larger engine than
             the "L" series
   GL      = Grand Luxe (geared for more luxury), basically == GT
   GTI/GLI = Originally, the fuel injected version of a GT/GL which means it
             produced a lot more power. With most cars FI, the GTI/GLI
             designation means a more powerful engine than a GT/GL model,
             sometimes also with a better suspension. Note that originally,
             GLI != Jetta, as the case in the USA.
   SL      = Serie Limite' (limited series), like the Karmann series in US.
             Really a variation on a GT.
   GTX     = Same as GTI but used in Europe and elsewhere.
   G40/60  = GT version with VWs G-type supercharger. The number is the width
             of the G-charger (lader in D) coil in millimeters. For those who
             aren't aware, the G40 is used on some Polos, the G60 on Passats
             and Corrados.
   VR6     = Cars based on the new staggered 6 cylinder engine (in-line-V-6).
   SLC     = Sport Luxury Coupe, the VR6 equipped Corrado in the US.
   Syncro  = VWs version 4WD distributes its torque with a "visco-gear" 
             (It's a special silicone gel that stiffens if the relative
             motion (shear) increases)
             VWs 4WD is designed by Steyr-Puch, an Austrian Company and not 
             by Audi.

   Originally, all European VWs were carbureted, except those with the "I" or
   "i" and a few rare cases with an "E" for "Einspritzung", designation which had
   a more powerful fuel injected engine, a "GT" set-up, and some more sporty
   equipment (suspension, gauges).
   In the US, VW switched over to FI first with the '76 limited
   edition Super Scirocco and in 77 to the rest of VW's watercooled
   cars, and in Europe a bit later (with mono-throttle FI) which meant that 
   all cars really counted as "I" models.
   GTI/GLI now just means that the car has a more powerful engine and a
   sportier set-up.

   Note also that the US, only gets the two top of the line VWs from their
   larger mass produced series (but not the Polo).
   Certain special models, such as the Golf G60 Synchro, the US will never
   see.
   In Europe, VWs came with anywhere from 1100, 1300 to 2900 cc engines. The
   US never saw the 1100 & the 1300's and only sees a slightly scaled down
   version of the 2900.
   
   
Q: Is VW the inventor of the VR6 and G-charger design?
A: No in both cases. Most of the car "novelties" you see now on the road
   have been invented between 50 and 100 years ago. 
   The reason why you only see these innovations pop up now is because
   many of these innovations where not economically feasible to be
   mass produced. 
   
   For example, the G-charger, was pattented in 1905 [Vack], was to replace the 
   common piston driven steam engine, requires very precise machining that
   can only be achieved with current day NC machine tools. 
   
   The VR6 design is modeled after an 18 degree V4 made by Vincenzo 
   Lancia for the Lancia Aprilia [Vack].

   ABS is also nothing new, a mechanical version based on centripetal
   forces was used on German trucks during WWII.
   Similarly, Turbo chargers were first used on Messerschmidt planes
   to compensate for thinner air at altitude. 
   However, if there is one thing VW should get credit for is applying
   some of these innovation and making it economically feasible to
   produce. Not a simple feat.
   
   
Q: What is VW's heritage?
A: [By Jan & Rauhut]:
   VW was founded by the controversial Adolf with the goal to make
   an affordable and reliable car available to everyone.
   That's also where the name came from, Volkswagen litterally meaning
   "People's car". There were other similar efforts, such as the "Volks" radio,
   but only the car remained until now.
   In May 1938 VW built the first factory nearby Fallersleben, which
   is now Wolfsburg. Prof. Ferdinand Porsche designed the first Beetle in
   the thirties. The beetle was presented by the Nazis as "Kraft durch Freude"
   "Strength through Joy" car, which was a part of the Nazis philosophy. Due to the
   WWII VW did not sell much beetles until 1945. After WWII VW sold altogether
   15.235.200 Beetles.
   VW produced some other air cooled, rear-wheel drive cars. The VW 1500,
   VW 1600 were produced from 1961 until 1973. They looked like a long
   beetle, VW managed to sell 2.583.015 units. The VW 411, VW 412 were
   produced from 1986 until 1974, 355.200 units were sold.
   In the late 60s, VW realized it needed to diversify its product
   line and acquired a number of companies such as NSU (1970) and
   Audi (1969). Audi (Audi NSU Auto Union) was summary of the companies
   Audi, part of NSU, DKW and Auto-Union. In the early 80's VW acquired the
   Spanish SEAT (pronounced Say-Ath), and in the late 80's Skoda after the
   Berlin wall came tumbling down.

   NSU had a few interesting products such as the K70 and Ro80.
   The K 70 was developed by NSU, Neckarsulm, in 1969, and VW
   sold the K 70 as the VW K70 from 1970 until 1974. Altogether
   210.082 units were sold.

   The K70 was sold with two different engines: 1.6l with 75 hpwr and
   1.8l with 100 hpwr. The VW K70, developed by NSU, was the first VW with
   a water cooled engine and first front-wheel drive car.It resembled a
   boxy version of the first Jetta.

   Another one of NSU interesting products was the Ro80, probably the
   first production car with a Wankel (rotary) engine. The Ro80 was sold
   from 1967 until 1974, 33910 Units were sold. The Ro80 had a 0.5l(!) engine
   with 115 hpwr. Its production was stopped due to persistent problems,
   but was at the time a very innovative and modern looking car.

   Probably the most lasting influence to the VW product line was made
   by Audi whose Audi 50 become the start of their new line of cars.
   The Audi 50 become known as the first VW Polo, and many of the drive
   train components are shared between VWs and Audis to this date.

Q: What's the relationship between VW, Audi and Porsche? 
A: VW and Audi are under the same company whose name is
   "Volkswagen Audi Gesellschaft" (VAG). 
   
   They have separate research departments, separate assembly plants,
   but do share parts, engines and cars (US VW Quantum == Audi) on occasion.
   The original version of the Polo were actually made by Audi
   called the Audi 50. The basic 1500/1600 now 1800 cc block is also
   from the former Audi 80.
   In Europe it is not uncommon to have both dealers that sell and
   service both VWs and Audis (and sometimes also Porsches).
   In North America the two (three) are usually separate.
   
   Regarding VW & Porsche (From Tom H.):
   There are no ownership arrangements -- the two companies are essentially
   separate.  There is, however, a lot of co-operation, as Porsche does
   consulting work for VW, and Porsche has some access to the VW parts bins.
   VW has also built some 914s, 924s and 944s for Porsche, and Porsche is
   to build the Audi 80 RS2 for VW.

   And of course Ferdinand Porsche designed the Beetle while running a
   design office in the 30s -- and Ferdinand Piech, the current CEO of
   Volkswagen AG, is his grandson.

   The relationship was much closer yet in the early years of VW and
   Porsche, when Heinz Nordhoff was running VW: this is when the 914 was
   conceived as a VW-Porsche. When Nordhoff died (in 12 April 1968), the new CEO
   (Dr Kurz Lotz, replaced on October 1 1971 by Rudolf Leiding) 
   did not want to honour all of Nordhoff's verbal
   agreements with Porsche. As a result, the relationship soured somewhat
   -- and the 914 was significantly more expensive than originally planned.

   One of the best books relating the VW/Porsche relationship is _Excellence_
   _was_Expected_ (which is primarily a Porsche book; alas, it's most certainly
   not cheap.

Q: What do the oval "B", "D" stickers on car's bumpers mean in Europe?
A: They stand for the country of origine. I use the same conventions
   throughout this FAQ:
   B	Belgium
   CH	Confederatie Helvetica (Switzerland)
   D	Deutschland (Germany)
   F	France
   GB	UK
   I	Italia
   L	Luxembourg
   NL	Nederland (Holland)
   
   The number plates of all EU states have the same
   style now and show the country on the plate which makes the sticker
   superfluous as long as you do not leave the EU. If you travel to
   other countries you will still need the sticker!

Q: What are the racing colors per country?
A: 
   B	Yellow (bet you didn't know that)
   D	White
   GB	Green (of course)
   I	Red (of course)

Q: What is the VW Visa card?
A: 5% of your charges, $700 per year up to 3500US$ total can be used towards
   the purchase of a new VW. Underwritten by MBNA, 16.9 % Annual Percentage Rate
   NO fee on the GOLD or the REGULAR card. 
   Call 1-800-847-7378 ext.55 in the US
   Several other major car manufacturers (Ford & GM) have such a program. 
   NOTE: These conditions change periodically.


COMMON PROBLEMS & RECALLS
=========================

Q: How do I obtain NHTSA (Recall) information (USA)?
A: Call (800) 424-9393 (selection menu 1-2-)
   They have info on:
   1) Recall Info on cars
   2) Child Safety Seat Recall
   3) Crash Test Report
   4) Tire Quality Grading
   5) Other Safety Info
   6) Rear seat retrofit kit
   9) Repeat menu

   Note: The above service is TERRIBLY inefficient...after 3 tries I still
   have not received the info I requested on my Corrado.
   I guess the person there can't read or write.
   A Corrado is not a Cabriolet. Makes you wonder how many other morons work
   there. [Jan]

Q: What are the known defects for the VW product line?
A: Following is an unverified and incomplete list.
   The ????'s indicate unconfirmed or second hand info.
   Recalls are mostly for the US/Canada.
   Mostly > 1980 model years are covered.

   RECALLS:
   ========

From: jochena@bjsys.ersys.edmonton.ab.ca, additions from "old list"
by Jan (still needs a bit of reformatting).

Summary of some recall campaigns, service actions, pre delivery campaigns
for Volkswagen models. This may not apply to some vehicles in CANADA or
the UNITED STATES, as some campaigns are not implemented in the respective
countries. This list may NOT be ACCURATE, for the correct information always
refer to you local dealer, who will be able to check for any outstanding
campaigns for vehicle.

Please note, that the biggest problem for any manufacturer is the notification
of the owners. Please advise them of the purchase of the vehicle, if the
vehicle is used from a non VW dealer or private source and any
address changes. Again, your local dealer is more then willing to help you
in this matter.

