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Gasoline FAQ - Part 4 of 4

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Archive-name: autos/gasoline-faq/part4
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 17 November 1996
Version: 1.12

8.9  How serious is valve seat recession on older vehicles?

The amount of exhaust valve seat recession is very dependent on the load on 
the engine. There have been several major studies on valve seat recession, 
and they conclude that most damage occurs under high-speed, high-power 
conditions. Engine load is not a primary factor in valve seat wear for 
moderate operating conditions, and low to medium speed engines under 
moderate loads do not suffer rapid recession, as has been demonstrated
on fuels such as CNG and LPG. Under severe conditions, damage occurs rapidly, 
however there are significant cylinder-to-cylinder variations on the same 
engine. A 1970 engine operated at 70 mph conditions exhibited an average 
1.5mm of seat recession in 12,000km. The difference between cylinders has 
been attributed to different rates of valve rotation, and experiments have 
confirmed that more rotation does increase the recession rate [29]. 
The mechanism of valve seat wear is a mixture of two major mechanisms. Iron 
oxide from the combustion chamber surfaces adheres to the valve face and 
becomes embedded. These hard particles then allow the valve act as a grinding
wheel and cut into the valve seat [115]. The significance of valve seat
recession is that should it occur to the extent that the valve does not seat,
serious engine damage can result from the localised hot spot.

There are a range of additives, usually based on potassium, sodium or
phosphorus that can be added to the gasoline to combat valve seat recession.
As phosphorus has adverse effects on exhaust catalysts, it is seldom used.
The best long term solution is to induction harden the seats or install
inserts, usually when the head is removed for other work, however additives 
are routinely and successfully used during transition periods.


Section: 9. Alternative Fuels and Additives
9.1  Do fuel additives work?

Most aftermarket fuel additives are not cost-effective. These include the
octane-enhancer solutions discussed in section 6.18. There are various other
pills, tablets, magnets, filters, etc. that all claim to improve either fuel 
economy or performance. Some of these have perfectly sound scientific
mechanisms, unfortunately they are not cost-effective. Some do not even have
sound scientific mechanisms. Because the same model production vehicles can 
vary significantly, it's expensive to unambiguously demonstrate these 
additives are not cost-effective. If you wish to try them, remember the
biggest gain is likely to be caused by the lower mass of your wallet/purse.

There is one aftermarket additive that may be cost-effective, the lubricity 
additive used with unleaded gasolines to combat exhaust valve seat recession
on engines that do not have seat inserts. This additive may be routinely 
added during the first few years of unleaded by the gasoline producers, but
in the US this could not occur because they did not have EPA waivers, and
also may be incompatible with 2-stroke engine oil additives and form a gel
that blocks filters. The amount of recession is very dependent on the engine 
design and driving style. The long-term solution is to install inserts, or 
have the seats hardened, at the next top overhaul.  

Some other fuel additives work, especially those that are carefully 
formulated into the gasoline by the manufacturer at the refinery, and
have often been subjected to decades-long evaluation and use [12,13]. 

A typical gasoline may contain [16,27,32,38,111]:-
* Oil-soluble Dye, initially added to leaded gasoline at about 10 ppm to 
        prevent its misuse as an industrial solvent, and now also used
        to identify grades of product. 
* Antioxidants, typically phenylene diamines or hindered phenols, are
        added to prevent oxidation of unsaturated hydrocarbons.
* Metal Deactivators, typically about 10ppm of chelating agent such as 
        N,N'-disalicylidene-1,2-propanediamine is added to inhibit copper,
        which can rapidly catalyze oxidation of unsaturated hydrocarbons.
* Corrosion Inhibitors, about 5ppm of oil-soluble surfactants are added
        to prevent corrosion caused either by water condensing from cooling,
        water-saturated gasoline, or from condensation from air onto the 
        walls of almost-empty gasoline tanks that drop below the dew point.
        If your gasoline travels along a pipeline, it's possible the pipeline
        owner will add additional corrosion inhibitor to the fuel.
* Anti-icing Additives, used mainly with carburetted cars, and usually either
        a surfactant, alcohol or glycol.
* Anti-wear Additives, these are used to control wear in the upper cylinder
        and piston ring area that the gasoline contacts, and are usually
        very light hydrocarbon oils. Phosphorus additives can also be used 
        on engines without exhaust catalyst systems.
* Deposit-modifying Additives, usually surfactants. 
  1. Carburettor Deposits, additives to prevent these were required when 
        crankcase blow-by (PCV) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) controls
        were introduced. Some fuel components reacted with these gas streams 
        to form deposits on the throat and throttle plate of carburettors.
  2. Fuel Injector tips operate about 100C, and deposits form in the
        annulus during hot soak, mainly from the oxidation and polymerisation
        of the larger unsaturated hydrocarbons. The additives that prevent
        and unclog these tips are usually polybutene succinimides or 
        polyether amines.
  3. Intake Valve Deposits caused major problems in the mid-1980s when
        some engines had reduced driveability when fully warmed, even though
        the amount of deposit was below previously acceptable limits. It is
        believed that the new fuels and engine designs were producing a more
        absorbent deposit that grabbed some passing fuel vapour, causing lean
        hesitation. Intake valves operate about 300C, and if the valve is
        kept wet, deposits tend not to form, thus intermittent injectors
        tend to promote deposits. Oil leaking through the valve guides can be
        either harmful or beneficial, depending on the type and quantity.
        Gasoline factors implicated in these deposits include unsaturates and
        alcohols. Additives to prevent these deposits contain a detergent
        and/or dispersant in a higher molecular weight solvent or light oil
        whose low volatility keeps the valve surface wetted [46,47,48].
  4. Combustion Chamber Deposits have been targeted in the 1990s, as they
        are responsible for significant increases in emissions. Recent
        detergent-dispersant additives have the ability to function in both
        the liquid and vapour phases to remove existing deposits that have
        resulted from the use of other additives, and prevent deposit 
        formation. Note that these additives can not remove all deposits,
        just those resulting from the use of additives.                
* Octane Enhancers, these are usually formulated blends of alkyl lead 
        or MMT compounds in a solvent such as toluene, and added at the
        100-1000  ppm levels. They have been replaced by hydrocarbons with
        higher octanes such as aromatics and olefins. These hydrocarbons
        are now being replaced by a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons and
        and oxygenates.

If you wish to play with different fuels and additives, be aware that
some parts of your engine management systems, such as the oxygen sensor, 
can be confused by different exhaust gas compositions. An example is 
increased quantities of hydrogen from methanol combustion.

9.2  Can a quality fuel help a sick engine?
It depends on the ailment. Nothing can compensate for poor tuning and wear.
If the problem is caused by deposits or combustion quality, then modern 
premium quality gasolines have been shown to improve engine performance 
significantly. The new generation of additive packages for gasolines include 
components that will dissolve existing carbon deposits, and have been shown 
to improve fuel economy, NOx emissions, and driveability [49,50,111]. While 
there may be some disputes amongst the various producers about relative
merits, it is quite clear that premium quality fuels do have superior 
additive packages that help to maintain engine condition [16,28,111],

9.3  What are the advantages of alcohols and ethers?

This section discusses only the use of high ( >80% ) alcohol or ether fuels.
Alcohol fuels can be made from sources other than imported crude oil, and the
nations that have researched/used alcohol fuels have mainly based their 
choice on import substitution. Alcohol fuels can burn more efficiently, and 
can reduce photochemically-active emissions. Most vehicle manufacturers 
favoured the use of liquid fuels over compressed or liquified gases. The 
alcohol fuels have high research octane ratings, but also high sensitivity 
and high latent heats [8,27,80,116]. 
                                Methanol       Ethanol     Unleaded Gasoline
RON                               106            107           92 - 98
MON                                92             89           80 - 90
Heat of Vaporisation    (MJ/kg)     1.154          0.913        0.3044
Nett Heating Value      (MJ/kg)    19.95          26.68        42 - 44
Vapour Pressure @ 38C    (kPa)     31.9           16.0         48 - 108
Flame Temperature        ( C )   1870           1920          2030 
Stoich. Flame Speed.    ( m/s )     0.43           -             0.34
Minimum Ignition Energy ( mJ )      0.14           -             0.29
Lower Flammable Limit   ( vol% )    6.7            3.3           1.3           
Upper Flammable Limit   ( vol% )   36.0           19.0           7.1
Autoignition Temperature ( C )    460            360          260 - 460     
Flash Point              ( C )     11             13          -43 - -39
The major advantages are gained when pure fuels ( M100, and E100 ) are used,
as the addition of hydrocarbons to overcome the cold start problems also
significantly reduces, if not totally eliminates, any emission benefits.
Methanol will produce significant amounts of formaldehyde, a suspected
human carcinogen, until the exhaust catalyst reaches operating temperature.
Ethanol produces acetaldehyde. The cold-start problems have been addressed, 
and alcohol fuels are technically viable, however with crude oil at 
<$30/bbl they are not economically viable, especially as the demand for then 
as precursors for gasoline oxygenates has elevated the world prices. 
Methanol almost doubled in price during 1994. There have also been trials
of pure MTBE as a fuel, however there are no unique or significant advantages
that would outweigh the poor economic viability [15]. 

9.4  Why are CNG and LPG considered "cleaner" fuels.
CNG ( Compressed Natural Gas ) is usually around 70-90% methane with 10-20% 
ethane, 2-8% propanes, and decreasing quantities of the higher HCs up to 
butane. The fuel has a high octane and usually only trace quantities of 
unsaturates. The emissions from CNG have lower concentrations of the 
hydrocarbons responsible for photochemical smog, reduced CO, SOx, and NOx, 
and the lean misfire limit is extended [117]. There are no technical
disadvantages, providing the installation is performed correctly. The major 
disadvantage of compressed gas is the reduced range. Vehicles may have
between one to three cylinders ( 25 MPa, 90-120 litre capacity), and they 
usually represent about 50% of the gasoline range. As natural gas pipelines
do not go everywhere, most conversions are dual-fuel with gasoline. The 
ignition timing and stoichiometry are significantly different, but good
conversions will provide about 85% of the gasoline power over the full
operating range, with easy switching between the two fuels [118]. Concerns
about the safety of CNG have proved to be unfounded [119,120].  

CNG has been extensively used in Italy and New Zealand ( NZ had 130,000 
dual-fuelled vehicles with 380 refuelling stations in 1987 ). The conversion 
costs are usually around US$1000, so the economics are very dependent on the
natural gas price. The typical 15% power loss means that driveability of 
retrofitted CNG-fuelled vehicles is easily impaired, consequently it is not 
recommended for vehicles of less than 1.5l engine capacity, or retrofitted 
onto engine/vehicle combinations that have marginal driveability on gasoline.
The low price of crude oil, along with installation and ongoing CNG 
tank-testing costs, have reduced the number of CNG vehicles in NZ. The US
CNG fleet continues to increase in size ( 60,000 in 1994 ). 
LPG ( Liquified Petroleum Gas ) is predominantly propane with iso-butane
and n-butane. It has one major advantage over CNG, the tanks do not have
to be high pressure, and the fuel is stored as a liquid. The fuel offers   
most of the environmental benefits of CNG, including high octane. 
Approximately 20-25% more fuel is required, unless the engine is optimised 
( CR 12:1 ) for LPG, in which case there is no decrease in power or increase
in fuel consumption [27,118]. There have been several studies that have
compared the relative advantages of CNG and LPG, and often LPG has been
found to be a more suitable transportation fuel [118,120].

                                  methane        propane        iso-octane     
RON                                 120            112           100
MON                                 120             97           100
Heat of Vaporisation    (MJ/kg)       0.5094         0.4253        0.2712
Net Heating Value       (MJ/kg)      50.0           46.2          44.2
Vapour Pressure @ 38C   ( kPa )       -               -           11.8
Flame Temperature        ( C )     1950           1925          1980
Stoich. Flame Speed.    ( m/s  )      0.45           0.45          0.31
Minimum Ignition Energy  ( mJ )       0.30           0.26           -
Lower Flammable Limit   ( vol% )      5.0            2.1           0.95
Upper Flammable Limit   ( vol% )     15.0            9.5           6.0
Autoignition Temperature  ( C )    540 - 630       450           415       

9.5  Why are hydrogen-powered cars not available?

The Hindenburg.

The technology to operate IC engines on hydrogen has been investigated in 
depth since before the turn of the century. One attraction was to
use the hydrogen in airships to fuel the engines instead of venting it.
Hydrogen has a very high flame speed ( 3.24 - 4.40 m/s ), wide flammability 
limits ( 4.0 - 75 vol% ), low ignition energy ( 0.017 mJ ), high autoignition 
temperature ( 520C ), and flame temperature of 2050 C. Hydrogen has a very 
high specific energy ( 120.0 MJ/kg ), making it very desirable as a 
transportation fuel.  The problem has been to develop a storage system that 
will pass all safety concerns, and yet still be light enough for automotive 
use. Although hydrogen can be mixed with oxygen and combusted more
efficiently, most proposals use air [114,119,121-124].