NOTE: The * stands for a single charachter


Type    YY     FROM/TO  VIN         DESCRIPTION                   CODE   DATE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

FOX
----

Fox     87     9BW**030*HP000001/   Replacement of crankshaft     PM     12/87
               9BW**030*HP026007    pulley

Fox     87-89  9BW*A030*HP000001/   Inst. of steering wheel       QD     04/89
               9BW*A030*KP009988    spring retainer + lock nut


Type    YY     FROM/TO  VIN         DESCRIPTION                   CODE   DATE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------


RABBIT
------

Rabb.   81-84  1VW**17*BV000001/    Inspect/replace EGR valve     PD     04/87
               1VW**17*EV104300     with automatic transmission



Type    YY     FROM/TO  VIN         DESCRIPTION                   CODE   DATE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

GOLF
-----

Golf    85     1VW**017*FV007583/   Checking dust sleeves         NJ    06/85
               1VW**O17*FV017394    of front brake caliper

Golf    85     1VW**017*FV000001/   Replacing front seat belts    MP    05/85
               1VW**017*FV003370

Golf    85-87  1VW**017*FV000001/   Inspect/replace EGR valve     PD    04/87
               1VW**017*HV036149    on vehicles with auto transmisson

Golf    86     1VW**017*GV033771/   Replace fuel transfer pump +  PC    07/87
               1VW**017*GV047000    filter

Golf    87     1VW**017*HV032808/   Replace filler neck, sending  PA    ??/??
               1VW**017*HV054650    unit and gasket

Golf    85-86  1VW**017*FV000001/   Replacing fuel tank assembly  NV    06/86
Diesel         1VW**017*GV033970


Golf/   85/86  1VW--017-FV000001/   Replacing fuel tank assembly  NV    06/86
GTI GAS?       1VW--017-GV033970


GTI     86     1VW**017*GV000001/   Check torque of rear          NZ    10/86
               1VW**017*GV074477    axle bracket bolt

Golf    88     1VW**017*JV000001/   Installation of starter       PV    06/89
Auto MOD 17-63 1VW**017*JV017457    support bracket

Golf    88-89  1VW**017*JV000001/   Replacement of coil, plugs,   QN    12/89
               1VW**017*KV018693    vacuum thermo switch (no 16 V)

Golf    89     3VW**01G*KM000001/   Replacement of coil, plugs,   QN    12/89
               3VW**01G*KM863602    vacuum thermo switch (no 16 V)

Golf    90     3VW**01G*LM000001/   Replacement of coil, plugs,   QN    12/89
               3VW**01G*LM006563    vacuum thermo switch (no 16 V)

Golf    91     3VW***1G*MM000001/   Replace knock sensor and      QX    05/91
GTI 16V        3VW***1G*MM000747    reroute cables

Golf    89-92  3VW***1G*KM000075/   Inspect/replace pwr steering  RT    10/91
               3VW***1G*NW012208    assembly (CANADA ONLY)

Golf    88-89  1VW***1**JV000001/   Install preheating tube       RW    09/93
               1VW***1**KV999999    support bracket
               
Golf?   88-91  3VW***1**JM000001/   Install preheating tube       RW    09/93
               3VW***1**MM054357    support bracket

Golf    85-89  1VW***1**FV000001/   Replace heat exchanger        SD    06/92
               1VW***1**KV018693

Golf    89-91  3VW***1G*KM000001/   Replace heat exchanger        SD    06/92
               3VW***1G*MM023331

Golf    88-92  *VW**01**J*000001/   Replace fuel hose and clamp   SK    09/93
               *VW**01**N*067742    Cars equipped with Digifant

------------
GTI    90-92                        California, Knock sensors     SC
16V                                 and/or vacuum ampl. could
                                    malfunction


A3 VR6  93-95  WVW***??*????????/   Radiator Fan Failure           TJ     10/95
               WVW***??*????????    results in overheating
                                    
<*>A3 Golf 95  WVW***??*????????/   Aftermarket Cruise Control     ZM     ?/95
               WVW***??*????????    may not return to idle

<*> = New

Type    YY     FROM/TO  VIN         DESCRIPTION                   CODE   DATE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

JETTA
------

Jetta   81-87  WVWG**16*BW000001/   Inspect/replace EGR valve     PD    04/87
               WVWG**16*HW540014    on vehicles with auto transmisson

Jetta   83-84  WVW**O16*DW402800/   Checking / replacing front    NS    11/85
               WVW**016*EW170305    brake hoses

Jetta   85-87  WVW**016*FW000001/   Replacing fuel transfer       PC    07/87
               WVW**016*HW359885    pump and filter

Jetta   88     WVW**016*JW700001/   Inspect / replacing           QA    11/88
               WVW**016*JW734535    brake booster

Jetta   88     WVW**016*JW000001/   Replacement of coil, plugs,   QN    12/89
               WVW**016*JW768209    vacuum thermo switch (no 16 V)

Jetta   89     WVW**01G*KW000001/   Replacement of coil, plugs,   QN    12/89
               WVW**01G*KW864001    vacuum thermo switch (no 16 V)

Jetta   88     WVW**016*JW015810/   Inspect/replace right front   QP    06/90
16V            WVW**016*JW69065     line (Jetta 16v in USA MY 87-89)

Jetta   89     WVW**01G*KW000084/   Inspect/replace right front   QP    06/90
16V            WVW**01G*KW121988    line (Jetta 16v in USA MY 87-89)

Jetta   90     WVW**01G*LW106033/   Replacement of PWR steering   QR    04/91
16V            WVW**01G*LW278931    pump bracket (mod. 1G2 5G4)

Jetta   90     WVW**01G*LW000001/   Replace fuel pump             QW    05/91
GTX            WVW**01G*LW476499    GTX only

Jetta   90-91  WVW**01G*LW000001/   Replace Knock sensor and      QX    05/91
GTX            WVW**01G*MW030623    reroute cables (GTX only)

Jetta   90     WVW***1G*LW000001/    Modification to headlight    QY    07/91
               WVW***1G*LW328840     switch ( CANADA ONLY)

Jetta   89-92  WVW***1G*KW267499/    Inspect/replace pwr steering RT    10/92
               WVW***1G*NW048596     assembly (CANADA ONLY)

Jetta   90-92  *VW**01G*L*000001/   Update engine management      RY    03/93
GTX 16V        *VW**01G*N*044803    GTX 16V Standart Transmission

Jetta   85-90  WVW***1**FW000001/   Replace heat exchanger        SD    06/92
               WVW***1**LW416005

Jetta   88-92  *VW**01**J*000001/  Replace fuel hose and clamp    SK    09/93
               *VW**01**N*067742   Cars equipped with Digifant

-------------
GLI    90-92                        California, Knock sensors     SB
16V                                 and/or vacuum ampl. could
                                    malfunction

A3 VR6  93-95  WVW***??*????????/   Radiator Fan Failure           TJ     10/95
               WVW***??*????????    results in overheating

<*>A3 Golf 95  WVW***??*????????/   Aftermarket Cruise Control     ZM     ?/95
               WVW***??*????????    may not return to idle

<*> = New

Type    YY     FROM/TO  VIN         DESCRIPTION                   CODE   DATE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CABRIOLET
---------

Cabrio. 85-87  WVWC*015*FK000001/    Replace transfere pump +     PC     06/87
               WVWC*015*HK008110     filter (supersedes NG)

Cabrio. 81-83  WVWCA015*BKOOOOO1/    Inspect/replace EGR valve    PD     04/87
               WVWCA015*DK999999     with automatic transmission

Cabrio. 83-84  WVW**015*DK007549/  Inspect/replace front brake    NS     06/87
               WVW**015*EK023149   hose

Cabrio. 90     WVW**015*LKOOOOO1/  Modification to headlight      QY     07/91
               WVW**015*LK012443   switch (CANADA ONLY)

Cabrio. 90-91  WVW***15*LK000001/   Secure water separator panel  RH     ??/??
               WVW***15*MK010315    (91V162000)

Cabrio. 87-90  WVWCA015*HK000001/  Inspect/replace fuel tank      RS     02/92
               WVWCA015*LK000678   (91V201000)

Cabrio. 92     WVW***15*NK007064   Inspect/replace front track    RU     02/93
               WVW***15*NK010116   control arm

Cabrio. 90-92  WVW***15*LK000975/  Replace fuel hose and clamp    SA     02/93
               WVW***15*NK024047   (92V058000)

------------
89AUG-90JUL   91V215000  	   Secure passive restraint wires RN


Type    YY     FROM/TO  VIN         DESCRIPTION                   CODE   DATE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SCIROCCO
---------

Scir.   83-84  WVW**053*DK017368/   Checking / replacing front    NS    11/85
               WVW**053*EK038276    brake hoses

Scir.   85-87  WVW**053*FK000001/   Replacing fuel transfer       PC    07/87
               WVW**053*HK008693    pump and filter (supersedes NQ)

Scir.   87-88  WVW**053*HK000001/   Inspect/replace fuel tank     RS    02/92
               WVW**053*JK009034


Type    YY     FROM/TO  VIN         DESCRIPTION                   CODE   DATE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CORRADO
-------

Corr.   89-92  WVW**50*LK000001/    Inspect/replace pwr sterring   RT    10/91
               WVW**50*NK000882     rack assembly (CANADA ONLY)

Corr.   90     WVW**050*LK000001/   Modification to headlight      QY     07/91
               WVW**050*LK012147    switch (CANADA ONLY)

G60 VR6 90-93  WVW***50*LK000001/   Replace Fuel hose and clamp    SH     11/93
               WVW***50*PK005031

VR6     92-93  WVW***50*PK000001/   Secure Engine compartment      SQ     02/94
               WVW***50*PK005031    electrical wiring harness
                                    applies US & CANADA
-----------

G60     90     91V068000	    Replace fuel pump assembly	   RG


VR6     93-95  WVW***??*????????/   Radiator Fan Failure           TJ     10/95
               WVW***??*????????    results in overheating
                                    

Type    YY     FROM/TO  VIN         DESCRIPTION                   CODE   DATE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PASSAT
------

Pass.  89-92  WVW***31*LE000001/    Inspect/replace pwr steering   RT    10/91
              WVW***31*NE026718     rack assembly (CANADA ONLY)

Pass.  90     WVW**031*LE000001/    Modification to headlight      QY    07/91
              WVW**031*LE123429     switch  (CANADA ONLY)

Pass.  90-92  WVW**031*LE000001     Update engine management       RZ    03/93
Autom.        WVW**031*NE408342     automatic transmission
				    (Hesitation during the 
				    upshift cycle of transmission.)
				    
PASS   90-93  WVW**031*LE000001/    Update engine management       RY    03/93
Man.          WVW**031*NE407754     manual transmission

Pass.  93     WVW***31*PE000001/   Replace fuel hose and clamp     SG    11/93
VR6           WVW***31*PE117434

Pass.  93     WVW***31*PE141535/    Replace front strut self-      SR    08/93
              WVW***31*PE163434     locking nut/washer assembly

Pass.  92-93  WVW***31*NE000001/    Replacement of power window-   SW    05/94
              WVW***31*PE213773     lifter rear


VR6     93-95  WVW***??*????????/   Radiator Fan Failure           TJ     10/95
               WVW***??*????????    results in overheating
                                    
                                    

Type    YY     FROM/TO  VIN         DESCRIPTION                   CODE   DATE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

VANAGON/CAMPERS
----------------

Vana.   81     WV2ZA025*BH003450/   Check / replace fuel          MD    ??/81
               WV2ZA025*BH098864    expansion tank

Vana.   81-82  WV2**02**BH143904/   Replacing sliding             NC    09/84
               WV2**02**CH154356    door lock springs

Vana/   85     WV2*A025*FH000001/   Checking / modify sliding     NR    04/86
Camp           WV2*A025*FH115553    door striker plate

Vana.   86     WV***02**GG000001/   Replace filler neck,          PA    11/87
Syncro         WV***02**GG118815    sending unit and gasket

Vana.   86-87  WV***02**G*000001/   Replace fuel tank,            PB    08/87
               WV***02**H*064100    main & idle control unit
                                    incl. Syncro, see Campaign details

Vana.   87     WV**B02**HH036719/   Replace shift lever pawl      PG    12/87
autom.         WV**B02**HH082874    (automatic transmission)

Vana/   87     WV2**025*HO051294/   Inspect/seal water inlet      PL    12/88
Camp           WV2**025*H-999999    housing