Unfortunately the flame temperature is sufficiently high to dissociate 
atmospheric nitrogen and form undesirable NOx emissions. The high flame 
speeds mean that ignition timing is at TDC, except when running lean, when
the ignition timing is advanced 10 degrees. The high flame speed, coupled
with a very small quenching distance mean that the flame can sneak past
narrow inlet valve openings and cause backflash. This can be mitigated by 
the induction of fine mist of water, which also has the benefit of 
increasing thermal efficiency ( although the water lowers the combustion 
temperature, the phase change creases voluminous gases that increase 
pressure ), and reducing NOx [124]. An alternative technique is to use 
direct cylinder induction, which injects hydrogen once the cylinder
has filled with an air charge, and because the volume required is so
large, modern engines have two inlet valves, one for hydrogen and one for
air [124]. The advantage of a wide range of mixture strengths and high 
thermal efficiencies are matched by the disadvantages of pre-ignition and 
knock unless weak mixtures, clean engines, and cool operation are used.  

Interested readers are referred to the group and the
" Hydrogen Energy" monograph in the Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical
Technology [124], for recent information about this fuel. 

9.6  What are "fuel cells" ?
Fuel cells are electrochemical cells that directly oxidise the fuel at 
electrodes producing electrical and thermal energy. The oxidant is usually 
oxygen from the air and the fuel is usually gaseous, with hydrogen 
preferred. There has, so far, been little success using low temperature fuel 
cells ( < 200C ) to perform the direct oxidation of hydrocarbon-based liquids
or gases. Methanol can be used as a source for the hydrogen by adding an 
on-board reformer. The main advantage of fuel cells is their high fuel-to- 
electricity efficiency of about 40-60% of the nett calorific value of the 
fuel. As fuel cells also produce heat that can be used for vehicle climate 
control, fuel cells are the most likely candidate to replace the IC engine 
as a primary energy source. Fuel cells are quiet and produce virtually no 
toxic emissions, but they do require a clean fuel ( no halogens, CO, S, or 
ammonia ) to avoid poisoning. They currently are expensive to produce, and 
have a short operational lifetime, when compared to an IC engine [125-127].

9.7  What is a "hybrid" vehicle?

A hybrid vehicle has three major systems [128].
1. A primary power source, either an IC engine driven generator where the 
   IC engine only operates in the most efficient part of it's performance 
   map, or alternatives such as fuel cells and turbines.
2. A power storage unit, which can be a flywheel, battery, or ultracapacitor.
3. A drive unit, almost always now an electric motor that can used as a 
   generator during braking. Regenerative braking may increase the 
   operational range about 8-13%.

Battery technology has not yet advanced sufficiently to economically 
substitute for an IC engine, while retaining the carrying capacity, range, 
performance, and driveability of the vehicle. Hybrid vehicles may enable 
this problem to be at least partially overcome, but they remain expensive, 
and the current ZEV proposals exclude fuel cells and hybrids systems, but 
this is being re-evaluated.

9.8  What about other alternative fuels?

9.8.1 Ammonia (NH3)

Anhydrous ammonia has been researched because it does not contain any carbon,
and so would not release any CO2. The high heat of vaporisation requires
a pre-vaporisation step, preferably also with high jacket temperatures 
( 180C ) to assist decomposition. Power outputs of about 70% of that of
gasoline under the same conditions have been achieved [114]. Ammonia fuel
also produces copious quantities of undesirable oxides of nitrogen (NOx)
9.8.2 Water

As water-gasoline fuels have been extensively investigated [113,129],
interested potential investors may wish to refer to those papers for some
background. Mr.Gunnerman advocates hydrocarbon/water emulsion fuels and 
promoted his A-55 fuel before the new A-21. A recent article claims a 29% 
gain in fuel economy [130], and he claims that mixing water with naphtha 
can provide as much power from an IC engine as the same flow rate of 
gasoline. He claims the increased efficiency is from catalysed dissociation 
of A-21 into H2 in the engine, because the combustion chamber of the test 
engines contain a "non-reactive" catalyst. For his fuel to provide power 
increases, he has to utilise heat energy that is normally lost. A-21 is just 
naphtha ( effectively unleaded gasoline without oxygenates )  and water 
( about 55% ), with small amouts of winterizing and anti-corrosive additives.
If the magic catalyst is not present, conventional IC engines will not 
perform as efficiently, and may possibly be damaged if A-21 is used. The 
only modification is a new set of spark plugs, and it is also claimed that 
the fuel can replace both diesel and gasoline.

It has been claimed that test results of A-21 fuel emissions have shown
significant reductions in CO2 ( 50% claimed - who is surprised when the fuel 
is 55% water? :-) ), CO, HCs, NOx and a 70% reduction in diesel particulates 
and smoke. It's claimed that 70% of the exhaust stream consists of water 
vapour. He has formed a joint venture company with Caterpillar called 
Advanced Fuels. U.S. patent #5,156,114 ( Aqueous Fuel for Internal Combustion 
Engines and Combustion Method ) was granted to Mr.Gunnerman in 1992.

9.8.3 Propylene Oxide

Propylene oxide ( CH3CH(O)CH2 = 1,2 epoxypropane ) has apparently been 
used in racing fuels, and some racers erroneously claim that it behaves 
like nitrous oxide. It is a fuel that has very desirable volatility, 
flammability and autoignition properties. When used in engines tuned for 
power ( typically slightly rich ), it will move the air-fuel ratio closer 
to stoichiometric, and the high volatility, high autoignition temperature 
( high octane ), and slightly faster flamespeed may improve engine
efficiency with hydrocarbon fuels, resulting in increased power without 
major engine modifications. This power increase is, in part, due to the 
increase in volumetric efficiency from the requirement for less oxygen
( air ) in the charge. PO is a suspected carcinogen, and so should be 
handled with extreme care.
Relevant properties include [116]:-                          Avgas  
                                   Propylene Oxide     100/130  115/145 
Density                    (g/ml)        0.828           0.72    0.74
Boiling Point               (C)         34              30-170  30-170
Stoichiometic Ratio        (vol%)        4.97            2.4      2.2
Autoignition Temperature    (C)        464             440       470
Lower Flammable Limit      (vol%)        2.8             1.3      1.2
Upper Flammable Limit      (vol%)       37               7.1      7.1
Minimum Ignition Energy     (mJ)         0.14            0.2      0.2
Nett Heat of Combustion    (MJ/kg)      31.2            43.5     44.0
Flame Temperature           (C)       2087            2030     2030
Burning Velocity           (m/s)         0.67            0.45     0.45

9.8.4 Nitromethane 

Nitromethane ( CH3NO2) - usually used as a mixture with methanol to reduce 
peak flame temperatures - also provides excellent increases in volumetric 
efficiency of IC engines - in part because of the lower stoichiometric 
air-fuel ratio (1.7:1 for CH3NO2) and relatively high heats of vaporisation 
( 0.56 MJ/kg for CH3NO2) result in dramatic cooling of the incoming charge. 

   4CH3NO2 + 3O2 -> 4CO2 + 6H20 + 2N2

The nitromethane Specific Energy at stoichiometric ( heat of combustion 
divided by air-fuel ratio ) of 6.6, compared to 2.9 for iso-octane, 
indicates that the fuel energy delivered to the combustion chamber is 
2.3 times that of iso-octane for the same mass of air. Coupled with
the higher flame temperature ( 2400C ), and flame speed (0.5 m/s), it has
been shown that a 50% blend in methanol will increase the power output by 
45% over pure methanol, however knock also increased [28].

9.9  What about alternative oxidants?

9.9.1 Nitrous Oxide

Nitrous oxide ( N2O ) contains 33 vol% of oxygen, consequently the combustion 
chamber is filled with less useless nitrogen. It is also metered in as a
liquid, which can cool the incoming charge further, thus effectively
increasing the charge density. With all that oxygen, a lot more fuel can
be squashed into the combustion chamber. The advantage of nitrous oxide is
that it has a flame speed, when burned with hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels, 
that can be handled by current IC engines, consequently the power is 
delivered in an orderly fashion, but rapidly. The same is not true for 
pure oxygen combustion with hydrocarbons, so leave that oxygen cylinder on 
the gas axe alone :-). Nitrous oxide has also been readily available at a
reasonable price, and is popular as a fast way to increase power in racing
engines. The following data are for common premixed flames [131]. 
                               Temperature     Flame Speed  
  Fuel         Oxidant            ( C )           ( m/s )            
Acetylene        Air               2400         1.60 - 2.70
   "         Nitrous Oxide         2800             2.60
   "            Oxygen             3140         8.00 - 24.80
Hydrogen         Air               2050         3.24 - 4.40
   "         Nitrous Oxide         2690             3.90
   "            Oxygen             2660         9.00 - 36.80
Propane          Air               1925             0.45
Natural Gas      Air               1950             0.39

Nitrous oxide is not yet routinely used on standard vehicles, but the 
technology is well understood. 

9.9.2 Membrane Enrichment of Air

Over the last two decades, extensive research has been performed on the
use of membranes to enrich the oxygen content of air. Increasing the oxygen
content can make combustion more efficient due to the higher flame 
temperature and less nitrogen. The optimum oxygen concentration for existing 
automotive engine materials is around 30 - 40%. There are several commercial 
membranes that can provide that level of enrichment. The problem is that the 
surface area required to produce the necessary amount of enriched air for an 
SI engine is very large. The membranes have to be laid close together, or 
wound in a spiral, and significant amounts of power are required to force 
the air along the membrane surface for sufficient enriched air to run a
slightly modified engine. Most research to date has centred on CI engines, 
with their higher efficiencies. Several systems have been tried on research 
engines and vehicles, however the higher NOx emissions remain a problem 