Vana/   88     WV2**025*JH000001/   Inspect/seal water inlet      PL    12/88
Camp MOD 2539  WV2**025*JH003998    housing

Vana.   86-89  WV2**02**GH000001/   Replacement of fuel hoses in  PW    05/89
               WV2**02**KH019148    engine compartment (no Syncro)

Vana.   90     WV2**02**LK000001/   Modification to headlight     QY    07/91
               WV2**02**LK044564    switch (CANADA ONLY)


Type    YY     FROM/TO  VIN         DESCRIPTION                   CODE   DATE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

EUROVAN
--------

Euro    92-93  WV2***70*NH000001/   Replacement of brake handle   ST    05/94
               WV2***70*PH089395    spring. Install beading (see circular)

Euro    92-93  WV2***70*NH000001    Replacing fuel hose and clamp SX    05/94
               WV2***70*PH089395    (see circular also part of ST)

Euro    92-93  WV2***70*NE000001/   Replacement of power window-  SY    05/94
               WV2***70*PH116000    lifter front

Euro    92-93  WV2***70*NH000001/   Replacement of steering       TA    05/94
               WV2***70*PH069881    universal joint bolt


Other Known Failures/Technical Service Bulletins:
=================================================

This section contains common known failures reported by VW users or 
VW magazines, and "official" Technical Service Bulletins (TSB) from VW.
The TSBs are VWs way to tell all the mechanics: "If you see this
problem, do that". That's all. They are NOT recalls, and do not
imply any financial comittments.
If your car is under warrantee you will not have to pay, if not, you pay.
With any problem, you always have to be able to recreate it.
However, not all dealers are up to date with their TSBs (:-<) and
on some occasions we can use knowledge of these TSBs to point to
a potential solution and also point out that your case may not be
unique. The TSBs are identified by a number: V35-92-01. See elsewhere
in this FAQ on how to obtain them (I have to rearrange things a bit
as soon as I have time).


   83-86 GTI, GLIs, 84-86 Cabriolets, 83-86 Sciroccos except 16V, 84-86 Cabs:
   Self Machining Transmission due to lack of snap rings on the differential
   shafts. See April 1990, EuroCar pp 53, "VW 020 Gearbox Failures: Causes and
   Cures". Only Close ratio transaxles are affected.
   Starting at serial number 15102 (built after october 14th 1982).
   Serial numbers up to 14102, (built up to October 14,1982) are immune.
   VW part#171-498-088 offers the clips as part of the rebuild kit.
   (Another sources says: If either rivet has been removed, secure the 
   differential pinion shaft with circlips, Part No. N 042 363 1.)
   Gear oil leaking under the tranny, or strange noises are first signs,
   between 50k and 120k miles.
   NO RECALL! Sue VW. Techtonics Tuning is recommended by VW&P to fix self-
   machined cases (probably because they wrote the article).
   See also the archive: Tranny_Clip_Failures

   78-8? R/J I:
   Fuel pump relay recall. Fries itself. FI cars only.
   Fix = move relay for better cooling.

   87-89 Jetta & 84 GTI & 83-84 Scirocco?:
   Front brake line recall.

   85-? Golf & Jetta, GTI/GLI:
   Heater Core failure. Recall.
   
   85-86 GTI & GLI:
   Engine hop problems. Requires a hop kit and/or upgraded front engine
   mount.

   89-90? Jetta:
   RT Recall - Leaking steering rack recall?

   85-91 Golf II & Jetta II, GTI/GLI:
   Rough cold idle & stalling problems. Several causes see the technical FAQ
   for possible diagnosis.

   85-?86 GTI/GLI:
   Recall RC, Code PC 13: Transfer pump failure.
   
   85-?86 Golf:
   ?Recall PC?: Clean/replace transfer pump fuel screen.
   Symptoms: Transfer fuel pump becomes noisy.

   85-?86 GTI/GLI/Jettas/Golfs:
   v13-89-01: connecting rod repair. 
   
   85OCT-85DEC and 84OCT-85SEP GTI:
   NV/NW Recall (86V149000 & 86V029000) - Fuel tank replacement due to non
   compliance with FMVSS 301.

   87-89? Scirocco:
   Gas tank leaks. Recall. (weren't other cars affected?)
   
   16V Engines:
   Drive belt failure around 50k miles. Breaks valves!
   Remedy: Replace belt at 50k miles!

   89-92 16V 9A CA:
   SB Recall - Ca. smogged 9A engines, hanging idle switch.
   Not officially announced by VW as yet. Non-CA have a less severe problem.
   Fix: New throttle body assembly.

   90-on Corrado
   V13-91-06 - Abnormal engine noise with warm engine at 1800 to 2500 rpm
   The connecting rod may float on the crankshaft causing a metallic
   noise between stated rpm range.
   In severe cases, instal crankshaft Part No: 026 105 101E
   
   90-91 Corrado G60/Passat:
   V35-90-01 - Transmission binding in reverse. Replace/lube back up light
   switch, check shift rod cover (Part 02A 919 835), MoS2 grease on shifter &
   shift linkage

   90-9x? Corrado/Passat/Golf/GTI/Jetta/Cabriolet/Vanagon:
   V30-93-04:	Shifting difficulties - 020, 02A & 025 Manual Transmission
   Clutch disk binding on spline ==> dragging.
   Replace clutch with Cadmium coated spline.

   90-91 G60:
   V35-92-01 - Mods on 02A gears and shafts.
   ???-??-?? - Replace muffler hangers to reduce droning/vibration
   V13-91-06 - Metallic knocking noise between 1800 and 2500 rpm caused
   	       by out of tolerance connecting rod or crankshaft.
   	       If severe, replace crankshaft.

   90-? Passat/Golf/Jetta/Fox/Corrado:
   V42-93-01: Rear Tire Wear
   This Service Bulletin supersedes: V42-92-01 & V42-90-02.
   Fix: Replace rear stub axles. 
   Note: This problem has been most prevalent on Passats with Continentals.
   Updated axles are= 357 501 117B (for Passats)
   
   91-94 Corrados, Passat GLX
   94	 Golf & Jetta III
   95    Cabrio
   V28-94-01 (Aug 1, 94): Sparkplugs listed in the owner's manual and other
   service literature may not be correct.
   
   90-? Passat:
   Rear window regulators. Service bulletin exists. See recall SW.

   90-? Passat:
   Mysterious gauge fluctuations on Passats and Foxes...
   There is a VW service bulletin for the Passat showing a procedure to fix this
   problem.
   The voltage regulator is not usually bad, but they frequently is not well
   soldered.  The bulletin explains how to re-solder thge gerulator to the
   circuit board.  Since I mentioned that I knew of this bulletin,
   my friendly dealer called VW and got the repair authorized under warranty...


   90 Passat/Auto:
   Car won't start: Replace transmission switch.
   
   90-92 Corrado
   87-88 Scirocco
   88-92 Jetta
   88 GTI
   90-92 GTI & Passat
   V28-91-01: No Start/Hard Start/Poor running
   Problem: High tension arcing on distributor caps resulting in poor
   starting and poor running.
   
   90-91 Corrado (PG Engine)
   V28-92-07: Cannot attain High Speed (supersedes V28-91-02)
   Fix: Check knock sensor & replace if needed
   
   90 Corrado
   V24-91-01: Engine does not start at first attempt
   Fix: Cut wire to digifant unit terminal 23 in ECU plug.
   
   91 Corrado SLC/VR6, Passat
   V34-92-04: 5 Speed Transmission 02A Gearshift Mechanism Modified
   All transmissions as of 03 09 1 have the new mechanism (which includes
   the counter weight). Old cars except for the G60 can be upgraded.
   
   93-94: Jetta /// GL
   Moonroof rattle. There is a TSB out on this.
   
   
   CA DIESEL FUEL:	
   The environmentally friendly diesel fuel being sold in CA since Oct 93 
   is rumored to destroy the injector pump seals.
   Call: Califronia Trucking Association, Mike Thomas, (916) 373-3534 
   who is collecting claims.
   California Air Resources Board 1-800-952-5588 leave your name address, 
   etc and a complaint about what happened to your vehicle.
   Gov. Wilson's office  (916) 445-2841
   
   In California, I've just read
   that Univ of Dayton (Ohio) scientist has finally figured out what went
   wrong with the Low-Aromatics-Diesel introduced in California.  Apparently
   the lack of armomatics and sulfur allowed oxidation of the fuel (when
   meeting up with heat and oxygen) to form peroxide.  This peroxide wasn't
   detected in the fuel, but was found on the damaged oil rings.  All major
   refiners in Calif. are now blending anti-oxidant additives.
   (per U.S. Oil Week 6/06/94)

   Today's newspaper (9/3/94) reported that legislation to repay those of 
   us who have lost diesel injector pumps from the 'new and improved' diesel 
   fuel, has been signed by Gov Re_Pete Wilson.
   Reimbursment of up to $450 bucks for cars and $550 bucks for trucks 
   will be alloted to those who have suffered damages.
   Details on how to get reimbusrsed will be published in the newspapers later
   this year.  The Senate and Assembly passed the bill in August.
   
   March 1, 1995 is the deadline for filing a claim with the State of 
   California for replacement or reimbursement for damages to your 
   diesel pumps.  Trucks are entitled up to $1,000, cars are $450.
   Call 1-800-272-2667 to get a form sent to you.

   TSB ACCESS
   ==========
   
   The Technical Service Bulletins are now to be had ONLINE for a small
   fee from ALLDATA:
   
   /\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\
     For FREE trial access to the World's Largest Database of
   Vehicle Repair and Maintenance Information, including detailed
   information about any of the above bulletins, visit ALLDATA at:
                WWW   :  http://www.alldata.tsb.com
             GOPHER:  gopher.alldata.tsb.com
         or e-mail Theresa@alldata.com for more information.
   \/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/

   NOTE that some car parts supermarkets allow you to retrieve and
   print out this data for free as well.
   
   Here is a sample of the free index available through WWW:

		JETTA /// TSB
		-------------
	    [jeremyh@ftp.amcc.com]
	    
Year:   1994
Make:   Volkswagen
Model:  Jetta III
Engine: 4-1984cc 2.0L SOHC

JAN 94    1. OBD BASIC ENGINE SETTING AFTER DISCONNECTING BATTERY
JAN 94    2. POOR DRIVEABILITY
DEC 93    3. FRONT AND REAR VW EMBLEMS-REPLACING
DEC 93    4. WINTER TIRES/SNOW CHAINS
DEC 93    5. VACUUM DOOR LOCKS
NOV 93    6. AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION 096, VALVE BODY REPLACEMENT
NOV 93    7. HORN PAD REMOVAL
NOV 93    8. INDUSTRIAL FALLOUT, REPAIRING PAINT FINISH
NOV 93    9. GOLD PLATED TERMINAL REPLACEMENT
NOV 93   10. CLEANER FOR INTERIOR SURFACES
NOV 93   11. ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR (ECT) REPLACEMENT
NOV 93   12. IDLE SPEED HUNTS WHEN COLD
NOV 93   13. REAR TIRE WEAR
NOV 93   14. TROUBLE CODES 00533 & 2231 (ISC NOISE DAMPER CLOGGED)
NOV 93   15. WATER LEAK  AT ENGINE BULKHEAD SEALING PROCEDURE
NOV 93   16. GUIDELINES FOR WARRANTY REPAIRS
NOV 93   17. AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION REPAIR
OCT 93   18. LOANER CAR CHARGES FOR PAINT/CORROSION WARRANTY REPAIRS
OCT 93   19. M.Y. 1994 WARRANTY COVERAGE INFORMATION
OCT 93   20. NEW 16-PIN DATA LINK CONNECTOR - ACCESSING/CONNECTING
SEP 93   21. RADIO SECURITY CODE STICKER, NEW LOCATION
SEP 93   22. 1,000-MILE CONSULTATION PROCEDURES FOR 1994 MODELS
SEP 93   23. 1994 PDI PROCEDURE AND MAINTENANCE/LUBRICATION SCHEDULES



>>>>MORE???? Pls provide recall campaign & number & a 1 line description

Q: I heard there is a recall on my Golf/Jetta/GTI heater core. What do I do?
A: The recall affects only '85-'90 cars of the above models, although older A1
   VWs have had heater cores fail also. For some time, VW was replacing cores
   under a 'goodwill program', and now the recall is official.
   VW recommends that if you are experiencing any of the typical symptoms,
   take your car to the nearest authorized VW dealer.
   If you paid to have the work before, AND you can prove it, they will
   reimburse you.

Q: What are the symptoms of a leaky/bad heater core?
A: A smell of coolant coming from your vents when the heater is on, an unusual
   amount of fogging of the windshield, and in some extreme cases, coolant
   leaking into the inside of the car, burning the occupants.

   There are many cases in which the front passenger or the driver
   himself were hurt. First known cases in Japan, VW recalled the
   questionable cars (only in Japan!). Later many cases in Germany,
   too, but VW waited with a recall since Feb. (?) 1996.


Q: My A/C is smelly after use, especially during humid summer months?
A: A kit to alleviate this from (313)-774-4300, which removes mildew from
   evaporators. Of course first you should try spraying 1/4 can of Lysol down
   the fresh air entry vent, WITH THE DOORS AND WINDOWS OPEN!!

Q: My radio keeps on playing when the car is turned off?
A: This is normal. Most VWs sold up to 1992 will play with the car turned off.
   You can change that by using the switched power wire instead of the "always
   hot" wire. Newer VWs have found a compromise: The radio will play after the
   car is shut off as long as the key remains in the ignition.
   NOTE however...this will probably NOT work with coded radios.

Q: My oxygen sensor light has come on. What am I supposed to do?
A: Change the oxygen sensor (aka Lambda Sensor), and reset the oxygen sensor
   light. Oxygen sensors are to be changed every 30k/60k miles depending
   on your car. Many claim that the newer heated 3 wire ox. sensor can last a
   lot longer than the designated 30/60 k miles. This is probably true, but
   when it does go, your car will run very rich!
   Some have reported poor running conditions, rough idle and significant loss
   of power as well (recent news thread on r.a.t).
   A bad O2 sensor will increase the catalytic converter temperature
   significantly and could lead the substrate to loosen from the casing
   (happened to me). You will hear a distinct rattling from your exhaust, and
   eventually clog the exhaust system.
   Note, engine temp will also increase, risking engine damage and possible
   fire.
   This increases back pressure and decreases the car's power to the point
   where it may not sustain highway speeds.
   Again depending on your model, a cat. conv. can be very expensive (US$400-
   US$800 in my case), while the ox. sensor is about US$100. If you decide not
   to replace the sensor, do follow Bentley's procedure periodically to check
   whether it's still ok!

   Note from M Sirota: I found a 16V converter at Wolf Sport for $365. I've
   actually found a new 16V converter at Techtonics for only $125, but they
   say it sucks.

Q: How do I reset the oxygen sensor light?
A: The oxygen sensor light is attached to a small odometer which trips a
   switch every 30/60k miles. To turn the oxy light off, you have to reset
   that odometer. VW has two locations for this unit: Either somewhere along
   the speedometer cable, or as part of the instrument cluster.

   A2 Jettas & Golfs: Remove the coolant reservoir to locate the box with the
   white recessed switch. Push it in far until you hear a satisfying click.
   You should only need to push once. The "box" is black, and the speedometer
   cable passes through it.

Q: I have a Clock, not a tach, can I get a "new" instrument cluster?
   [blu@cellar.org]
A: Yes! Any cluster from just about any late VW (Golf/Jetta2/Sirocco2), will
   work with any other cluster. There were a few changes through the years,
   but the speedo, tach, temp, fuel, and warning lights (ex. Upshift, and OXS)
   will work. I installed a cluster from an 85 Golf in my 89 and it works just
   fine. A "new" used unit can be installed in a Golf/Jetta in about 45 min,
   with minimal hand tools. The new gauge cluster will plug right into the
   existing hardware. It might make life a bit easier if you remove the
   steering wheel, however, its not necessary.
   While it *might* seem simple to just replace the clock with a tach, its
   not, this is fairly complex, and time consuming. I know you will "loose"
   your original mileage with the "new" used speedo, but trust me, its just
   simpler to do.

Q: What's a good car cover for my car? Will it scratch or dull my paint?
A: Generally you are looking for a cover which is soft where it contacts
   the car paint, resists water from penetrating, breathes (trapped
   moisture dulls paint), and is mold resistant.
   Car covers made out of "Evolution 3" made by Kimberly Clark, or Technalon
   material seem to be the current favorites and satisfy the above. They do
   get wet with heavy rain or when the water repellent stuff wears off after a
   couple of washes.
   (For a sample call in the US (800) 424 80 00, code= 44-12-36).
   They are also pretty bulky, and if wet, heavy.
   I hose my covers down every couple of months and occasionally wash them in
   an industrial washer. Apply Scotch Guard to make it somewhat water
   repellent again.

   Nylon covers are next to worthless.
   To minimize paint scratches, keep your car clean, keep the cover clean, and
   "roll" rather than slide the cover on.
   I have also found that rolling it on and of is by far the easiest way to
   cover the car. Install from the front.
   Get a lock, and the cover then serves as reasonable theft deterrent as
   well.

Q: Whenever it rains, the carpet in my VW gets wet?
A: There are two sources of this problem: The front of the car, and the rear.
   Front: Rust around windshield, antenna wire or other holes not plugged
   right. Better fix this because if it leaks at the driver's side it may
   short out your fuse box. Also check all the rubber grommets that plug the
   holes.

   [eldred@csi.jpl.nasa.gov] There are 2 water drain holes in the area just
   below the hood vents forward of the windshield which tend to get clogged
   with leaves. Make sure these are clear. If the water doesn't drain fast
   enough it will come through the vent air intake.

   [From finnegan@navo.navy.mil:]
   A break in the plastic drip shield which runs across the top of the
   firewall under the hood can allow copious amounts of water to flow into
   the fresh air intake vent. Replace the shield.

   Rear: Water leaks resulting in large puddles in the rear seat footwells are
   generally caused by poor seals against the door windows, and broken seal
   on the door liners.
   The window seals are easily replaceable. To replace the seal inside the
   door, you have to remove the inner door panel, which is quite easy as well.
   Glue a thick sheet of plastic between the door frame and the door panel.
   
   See tech tips for more detail
   
   From Jens Knickmeyer: Every time I found water puddling in the car just in front of the drivers
   seat, the seals inside the door were defective. I had this problem
   on several cars (3 Polos, 1 Audi 80, 2 Golf). Thank heaven only
   the Polos were my cars!

Q: My back up lights don't work anymore, but the bulbs are ok!
A: Most likely your back up light switch in the transmission is broken. In
   some cars it will also disable the upshift indicator. According to
   rgolen@smucs1.umassd.edu, short shift kits reduce the longevity of these
   switches to 3-4 months.


IT'S A FEATURE NOT A BUG!
=========================

Q: During hard cornering my inner rear wheel lifts. What's wrong? Is this
   bad?
A: This is normal behavior in all A-type (and probably other) VW's, and for
   that matter many other cars as well.
   VW dials in a lot of rear roll stiffness to reduce understeer.
   This with the limited rear wheel shock/spring travel distance
   causes the rear inner wheel to be lifted during hard cornering.
   It does not reduce performance much because the inner rear wheel
   has very little load at that point. 
   Many other cars have the same feature to some degree or another.
   If you think a Porsche 911 will fix the problem, look closely,
   they lift their inner front wheel during hard cornering.

Q: My VR6 equiped VW (Corrado, Passats) rattles in idle, but the sound <SOUND>
   goes away when I push in the clutch! 
Q: My VR6 equiped VW (Corrado, Passats) rattles when I take off <SOUND>
   It sounds like "Krrrrrrr"
A: They all do that. According to Jens Knickmeyer:
   This problem is well known at VW. The reason is the gear-box. The tooth
   wheels (a pair for each gear) have too much space between the teeth
   which results in the rattle. Nothing to worry about, there are other
   cars with the same symptom (Polo-G40, Audi 100, VW LT28, ...)

   Some reported similar problems with a heat shield ratteling
   but in that case the sound will be independent of whether you
   push the clutch in.
   
Q: The AC comes on when I turn on the defroster. What's wrong?
A: Sigh! Does anyone read the User's Manual anymore? The AC comes on to
   eliminate moisture. Works real well too!
   
INTERCHANGING PARTS & TOOLS
===========================

Q: What VW parts are interchangeable between models & years? (This is for all
   you junk-yard cats). Created on a suggestion by [dh3q@andrew.cmu.edu (Dan)]

A: General Rule:
   All cars based on the same platform are mechanically similar. When the
   engine is mostly the same, it'll share engine parts, exhaust, suspension,
   transmission, brakes, rear axle beam, most electrical components, sway
   bars. Different years may have different components, but the rule is
   usually that G & J are about the same in one year while the S's and
   Corrados are usually a bit ahead and occasionally share components found in
   the next platform (e.g., The A2 based Corrados VR6/SLC have the A+
   suspension found on A3 GTIs).

   Note that in Europe the engine range is much larger than in NA, but
   mechanically things are similar within the same engine range. Throughout
   this document you will find other hints of interchangeabilities, for
   example, look at the part numbers: S's have a lot of part numbers from R/Gs
   (the second and third set of numbers are important), see also the list of
   rims and wheels for interchangability. GTI/GLI rims are a nice upgrade for
   most G & Js.

   However the opposite is true as well...The same model of the same year may
   have slightly different components. Essentially VW builds cars until they
   run out of a particular batch of parts, or they make them for one region
   but then send them elsewhere (e.g., Corrados sold with heated seats in
   Southern California). Another example of this are radiators, don't ask what
   radiator is supposed to be in your car because no one really knows...

   A1: R=G I=Conv/S I & II/J I are all similar. Bodywise & interiorwise, the J
   & R are most similar, except for the rear trunk, rear seats, & muffler. J's
   used to have thicker sway bars, a good upgrade for an S & R. Final exhaust
   sections also different. S's are bodywise & interiorwise different, struts
   are different (?), mechanically things are laid out a tad different (air
   filter). Convertibles share most with the R/G I, but later models have
   similarities with S's (exhaust).