Subject: 10. Historical Legends 10.1 The myth of Triptane [ This post is an edited version of several posts I made after JdA posted some claims from a hot-rod enthusiast reporting that triptane + 4cc TEL had a rich power octane rating of 270. This was followed by another post that claimed the unleaded octane was 150.] In WWII there was a major effort to increase the power of the aviation engines continuously, rather than just for short periods using boost fluids. Increasing the octane of the fuel had dramatic effects on engines that could be adjusted to utilise the fuel ( by changing boost pressure ). There was a 12% increase in cruising speed, 40% increase in rate of climb, 20% increase in ceiling, and 40% increase in payload for a DC-3, if the fuel went from 87 to 100 Octane, and further increases if the engine could handle 100+ PN fuel [134]. A 12 cylinder Allison aircraft engine was operated on a 60% blend of triptane ( 2,2,3-trimethylbutane ) in 100 octane leaded gasoline to produce 2500hp when the rated take-off horsepower with 100 octane leaded was 1500hp [14]. Triptane was first shown to have high octane in 1926 as part of the General Motors Research Laboratories investigations [135]. As further interest developed, gallon quantities were made in 1938, and a full size production plant was completed in late 1943. The fuel was tested, and the high lead sensitivity resulted in power outputs up to 4 times that of iso-octane, and as much as 25% improvement in fuel economy over iso-octane [14]. All of this sounds incredibly good, but then, as now, the cost of octane enhancement has to be considered, and the plant producing triptane was not really viable. The fuel was fully evaluated in the aviation test engines, and it was under the aviation test conditions - where mixture strength is varied, that the high power levels were observed over a narrow range of engine adjustment. If turbine engines had not appeared, then maybe triptane would have been used as an octane agent in leaded aviation gasolines. Significant design changes would have been required for engines to utilise the high antiknock rating. As an unleaded additive, it was not that much different to other isoalkanes, consequently the modern manufacturing processes for aviation gasolines are alkylation of unsaturated C4 HCs with isobutane, to produce a highly iso-paraffinic product, and/or aromatization of naphthenic fractions to produce aromatic hydrocarbons possessing excellent rich-mixture antiknock properties. So, the myth that triptane was the wonder antiknock agent that would provide heaps of power arose. In reality, it was one of the best of the iso-alkanes ( remember we are comparing it to iso-octane which just happened to be worse than most other iso-alkanes), but it was not _that_ different from other members. It was targeted, and produced, for supercharged aviation engines that could adjust their mixture strength, used highly leaded fuel, and wanted short period of high power for takeoff, regardless of economy. The blending octane number, which is what we are discussing, of triptane is designated by the American Petroleum Institute Research Project 45 survey as 112 Motor and 112 Research [52]. Triptane does not have a significantly different blending number for MON or RON, when compared to iso-octane. When TEL is added, the lead response of a large number of paraffins is well above that of iso-octane ( about +45 for 3ml TEL/US Gal ), and this can lead to Performance Numbers that can not be used in conventional automotive engines [14]. 10.2 From Honda Civic to Formula 1 winner. [ The following is edited from a post in a debate over the advantages of water injection. I tried to demonstrate what modifications would be required to convert my own 1500cc Honda Civic into something worthwhile :-).] There are many variables that will determine the power output of an engine. High on the list will be the ability of the fuel to burn evenly without knock. No matter how clever the engine, the engine power output limit is determined by the fuel it is designed to use, not the amount of oxygen stuffed into the cylinder and compressed. Modern engines designs and gasolines are intended to reduce the emission of undesirable exhaust pollutants, consequently engine performance is mainly constrained by the fuel available. My Honda Civic uses 91 RON fuel, but the Honda Formula 1 turbocharged 1.5 litre engine was only permitted to operate on 102 Research Octane fuel, and had limits placed on the amount of fuel it could use during a race, the maximum boost of the turbochargers was specified, as was an additional 40kg penalty weight. Standard 102 RON gasoline would be about 96 (R+M)/2 if sold as a pump gasoline. The normally-aspirated 3.0 litre engines could use unlimited amounts of 102RON fuel. The F1 race duration is 305 km or 2 hours, and it's perhaps worth remembering that Indy cars then ran at 7.3 psi boost. Engine Standard Formula One Formula One Year 1986 1987 1989 Size 1.5 litre 1.5 litre 1.5 litre Cylinders 4 6 6 Aspiration normal turbo turbo Maximum Boost - 58 psi 36.3 psi Maximum Fuel - 200 litres 150 litres Fuel 91 RON 102 RON 102 RON Horsepower @ rpm 92 @ 6000 994 @ 12000 610 @ 12500 Torque (lb-ft @ rpm) 89 @ 4500 490 @ 9750 280 @ 10000 The details of the transition from Standard to Formula 1, without considering engine materials, are:- 1. Replace the exhaust system. HP and torque both climb to 100. 2. Double the rpm while improving breathing, you now have 200hp but still only about 100lb-ft of torque. 3. Boost it to 58psi - which equals four such engines, so you have 1000hp and 500lb-ft of torque. Simple?, not with 102 RON fuel, the engine/fuel combination would knock the engine into pieces, so.... 4. Lower the compression ratio to 7.4:1, and the higher rpm is a big advantage - there is much less time for the end gases to ignite and cause detonation. 5. Optimise engine design. 80 degree bank angles V for aerodynamic reasons, and go to six cylinders = V-6 6. Cool the air. The compression of 70F air at 14.7psi to 72.7psi raises its temperature to 377F. The turbos churn the air, and although they are about 75% efficient, the air is now at 479F. The huge intercoolers could reduce the air to 97F, but that was too low to properly vaporise the fuel. 7. Bypass the intercoolers to maintain 104F. 8. Change the air-fuel ratio to 23% richer than stoichiometric to reduce combustion temperature. 9. Change to 84:16 toluene/heptane fuel - which complies with the 102 RON requirement, but is harder to vaporise. 10.Add sophisticated electronic timing and engine management controls to ensure reliable combustion with no detonation. You now have a six-cylinder, 1.5 litre, 1000hp Honda Civic. For subsequent years the restrictions were even more severe, 150 litres and 36.3 maximum boost, in a still vain attempt to give the 3 litre, normally-aspirated engines a chance. Obviously Honda took advantage of the reduced boost by increasing CR to 9.4:1, and only going to 15% rich air-fuel ratio. They then developed an economy mode that involved heating the liquid fuel to 180F to improve vaporisation, and increased the air temp to 158F, and leaned out the air-fuel ratio to just 2% rich. The engine output dropped to 610hp @ 12,500 ( from 685hp @ 12,500 and about 312 lbs-ft of torque @ 10,000 rpm ), but 32% of the energy in the fuel was converted to mechanical work. The engine still had crisp throttle response, and still beat the normally aspirated engines that did not have the fuel limitation. So turbos were banned. No other F1 racing engine has ever come close to converting 32% of the fuel energy into work [136]. In 1995 the FIA listed a detailed series of acceptable ranges for typical components in racing fuels for events such as F1 races, along with the introduction of detailed chromatographic "fingerprinting" of the hydrocarbon profile of the fuel [137]. This was necessary to prevent novel formulations of fuels, such as produced by Honda for their turbos.