   The Passat I/Dasher shares some mechanical parts with the other A1 cars
   (e.g., 1600 engine), but otherwise shares more with the old Audi 80/Audi
   Fox (NA). Note that the reverse is also true, some Audi 80/100 (4000/5000)
   parts will fit in A1 VWs (e.g., the windshield washer canisters of a 5000 =
   S). In Europe, the low end Audis share more mechanically with the high end
   VWs, because they basically use the same engine block (1600/1800).
   There are also some parts shared with Porsches, most notable the 924 & 944
   series (locks, rack, steering (?)).

   A2: G II/ J II/Corrado. The G & J are most similar, except for the obvious
   differences. The dashes are very similar but there are some nuances like
   the trim which is bolted in for J but snapped in on early US made Gs.
   Corrados 16V (Europe) share the most with GTIs, but the G60s only share
   some suspension components (rear axle beam). The SLC/VR6s don't share much
   mechanical with other VWs but share a lot with the other C's (brakes,
   interior & body). VR6 rims will not fit a G60.

   Please add specific contributions:

   Brakes: Most >81 A1/A2 VWs can be upgraded to newer calipers & rotors be it
   in some cases with some additional modifications (VW&P/EuroCar has had a
   bunch of article on that).

   The biggest right now are those on the Corrados.

   Cylinder Heads: Cylinder heads on 1.7 l A-1 cars from US '82.5 thru '84 are
   interchangeable with earlier A-1 engines except a different tool must be
   used to depress the lifters. GTI cylinder heads are incompatible.
   [eldred@csi.jpl.nasa.gov]

   Struts: R/G=J
   Interior pieces: A lot will be interchangeable (R/G=J) but be careful a lot
   of piece will look the same but won't fit. 
   
   Steering wheels are interchangeable up to 8/88? when they switched to a 
   finer spline. An adaptor
   is used to make the wheels fit, so you can use any old wheel on a
   newer car if you purchase this adaptor.

   Alternators: Almost all are interchangeable, but some may require a
   different harness. Usually go to a higher amperage, never lower. The 90A
   are the current "hot ticket".

   Starters are the same on the engines of one model of the A1/A2 cars.
   Electrically no problems, just look at the mechanical requirements
   before you go to the junk yard.


Q: Will Rabbit seats fit in a Scirocco?
A: Rabbit seats won't fit, the legs on the seat are too high. Try a junk yard
   seat, or weld the adjusting mechanism to a height suitable to you.

Q: I need tool VW #xyz. Is there a suitable replacement?
A: Often yes. Here are some:

   Remove grease cap from rear axle tool:
      Adjustable pliers, screwdriver
   Timing belt tensioner pulley tightening tool:
      Bend a section of coat hanger into a U shape of the proper size for
      the holes in the pulley. or (lousier) two nails & a screw driver.
   Upper strut bolt tool:
      Air impact wrench, or grab a socket with a vise grip with the allen key
      through the top.
      From [Ken_Tsai@qmgate.arc.nasa.gov]: The Oxygen Sensor Socket from Lisle
      will work. The socket has a hex at the top so you can use a combination
      wrench to loosen the strut nut while holding the center rod stationary
      with a 6 or 7 mm allen wrench.
   Spring Compressor:
      ALL SUBSTITUTES ARE DANGEROUS! Buy the real thing for ~US$40.
   Remove radio tool:
      use a coat hanger, make 4 cuts, so each piece is a "U". Stick them in
      the holes, and move the hanger pieces "out" to the left and right,
      while pulling the radio out by the tape entrance.
      
   Remove Valve Adjustment Shims:
      For changing valve shims, a valve depressor is necessary, but the funny
      special pliers are not. All that is needed is a small "jeweler's"
      screwdriver. File the blade until it is narrow enough to fit flat into
      the slot in the shim bucket. Then file it until there is a nice knife
      edge on it. Depress the valve, and stick the screwdriver through the
      slot on the bucket and under the shim at the same time. It will just pop
      right out, though oftentimes it helps to wiggle the valve depressor
      around to help out. [Borowski]
   Pin Wrench:
      From: tedcrum@garnet.berkeley.edu (Ted Crum): A pin wrench (pin spanner)
      is needed change strut cartridges, adjust [W] cam belts, etc. I've used
      this trick from Popular Science for years: Make a pin wrench from an
      adjustable ("Crescent") wrench with two holes drilled into the sides of
      the jaws, near the tips. With pins placed in these holes, it is a strong
      adjustable pin wrench. A second set of bigger holes can go a little down
      from the tips and further from the nut-turning faces:
        __
      / o |
     /    |
    /     |
   |______|

   Timing plug removal tool:
      Use the handle of a stubby craftsmen slot screwdriver (or the  lug wrench
      from an old Bug).

   Transmission plug tool:
      I use a 17mm wheel lug bolt...  They're plentiful: if you don't have any
      spares, [some] bone-yard will be more than happy to let you paw around
      their wrecks and carry away as many as you can hold.
      You can either snap a pair of vice-grips onto the bolt's shaft 
      (tightly, mind you- those plugs can be VERY tight...) or do what I did, 
      and weld a nut onto the end of the bolt.  
      This allows you to use a socket and breaker bar or flex
      handle to loosen the plug, then switch to a ratchet to spin it off.  
      It also allows you to use a torque wrench to re-install the plug to 
      manufacturer's torque specs.
      
      [David M. Duma]:
      Go to the section of the hardware store where they sell angle iron and
      threaded rod.  Buy a "coupling nut" for the threaded rod (basically a very
      long hex nut).  I found that the nut for 1/2" rod was 11/16" across the
      flats, which is about 17.5mm .  Walk over to the tools aisle and check the
      coupling nut with a 17mm wrench to be sure.  This fits my car's transmission
      plug perfectly.  If yours is snug a few minutes with a coarse abrasive stone
      should produce a custom fit.  You can then put the coupling nut into a
      socket or box end wrench whenever you need it.
      The same principle allows you to buy some of those power screwdriver bits
      and put them into a 1/4" socket to use with your ratchet handle.
      I'm still looking for a BIG nut to fit into the timing mark hole plug on the
      transaxle.

      
   >>>COME ON, THERE MUST BE PLENTY MORE

Q: My factory VW radio is CD changer ready. What unit other than the VW one
   can I use?
A: The ones that can control a CD changer are made by Panasonic for VW.
   The VW changer is also made by Panasonic for VW.

   The head unit will only control the VW changer -- it won't control
   other Panasonic changers. In other words, you are stuck with VWs changer.
   
   
FUEL INJECTION
==============

Q: What are the FI types used by VW?
A: [From TomH] First, let's remember that "CIS" is really Bosch K-Jetronic,
   and "CIS-E" is KE-Jetronic. Now, as for the US GTI/GLI injection systems:

   83-84   8V   K-Jetronic
   85-87   8V   KE-Jetronic
   87-89  16V   KE-Jetronic
   88-92   8V   Digifant II
   90-92  16V   Motronic

   KE-Jetronic is basically a K-Jetronic with ignition control and a knock
   sensor, while Motronic has full engine management capabilities.

   Note that the above data is for the US GTI/GLI series cars. The US GT/GL
   models for example in 85-87 use CIS [kokerj@rpi.edu].

   Digifant is a pulsed injection system (rather than continuous, like the
   Bosch K series), which is in principle better. I'm no big fan of (at
   least the early versions of) Digifant, I don't think it has horrible
   reliability problems, either. You *will* need to run injector cleaner
   through the engine more frequently, though, or performance and mpg will
   drop right off the scale.
   
   [From Jens Knickmeyer]:
   The Digifant was developped by VW because the Bosch L-jetronic had
   too small arrays, in VWs opinion. So they made their own system and
   included the Dignition which lead to the motormanagement system
   Digifant. I do not know for other contries, but here in Germany the
   system has a communication bus called ABUS (Automubile, Bitserielle
   Universelle Schnittstelle - automobile bitserial universal interface).
   It is used to connect the diagnostic computer to the Digifant which
   has a built-in automatic error detection (can detect defective temp.
   sensor and knock sensor. If the latter is detected, the Digifant will
   cut off fuel at high loads approx. every 5 secs.). The Digifant uses
   ABUS also to exchange data with DIGIFIZ and maybe other future
   components.

   
    Polo injection systems:

    Engine ID    l      kW / hp      build      FI-system

      AAK       1.05    33 / 45   11/89- 7/90   Bosch Monojetronic
      AAU       1.05    33 / 45   10/90-        Bosch Monomotronic
      NZ        1.3     40 / 55    2/87-12/90   VW Digijet
      AAV       1.3     40 / 55    1/91-        Bosch Monomotronic
      3F        1.3     55 / 75   10/89- 9/90   Digifant (MAF)
      3F        1.3     55 / 75   10/90-        Digifant (MAF)
      PY        1.3     85 /115    3/87- 7/90   Digifant (MAP)
      PY        1.3     83 /113    1/91- 8/94   Digifant (MAP)+knock sensor


RECOMMENDATIONS
===============

Q: How do I take care of my car to make it last long?
A: Here are a couple of one liners, some of which are explained in more
   detail elsewhere?
   - Check fluids often (oil, coolant, PS fluid, brake fluid, battery)
   - Follow recommended maintenance 
     Change oil & filter 3000 miles/5000km or 7500mi/12000km with synthetic oil
     Use the correct weight of oil for the climat
     Change coolant when it looks dirty (or every 2-4 years) and use phophate
     free coolant mixed with distilled water
     Bleed brakes yearly. Use Dot 3/4, Dot 4 or Super Dot 4 fluid
     Change fuel filter (at least every 30k miles or 50k km)
   - Use OEM, MANN or Bosch filters.
   - Change the oxy-sensor at the recommended interval (if you don't
     you may burn your cat. converter which is A LOT more expensive to replace)
   - Reset mechanical trip odometers when the car is stationary
   - Warm up your car by driving gently until your oil temp is 80C
   - Check your CV boots for breaks often and replace as soon as they crack
     (this will prevent having to replace the whole joint)
   - Use fuel injector cleaner every couple months
   - Check tire pressures periodically. It's better to over inflate than to
     underinflate (I run 40 psi on my G60 with little effect on wear)
   - Garage the car, leave it out of the sun
   - Replace all gaskets and seals if you take something appart.
     It's a small cost in comparison to the cost and time to take
     something appart
   - Cars with solid lifters: Adjust valve clearances as recommended
     (if you don't, you may burn your valves).
   - Replace all belts every ~60k miles/100k kms
   - Replace all hoses every ~100k miles/160k kms
   - Replace vacuum hoses as they get stiff and brittle
   - Learn how to rev-shift to save clutch wear
   - Check transmission level periodically. Familiarize yourself
     first what that level should be for you car.
   - Stay away from low quality parts, especially for CVJoints and axles
     Do not use remanufactured parts, only OEM
   - Run your AC at least once a month for a couple of minutes
     to lubricate the bearings and prevent the seals from drying out
   
Q: Should I warm up my VW?
A: General recommendation is:
   - Let it idle for a bit (couple secs, 1/2 minute)
   - Then drive the car easily, rpm < 3000 or so.
   - When the car is up to operating temp (80C oil or water needle 1/2 way)
   you can increase rpm.
   Why? Part of the reason is lubrication. Cold oil is not as viscous.
   Oil pumps are constant volume pumps (at a specific rpm) and therefore
   may produce excessive pressures when cold.
   The second reason is thermal expansion. An engine is made to be driven
   at operating temperature, and therefore things will not fit or seal
   as well when cold. In addition, engine components expand at different
   rates (e.g., cast iron vs aluminum, small vs large volumes) and the
   slower this process occurs the smaller the expansion differences.
   Idling your engine may warm up the engine too fast, driving hard
   immediately will produce reduced lubrication and excessive pressure.