Subject: 11. References 11.1 Books and Research Papers 1. Modern Petroleum Technology - 5th edition. Editor, G.D.Hobson. Wiley. ISBN 0 471 262498 (1984). - Chapter 1. G.D.Hobson. 2. Hydrocarbons from Fossil Fuels and their Relationship with Living Organisms. I.R.Hills, G.W.Smith, and E.V.Whitehead. J.Inst.Petrol., v.56 p.127-137 (May 1970). 3. Reference 1. - Chapter 9. R.E.Banks and P.J.King. 4. Petroleum Formation and Occurance B.P.Tissot and D.H.Welte Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0 387 08698 0 (1978) - Chapter 1. 5. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry - 5th edition. Editor, B.Elvers. VCH. ISBN 3-527-20123-8 (1993). - Volume A23. Resources of Oil and Gas. 6. BP Statistical Review of World Energy - June 1995. - Proved Reserves at end 1994. p.2. 6a. How Technology has Confounded US Gas Resource Estimators W.L.Fisher Oil & Gas J. 24 October 1994 7. 1995 National Assessment of U.S. Oil and Gas Resources. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1118 U.S. Geological Survey Information Services P.O. Box 25286, Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 8. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology - 4th edition. Editor M.Howe-Grant. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-52681-9 (1993-) - Volume 1. Alcohol Fuels. 9. Midgley: Saint or Serpent?. G.B.Kauffman. Chemtech, December 1989. p.717-725. 10. ? T.Midgley Jr., T.A.Boyd. Ind. Eng. Chem., v.14 p.589,849,894 (1922). 11. Measurement of the Knock Characteristics of Gasoline in terms of a Standard Fuel. G. Edgar. Ind. Eng. Chem., v.19 p.145-146 (1927). 12. How Gasoline Has Changed L.M.Gibbs SAE 932828 (1993) 13. Gasoline Additives L.M.Gibbs SAE 902104 (1990) 14. The Effect of the Molecular Structure of Fuels on the Power and Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines. C.F.Kettering. Ind. Eng. Chem., v.36 p.1079-1085 (1944). 15. Experiments with MTBE-100 as an Automobile Fuel. K.Springer, L.Smith. Tenth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels. - Proceedings, v.1 p.53 (1993). 16. Encyclopedia of Energy Technology and the Environment John Wiley and Sons (1995) - Transportation Fuels - Automotive Gasoline L.M.Gibbs p.2675-2698 17. Oxygenates for Reformulated Gasolines. W.J.Piel, R.X.Thomas. Hydrocarbon Processing, July 1990. p.68-73. 18. Initial Mass Exhaust Emissions from Reformulated Gasolines Technical Bulletin No.1 (December 1990) Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program Coordinating Research Council Inc. 219 Perimeter Center Parkway, Suite 400. Atlanta, Georgia 30346-1301 19. Mass Exhaust Emissions Results from Reformulated Gasolines Technical Bulletin No.4 (May 1991) Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program 20. Exhaust Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants using RFGs Technical Bulletin No.5 (June 1991) Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program 21. The Chemical Kinetics of Engine Knock. C.K.Westbrook, W.J. Pitz. Energy and Technology Review, Feb/Mar 1991. p.1-13. 22. The Chemistry Behind Engine Knock. C.K.Westbrook. Chemistry & Industry (UK), 3 August 1992. p.562-566. 23. A New Look at High Compression Engines. D.F.Caris and E.E.Nelson. SAE Paper 812A. (1958). 24. Problem + Research + Capital = Progress T.Midgley,Jr. Ind. Eng. Chem., v.31 p.504-506 (1939). 25. Dying for Work: Workers' Safety and Health in 20th Century America. Edited by D.Rosner & G.Markowitz. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-31825-4 (1987). 26. Tetraethyl Lead Poison Hazards T.Midgley,Jr. Ind. Eng. Chem., v.17 p.827-828 (1925). 27. Reference 1. - Chapter 20. K.Owen. 28. Automotive Fuels Reference Book - 2nd edition K.Owen and T.Coley SAE. ISBN 1-56091-589-7 (1995) 29. Role of Lead Antiknocks in Modern Gasolines. A.J.Pahnke and W.E.Bettoney SAE Paper 710842 (1971) 32pp. 29a. A Heavy Responsibility. F.Pearce New Scientist p.12-13. 27 July 1996 30. Automotive Gasolines - Recommended Practice SAE J312 Jan93. - Section 3. SAE Handbook, volume 1. ISBN 1-56091-461-0 (1994). 31. EPA told not to ban Ethyl's fuel additive M.Reisch Chemical & Engineering News, 24 April 1995 p.8. 32. Reference 8. - Volume 12. Gasoline and Other Motor Fuels 33. The Science of Petroleum. Oxford Uni. Press (1938). Various editors. Section 11. Anti-knock Compounds. v.4. p.3024-3029. G. Calingaert. 34. Refiners have options to deal with reformulated gasoline. G.Yepsin and T.Witoshkin. Oil & Gas Journal, 8 April 1991. p.68-71. 35. Stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratios of Automotive Fuels - Recommended Practice. SAE J1829 May92. SAE Handbook, volume 1. ISBN 1-56091-461-0 (1994). 36. Chemical Engineers' Handbook - 5th edition R.H.Perry and C.H.Chilton. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 07-049478-9 (1973) - Chapter 3. 37. Alternative Fuels E.M.Goodger. MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-25813-4 (1980) - Appendix 4. 38. Automotive Gasolines - Recommended Practice. SAE J312 Jan93. SAE Handbook, volume 1. ISBN 1-56091-461-0 (1994). 39. Standard Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel. ASTM D 4814-94d. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, v.05.03. ISBN 0-8031-2218-7 (1995). 40. Criteria for Quality of Petroleum Products. Editor, J.P. Allinson. Applied Science. ISBN 0 85334 469 8 - Chapter 5. K.A.Boldt and S.T.Griffiths. 41. Research Report on Reformulated Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel ASTM RR: D02-1347 ( December 1994 ) ASTM 1916 Race Street Philadelphia, PA 190103-1187 42. Federal Reformulated Gasoline Chevron Technical Bulletin FTB 4 (1994) 43. Meeting the Challenge of Reformulated Gasoline. R.J. Schmidt, P.L.Bogdan, and N.L.Gilsdorf. Chemtech, February 1993. p.41-42. 43a. Formulating a Response to the Clean Air Act. M.R.Khan, J.G.Reynolds. Chemtech, June 1996 p.56-61. 44. The Relationship between Gasoline Composition and Vehicle Hydrocarbon Emissions: A Review of Current Studies and Future Research Needs. D. Schuetzle, W.O.Siegl, T.E.Jensen, M.A.Dearth, E.W.Kaiser, R.Gorse, W.Kreucher, and E.Kulik. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements v.102 s.4 p.3-12. (1994) 45. Reference 37. - Chapter 5. 46. Intake Valve Deposits: engines, fuels and additive effects Automotive Engineering, January 1989. p.49-53. 