Q: Which is better High or Low revs when driving? Will either one damage the
   engine?
A: The answer is to avoid extreme stress on the engine, neither excessive high
   or low revs are advised.

   Low Revs: You are putting a lot of torque on the engine with a low oil
   volume & pressure. This can lead to damage. Generally stay above 1500 or
   2000 rpms.

   High Revs: VW engines are rather comfortable in the higher ranges. However,
   at high revs you have a lot of (transient) thermal effects taking place
   which are not always healthy (valves, head) in addition to certain harmonic
   vibrations in all the shafts that spin, sometimes also the pistons
   (motorcycles tend to have that problem more).
   So far I have found VW engines to hold up well.
   These cars were designed to sustain fairly high speeds in Germany.
   However I have also found that the periphery does not always hold up:
   Waterpumps tend to leak a lot quicker when you rev high.
   Now what's high? Generally near redline is high, and it's not advised to go
   over, or stay there for long.

   Normal non-aggressive driving should be done between ~2000rpms & max torque
   which is usually around 4000 rpms, resulting in "normal" wear.

Q: How do you break into all A1 & A2 VWs (exc. Corrado, Passats, A3) w/o
   breaking glass in under 10 secs? (Verified by Jan, in a junk yard of
   course).
A: This has received some protest, but I decided to post it anyway to make
   people aware of the ease with which one can break into a VW, and because
   advertisements for the deterrent actually has a picture on how to do it.

   Punch a small hole with a screwdriver directly underneath the doorhandle
   (underneath the lock) and move screwdriver up and down to unlock.
   ADP armor door plates are the only safeguard. (800) ADP-LOCK, about $50 per
   pair. Install in 5 minutes with just a screwdriver. Other brands exist.
   Stay away from flimsier products though.

   An alarm with engine lockout is also HIGHLY recommended.
   Newer VWs come with such an alarm! Apparently very effective.

Q: What gas (petrol) should I use?
A: Very tough to answer! Generally stick with the better brands because they
   take better care of the quality of the gas, keep their tanks cleaner, etc.
   Note however that many brands share gas in rural areas to reduce
   transportation costs (though they may add different additives).
   It's also recommended to stick with one brand. Apparently the additives
   are not always compatible (varnish).
   Convenience stores switch brands often to reduce cost ==> not recommended.
   I have a VW brochure from '87? that recommends Shell, Chevron & AMOCO
   BY NAME (Publication W42-002-920-0). Texaco seems ok too (IMHO).
   That brochure talks about additives that reduce carbon build-up.
   I have had rough idle problems with ARCO EC gas in CA.
   Whether you need "super" or high octane gas remains debatable.
   Some brands add more detergent in their high octane gasses which will
   keep your engine cleaner.
   Gas formulas change over time and per geographic region.
   In the winter a more volatile gas, or oxygenated gas is sold to improve
   cold starting and reduce emissions (which may increase gas consumption
   between 3% and 15%).
   Cars with knocks sensors can derive more power with higher octane gas.
   And, yes, all watercooled VWs can run on unleaded fuel.
   Basically, if your car runs well with the brand you are using, stick to it.


Q: When/how often should I get an alignment done?
A: Cars generally stay aligned unless one of the components wears out
   (e.g., spring sag, upper bearings stretch), you hit something hard or
   you replaced shocks and springs.
   If you notice any form of uneven wear, e.g., feathering, more wear on
   one side than the other, it is time for an alignment. 
   However, it's a good idea to first replace the worn out part before
   you do the alignment, and with the high cost of tires, it may be
   a good idea to check things out then. 
   You can do some primitive alignment checks yourself to see whether
   the car is at least in the right ball park. See the alignment archive
   and faq.vw.perf for more details.
   
   Choosing an alignment shop is a different issue. Having computer
   equipment means nothing. The place I visit uses merely hand tools
   with his expertiese and I trust him alot more than the majority of
   alignment places that just blindly punch in some numbers and align
   two arrows on the computer. Ask around. 
   
   To avoid the BS they may give you, on most A* VWs, only the front
   camber and toe-in are adjustable. Caster is not. The rear is even
   easier, nothing is adjustable without either bending the rear axle
   arms or by adding shims behind the axle stubs. In general, the rear
   is not adjusted. Some shops will want to do a "four wheel alignment"
   to determine the "thrust angle". It's ok to check things out but
   in general I would only trust a specialist to touch my rear wheel
   alignment and I would only pay a small amount over a front end alignment
   rather than double to have the rears checked.


Q: Good and bad VW years? Impressions?
A: >>>Need help with this one!!!

   General:
   (From M.Sirota) US [made] VWs, unfortunately, suck after lots of mileage.
   Most notably, they rattle like the dickens. (??-'88 Rabbit, Golf, GTI, base
   Jetta). Jetta GL's and GLI's and Carats and the like were made in Germany
   during this period.

   [From Jan:] Do not mistake bad service with the quality of the car. In the
   US, most VW service is at best second class. Older VWs (A1) are also more
   prone to rust, esp. around the wheel arches due to the absence of the
   plastic protectors. Newer VWs are much better protected, up to the point of
   using galvanized sheet metal on some panels in Corrados.

   [From Dan Simoes:] as far as quality goes, it seems to follow the pattern:
   (best-->worst) German-built, Mexican-built, US-built although there are
   certainly enough exceptions to this rule. VW recognizes the quality
   problems with the Mexican cars, and feels that they will be fixed by the
   time we get the A3 cars.

   81 Scirocco: Made by Karmann, European Market! Major Problems: 2B5 Zenith
   Carb, electrical problems (easy to fix, hard to find), motor mount, 2nd
   gear wears out after 100-some k miles.

   Impressions: Noisy. With modified suspension a fantastic handler. A car
   with an incredible portion of fun, though engine a bit underpowered (86
   HP).

   79.5 (?) - 84 Rabbit Diesel (US-built models):
   (tgpt_ltd@uhura.cc.rochester.edu)

   Major problems: For some reason extremely hard on starters and alternators.
   Heavy vibration when cold reduces life of some parts. Even more prone to
   engine mount woes than gas models.

   Impressions: The car that wouldn't die. Consistently run 300,000+ miles.
   Anywhere from 30 - 55 mpg. Horribly underpowered (52 HP). Emissions exempt
   in some states, which is a good thing. Regular oil filter & fuel filter
   changes even more important than most. You either love them or you hate
   them. At 300,000 miles things that were supposed to last "the life of the
   car" start to break.

   84 US Rabbit: another car that won't die. Mechanically excellent--I have
   177k miles and it runs like new, though I've had to make one major repair
   (cylinder head). Interior doesn't hold up as well--I've replaced the carpet
   and the headliner fell off the ceiling. Outside body/paint still excellent.
   I want something fancier but I can't justify it since it's worthless as a
   used car. All rattles disappeared when I replaced the infamous right hand
   engine mount. You do need to stick on anti-sway bars for decent handling.
   [eldred@csi.jpl.nasa.gov]

   85-87 8V GTI-US: US made, US market. Major problems: Rough Idle, switches,
   seat bolsters ripping, some (85-86) been released with mismatched
   wristpins. Engines usually seem to last long. Cat converter usually dies
   between 80-120k miles. Some batches have paint problems. Older cars
   develop alot of little leaks (oil, gas pump housing along the seam).

   Impressions: Lots of low end torque, good handler, great around-the-town-
   car, and good low speed (<80 mph) cruiser. Good mileage (~30 mpg or better).
   High end lacking. Very practical.

   88->90 GTI/Golf: Mexican made, US market. Major problems: Same as above.
   Quality of cars varies a lot between batches.

   Impressions: Reduced low end torque, higher seats.

   90-> Passat: Made in Germany. Major problems: Early production had many
   quality problems all over. Later models seem to fare better. 
   Common problems: See the recall list, rear window regulator, 
   rear stub axles causing uneven tire wear.

   Impressions: 4 cyl version underpowered especially in automatic version.
   VR6 equipped car is quieter and more powerful. Lots of room. Good handling.

   90-92 Corrado G60: Made by Karmann, US market. 
   Major problems: Generally fairly reliable.
   First cold start sometimes fails. Second start usually ok. Notchy
   transmission/Linkage/Reverse binding, many had their 2nd gear syncro die,
   most G60s do not have the clutch with Cd or Ni plated splines
   exasterbating shifting problems.
   
   Common problems: exhaust hangers go bad (it's a heavy exhaust), 
   auto belts malfunctioning (really, starter switch), 
   windshield wipers miss a few areas, vibration damper gets loose
   on driver's side axle, supercharger dies between 50-?k miles (no corrolation
   found with those using AST or Neuspeeds smaller pulleys), sunroof dies
   after a couple of years, foglights don not crack as easily as the SLCs.

   Impressions: Low end lacking, notchy shifter, but otherwise a nice, sturdy,
   and practical car. Good handling, bad rear visibility. The usual rattles
   but better then other A2s or A1s. 
   Lots of aftermarket parts available to improve power and handling.

   92-> Corrado VR6/SLC: Made by Karmann, US market. 
   Major problems: Transmission Linkage binding, increasing notchiness. 
   Several had their ABS system go bad, many had their 2nd gear syncro die
   older VR6s (92) do not have the clutch with Cd or Ni plated splines
   exasterbating shifting problems.
   Common problems: Windshield wipers miss a few areas, sunroof dies
   after a couple of years, foglights crack due to heat.

   Impressions: Great car, better than the G60 version in virtually all
   respects. Quiet. 
   
   [Tom H]
   From what the service people at my dealer (whom I have a lot of confidence
   in) say, a partial quality/reliability ranking might be something like:

     Corrado  > Golf/Jetta A3 > Golf/Jetta A2 > old Passat
    (Karmann)     (Puebla)     (Westmoreland)     (Emden)

   The Mexican-built A2s appear to have had very uneven build quality, with
   some highly trouble-free (like mine) and others complete disasters.
   
   
   [From Jens]:
    Worst case on European market: VWs built 1984. VW used sheetmetal from the
    GDR and it was so bad (state and metal :-) ... ) that you cannot paint
    as quickly as new rust arises! These cars rust on the hood and on the
    roof, not only in critical areas.

   About VW's batteries: They last roughly 2 years or 50k miles, almost
   to the nose. If they die, they die very suddenly, one start works perfectly,
   next start, nothing, and really *nothing*. Speculated failure
   mode due to internal shorting. Get a replacement when you are near that
   limit. 
   
   
TRANSLATIONS
============

Ok, don't laugh, I know I mispelled alot, it's hard to keep track of
four languages at once. German and French are probably the most
relevant, Dutch to a lesser extent ;->. Please feel free to complete
the list. If you want to add another language, please create a second
table. [Jan]


English/UK	German			French			Dutch
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Accelerator	Gaspedal		acce'le'rateur		Gaspedaal
Airfilter	Luftfilter		Filtre a air		Luchtfilter
Alternator	Lichtmaschine		alternateur		Alternator

Bumper		Stossstange		pare-choc		Bumper
Brakes		Bremsen			Freins			Remmen

Caliper		Bremssaettel		Etrier    		Remklauw
Clutch		Kupplung		embrayage		Koppeling
Color           Farbe                   Couleur                	Kleur
CV Joints	Gleichlaufgelenk	Joint Homokinetique	Homokinetische 
								koppeling

Distributor	Verteiler		distributeur		Stroom Verdeler
Disc brakes	Scheibenbremsen		Freins a disque		Schijfremmen
Drum brakes	Trommelbremsen		freins a` tambours	Trommelremmen

Engine		Motor			Moteur			Motor
Exhaust		Auspuf			Echappement		Uitlaat

Filter		Filter			Filter			Filter
Fog		Nebel			brouillard		Nevel/Mist
Foglights       Nebelscheinwerfer	anti-brouillards	Mist lampen
Fog tail light  Nebelschlussleuchtefeux anti-brouillards arrie`res  Mistlamp

Gas/Petrol	Benzin			Essence			Benzine
Grease		Fett			graisse			Vet

Headlights	Scheinwerfer		Phares			Koplampen
Horn		Hupe			Claxon			Toeter
Horsepower	Pferdestaerke		Chevaux			Paardekracht
Hood/Bonnet	Motorhaube		Capot			Motorkap	

Ignition	Zuendung		allumage		Ontsteking
Ignition Coil	Zuendspule		Bobine			Bobine
Intake/Inlet	Saugrohr		admission		Inlaat

Oil		Oel			Huile			Olie

Paint		Lack			peinture		Verf/lak
Powersteering   Servolenkung		direction assiste'e	Servostuur

Radiator	Kuehler			Radiateur		Radiator
Resistor	Widerstand		Resistance		Weerstand
Rims		Felgen			Jauntes			Velgen
Rotor		Verteilerfinger		rotor			Rotor

Screwdriver	Schraubenzieher		Tournevis		Schroevendraaier
Shim/Tappet
Shockabsorber	Stossdaempfer		amortisseur		Shokdemper
Socket (tool)				Douille			Dop sleutel
Sparkplugs	Zuendkerzen		Bougies			Bougies
Speed		Geschwindigkeit		Vitesse			Snelheid
Spring		Feder			ressort			Veer
Steeringwheel	Lenkrad			Volant			Stuur
Stress Bar	Querstrebe
Sway Bar        Stabilisator					Stabilisator

Taillights	Schlussleuchten		feux arrie`re		Achterlichten
Tires/Tyres	Reifen			Pneus			Banden
Throttle 	Drosselklappe					Gasklep
Transmission	Getriebe		transmission		Versnellingsbak
Trunk/Boot	Kofferraum		coffre			Koffer
Tubes		Rohr			tuyau			Buizen

Valves		Ventile			Soupapes		Kleppen

Upper Stress Bar Domstrebe

Windshield	Windschutzscheibe	pare-brise		Voorruit
Wiper		Scheibenwischer		essuie-glace		Ruitenwisser


CURRENT VW TYPES:
=================

   A01: 1975-1980
   Polo, Derby
   A small car with a transverse FWD layout. Derby is a sedan version of the
   Polo; both available with 2 doors only.

   A02: 1981-
   Polo, Polo Coupe, Derby/Polo Sedan
   A small car with a transverse FWD layout. Derby later renamed Polo Sedan.
   Base Polo has almost vertical hatchback, while Coupe is sportier looking.
   All are available with 2 doors only. Facelifted for 1991.
   Jens Knickmeyer: 
   New engines since 1984/85: [kw/hp]: [33/45], [40/55], [56/75], [83/113].
   The latter one uses the G-supercharger G40, therfore the car is called
   Polo-G40. At first only 200 cars were built for motorsports (Polo-Cup
   in Germany und UK), then a second series of about 500 and a third of 500
   cars were produced.
   1992-1994 the new Polo-G40 has been produced regularly. VERY expensive
   insurance for that car.

   A1: 1974-1984 (in some cases, e.g., Cabriolet: 1993)
   Golf/Rabbit/Caribe, Jetta/Atlantic, Scirocco I & II, Cabriolet, 
   Pickup/Caddy.
   Compact cars with transverse FWD engine. Jetta has a trunk, while Scirocco 
   (2-door only) is a sportier design by Giorgio Giugiaro (S I only). 
   Rabbit/Golf was face-lifted in 1980 (1981 in the US).
   Golf/Rabbit GTI production 1979 (US: 83) through 1984.
   A1 Scirocco I production ended in 1982 followed by
   the Scirocco II until 1990 (1988 for USA), while Cabriolet (->93) and Caddy 
   (Pickup) continue to be based on the A1 chassis. 
   US and Mexican production continued until 1984 for the Rabbit. 
   Sciroccos and Cabbis were always made in Germany at Karmann.
   
   NOTE: A1 Golfs were continued to be produced in South Africa until 1994?
   The Citi Golf is a budget car in a sense.  The
   1300 base model competes with the ford and mazda variants (also old models
   kept alive, but VW started it in 1985/6 when the A2 was introduced) on a
   montlhy basis to see who can sell it for less than the competitors !!!!
   This is because cars are exponentially more expensive in SA than for
   instance in the USA.


   A2: 1984-1991
   Golf, Golf GTI, Golf Country, Jetta, Jetta GLI, Corrado (continued until 95)
   Compact cars with transverse FWD. Jetta has a trunk, while Corrado (2-door
   only) is a sporty version allegedly inspired on a Ferrari 275 GTB/4 [Vack]. 
   US production of Golfs & GTIs continued until 1988 then 
   switched to Mexican production (with Jettas and GLIs) until 1992 for the 
   American market (this is in parallel to German and other location 
   production).
   Note that the (US) Mexican 16V versions of these cars had German made 
   engines, and some of the (US) special editions such as the Wolfsburg and
   Carat Jetta editions were German made as well.
   Corrado is made by Karmann.
   Synchro AWD and/or G60 available in some countries.
   
   NOTE: A2 Golfs were continued to be produced in South Africa until 1993.
   The MK I, A2 and the A3 was build simultaneously for about 6 months or so.  
   Apparently the only VW factory to have done so.


   A3: 1992-
   Golf ///, Vento/Jetta ///, Golf GTI & VR6, Jetta/Vento GLX/VR6, 
   Cabrio (95->).
   Compact cars with transverse FWD. Vento/Jetta has a trunk.
   US production started in 1993/4 from Mexico except initial batch of VR6 
   cars that came from Germany. 
   Cabrio is made at Karmann.

   B1: 1973-1979
   Passat/Dasher, Passat Variant
   Mid-sized cars with longitudinal FWD. The original fastback design with a
   separate trunk was changed to a hatchback in 1976.

   B2: 1980-1987
   Passat, Santana/Quantum, Passat Variant/Quantum Wagon
   Mid-sized cars with longitudinal FWD. Base version a hatchback, with
   Santana/Quantum a sedan version. 4-door only. Apparently also a 2 door
   version available in Europe. Syncro AWD available. 
   Production continues in China.

   B3: 1988-
   Passat, Passat Variant/Passat Wagon.
   Mid-sized cars with transverse FWD. 4-door only. Syncro AWD available.

   Corrections from JWALKER@UA1VM.UA.EDU:
   T1: 1949 - 1966 (European model years; - 1967 U.S. Model years)
   Station Wagon/Transporter (Micro-bus, Bus, Camper, Kombi, Pickup Truck,
   Double Cab Pickup Truck, Panel Van)
   A utility vehicle/truck with rear air-cooled engine (Type I engine)

   T2: 1967 - 1970 (Eur. mod. yrs; 1968 - 1971 U.S. Mod. yrs)
   <same as above T1>
   A utility vehicle/truck with rear air-cooled engine (Type I engine).

   T2: 1971 - 1978 (e.m.yrs; 1972 - 1979 U.S. m.yrs)
   <same as above T1>
   A utility vehicle/truck with rear air-cooled engine (Type IV engine).
   Same engine as Porsche 914 and VW 411/412.

   T3: 1979 - 1982 (e.m.yrs; 1980 - 1983+1/2 U.S.m.yrs)
   <same as above T1>
   A utility vehicle/truck with rear engine: either air-cooled boxer (Type IV
   engine), water-cooled boxer (Type IV-based) or water-cooled diesel inline 4
   (Golf). Availability of engines overlapped.
   1980 - 1991 (e.m.yrs; sold in U.S. only 1981 - 1983 U.S. model years) <same
   as above T1> except only Vanagon/Vanagon Camper were sold in U.S.
   A utility vehicle/truck with rear water-cooled Rabbit Diesel engine. <was
   still offered in Europe until introduction of T4 bus. Most of the T3 sold
   in Europe were Diesel or Turbo-Diesel powered>

   T3: 1983 - 1991 (e.m.yrs; 1983+1/2 - 1991 U.S.m.yrs)
   <same as above T1>
   A utility vehicle/truck with rear water-cooled engine (Type ? engine)
   (engine is basically the same Type IV, but with water-cooled heads. Engine
   size is much different, however: shorter in length and width) <no other VW
   used this engine; however, Subaru made an engine very similar for use in
   their cars, front wheel drive, no less> Syncro models available in Europe
   until 1993 model year.

   T4: 1992 -
   <same as above T1>
   Transporter, Bus/EuroVan, Camper
   A utility vehicle/truck with transverse FWD. <there are two gasoline
   engines and one diesel (does Turbo count as 2nd engine?) engine available
   in Europe: Two of each: 2.0L and 2.5L. Only one gas engine in U.S.>

   LT1: 1975-
   LT
   light and medium-duty utility vehicles/trucks.

   CURRENT AUDI TYPES:

   A01: 1974-1978
   Audi 50
   The twin to VW Polo, introduced before its sibling. 2-door hatchback only.

   B1: 1973-1979 (81?)
   Audi 80/Fox, Audi Fox Wagon
   Mid-sized car with longitudinal FWD. First only with 2-door, but later
   available as 4-door as well. Wagon only available in North America.

   B2: 1980 (81?)-1987
   Audi 80, 90, 4000, Coupe, Quattro
   Mid-sized car with longitudinal FWD or AWD. 2-door and 4-door versions
   available (except Coupe and Quattro 2-door only). 90 was a 5-cylinder
   version of 80; quattro AWD available for all models.

   B3: 1988-1991
   Audi 80, 90, Coupe, S2
   Mid-sized car with longitudinal FWD or AWD. 4-door only. Quattro AWD
   available for all models.

   B4: 1992-
   Audi 80, Coupe, S2
   Mid-sized car with longitudinal FWD or AWD. 4-door only. Quattro AWD
   available for all models. S2 is a high-performance version of the Coupe. 
   mild revision of B3 chassis.

   C1: 1969-1976
   Audi 100, 100 Coupe
   Large car with longitudinal FWD. 4-door only, except Coupe as 2-door only.