47. Intake Valve Deposits' Impact on emissions. Automotive Engineering, February 1993. p.25-29. 48. Deposit Control Additives for Future Gasolines - A Global Perspective R.J.Peyla - paper presented at the 27th International Symposium on Advanced Transportation Applications. Aachen, Germany. October 31 - November 4, 1994. 49. Texaco to introduce clean burning gasoline. Oil & Gas Journal, 28 February 1994. p.22-23. 50. Additives to have key role in new gasoline era. R.J.Peyla Oil & Gas Journal, 11 February 1991. p.53-57. 51. Gasoline Ads Canceled: Lack of Truth Cited C.Solomon Wall Street Journal, Section 2, p.1 (21 July 1994) 52. Knocking Characteristics of Pure Hydrocarbons. ASTM STP 225. (1958) 53. Health Effects of Gasoline. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements v.101. s.6 (1993) 54. Odor and Health Complaints with Alaskan Gasolines. S.L.Smith, L.K.Duffy. Chemical Health & Safety, May/June 1995. p.32-38. 55. Speciated Measurements and Calculated Reactivities of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions from Conventional and Reformulated Gasolines. S.K.Hoekman. Environ. Sci. Technol., v.26 p.1206-1216 (1992). 56. Effect of Fuel Structure on Emissions from a Spark-Ignited Engine. 2. Naphthene and Aromatic Fuels. E.W.Kaiser, W.O.Siegl, D.F.Cotton, R.W.Anderson. Environ. Sci. Technol., v.26 p.1581-1586 (1992). 57. Determination of PCDDs and PCDFs in Car Exhaust. A.G.Bingham, C.J.Edmunds, B.W.L.Graham, and M.T.Jones. Chemosphere, v.19 p.669-673 (1989). 58. Effects of Fuel Sulfur Levels on Mass Exhaust Emissions. Technical Bulletin No.2 (February 1991) Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program 59. Effects of Fuel Sulfur on Mass Exhaust Emissions, Air Toxics, and Reactivity. Technical Bulletin No.8 (February 1992) Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program 60. Emissions Results of Oxygenated Gasolines and Changes in RVP Technical Bulletin No.6 (September 1991) Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program 61. Reactivity Estimates for RFGs and MeOH/Gasoline Mixtures Technical Bulletin No.12 (June 1993) Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program 62. A New Formula for Fighting Urban Ozone. T.Reichhardt. Environ. Sci. Technol., v.29 n.1 p.36A-41A (1995). 63. Volatile Organic Compounds: Ozone Formation, Alternative Fuels and Toxics. B.J.Finlayson-Pitts and J.N.Pitts Jr.. Chemistry and Industry (UK), 18 October 1993. p.796-800. 64. The rise and rise of global warming. R.Matthews. New Scientist, 26 November 1994. p.6. 65. Studies Say - Tentatively - That Greenhouse warming is here. R.A.Kerr Science, v.268. p.1567-1568. (1995) 66. Energy-related Carbon Dixode Emissions per Capita for OECD Countries during 1990. International Energy Agency. (1993) 67. Market Data Book - 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1995 editions. Automobile News - various tables 68. BP Statistical Review of World Energy - June 1994. - Crude oil consumption p.7. 69. Automotive Gasolines - Recommended Practice SAE J312 Jan93. - Section 4 SAE Handbook, volume 1. ISBN 1-56091-461-0 (1994). 70. The Rise and Fall of Lead in Petrol. I.D.G.Berwick Phys. Technol., v.18 p.158-164 (1987) 71. Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Metals: Environmental and Occupational Occurance and Exposure. Edited by L.Fishbein, A.Furst, M.A.Mehlman. Princetown Scientific Publishing. ISBN 0-911131-11-6 (1987) "Lead" p.211-243. 72. E.C. seeks gasoline emission control. Hydrocarbon Processing, September 1990. p.43. 73. Health Effects of Gasoline Exposure. I. Exposure assessment for U.S. Distribution Workers. T.J.Smith, S.K.Hammond, and O.Wong. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements. v.101 s.6 p.13 (1993) 74. Atmospheric Chemistry of Tropospheric Ozone Formation: Scientific and Regulatory Implications. B.J.Finlayson-Pitts and J.N.Pitts, Jr. Air & Waste, v.43 p.1091-1100 (1993). 75. Trends in Auto Emissions and Gasoline Composition. R.F.Sawyer Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements. v.101 s.6 p.5 (1993) 76. Reference 8. - Volume 9. Exhaust Control, Automotive. 77. Achieving Acceptable Air Quality: Some Reflections on Controlling Vehicle Emissions. J.G.Calvert, J.B.Heywood, R.F.Sawyer, J.H.Seinfeld Science v261 p37-45 (1993). 78. Radiometric Determination of Platinum and Palladium attrition from Automotive Catalysts. R.F.Hill and W.J.Mayer. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., NS-24, p.2549-2554 (1977). 79. Determination of Platinum Emissions from a three-way catalyst-equipped Gasoline Engine. H.P.Konig, R.F.Hertel, W.Koch and G.Rosner. Atmospheric Environment, v.26A p.741-745 (1992). 80. Alternative Automotive Fuels - SAE Information Report. SAE J1297 Mar93. SAE Handbook, volume 1. ISBN 1-56091-461-0 (1994). 81. Lean-burn Catalyst offers market boom. New Scientist, 17 July 1993. p.20. 82. Catalysts in cars. K.T.Taylor. Chemtech, September 1990. p.551-555. 83. Advanced Batteries for electric vehicles. G.L.Henriksen, W.H.DeLuca, D.R.Vissers. Chemtech, November 1994. p.32-38. 84. The great battery barrier. IEEE Spectrum, November 1992. p.97-101. 85. Improving Automobile Efficiency J.DeCicco, M.Ross Scientific American, December 1994. p.30-35. 86. Use market forces to reduce auto pollution. W.Harrington, M.A.Walls, V.McConnell. Chemtech, May 1995. p.55-60. 87. Exposure of the general Population to Gasoline. G.G.Akland Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements. v.101 s.6 p.27-32 (1993) 88. Court Ruling Spurs Continued Debate Over Gasoline Oxygenates. G.Peaff. Chemical & Engineering News, 26 September 1994. p.8-13. 89. Court Voids EPA rule on ethanol use in Fuel Chemical & Engineering News, 8 May 1995. p.7-8. 90. The Application of Formaldehyde Emission Measurement to the Calibration of Engines using Methanol as a Fuel. P.Waring, D.C.Kappatos, M.Galvin, B.Hamilton, and A.Joe. Sixth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels. - Proceedings, v.2 p.53-60 (1984). 91. Emissions from 200,000 vehicles: a remote sensing study. P.L.Guenther, G.A.Bishop, J.E.Peterson, D.H.Stedman. Sci. Total Environ., v.146/147 p.297-302 (1994) 92. Remote Sensing of Vehicle Exhaust Emissions. S.H.Cadle and R.D.Stephens. Environ. Sci. Technol., v.28 p.258A-264A. (1994) 93. Real-World Vehicle Emissions: A Summary of the Third Annual CRC-APRAC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop. S.H.Cadle, R.A.Gorse, D.R.Lawson. Air & Waste, v.43 p.1084-1090 (1993) 94. On-Road Emission Performance of Late-Model TWC-Cars as Measured by Remote Sensing Ake Sjodin Air & Waste, v.44 p.397-404 (1994) 95. Emission Characteristics of Mexico City Vehicles. S.P.Beaton, G.A.Bishop, and D.H.Stedman. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. v.42 p.1424-1429 (1992) 96. Enhancements of Remote Sensing for Vehicle Emissions in Tunnels. G.A.Bishop, D.H.Stedman and 12 others from GM, EPA etc. Air & Waste v.44 p.168-175 (1994) 97. The Cost of Reducing Emissions from Late-Model High-Emitting Vehicles Detected Via Remote Sensing. R.M.Rueff. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. v.42 p.921-925 (1992) 98. On-road Vehicle Emissions: US studies. K.T.Knapp Sci.Total Environ. v.146/147 p.209-215 (1994) 99. IR Long-Path Photometry: A Remote Sensing Tool for Automobile Emissions. G.A.Bishop, J.R.Starkey, A.Ihlenfeldt, W.J.Williams, and D.H.Stedman. Analytical Chemistry, v.61 p.671A-677A (1989) 100. A Cost-Effectiveness Study of Carbon Monoxide Emissions Reduction Utilising Remote Sensing. G.A.Bishop, D.H.Stedman, J.E.Peterson, T.J.Hosick, and P.L.Guenther Air & Waste, v.42 p.978-985 (1993) 101. A presentation to the California I/M Review Committee of results of a 1991 pilot programme. D.R.Lawson, J.A.Gunderson 29 January 1992. 102. On-Road Vehicle Emissions: Regulations, Costs, and Benefits. S.P.Beaton, G.A.Bishop, Y.Zhang, L.L.Ashbaugh, D.R.Lawson, and D.H.Stedman. Science, v.268 p.991-995. (1995) 103. Reference 33. Methods of Knock Rating. 15. Measurement of the Knocking Characteristics of Automotive Fuels. v.4. p.3057-3065. J.M.Campbell, T.A.Boyd. 104. Standard Test Method for Knock Characteristics of Motor and Aviation Fuels by the Motor Method. ASTM D 2700 - 92. IP236/83 Annual Book of ASTM Standards v.05.04 (1994). 105. Standard Test Method for Knock Characteristics of Motor Fuels by the Research Method. ASTM D 2699 - 92. IP237/69 Annual Book of ASTM Standards v.05.04 (1994). 106. High Sensitivity of Certain Gasolines Remains a Problem. Hydrocarbon Processing, July 1994. p.11. 107. Preparation of distillates for front end octane number ( RON 100C ) of motor gasoline IP 325/82 Standard Methods for Analysis and Testing of Petroleum and Related Products. Wiley. ISBN 0 471 94879 9 (1994). 108. Octane Enhancers. D.Simanaitis and D.Kott. Road & Track, April 1989. p.82,83,86-88. 109. Specification for Aviation Gasolines ASTM D 910 - 93 Annual Book of ASTM Standards v.05.01 (1994). 110. Reference 1. - Chapter 19. R.A.Vere 111. Technical Publication - Motor Gasolines Chevron Research and Technology Company (1990) 112. Automotive Sensors Improve Driving Performance. L.M.Sheppard. Ceramic Bulletin, v.71 p.905-913 (1992). 113. Water Addition to Gasoline - Effect on Combustion, Emissions, Performance, and Knock. J.A.Harrington. SAE Technical Paper 820314 (1982). 114. Reference 37. - Chapter 7. 115. Exhaust Valve Recession with Low-Lead Gasolines. Automotive Engineering, November 1987. p.72-76. 116. Investigation of Fire and Explosion Accidents in the Chemical, Mining and Fuel-Related Industries - A Manual. Joseph M. Kuchta. US Dept. of the Interior. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 680 (1985). 117. Natural Gas as an Automobile Fuel, An Experimental study. R.D.Fleming and J.R.Allsup. US Dept. of the Interior. Bureau of Mines Report 7806 (1973). 118. Comparative Studies of Methane and Propane as Fuels for Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition Engines. G.A.Karim and I.Wierzba. SAE Paper 831196. (1983). 119. Some Considerations of the Safety of Methane, (CNG), as an Automotive Fuel - Comparison with Gasoline, Propane, and Hydrogen Operation. G.A.Karim. SAE Paper 830267. (1983). 120. Natural Gas (Methane), Synthetic Natural Gas and Liquified Petroleum Gases as fuels for Transportation. R.D.Fleming, R.L.Bechtold SAE Paper 820959. (1982). 121. The Outlook for Hydrogen. N.S.Mayersohn. Popular Science, October 1993. p.66-71,111. 122. Hydrogen as the Fuel for a Spark Ignition Otto Cycle Engine A.B.Allan. SAE Paper 821200. (1982). 123. Hydrogen as a Fuel for Vehicle Propulsion K.S.Varde, G.G.Lucas. Proc.Inst.Mech.Engrs. v.188 26/74 p.365-372 (1974). 124. Reference 8. - Volume 13. Hydrogen Energy. 125. Reference 8. - Volume 11. Fuel Cells. 126. The Clean Machine. R.H.Williams. Technology Review, April 1994. p.21-30. 127. Fuel Cells: Energy Conversion for the Next Century. S.Kartha, P.Grimes. Physics Today, November 1994. p.54-61. 128. Hybrid car promises high performance and low emissions. M. Valenti. Mechanical Engineering, July 1994. p.46-49. 129. Water-Gasoline Fuels -- Their Effect on Spark-Ignition Engine Emissions and Performance. B.D.Peters, R.F.Stebar. SAE Technical Paper 760547 (1976) 130. ? Automotive Industries Magazine, December 1994. 131. Instrumental Methods of Analysis - 6th edition. H.H.Willard, L.L.Merritt, J.A.Dean, F.A.Settle. D.Van Nostrand. ISBN 0-442-24502-5 (1981). 132. Research into Asymmetric Membrane Hollow Filter Device for Oxygen- Enriched Air Production. A.Z.Gollan. M.H.Kleper. Dept.of Energy Report DOE/ID/12429-1 (1985). 133. New Look at Oxygen Enrichment. I. The diesel engine. H.C.Watson, E.E.Milkins, G.R.Rigby. SAE Technical Paper 900344 (1990) 134. Thorpe's Dictionary of Applied Chemistry - 4th edition. Longmans. (1949). - Petroleum 135. Detonation Characteristics of Some Paraffin Hydrocarbons. W.G.Lovell, J.M.Campbell, and T.A.Boyd. Ind. Eng. Chem., v.23 p.26-29. (1931) 136. Secrets of Honda's Horsepower Heroics. C. Csere. Car & Driver May 1991. p.29. 137. Light Distillate Fuels for Transport. E.M.Goodger. J. Institute of Energy. v.68 p.199-212 September 1995 11.2 Suggested Further Reading 1. Automotive Fuels Reference Book - 2nd edition K.Owen and T.Coley SAE. ISBN 1-56091-589-7 (1995) 2. Encyclopedia of Energy Technology and the Environment John Wiley and Sons (1995) - Transportation Fuels - Automotive Gasoline L.M.Gibbs p.2675-2698 3. Alternative Fuels for Road Vehicles M.L.Poulton Computational Mechanics Publications ISBN 1-56252-225-6 (1994). 4. Hydrocarbon Fuels. E.M.Goodger. MacMillan. (1975) 5. Alternative Fuels E.M.Goodger. MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-25813-4 (1980) 6. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology - 4th edition. Editor, M.Howe-Grant. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-52681-9 (1993) - especially Alcohol Fuels, Gasoline and Other Motor Fuels, Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells chapters. 7. The Automotive Handbook. - any edition. Bosch. 8. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals - 1st edition. J.B.Heywood McGraw-Hill ISBN 0-07-100499-8 (1988) 9. Advanced Engine Technology H.Heisler Edward Arnold ISBN 0-340-568224 (1995) 10. Alternative Engines for Road Vehicles M.L.Poulton Computational Mechanics Publications ISBN 1-56252-224-8 (1994). 11. SAE Handbook, volume 1. - issued annually. SAE. ISBN 1-56091-461-0 (1994). - especially J312, and J1297. 12. Proceedings of the xxth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels. - Held every two years and most of the 10 conferences have lots of good technical information, especially the earlier ones. - various publishers. 13. Alternative Transportation Fuels - An Environmental and Energy solution. Editor, D.Sperling. Quorum Books. ISBN 0-89930-407-9 (1989). 14. The Gasohol Handbook. V. Daniel Hunt. Industrial Press. ISBN 0-8311-1137-2 (1981). 15. The Science of Petroleum. Various Authors. Oxford University Press. (1938). - especially Part 4 "Detonation and Combustion". 16. Modern Petroleum Technology - any edition. Editor, G.D.Hobson. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-262498 ( 5th edition = 1984).

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