   C2: 1977-1982
   Audi 100, 200, 5000, Avant
   Large car with longitudinal FWD. 4-door only. 200 has turbocharged engine
   (similar to 5000 Turbo). Avant is a wagon version. Quattro AWD available.

   C3: 1983-1991
   Audi 100, 200, 5000, Avant
   Large car with longitudinal FWD. 4-door only. 200 has turbocharged engine
   (similar to 5000 Turbo). Avant is a wagon version. Quattro AWD available.
   5000 renamed to 100/200 in North America after 1988.

   C4: 1992-
   Audi 100, Avant, S4
   Large car with longitudinal FWD. 4-door only. Quattro AWD available for all
   models. S4 is a high-performance version using a turbocharged 5-cylinder
   engine. A moderate revision of C3 chassis.

   D1: 1990-1994
   Audi V8
   Large car with longitudinal AWD. 4-door only.

   D2: 1994-
   Audi A8
   Large car with longitudinal Quattro AWD. Based on the ASF prototype,
   the body and chassis of the car are in aluminum, making it up to 40%
   lighter than a comparable car in steel. Introduced in March 94.
   At first available with 2.8 V6 and 4.2 V8, a V8 TDI with 200 HP may
   follow if there is interest.

   CURRENT SEAT TYPES: (NOTE: SEAT is a Spanish Co. started by Fiat and
   bought by VW in 1990)

   A01: 1994- (?)
   Marbella
   A very small car with transverse FWD. Based on some Polo components.
   [Current Marbella is not VW-based or derived.]

   A1: 1993- (?)
   Ibiza
   A compact car, something between a VW Polo and a VW Golf, with
   transverse FWD. Presented in May 1993. Designed by Giugaro. It is 
   an evolution of VW's A2 platform.  The car is a hatchback (3 or 5 
   doors). Since most parts in the car originate from VW, it certainly feels 
   like a VW. The interior of the car just looks like a new version of the 
   Golf (maybe the Golf II-and-a-half :-).
   Anyone who knows the A3 car will recognize the handles, the instruments,
   the side mirrors, etc. All engines available are VW engines; there is a
   1.0 (45HP), 1.3 (55HP), 1.6 (75HP), 1.8 (90HP), a GTI with the 2.0 (115HP).
   Diesels: 1.9D and 1.9Turbo D Cat. Still to come: the top version with
   VW's world famous 1.8 16v (130HP).

   Cordoba:
   An evolution of the Ibiza, 10cm longer than a Golf III. Presented
   in September 1993. Looks like a hatchback, but it is really a sedan.
   Available with VW's 1.4 (60HP), 1.6, 1.8, 2.0 and 1.9(T)D. Introduced
   in March 94: the 1.8 16v.

   B1: 1991-
   Toledo
   Presented in 1991. Looks somewhat like the Vento/Jetta III. Looks like
   a sedan, but it is really a hatchback with an enormous trunk. Available
   with the 1.8, 2.0 and 1.9(T)D. Still to come: the top version with the
   2.0 16v (150HP). [as far as I know, a Toledo VR6 does not exist].
   
   OLD VW TYPES:

   Type I: 1938-
   Beetle, Cabriolet, Karmann Ghia, 181/Thing
   A small car with an upright air-cooled engine.

   Type II: 1950-
   Transporter, Bus, Camper
   A utility vehicle (truck) with either an upright (early) air-cooled,
   pancake (middle) air-cooled engine, or a pancake (late) water-cooled
   engine. See also T1 through T4.

   Type III: 1962-1973
   Sedan/Notchback, Coupe/Fastback, Variant/Squareback, Karmann Ghia
   A mid-sized car with a pancake engine.

   Type IV: 1968-1974
   Sedan (2/4-door), Variant
   A large car with a pancake engine.

   OTHERS: [Anyone know whether these fit at all into the VW nomenclature?]

   VW-Porsche 914: 1970-1976
   Coupe
   A mid-engine coupe designed by Porsche and built by Volkswagen.

   K70: 1971-1975
   Sedan
   A large car (but smaller than a Passat) with a watercooled inline 4.

   Iltis: 1982-
   Convertible
   A four-wheel drive utility vehicle designed largely for military use, using
   both Beetle and Golf components.

   Fox/Voyage:
   A small car with a longitudinal FWD layout. Made in Brazil and exported to
   North America.

Contributors (not exhaustive):
------------------------------
Note: Quoted contributions imply possible conflicting pieces of advise
with other contributors.

jmm2948@zeus.tamu.edu (Jeffrey M. Mayzurk)
mshaw@netzone.com mark@wdc.sps.mot.com (Mark Shaw)
dilmore@techops.cray.com (Robert J. Dilmore)
tgpt_ltd@uhura.cc.rochester.edu (Tom Guptill)
rgolen@UMASSD.EDU (Ric Golen)
cdg@sei.cmu.edu (Craig Gary)
borowski@hpspkla.spk.hp.com (Don T. Borowski)
tomh@metrics.com (\tom haapanen)
teek@kingcong.uwaterloo.ca (Prateek Dwivedi)
gajewski@ug.cs.dal.ca (ANdy)
eric@quantum.qnx.com (Eric Johnson)
dans@ans.net (Dan Simoes)
dilmore@techops.cray.com (Robert J. Dilmore)
tedcrum@garnet.berkeley.edu (Ted Crum)
crawford@fido.econ.arizona.edu dc@panix.com (David Crawford)
sirota@greenwich.com (Mark Sirota)
Josh.Sirota@Eng.Sun.COM (Josh Sirota, & yes, they are related)
blu@cellar.org (Dan Reed)
scottz@pangea.Stanford.EDU (Scott Zeller)
christos@wucs1.wustl.edu (Christos Papadopoulos)
rrusk@rcx1.ssd.csd.harris.com (Bob Rusk)
aas7@po.CWRU.Edu (Andrew A. Spencer)
nicos@cs.bu.edu (Nicos Kontopoulos)
lewf@newton.ccs.tuns.ca (Fred Lew)
dchill@gateway.sequent.com (Duncan Hill)
JWALKER@UA1VM.UA.EDU (joel)
enpw2@hpl.lut.ac.uk (Paul Waine)
Ken_Tsai@qmgate.arc.nasa.gov (Ken Tsai)
bill@tss.com (Bill Castellano)
borowski@hpspkla.spk.hp.com (Donald Borowski)
ahogben@informix.com (Andy Hogben)
rdb1@homxb.att.com (Ron DeBlock)
fval_ltd@uhura.cc.rochester.edu (trey valenta)
eldred@csi.jpl.nasa.gov (Dan Eldred)
scecos@vaxa.isc.rit.edu (Scott C. Ernst)
jwest@r3vm.dsd.trw.com (Judson West)
willers@trombone.sps.mot.com (Bob Willers)
mcgu5464@csd4.csd.uwm.edu (Ronald J Mcguire)
kokerj@rpi.edu ()
APEAD@ESOC.BITNET ()
mshearer@math.ucla.edu (Michael Shearer)
thogard@wrdis01.robins.af.mil (Cont Tim Hogard)
keys@starchild.ncsl.nist.gov (Lawrence B. Keys)
pgriffit@magnus.acs.ohio-state.EDU (Peter A Griffith)
jcl1@CC.MsState.Edu (john c luthe)
scottmo@tekig5.pen.tek.com (Scott John Mockry)
jochena@bjsys.ersys.edmonton.ab.ca (Joe Angerstein)
txh@philabs.philips.com (Teun Hendriks)
dan@research.nj.nec.com (Dan Ruderman)
denio@seismo.CSS.GOV (Dennis O'Neill)
huntzing@PICA.ARMY.MIL (hugh)
beorn@berkeley.edu (Beorn Johnson)
roy@mchip00.med.nyu.edu (Roy Smith)
DBROWN@mcvax.csusb.edu (Dan Brown)
jan@filetek.com (Jan Morales)
cremelie@ibmsp.elis.rug.ac.be [Nick Cremelie]
bernie@metapro.DIALix.oz.au [Bernd Felsche]
lewin@vgi.com (Alex Lewin)
martyn.kerluk@canrem.com (Martyn Kerluk)
tom@ready.rsip.lsu.edu (Tom Smailus)
shepner@hera.manchester.edu (Stephen Hepner)
LAS@SLC.SLAC.STANFORD.EDU (Lawrence Searcy)
bwdonnelly@delphi.com (B.Donnelly)
fw@emsdev4.emss.com (Frank Williamson)
vwnut@aol.com (VW Nut)
JWALKER@UA1VM.UA.EDU (Joel Walker)
mxb171@psuvm.psu.edu (Mike Brzezowski)
gds@alsun144 (Glenn Strouse)
antoine@osd.ulaval.ca (Antoine Gautier)
MHC@ussu.Ciba.Com (Michael Chin)
andrew@airs.com (Andrew Evans)
Eric G Schneider <schneide@world.std.com>
fwy@cadre.com (Felix Yen)
hz262ra@rs1-hrz.uni-duisburg.de (Bert Paul Rauhut)
drew@myhost.subdomain.domain (Andrew MacPherson)
jmcelroy@wpi.edu (James McElroy Jr.)
jeremyh@ftp.amcc.com
MCLADM2@UConnVM.UConn.Edu (Mary Smith)
johnson@ripco.com (MKJohnson)
Andy Nguyen \ aqn@tivoli.com
Jeff Amato amato@pangea.stanford.edu
hornung@stein.u.washington.edu (Michael S. Hornung)
Mike (mvoorhis@wpi.edu)
HAPPIG@aol.com
Peter K. Trumper
Doug Jones (djones@cpdsc.com, doug.jones@chrysalis.org, djones64@aol.com)
kwatson@wv.mentorg.com (Keith Watson)
T.Skil <umskilni@electra.cc.umanitoba.ca>
zrxh0370@baracke.rus.uni-stuttgart.de (Ulli Horlacher)
AAdarburla@aol.com ALLON
taifun@infinet.com Dennis
Jens Knickmeyer <knick@ibr.cs.tu-bs.de>
Brett Shelton <sheltb@postsmg.daytonoh.attgis.com>
<daveduma@postoffice.ptd.net> David M. Duma
vwnut@aol.com (Larry Adres)
Jud Main <judson@colorado.edu>
<deman@ps.msm.cern.ch> Sven DE MAN
<voicebox@netcom.com> DaveC
David Pipes <david@plusone.demon.co.uk>
Snoopy <qiclab!sopwith!snoopy@uunet.uu.net>
Hulda Jowett <hjowett@nasc.mass.edu>
UniqueVR6@aol.com <Edward>
<gcollinson@naccess.com> Geri M. Collinson
<kafka@cats.ucsc.edu> Gary Yuen 
Jonathan Courtney Evans <jcevans@eos.ncsu.edu>
<christob@garratt.tnet.co.za> Christo
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Disclaimer: My employer has nothing to do with this.
            Use any info in this posting at your OWN risk.
            This is public information and should not be dissiminated
            for profit.

-- 
              o   ___|___    [\\]    | Jan Vandenbrande jan@lipari.usc.edu
   __0    /\0/   /-------\      _    | http://alicudi.usc.edu:80/~jan/ 
   \<,_  O  \\  (_________)  .#/_\_. | If you are still in control, you are
(_)/ (_)    //  [_]     [_]  |_(_)_| | not going fast enough.

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM