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soc.culture.australian FAQ (Part 2 of 6) (monthly posting)

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 - Part6 )
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Archive-name: australian-faq/part2
Last-modified: 2 April 1996
Version: 3.10

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge


PART I (separate posting)
1.About soc.culture.australian
2.How to find Australians, Australian Information
  2.1 on the net
      2.1.1 Public access sites 
      2.1.2 Gopher and WWW
      2.1.3 Weather
      2.1.4 Finding people
      2.1.5 Other
  2.2 elsewhere
3.Citizenship/Visas/Immigration
  3.1 Australian citizenship
  3.2 Dual Citizenship of other countries
  3.3 Visas
      3.3.1 For Foreigners in Australia
      3.3.2 For Australians in other Countries
  3.4 Immigration
      3.4.1 Addresses
      3.4.2 Criteria and Points System 
      3.4.3 Spouse/fiance(e) immigration              
      3.4.4 Employers sponsoring foreign employees
  3.5 Emigrants
-----------------------------------------------------------------
PART II (this posting)
4.Coming to Australia
  4.1 Quarantine
  4.2 Standards
  4.3 Cars
       4.3.1 Car Insurance 
  4.4 Shipping Information
  4.5 Miscellaneous        
  4.6 Australians Returning Home
5.Studying in Australia
  5.1 Overview of Australian Higher Education
  5.2 Postgraduate Study
  5.3 Miscellaneous Questions
  5.4 "Classification" of Australian Universities 
  5.5 Academic Addresses
  5.6 Australian Medical Schools
6.For Australians Overseas
  6.1 Radio Australia
  6.2 Newspapers:
  6.3 Australiana in the USA
  6.4 Video Conversion 
  6.5 Expatriate organisation
  6.6 Oz News
-----------------------------------------------------------------
PART III (separate posting)
7.History
  7.1 Pre-Europeans
  7.2 European Discovery
  7.3 European settlement
      7.3.1 Penal Colony
      7.3.2 Gold Rush
      7.3.3 Post WWI Immigration
      7.3.4 Miscellaneous
           (includes Tasmanian Aborigines)
  7.4 Political History
      7.4.1 Independence
      7.4.2 Aboriginal Voting
  7.5 Wars
      7.5.1 Boer War
      7.5.2 World War I
      7.5.3 World War II
      7.5.4 Korea, Vietnam and others
  7.6 National heroes/Notable Australians   
  7.7 Miscellaneous
8.Politics
  8.1 Political System 
  8.2 Voting System 
  8.3 Current governments
  8.4 Taxation
  8.5 The Independence Debate
  8.6 Mabo
  8.7 Health Care
      8.7.1 Medicare
      8.7.2 Medicare Levy
      8.7.3 Doctors
      8.7.4 Fees
      8.7.5 Public Hospitals
      8.7.6 Private Hospitals
      8.7.7 Aged Care
      8.7.8 Skin Cancer
  8.8 Economic Information
-----------------------------------------------------------------
PART IV (separate posting)
9.Geography, Natural History
  9.1 Geographic information
  9.1 Cities and Population
  9.2 National Holidays
  9.3 Weather 
  9.4 Flora
      9.4.1 Extinct Species
  9.5 Fauna
      9.5.1 Monotremes
      9.5.2 Marsupials
      9.5.3 Tasmanian devils and Tasmanian Tigers
      9.5.4 Venomous Fauna
      9.5.5 Extinct and Endangered Species
      9.5.6 Koalas
  9.6 National Symbols
      9.6.1 Flag
      9.6.2 Coat of arms
10.Australian Life
  10.1 Housing
  10.2 Schooling
  10.3 Public Transport
  10.4 Roads
  10.5 Prices
  10.6 Shopping Hours
  10.7 Crime
  10.8 Sport
-----------------------------------------------------------------
PART V (separate posting)
11.Travel
  11.1 Money      
  11.2 Jet-lag
  11.3 Responses to 3 questions      
  11.4 Travel Reports and Recommendations
       11.4.1 A Trip description 
       11.4.2 Uluru (Ayers Rock)
       11.4.3 Places of interest in Tasmania
       11.4.4 Accommodation tips to the low budget motorhome traveller (BB)
       11.4.5 Adelaide and SA
       11.4.6 Touring Australia by Motorcycle [C]
       11.4.7 Cheap travel agent [RM]
       11.4.8 Places of Interest in Melbourne
       11.4.9 Australia from south to north [JO]
  11.5 Advice for Australians in ....
       11.5.1 United Kingdom
       11.5.2 United States
       11.5.3 Canada
12.Language
  12.1 Australian pronounciation
  12.2 Australian spelling
  12.3 Australian slang, word origins
  12.4 Australian word usage (misc)
-----------------------------------------------------------------
PART VI (separate posting)
13.Culture
  13.1 Recipes and food
       13.1.1 Vegemite
       13.1.2 Sweets recipes: anzac biscuits, pavlova, lamingtons,
                                chocolate crackles
       13.1.3 Meat Pies, Damper, Galah, pumpkin soup
       13.1.4 Misc
  13.2 Songs 
       13.2.1 "Waltzing Matilda",  by Banjo Paterson (3 versions :-)
       13.2.2 "Advance Australia Fair", National Anthem
       13.2.3 "And the Band Played Waltzing Matilda", Eric Bogle
       13.2.4  "Tie me kangaroo down" (Rolf Harris)
  13.3 Literature
       13.3.1 Fiction
       13.3.2 Poetry
	- "My Country" by Dorothea McKellar
	- "The Man From Snowy River" by A.B. (Banjo) Paterson
       13.3.3 Children's Literature
       13.3.4 Non-Fiction
  13.4 Films 
  13.5 Music
       13.5.1 Classical
       13.5.2 Pop
       13.5.3 Jazz
       13.5.4 Other
   13.6 Opera
   13.7 Ballet
   13.8 Theatre
14. Contributors
-----------------------------------------------------------------

A major reorganisation has been done (June 1994) and some sections are
incomplete. Contributions welcome - send to Stephen Wales,
stephenw@mincom.com.


PART II

4.COMING TO AUSTRALIA

4.1 Quarantine

Quarantine regulations are extremely strict.  Food, furs, and any
other animal or wood products may have to be quarantined.  Pets will
have to be quarantined for several months in both countries, an
expensive procedure.

[The following section has been completely redone with the new information
 as received below - older outdated information has been removed - SW]

* Bringing animals to Australia

The quarantine restrictions have recently changed. Here is a
summary of the new details:

Summarised from a 9 page Foreign office cable, dated 27/05/94:

Approved Rabies free countries - 30 days quarantine
Cyprus, Fiji, New Zealand, Hawaii, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland,
Japan, Malta, New Caledonia, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Singapore, Sweden,
UK.

Approved Rabies free countries - 60 days quarantine
America Samoa, Christmas Island, Cook Islands, French Polynesia,
Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands,
Kingdom of Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna, Western Samoa.

Approved "Well controlled" countries, 120 days quarantine
Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, USA

The animal must have been resident in the stated country for at least 
six months. Animals from "Well controlled" countries must have been 
vaccinated against rabies at least six months and within 12 months prior
to export.

Application and fee (AU$43) should be sent to the Chief Quarantine officer
in the state in which the animal is to undergo quarantine, at least two 
months prior to the intended date of importation. Animals must meet all
requirements of a special "Animal Health Certificate", issued by an 
official civil service vet of the exporting country.

Shipment must be by an approved means (NOT a yacht), in approved and
officially sealed containers.

Quarantine centres:

Eastern Creek, Sydney NSW
Spotswood Melbourne Victoria
Torrens Island Adelaide South Australia
Byford, Western Australia

Owners may visit once per week.

Costs ( In AU$):

  Lodgement of application to import: $43
  Lodgement of a quarantine entry form: $10
  Conveyance from Port to quarantine station: $50
  Examination on arrival:
    $96 for first animal, then $38 for every extra animal
  miscellaneous services:
    $43 per  1/4 hour or part thereof, per officer
  accommodation:
    dog < 7kg: $20/day
    dog >7kg and < 20 kg: $24/day
    dog > 20 kg: $28/day
    cat: $20/day

Pregnant animals are not permitted.

Some useful addresses:

Customs:
The Collector of Customs
GPO Box 8
Sydney NSW 2001
Phone: 02 2132000
Fax: 02 2134000

Immigration:
The Secretary,
Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs,
GPO Box 25,
Belconnen ACT 2616
Phone 06 2641111
Fax 06 2643752

Quarantine
Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service,
GPO Box 858,
Canberra ACT 2601
Phone: 06 2723933
Fax: 06 2724873

4.2 Standards

* language: The national language of Australia is English.

* TV/VCR: Our TV/video system is PAL-B.  Multisystem videos (view NTSC
on a PAL TV) cost around $700.  Standards converters (output a
recordable signal NTSC from PAL, or vice versa) cost much more.  The
difference between PAL-B and PAL-D? [DH] According to the World Radio
TV Handbook, Australia uses PAL-B, not PAL-D.  The difference?  About
a MHz...  The technical differences (B vs. D) are:

	Channel width:	7 MHz vs. 8 MHz
	Vision b/w:	5 MHz vs. 6 MHz
	IF:		5.5 MHz vs. 6.5 MHz.


[PO] Australia uses the PAL video system and the PAL-D television transmission 
system (D - stands for Delay Line).  Tapes which are recorded in PAL are fully 
compatible with the Aussie system.

Tapes which are recorded in NTSC are incompatible.  They can however be played 
on NTSC playback VCRs.  The older NTSC ( > 1year ) playback VCRs required the 
use of either an NTSC (or multi-format) TV or NTSC colour video monitor 
because the signals were not converted to PAL format.  VCRs available now with 
NTSC playback capabilities convert the NTSC signal into PAL so the 
signal can be displayed directly on PAL TVs or PAL colour monitors.

Don't try to use PAL equipment (TV/VCR etc) built for other countries in 
Australia because generally, the channels are different (eg UK only uses UHF 
but VHF is still used extensively here).  Also the sound is modulated into the 
signal at a different position relative to the video signal than to some other 
countries and so you may get a picture but no sound or vice-versa.

[MJ] It is possible to buy dual standard LCD television sets, that
will work with PAL, NTSC or SECAM transmissions.  These are quite new,
quite expensive and quite cute.

* Electricity: The electricity supply is 50Hz, 240 volts everywhere
(no longer 253 volts in W.A.).  Step-down transformers are available
(but wasteful),and the 50 Hz may throw off your clock-radio and other
things using the mains as a frequency reference.  AM broadcast
stations use 9 kHz spacing, in common with most of the civilised world.
Your fancy USA radio with its 10 kHz spacing won't like this.  FM
broadcast stations use 50 micro-second pre-emphasis; USA uses 75 usec,
so the recovered audio may sound funny. [DH]

[JL] Power outlets have two slanting slots (hot and neutral, somebody else
will have to tell you which is which!) and a third vertical ground
slot. The configuration looks something like this...

		 /   \	<--- active and neutral pins
		/     \

		   |	<--- ground pin
		   |

BTW all three slots are identical in size, but the configuration
prevents the plug from being inserted incorrectly.

[MJ] Australia uses the same voltage as Britain and the rest
of Europe, but with different plugs (the British plug is different
from the European plug also).  It is thus OK to use European/Australian
appliances interchangeably if you rewire the plugs (DON'T try doing this
with American/Japanese appliances unless YOU KNOW FOR SURE that the
product has an auto configuring power supply).

* Appliances and Transformers 

[LS]: Although many people have warned about the differences in
electricity between the two countries (Aus and USA), people who have
purchased step-down transformers have reported no problems with small
appliances such as mixers and coffee pots.  Also, appliances that will
convert from 120 to 240 will need adaptors for Australian outlets.
It has been advised that you should buy these items while you are
still in the States.

[PR] In the USA, Magnetek (1 800 624 6384) transformers are: n-259mg
1000 Watt weighing 35lb, or n-257mg 500 Watt, 23lb.  $71 with a U.S.
power-cord which you can either adapt or cut off and replace
(trivial).  My take was that it was worth it for the stereo but not
much else.

[DH] Don't think it will matter where you buy it.  It is low tech, no
real cost advantage by getting it here.  As for the power rating, the
bigger the better, the more you can plug in at once (And the more
"Safe" overhead you will have) If you are concerned about weight to
ship things home, buy it in Oz.  They are a dime a dozen and available
anywhere.

[EG] First the basics.  In Canada and the U.S., power is approx. 120V,
60 Hertz.  In Australia it is 240V, 50 Hertz.  Very few appliances
depend on the line frequency (50Hz vs. 60Hz).  An exception is that
some clocks use the line frequency for timing.  I've also heard that
certain things like tape players or VCRs could potentially use the
line frequency for timing.  I brought a General Electric VCR with me
from the U.S. and it runs just fine on 50Hz.

Because just about everything runs okay on 50Hz, what people are
looking for is a device that transforms 240V 50Hz to 120V 50Hz.  I've
seen people naively say that they want something that converts 240V
50Hz to 120V 60Hz.  Such devices, which convert frequency as well as
voltage, are not necessary for most people and are extremely costly.
A simple voltage converter is all that most people need.

A crucial issue is the wattage of the converter.  Basically, this
specifies the maximum wattage that the converter can handle at any one
time.  So if you're going to run a bunch of appliances off of one
converter, you should first figure out the maximum wattage that each
may draw and add these up.  Usually appliances will have a label that
specifies maximum power usage.

One problem is that different manufacturers seem to rate things
differently.  You can get a cheap converter at Radio Shack that is
supposedly rated at 50 watts.  But when you read the fine print it
says something like "not for continuous usage".  I asked the salesman
about this (a dangerous thing to do, I know) and he said it could
handle 25 watts of continuous use.  Make sure that the rating you get
is for continuous use.  Also, be aware that reputable U.S.
manufacturers are likely to be more conservative in their ratings than
cheap imports.  I bought a high-quality transformer from a U.S.
manufacturer (Stancor) that's rated at 150 watts (at constant use).  I
have another transformer (made in Taiwan) that is about the same size
and claims to handle 500 watts.

The next issue is whether the transformer is grounded or not.  I'm not
sure why, but most of the transformers I've seen are not grounded.
For safety reasons it is best to get a transformer that will ground
your 3-pin appliances.

An additional issue is whether the transformer is a normal transformer
(autotransformer) or an isolation transformer.  An isolation
transformer will provide a cleaner power source than an
autotransformer since there is no direct DC path for voltage spikes to
follow.  I've seen isolation transformers recommended for computer
equipment.  This isn't necessary but if you want the extra protection
an isolation transformer is better than an autotransformer.

The next question is: where can you buy a transformer?  That's a good
question.  When I knew I was going to move to Australia, I called
around to a bunch of local electronics stores and electrical supply
houses to try to find a good quality, grounded, isolation transformer.
I couldn't find one locally, but was able to get one by mail order
from Allied Electronics.  I bought a Stancor GISD-150 transformer
(GISD = Grounded Isolation Step-Down).  It is designed to convert 230V
to 115V, and hence will convert 240V to 120V.  The input to that
converter is a grounded 3-pin U.S. 230V plug, and the output is the
standard U.S. 3-pin jack, which I have a power strip plugged into.
Since Allied Electronics also had Australian power cords, I bought one
of those and got the necessary 230V jack (at Hechinger's) to add to
the end of the cord.  Alternatively, one could buy the necessary
Australian plug and replace the U.S. plug.  In any event, it cost me
$60 for the transformer and $10 for the Australian power cord.  I'm
not necessarily recommending this route for making an Australian
transformer (because I don't know of the alternatives), but this is
what I did and it has worked fine for me.

Incidentally, I did find other non-grounded transformers locally.
They were much less expensive...approximately $25 for seemingly
low-quality transformers rated at 150 watts.  Allied sells a whole
line of Stancor transformers, with a wide variety of wattage ratings
and a choice of grounded vs. non-grounded and isolation vs.
autotransformer.  They also have an 800 number (1 800 433 5700).

* Monitors

[DE] If you have a Macintosh 12" colour monitor it won't work on 240
volts in Australia unless you buy a transformer. All other Macintosh
monitors should be dual 110/240 volts, and you will only need to cut
the plug off and put an Australian plug back on. Check the back of
your monitor to see what the specifications are. You will need 50 Hz
as well as 240 volts.

[MJ] Whilst on Macintoshes, some (eg the SE) have autoconfiguring
power supplies, others (eg classic) do not, so you should be careful.

[TT] Further on Macs, as far as I know, all Apple machines after the 
*Plus* have UPS

[Can someone verify that last statement please - SW]

* Telephone: The telephone system is strictly regulated, but has
recently undergone a change from a monopoly to some real competition.
There are currently two national land-line telecommunications
carriers: Telecom and Optus; and three national mobile telephone
carriers: Telecom, Optus and Vodaphone.  From 1997 onwards unlimited
competition will be permitted.  Austel is the Federal Government's
telecommunications regulatory body.

In the meantime, don't even _think_ about connecting your answering
machine etc to it; it must bear an appropriate "Austel" compliance
sticker.  Besides, the signalling conventions are different (two short
rings instead of one long ring as in USA etc).  Australia is slowly
converting to AXE telephone exchanges, offering various features via
DTMF.  Examples are Call-Waiting, Third-Party-Conference etc.  Local
calls attract a flat fee, irrespective of duration; there have been
proposals floated to introduce timed local calls, but so far the
Federal Government has not had the courage to introduce it.  "Free"
calls exist - they are 008 numbers (like USA 800 numbers).  The other
end of the spectrum also exists - don't call 0055 numbers unless you
like paying a timed fee to the service provider - in some cases (time
etc) free alternatives exist.  There are various "free" services, such
as Time (1194), News (1199) etc.  There are also numbers starting with
"13" - they offer the same number country-wide, and are routed to the
nearest service provider (courier companies, airlines etc).  Finally,
a mobile telephone service is accessed via the 015, 018 and 041
prefixes; it is costed at STD rates, but the actual split of
caller/callee paying varies.  One more thing - the emergency number is
000; don't abuse it - they know from where the call was placed,
however Caller-ID is not generally available.  Cordless telephones are
prohibited imports; they will be confiscated by Customs.  Not only are
they not Austel-approved, they are not DoTaC (Dept. of Transport and
Communications) approved either, and they may stomp all over some
frequency assigned to another service. [DH]

As an aside, most 008 numbers are becoming 1800 numbers for the freecall
numbers.

* Modems [summary of responses: AN]

It seems that dial tones are the same these days, so there is no
problem usually with modems working. The thing is (as with phone and
answering machines), are they Austel approved? The fine for plugging
something non-approved into the phone socket is $12,000 apparently!
You have to get an adapter plug for the phone cord (OR wall socket).
You also have to get yet another small power supply to feed you USR
modem 9 volts or 12 or whatever it wants.

[AJ] I have US Robotics Sportster modem I bought while in the US.  It
works fine (as will the other US Robotics modems).  For the Sportster
at least you can buy a replacement for the external mains transformer
here [AUS] for around $20 (I scavenged mine).

* Currency

The Australian currency is the Australian dollar. The change from
pounds and pence took place in 1966, with the following ditty used
(to the tune of "Click go the Shears") [AW]:

In come the dollars, in come the cents
Out go the pounds and the shillings and the pence
So be prepared when the money starts to mix
On the fourteenth of february nineteen sixty six

Therese Turner (tmturner@bcsc02.gov.bc.ca) remembers the song like this :

In come the dollars in come the cents
to relplace the pounds and the shillings and the pence
change-over day is closer than you think
on the 14th of February 1966'

[My personal feeling, (not from memory, since I was born in 1966) is that
it is actually a bit of a mix of the above two - anyone care to clarify -SW]

Bob Menzies wanted to call the new currency the 'Royal'!  Apparently
although dollar is a widely used name and can cause confusion with the
greenback, it does have local (historical) relevance as it was the
name of the first locally produced currency. Another name put forward
was the 'Austral'.

The 1 and 2 cent coins have been removed from circulation, however are
still legal tender. Prices are rounded up or down to the nearest 5
cents (ie 82c -> 80c, 83c -> 85c), although plenty of the larger
retailers round down all the time.  All coins have Queen Elizabeth II
on the "heads" side. The image of the Queen used was updated (so that
she now looks old!) a few years ago.  Current coins, colour, shape
(round unless stated) and their "tails" side are:

5c: silver, echidna
10c: silver, lyrebird
20c: silver, platypus
50c: silver, 12 sided, coat of arms roo and emu holding shield of 
        6 state emblems (also commemorative alternatives). The 1966 50c
        was round.
$1: gold, 5 kangaroos, also many years had commemorative $1 coins 
$2: gold, bearded aboriginal man and southern cross

"silver" is copper nickle alloy.
"gold" is copper aluminium etc alloy.

Coins in order of size are: 5c, $2, 10c, $1, 20c, 50c.  The old $1 and
$2 notes were replaced by coins. The other notes are as follows:

new $5: Plastic film purple/grey.
 Queen Elizabeth + gum leaves/ view and plan of new parliament house in 
 Canberra.  Hologram(me) of a gum flower over a clear bird in flight.

new $10 plastic film blue/green.
 Banjo Paterson, with picture of a horseman, and some of the words to 
 "The Man from Snowy River". Also the words "Waltzing Matilda" in the top 
 right corner. Mary Gilmour, with picture of some oxen pulling a wagon.

new $20 plastic film red/green.
 Mary Reiby, with picture of ship and building.  John Flynn, with picture of
 biplane, pedal radio, human silhouette, camel & rider.  Reiby was a pioneer
business woman, Flynn formed Royal Flying Doctor Service.

new $50 plastic film yellow/orange.
David Muaipon, with picture of Aboriginal couple, building, and power
shears.  Edith Cowan, with picture of building, family group, and woman
at lectern.

new $100 plastic film.
Dame Nellie Melba, with picture of theatre proscenium arch.  Sir John
Monash, with picture of cavalrymen behind army badge, cavalry, and
horse artillery.

* Exchange Rates: Exchange rate is roughly AUS $1 = .67 US cents, Y67,
$HK5.01, $S1.03, Ringgit 1.65, $NZ1.17, $Ca0.85, Pound 0.42, FF3.65,
DM1.05, SF0.91, ECU0.55

Source: Asiaweek, September 29th, 1993. 
Legend: Y = Japanese Yen, $HK = Hong Kong dollar, $S = Singapore Dollar,
        Ringgit = Malaysian currency, $NZ = New Zealand Dollar, 
        $Ca = Canadian Dollar, Pound = British Pound, FF = French Franc, 
        DM = Deutschmark, SF = Swiss Franc, ECU = European Currency Unit

(Most newspapers should have more reliable information.)

June 94 update: AUS$1 = ~0.72 US cents.

* The metric system is used.  Conversion to the metric system
officially began in 1971 and was officially completed in 1981.  It has
been remarkably successful, with even conversational use of metric
measures more the norm than the exception. (See more in Section 12.4 on
Australian language usage)

4.3 Cars

NB. Australians drive on the left.

Anyone can import a vehicle, but all privately imported vehicles
attract the same rate of Duty and Sales Tax as commercially imported
vehicles.  If not valued before importing, the Customs value will be
normally assessed on the purchase price. There are additions and
deductions available for this method.  If owned and used overseas then
depreciation is allowed on the purchase price.  Alternatively, the
likely local value of the vehicle can be used.  There is also a limit
of one car per person per year. (Note that these conditions only apply
federally, there are state variations).

Combined Duty and Sales Tax rates:
  Vehicles under 30 yrs old, new or used
Customs Value           Sales Tax & Duty
$1 - 19583              60%
$19584+                 84%
  As above, but older than 30yrs
$1 - 26437              18%
$26438+                 36%
  Off road 4wd passenger vehicles
$1 - 22989              44%
$22990+                 58%
Motorcycles             24%

The Motor Vehicle Standards Act, 1989 makes it illegal to import a
vehicle unless:
i) it meets the safety and emissions standards applying to vehicles to
   be used on Australian roads
ii) arrangements are in place to modify the vehicle to meet these
   requirements after its arrival.

Approval will be given to import a vehicle if :
i) It has a valid compliance plate fitted; or
ii) arrangements are in place for it to be modified to have a
    compliance plate fitted; or
iii) you have a letter of compliance from the manufacturer; or
iv) you have owned and used the vehicle overseas for a continuous
    period of not less than 3 months, you are of driving age and are an
    Australian citizen or migrant holding permanent residency; or
v) the vehicle was manufactured before 1 Jan, 1974 for cars or 1 Jul
   1975 for motorbikes.

If it brought in under points iii-v, it will get a personal import
plate, rather than a compliance plate. This is sufficient to allow it
to be sold.  Note that at least some states require left-hand drive
vehicles to be converted to right-hand drive, which is likely to be
expensive (and troublesome to drive in).

[JM] Cars are more expensive here than most countries, but the days
when it was worthwhile importing your own are gone.  In the lead up to
the last election, there was considerable discussion about how much
more expensive Australian cars are, and the worst figure I heard of
was around $4,000 more for an average family saloon.  In any case, you
have to pay customs duty if you import a car and it usually isn't
worthwhile.  Be aware however of two points regarding cars in
Australia:
- European cars are luxury items, more expensive than you might expect,
- second hand values are higher than you would expect (rust isn't a
  problem so the beasts stay on the road longer.)

4.3.1 Car Insurance 

[JC] Be aware that insurance history is *personal* rather than per
policy in Australia. I had trouble with getting my Australian No Claim
bonus accepted in UK because I wanted to maintain the insurance policy
on my Australian car. A year ago when I wanted to start a policy on a
second car in Australia, my no claim bonus was accepted automatically.
I suggest you get a statement from your UK insurer stating not only
the level of no claim bonus but also the period for which you have had
no claims, since the period that it takes to get to 60% varies.

Many Australian insurers will record but not penalise you for you 'no
fault' claims i.e. where you claim through your insurer to get repairs
done quickly and then the insurer recovers the cost of the repairs
through the insurer of the other party. E.g. Someone backed into me
while I was stationary.  I claimed through my insurer who recover the
money from the other party. My 'no claim' history was preserved.

Car insurance is somewhat differently organised between UK and
Australia.  (All?) States require you to obtain 'Compulsory Third
Party' (CTP) before registration, but this is only Third Party Injury
insurance.  You can then take out a separate Third Party Property
policy (a 'bomb' policy for your car (UK: banger) which is not worth
insuring), or Comprehensive Insurance. I have never heard of Third Part
Fire and Theft in Australia.

4.4 Shipping Information

* From USA to Australia [LS]

It would appear that the cheapest way to get books to Australia is by
using an M-bag from the US Postal Service (this service is for books
only).  The surface rate for this is $.72 per pound (this is the rate
from Washington, D.C., to Sydney).  Each M-bag can contain from 15-66
pounds and from the experience of netters, it takes about 8 weeks to
arrive.  One netter said that Australian postal carriers are not
allowed to handle packages over 20 kg (~44 lbs) so the bags are opened
when they reach Australia, and the packages inside are delivered.
Therefore, put an address on each separate package inside an M-bag.
An air M-bag is available for $5.96 (same origination/destination as
previous) per pound.

Whether or not to ship your belongings from the U.S. to Australia
appears to be a highly subjective matter.  However, most people seem
to believe it is well worth the effort and expense if you have quality
furniture.  What to bring with you varies wildly, too.  It all appears
to go back to something that each person feels is important.  The only
consistency: a lot of people were sorry that they had sold electrical
appliances.  With the use of a step-down transformer, most everything
(except tvs) will work just fine.

While you will want to get your own estimates, be prepared to spend in
the thousands of US dollars (the average price seemed to be around
$6,000).  The experiences people had ran the gamut--some had no
damages and some found crates with items just thrown into the boxes.
If you are using door-to-door movers and a container, insist that the
container be packed at *your* house to avoid breakage.  Which brings
up the issue of insurance.  Be very certain that you understand what
method of determining value is used.  One person had bought more than
enough insurance to cover the value of her goods.  However, the policy
paid on the percentage of the shipment weight lost, not on a
cost-to-replace basis.

[AN] Standard insurance I was offered was $25/1000 of the value I put
on my things. I decided to value for replacement cost.

There are three basic parts of a move from the States to Australia.
The first is the packing at your house and delivery to a port, the
second is overseas shipping, and the third is customs clearance and
shipping to the final destination in Australia.  It has been suggested
by many people that you insist on having a quote broken down into
those stages.  Almost everyone felt that you would be best served (and
save *lots* of cash) by working through a shipping agent to cover
these stages rather than using a moving company for door-to-door
service.  The possibility to do either exists, and there were a couple
of people who felt door-to-door service was the best way.

There are two basic types of containers for overseas shipping: ship's
containers and waterproofed crates.  Ship's containers come in two
sizes 40' and 20' and everyone agreed that you can fit an amazing
amount of stuff in a 20' container.  The waterproofed crates are for
smaller shipments where using a container is not cost effective.

It is very important to get an inventory of what goes into every box.
Do not pack any boxes yourself.  The moving company will mark all such
boxes as "packed by owner", and this may delay you in customs.

Moving from your house to the port is based on total weight; the costs
from the States to Australia are based on volume.  So, if you were
planning on taking heavy, small stuff or big, light stuff to save
money, forget it.  However, most people felt that the approximate
weight of an average container was used in figuring weight, and
unless, you went *way* over the average, you weren't charged more.

It will take your belongings at least three months to arrive and clear
customs.  Remember to use other means (you might want to talk to a
mover about a small air shipment) to ship the stuff you are going to
have to have in the interim like sheets.

* From USA to Australia [BJ]

Surface shipping is very expensive; but also quite "flexible."
Standard price LA->Oz is $450 a cubic metre.  (Yes, that is absurdly
expensive).  Of course, one place at a whim cut the price from $450 to
$250 a cubic metre.

In general excess baggage is the cheapest; both United and QANTAS
charge $90-$100 a bag.  Still, this is cheaper than surface shipping
*AND* you get your stuff straight away.  No waiting anything up to 2
months (maybe more).  I took six bags; 2 are standard, I was charged
$400 excess baggage for the 4 bags over the limit.  (I'd been living
in the States for quite a while).  I did read in the FAQ that
Australians returning home receive baggage credits (ie. who have been
residing overseas).  Not so.  It turns out Americans migrating to Oz
receive 2 baggage credits (ie. 4 free items).  That's QANTAS,
Australia's National airline (who apparently has a bit of an identity
crisis ;-)

The bags must be no more than 70 pounds each.  That's pretty heavy.
If you are shipping appliances be warned that box and pack places
charge $40 a box (these are cardboard boxes with foam peanuts).  For a
few bucks more you can get a suitcase, though obviously some things
HAVE to be boxed and packed.  If you have a computer etc keep the
original packaging and save yourself some money.  (My obsessive
compulsive roommate kindly threw my "tatty" boxes out without asking me
- Grrrrr)

If you have books and printed matter you can save a bundle sending
them bookpost.  That's 72 cents a pound; the boxes you use must be
small enough to fit in an "m-bag" (yes, you actually get to try and
stuff them into those big canvas mailbags).  They take 4-6 weeks (I've
yet to receive my first) but at 72 cents a pound they work out to be
approximately half the price of excess baggage.

Hints about packing/moving:
+ start early; its a hell of a lot of work.
+ you really will regret those "useless" things you leave behind.
+ It costs a lot; I spent $700 moving my stuff - and I don't
   really have all that much.
+ Be prepared for many tears and anxiety attacks.
ie. MOVING SUCKS!

Customs: You get judged on the spot.  They won't guarantee how
much duty you will be charged in advanced.  Everything older than 12
months is duty free.  They may or may not charge you for personal
possessions less than 12 months old.  It comes down to the disgression
of the customs officer who examines your luggage.  If they think
you're importing stuff that you'll resell, you will get charged.
Generally, be polite and honest; declare everything, and if you're
smart you will have receipts handy.  Some inlaws of mine bought a fair
bit of stuff overseas and "forgot" about it; they got $2,000 in fines.

Duties (actually duty is both real duties (tarrifs) and sales tax;
mercifully the Oz government is finally starting to trim tarrifs).
All things electrical: 54%.  Computer Hardware: 21%.  Shoes and
Clothes (for personal use): 0%.  Computer Software: 0%.  (HEY! If
computer software is duty free then why does a game that costs US$45
(A$65) in the US cost A$150 in Australia?)

Actually that fits well with my next point; many things are much much
cheaper in the US.  Reeboks US$22-US$30.  Brand name jeans US$27-US$37
(eg. red tabs, other Levis).  I got a really good black leather jacket
for US$150.  Bitchin!  CDs US$13-17 first release.  Computer software
is cheap.  Consumer electronics are cheap.  Computer hardware is
between the same and cheaper depending on what you are buying.  eg.
CDroms and ISA cards are *MUCH* cheaper, but system units are pretty
much the same.  Even with the Australian dollar at 72cents there are
lots of bargains to be had over there!  If you're going to the US be
prepared for some heavy duty shopping!  The food is also excellent,
and once you get used to the concept (many Australians get the shivers
from it) tipping isn't that bad after all (at least for restaurants);
actually works out well for all the parties involved.  One last point;
LA does in fact have a public transport system; call 1-800-2LARIDE.
LA is by far the prettiest in the winter when there is no smog.  Lots
more to tell but that will do for now.

* From Australia to the UK

I have just moved to the UK and if you are sending a lot of books,
there is a *very* reasonable way using Aus. Post. They have this thing
called "Print Post" where you can send printed material (books, notes,
photos etc.)  for $2/kg. Parcels of books have to be divided into
groups with the weight of each group being between 6 and 16 kg (I
think, check with AP for the correct bracket) and you then get a post
bag (which weighs 1kg) to put the parcels in. The whole bag with
contents is then weighed to determine the price. This is a fifth of the
cost of the cheapest freight I could find and is post-office to
address rather than dock to dock. The delivery time to the UK is about
8 weeks, I imagine it would be similar for the US.  Even if you are
only sending 10kg of books, this is a considerable saving on sending
it via normal freight channels. [DF]

* From Edinburgh to Oz [LC]

Here's a summary of a couple of replies I received to my query
regarding shipping household goods back to Oz from the UK;
specifically from Edinburgh.  The main recommendation was to go with a
large reputably company rather than a smaller, perhaps cheaper, one.
Using the latter may involve lengthy delays, with boxes sitting in
warehouses for anything up to months at a time. Having a local office
at either end is also very useful. In Edinburgh, this narrows the
choice to Pickfords or Scotpac. (There's lots of shipping companies
based in London advertised in the London TNT mag. for Aus/NZers, but I
have no idea on how recommendable they are.) I was warned off the
former, with tales of delay and damage, while Scotpac were reported to
have involved no delays (about 3 months transit time) and no damage
(apart from a buckled bike wheel: lesson is to obtain a bike carton
from a bike shop; actually, shipping bikes is quite expensive, and we
hope to use ours as the second piece of checked-in luggage if flying
via the US).

As far as the choice between door-to-port and door-to-door goes, one
person strongly recommended the latter as saving lots of hassle,
although he did have his moving expenses paid for!! The others
reported no hassles with pickups from Sydney depots, with no extra
charges involved; one had her stuff shipped from Sydney to Armidale
(arranged in Oz) for a *lot* less than the extra it would have cost
for door-to-door.

* Airlines

It has been said that some airlines will allow persons with permanent
residence visa to enter the Australia with additional baggage at no
extra charge.  United Airlines does not allow this.  United allows two
checked bags and charges $100 for each additional bag (bags may not
weigh more than 70 pounds).  It has been said that Qantas will honor
the additional baggage deal, but this has not been confirmed. [LS] If
you are a U.S. government employee, the government will give you
additional baggage credits; make sure you check into this.

[MJ] Note that airlines flying from the US allow two pieces of
checked luggage (with no maximum weight).  Airlines flying via the
Far East have a 20kg (one bag, usually) limit.  If you are travelling from
Australia to Europe or the reverse, it therefore makes sense to fly
via the US  if you wish to take lots of luggage.  In my experience, tickets
cost about the same whichever way you fly.

[AN] For US to Australia, going to Brisbane, Sydney or Cairns, Qantas
charge US$92 for each excess bag weighing less than 70lb, US$92x2 for
each bag between 70 and 100lb, and more for bags over 100lb. The woman
I spoke to said that would be the same for going on to Melbourne.


[ST] Regarding baggage allowance for permanent residence visa holders on
airlines. The rule is that you must have a one-way ticket and the visa has
not yet been activated. Baggage allowance is doubled (4 bags instead of
2), not unlimited, and is known as the "migrant's allowance". My wife got
it when she came to Canada as landed immigrant. I was offered it now we
are going over to Australia, but could not as I was getting a return
ticket. I don't think it is universally accepted except by the destination
country's airline.

4.5 Miscellaneous

If your children are in Scouts get international transfer papers from
the local council.  Otherwise, they might not be able to get into a
troop.  Cub Scouts did not start until boys were 8 -- a bit different
than here in the US.

4.6 Australians Returning Home

From CT:

Some info for Aussies returning home....


 - Customs restrictions on returning to Australia:

>From "Customs Information For Travellers", published by the
Australian Customs Service.

 "Migrants and returning residents:

 "As a migrant or a person returning to Australia to resume permanent
  residence you may bring duty/tax free, any personal belongings,
  furniture and household articles which you have owned and used 
  overseas for the 12 months (or more) before your departure for
  Australia."

Special conditions exist for Caravans, trailers and boats, and machinery,
Plant and other equipment.


5.STUDYING IN AUSTRALIA

5.1 Overview of Australian Higher Education [CP,April '93]

A few general points: the academic year in Australian universities
usually runs from about March 1 to November 1 with an examination term
in November. Applications for undergraduate programs are usually made
through a centralised organisation in each state.  International
students wishing to study in Australia should check with the nearest
Australian embassy on where and when to send their applications.
Offers of places are usually made in late January and early February.
The costs of attending Australian Universities include the Higher
Education Contribution Scheme (HECS) charge (Graduate tax) and a
student services fee.  The student services fees vary from university
to university (at major universities its around $300 +/- $75) but the
HECS contribution (about $2300/year) is set by the federal government
and is the same for all universities. Payment of the HECS contribution
can be deferred until after graduation, however if its paid up front
there is a discount of 15%, otherwise it is repaid as a surcharge on
individual income tax. Nominally it should cost you the same (for
tuition/HECS) to get a B.Sc. in Brisbane as in Perth.

Foreign students are not subject to the HECS but instead are subject
to an annual tuition fee (the equivalent of out-of-state tuition in
the US) charged by the university [JB], half of which has to be paid
before a visa is granted (note that students in exchange programs may
be exempt from this fee). The fee varies with the university and the
degree program and is on the order of A$10-15,000 p.a. depending on
degree program (Medical, dental and veterinary programs are more:
A$20-25,000 p.a.)  Foreign students are also required to purchase
private health insurance, which currently costs ~$350 p.a.  Foreign
students are permitted to take part time employment up to 20 hours per
week during the semester and full time during vacations.

Degree programs in Australian universities show greater similarity to
British degree programs than to American ones.  Thus, even before they
start an undergraduate degree, Australian students have to choose what
general field they wish to get their degree in. In addition to science
(B.Sc.), arts and humanities (B.A.), commerce (B.Comm.) and
engineering (B.E.), these fields include professional training which
is usually only available at the graduate level in the US (e.g. Law,
Medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary Science).  As a general rule there are
no "breadth" requirements, indeed science students may not be able to
take more than 1 or 2 arts courses (liberal arts and humanities) and
vice versa. In general, ordinary degrees in arts (B.A.), science
(B.Sc.), and commerce (B.Comm.)  require 3 years of full time study.
Honours degrees in these areas usually require an extra years study
and the preparation of a small thesis. An honours degree is normally
required for admission to graduate study.  Students without an honours
degree may be required to complete a "masters preliminary year" before
being admitted to graduate programs (masters programs in
administration seem to be an exception). In the case of degree
programs which are normally four years (e.g.agriculture, forestry,
engineering) an honours degree is obtained by completing extra work
and receiving high grades in core classes.

While Australian universities do participate in local and intervarsity
sporting competitions such competition is pretty low key and there is
nothing like the big-bucks semi-professional athletic programs one
sees in the US. Athletic scholarships are unheard of.

In general, Australian universities are commuter universities.  The
vast majority of undergraduates live at home while doing their
degrees, although many share housing in suburbs close to their
university or live in residence halls or residential colleges.
Students tend not to go interstate for undergraduate study, and even
at the graduate level their is very little incentive to relocate to
another city or even another university: most do their graduate work
at the same institution they did their undergraduate work at.

5.2 Postgraduate Study [CP]

I don't know how universal my experience was (I did a MSc in
biochemistry) but my experience was that people admitted into MSc or
PhD programs in Australia were admitted to work with a specific
supervisor, i.e. the decision to take on a particular person as a grad
student rested with the specific supervisor that the student wanted to
work with. This is very different from the situation in the US where
students are usually admitted to a department and spend a year or two
taking classes and finding a supervisor/advisor to work with. In
general, Australian PhD programs don't involve any course work. Partly
because of this their "usual" duration is about 3 years and their
maximum duration is usually 4 years (cf 5 and 8 years in the US!!!!).

Another thing which is different between graduate programs in the two
countries is the way students are supported. In Australia most of the
scholarship support for graduate students comes directly from the
federal government, foreigners are not eligible for these
scholarships. Some postgraduate scholarships are offered by the
universities themselves and by charitable research foundations (eg
National Heart Foundation), these are the only ones that foreigners
are eligible for!!! In the US most graduate student support is
channeled through the universities.  There are a few federally funded
fellowships that are similar to the old CPRA's, but only a VERY few!
Most of the students in the sciences get their stipends from their
supervisor's research grants, or from federal training grants
administered by the institutions.  Alternatively they may serve as
teaching assistants (the main source of funds for humanities grad
students).

[IC] Q.  How do I find out more about Post Graduate Courses in Australia ?

A. Each year the Australian Vice Chancellors Committee, The Graduate 
Connection and the Graduate Careers Council of Australia (herein
referred to as AVCC, TGC and GCCA) produce a book:

     "Directory of Postgraduate Study"

It is usually prefixed with the year.  The current one is (obviously)
titled: "1995 Directory of Postgraduate Study".  This book contains
information on all the postgraduate courses at universities in
Australia.

There is also a section dedicated to international students (explaining
how to apply).

The book is arranged into different faculties of study (eg Business,
Education, Engineering, Health).  Each section contains a list of
the available courses, the university offering the course, the fees,
and contact phone numbers, among other things.  It also contains
sections on the various scholarships and awards available to
postgraduate students.

If you're contemplating Postgraduate study in Australia, this book is
a good resource.  The cost of the 1995 edition (432 pages) in $26 Australian.
You can buy a copy from:

     The Graduate Connection
     15 Seaview St
     Balgowlah.  Australia. 2093

     Their phone number is +61 2 949 2686.

In Australia, you should be able to get your hands on this from your
Student Services organization (at your university) or you should be
able to purchase it from a bookshop (ISSN 1035-5405).

5.3 Miscellaneous Questions

[NB: most ITs and CAEs have now been merged with or converted into
universities.)  [JB]

Q. Can I assume that a degree from a UC, IT or CAE carries just as
much weight as a degree from a University?  
A. (1) To be frank, no, but the difference is a lot less than it is
between various universities in the US. The main quality difference is
in the undergraduate degrees; an EE degree from Monash is very
theoretical, whereas one from RMIT is more practical. This is not to
say one is "better"; some employers prefer one approach, others the
other.
(2) A PhD from anywhere in Australia is equally-regarded.  
(3) [RA] adds: I wouldn't be so sure.  For people looking for academic
employment, I suspect that in most disciplines, certain supervisors
and/or departments are a lot more highly regarded than others.  I
imagine the same thing applies for Ph.D.s looking for jobs outside
academia, as well.  This is really very similar to the U.S.--except
for a very few institutions there, which are in the lucky position of
being highly prestigious in most fields, the quality and saleability
of a Ph.D. depends more on the department and/or supervisor than on
the institution.  This is something that anyone contemplating a Ph.D.
should think about carefully, though, as it is a hell of a lot of time
to invest if you aren't going to get a good degree.

Q. Is there an accrediting agency for MBA programmes (in the U.S.,
business schools are accredited by a nation-wide body called AASCB).
Should I even be looking for a parallel?
A. No. Each state accredits the universities and degrees, then the
Federal Govt (which funds them) keeps an eye on things.  Australia
really does not suffer from the shonky mailing_box_university problem
that exists in the US.

Q.  Is there higher prestige attached to certain Aussie MBA
programmes?  (If this concept has no place in Aussie culture, I
apologise. I have only experienced the U.S. educational system.  I,
therefore, constantly try to find a parallel. Here in the U.S.,
degrees from certain schools are very highly regarded ...  like
Stanford, Harvard, Univ. Chicago ...)
A. Same here. The two highest-rated in Australia are the Australian
Graduate School of Management at the University of NSW, and the
University of Melbourne Graduate School of Management. The others are
of varying quality, but all quite good by world standards.

* Which universities have the most overseas students?

[SP] The following info was extracted from: 'Campus Review' May 26-Jun 1, 1994
which reviewed Australian Universities.  Listed below are the 'top 10'
Australian Uni's in terms of percentage of overseas students.

                                   Total   Per cent 
                                 Students  Overseas
                                           Students
                                 --------  --------
Curtin Uni. of Tech.               18739     14.3
Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech.      23748     13.4
University of New South Wales      26073     13.3
Murdock University                  7454     12.6
Monash University                  36467     12.4
University of Wollongong           11056     12.2
University of Southern Queensland  12518     11.3
Australian National University     10225     10.9
University of Western Australia    12227     10.5
Swinburne University of Tech.       8831     10.1

5.4 "Classification" of Australian Universities 

I thought that it might be more useful for those unfamiliar with the
Australian Higher Education Scene to try and classify the institutions
according to their history and aims in life.  I have tried to keep my
personal biases out of the short descriptions, but they will no doubt
show through.  I have also probably left a couple of the smaller
institutions off the list - with the rate of amalgamations and
institutional divorces, it is hard to keep track off all of them (for
example there may now be a University of Northern Rivers, which
resulted from U.N.E. breaking up).  The order of the classes is NOT
meant to indicate any ranking of the universities.  A very good source
of information about these institutions is the essay in the
Commonwealth Universities Handbook, which unfortunately I don't have
handy to check on all my details!  Let me then apologise to anyone I
have left out or misrepresented in the list below.

To give you some idea of sizes,	the largest Australian universities,
(Sydney, Melbourne, Queensland, New South Wales, Monash) have 20,000+
students. Government policy makes it undesirable for institutions to
have less than 5,000 students.

Ian (iand@hydra.maths.unsw.edu.au)
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Class 1.  The large old institutions in the big cities.  I think all
founded pre WWI, these institutions offer a full range of courses at
both undergraduate and postgraduate level, including medical and legal
degrees, and large research programs.  Whether deserved or otherwise,
these universities still carry more prestige than others in their
state.

* Sydney, Melbourne, Queensland, Adelaide, Western Australia.

Class 1a.  Old, like class 1, but in a much smaller city, somewhat
limiting its development.

* Tasmania
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Class 2.  Large post WWII universities.  Originally looked down on a
little (although the standards weren't questioned [JB]) these
institutions are now very similar to those of class 1.  With those of
class 1, these institutions take the lion's share of government
research money and the good students.

* New South Wales, Monash

Class 2a.  The Australian National University was set up after WWII to
offer more postgraduate education in Australia (while many
universities had PhDs, they were nothing like as popular as they are
now [JB]).  Although it now teaches undergraduates as well, it is
still the home of the Institute for Advanced Study, which is devoted
to postgraduate education and research. It's range of courses is more
limited than those of U.N.S.W. and Monash.

* A.N.U.
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Class 3.  1960s-1970s suburban universities.  These were set up to
cater for the rapid expansion in higher education in Australia that
took place at this time.  As befitted the period, they were often set
up with unconventional academic structures (stressing
multidisciplinary courses for example), and with some programs not
offered elsewhere. Designed to be teaching and research institutions,
their full development is perhaps hampered by the difficulty they have
in attracting very good students away from the universities in classes
1 and 2.

* Macquarie, La Trobe, Flinders, Griffith, Murdoch

Class 3a. Regional universities of about the same age.  Usually
beginning as sponsored colleges of one of the institutions from
classes 1 or 2. Perhaps more conventional than those in class 3, but
otherwise having similar strengths and weaknesses, and broadly
comparable on the prestige scales.

* Newcastle, Wollongong, New England, James Cook, Deakin (Deakin was a
bit different, in that it was a CAE (Gordon IT) which was converted
[JB]).
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Class 4.  Institutes of Technology.  Although most of these
institutions have now changed their names to "university", they began
by offering undergraduate education of a more applied nature than the
traditional universities.  They gradually developed postgraduate
courses and research programs to a sufficient extent that the
distinction (in particular with respect to research funding) between
these institutions and the "lesser" universities was difficult to
sustain.  Although these are now rather large and broad institutions,
they are still somewhat different in their aims to those of classes 1,
2 and 3.

* Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, University of Technology
  Sydney (was N.S.W.I.T.), Curtin University of Technology (W.A.I.T),
  University of South Australia (S.A.I.T.), Queensland University of
  Technology (Q.I.T. and BCAE) Victoria University of Technology 
  (was Footscray I.T.), Swinburne University of Technology (was 
  Swinburne I of T) 
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Class 5.  Former Colleges of Advanced Education.  Originally set up as
undergraduate institutions, offering a limited range of courses, such
as teacher training, nursing, accounting etc.  In the Dawkins era
(mid-late 1980s), these were "encouraged" to band together to form
larger (but often quite geographically dispersed) institutions, so
that they could get a bigger share of the funding pie.  Despite their
change of status, they are probably destined to remain as essentially
undergraduate teaching institutions for the forseeable future.

* Edith Cowan, Charles Sturt, Western Sydney, Canberra, Southern
  Queensland, Central Queensland, Ballarat University College, Northern
  Territory (perhaps misplaced here...it's geographical position makes it
  a bit of a special case).

[MJ] I would put Northern Territory in Class 3a personally.  It was
founded as a college of the University of Queensland and awarded UQ 
degrees for a while.  This is definitely the Class 3a pattern,
although it happened more recently than the others in the case of UNT.

-----------------------------------------------------------------
Class 6.  Private Universities and Universities with Religious
Affiliations.  During the late 1980's private universities made their
first appearance (all the above institutions are government funded).
The loudest of these in announcing its arrival was Bond University, in
Queensland.  There still seems to be a degree of resistance to private
institutions in Australia - it is too early to tell how successful
they will be.  Mainly funding considerations dictate that these
universities offer only a limited range of courses.

* Bond, Notre Dame, Australian Catholic University (although perhaps
  this belongs in class 5)

5.5 Academic Addresses

* "The Directory" (6 months=$90 airmail, fortnightly) advertises many
academic jobs.
    Barry Thornton and Associates Pty. Ltd.
    PO Box 217
    Black Rock, VIC 3193
    Australia

* "The Australian Directory of Academics" ($130 airmail) is comprehensive.
    Universal Consultancy Services,
    PO Box 1140
    Coffs Harbour, NSW 2450
    Australia

* A useful source of information on higher education in Australia is:
    Campus (Australian campus review weekly)
    Locked bag 19
    Post Office
    Paddington, NSW 2021
    Australia

* "The Independent Monthly Good Universities Guide to Australian
Universities and Other Higher Education Institutions", by Dean
Ashenden and Sandra Milligan, 1991.
    Octopus Australia
    PO Box 460
    Port Melbourne, VIC 3207
    Australia
    +61 3 646 6688

* Carter and Stone Consulting Services. 275 Alfred St North Sydney
	Phone 62,2,955-5477.
	Contact: Sharon Stone.
	Comment: A very small agency. (Two women + one guy at last count). 
		VERY good, Very professional. No mess, no fuss.

* Clayton and Partners. Also 275 Alfred St. North Sydney.
	Phone: 62,1,959-3448
	Contact: David Burgess, Brian Clayton.
	Comment: Slightly larger, but not big enough to be impersonal. 
		Proffesional.Efficient. Have found me a few jobs over
		the years, some I've taken, some not. Do have a habit
		of finding you a job, settling you in, waiting 6
		months then ringing up to see if you want another
		job.  Generally, an impressive agency.

At present there are very few university administrators using the net.
You're unlikely to have much success in trying to contact university
registrars and vice-chancellors by email! You're much better of
sending a letter by regular mail. Remember to pay for airmail postage
if sending the letter from outside Australia!!!!  Also remember that
letters sent between mid-December and mid-February are likely to get
fairly slow responses.

If you're trying to find an email address for a student please realise
that net access is still fairly restricted in Australia and the great
majority of students do NOT have net access. This situation is
changing slowly, but at present those who are most likely to have net
access are in the sciences (particularly maths, physics, and computer
science) and engineering.

Here are some regular mail addresses of Australian universities,
together with the institutional internet domain names:

Australian Catholic University                     acu.edu.au
Christ Campus
PO Box 213 
Oakleigh Victoria 3166 

Australian Institute of Marine Science        postmast@aims.gov.au
Cape Ferguson, Queensland, Australia
Mailing Address: PMB No.3, Townsville MC, Q 4810
Ph: 077 789211,
Fax:	077 725852
Telex:	AA47165
Cable:	MARINESCI TOWNSVILLE

Australian National University,
GPO Box 4,
Canberra, ACT 2601				    anu.edu.au

Bond University
Private Bag 10,
Gold Coast Mail Centre,
Queensland 4217					     bu.oz.au

Charles Sturt University (Includes former Mitchell CAE and
Riverina-Murray Panorama Avenue		 Inst of Higher Ed.)
Bathurst NSW  7795				     csu.edu.au

Curtin University	(Former WAIT)
GPO Box U 1987,
Perth, WA 6001					     curtin.edu.au

Deakin University	(Includes former Victoria College (Rusden, Toorak, 
Geelong, Victoria 3217   Burwood) and Warrnambool CAE)  deakin.oz.au

Edith Cowan University  (Formerly WA CAE)
Pearson St,
Churchlands, WA 6018					cowan.edu.au

Flinders University
Bedford Park, SA 5042					flinders.edu.au

Griffith University
Nathan, Queensland 4111					gu.edu.au

James Cook University
Townsville, Queensland 4811				jcu.edu.au

Latrobe University	(Includes former Lincoln Inst. of Health Sciences
Bundoora, Victoria 3083   and Wodonga Inst of Tert. Educ. latrobe.edu.au

Macquarie University
North Ryde, NSW, 2109					mq.edu.au

Monash University	(Includes former Frankston, Caulfield and Bendigo  
Clayton, Victoria 3168   CAE's)				monash.edu.au

Murdoch University
Murdoch, WA 6150					murdoch.edu.au

Newcastle University
Newcastle, NSW 2308					newcastle.edu.au

Northern Territory University
PO Box 40146, 
Casuarina,NT 0811					ntu.edu.au		

Queensland University of Technology (Includes former QIT and Brisbane CAE)
GPO Box 2434
Brisbane, Queensland 4001				qut.edu.au

Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology 
124 Latrobe St
Melbourne 3000						rmit.oz.au

Swinburne University of Technology
PO Box 218 
Hawthorn Victoria 3122                                  swin.edu.au

Southern Cross University
(was Lismore campus of Uni of New England)

University of Adelaide
GPO Box 498 
Adelaide SA, 5001					adelaide.edu.au

University of Canberra (Combines Aust Inst of Sport and former Canberra CAE)
PO Box 1,
Belconnen, ACT 2616					canberra.edu.au

University of Central Queensland
Rockhampton Mail Centre
Queensland, 4702					ucq.edu.au

University of Melbourne  (Includes former VCA, State College of Vic at 
Parkville, Victoria 3052   Melbourne, negotiating with Vic College of 
			   Ag and Horticulture, 	unimelb.edu.au

University of New England
Armidale, NSW 2351					une.edu.au

University of New South Wales
PO Box 1, 
Kensington NSW 2033					unsw.oz.au

University of Queensland
St. Lucia, Queensland 4067
University of South Australia				uq.edu.au

University of South Australia (Includes former SAIT and SA CAE)
North Terrace,
GPO Box 2471
Adelaide, SA 5000					unisa.edu.au

University of Southern Queensland
Toowoomba, Queensland					usq.edu.au

University of Sydney
Sydney, NSW 2006					su.oz.au

University of Tasmania (Amalgamated with Launceston CAE?)
GPO Box 252 C,
Hobart, Tasmania 7001					utas.oz.au

University of Technology, Sydney
PO Box 123,
Broadway, Sydney 2007					uts.oz.au

University of Western Australia
Nedlands, WA 6009					uwa.edu.au

University of Western Sydney (Includes former Hawkesbury Ag. College
Hawkesbury                    Nepean and Milperra CAE's)
Richmond NSW 2753					uws.edu.au
(also includes former Orange campus of Uni. of New England)

University of Wollongong
PO Box 1144, 
Wollongong, NSW 2500					uow.edu.au

Victoria University of Technology (Includes former Footscray IT and Western 
Ballarat Road,                     Institute)
Footscray, Victoria 3011                                vut.edu.au

A *small* number of departments provide email contacts for enquires
from prospective graduate students. The following contact addresses
come from a compilation posted to soc.college.gradinfo by Nainish
Bapna (nb2@doc.ic.ac.uk):

Adelaide
Computing               Andrew Wendelborn       andrew@cs.adelaide.edu.au

Australian National
Computing               Brendan McKay           bdm@cs.anu.edu.au
Statistics		Dr. Peter Hall		Peter.Hall@anu.edu.au

Canberra
Computing               Mary O'Kane             mok@ise.canberra.edu.au

Central Queensland
Business		Kevin S. Fagg		fagg@ucq.edu.au
General			Judith Anderson		j.anderson@ucq.edu.au

Flinders
Computing               Chris Marlin            marlin@cs.flinders.edu.au

James Cook
Computing                                       compsci@coral.cs.jcu.edu.au

Latrobe University College of Northern Victoria
Accounting/Business				business@redgum.ucnv.edu.au
Computer Science				pwg@ironbark.ucnv.edu.au
General                 Vance Ashlin            ashlin@ironbark.ucnv.edu.au
Information Systems				pwg@ironbark.ucnv.edu.au
Outdoor Education				brookes@redgum.ucnv.edu.au

Macquarie
Computing		Rod Bell		rod@macadam.mpce.mq.edu.au
Computing		Glenn Johnson		glenn@macadam.mpce.mq.edu.au

Melbourne
PhD enquiries           Michael_Tomlinson       research@muwayf.unimelb.edu.au
Scholarship             Jean_McCulloch          research@muwayf.unimelb.edu.au

International students must apply through the International Office,
telephone: +61 3 344 4505  
FAX:	   +61 3 344 4504
financial aid people 
telephone: +61 3 344 7621

Monash
Computing               Lloyd Alison            gradenq@bruce.cs.monash.edu.au
                        Other addresses [JB]    gradenq@rdt.monash.edu.au
                                                gradenq@ct.monash.edu.au

Newcastle
Computing               Bryan Beresford-Smith   bbs@cs.newcastle.edu.au

New South Wales
Biomedical Engineering  Arthur Brandwood        arthurb@cbme.unsw.edu.au

Queensland Brisbane
Computing               Ian Holmes              holmes@cs.uq.oz.au
Psychology              Graeme Halford          igsh@psych.psy.uq.oz.au

Southern Queensland
Computing               M. McFarlane            mcfarlan@zeus.usq.edu.au

Swinburne University of Technology
Computing		Earl Livings		earl@saturn.cs.swin.oz.au

Sydney
Math and Statistics	Dr. Neville Weber	pg-director@maths.su.oz.au

Western Australia
postgraduate enquires                           gradprog@maths.uwa.edu.au
Computing               J. Rohl                 jeff@cs.uwa.edu.au

Wollongong
Computing               John Fulcher            john@cs.uow.edu.au
Computing		Greg Doherty		greg@wraith.cs.uow.edu.au


5.6 Australian Medical Schools

There are 10 medical schools in Australia.  All of them are accredited
by the Australian Medical Council and all are Government funded.
These are at the Universities of Adelaide, Melbourne, Newcastle,
Sydney, New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Western Australia, and
at Monash and Flinders Universities.  The basic qualification offered
by all of them is the combined bachelor of medicine/bachelor of
surgery (usually abbreviated M.B., B.S.).  With the exception of
Newcastle (which takes 5 years) all of these programs require 6 years
of full time study.

Until now the vast majority of medical students have entered Australian
medical schools direct from high school.  Entry is exceedingly
competitive.  International students have gained entry either through
taking an Australian curriculum through special (private) schools or
through taking the international baccalaureate.  A few students are
admitted to australian medical schools as transfer students from other
courses (e.g.  pharmacy, biological science).  Such students are usually
placed at, or very near to, the tops of their classes. 

Three universities (Flinders, Sydney, and Queensland) are now phasing in
a four year graduate entry medical school curriculum.  Flinders will
admit its first class in 1996, Sydney and Brisbane in 1997.  

The new program commenced at The Flinders University of South
Australia in February of 1996 and the quota of the international
students is filled mainly with students from the USA.  The innovative
four year medical course is designed for students who have already
developed effective skills at learning, critical analysis and problem
solving at university.  They represent a major new direction for
medical education in Australia.  By 2001, the three graduate medical
schools will be producing about 40% of all new Australian medical
graduates.

Applicants for these programs will be required to take the Graduate
Australian Medical Schools Admission Test (GAMSAT) which is being
administered by ACER.  The GAMSAT is being designed to test reasoning
abilities in the humanities, physical and biological sciences, and to
test ability in written expression.  It consists of two multiple
choice sections and a written section.  

Dr Jillian Teubner adds :

From 1997 onwards, GAMSAT will be held in April of each year, with
registration for the test closing at the end of February.  It is held
in all Australian captial cities and from the 1996 administration in
several overseas centres (including Europe, USA and SE Asia).  In 1996
there were 1935 registrations, 61 of which were in overseas locations.
These candidates were predominantly Australian residents;
international students may take MCAT.  There are 11 international
students in addition to the 6 Australian residents and the majority of
these are from the USA.

Selection for the graduate entry medical programs is going to be based
on scores on the GAMSAT, undergraduate grades in the final three years
of the first undergraduate degree, a written application and essay and
an interview process.  How much weight is attached to each of these
factors will vary from school to school. 

Chris Penington adds: (for the 1996 intake)

Applications by Australian citizens/permanent residents were due at ACER
by July 31.  Flinders, with 61 places for Australian students, selected
about 180 applicants for interview (from about 430 applicants).  These
included the 150 applicants with the highest GAMSAT scores and about 30
applicants chosen for their exceptional undergraduate performances,
strong performance on part of the GAMSAT, or significant experiences
documented in the biographical statement required with the application. 
Those who were selected for interview on the basis of their biographical
statements were required to produce supporting references at the time of
the interview.  Interviews were conducted in the AVCC common vacation
week.  In 1996 this will be the week of September 30-October 4.  ACER
gave people *very* little time to respond to interview offers or to make
arrangements for getting to them (very expensive for those unfortunates
who had to come from overseas (not international applicants, but
Australians living overseas). 

Interviews took approximately 45 minutes and were conducted by panels of
three interviewers - a medico, an academic, and a community
representative.  The interviews followed a "semi-structured" format. 
The interviewing panels were told the names of the interviewees but
nothing else about them (they hadn't seen the biographical statements or
test results).  It appears that all interviewees were asked more-or-less
the same set of questions.  To outline what I can remember of the
interview: before the interview started interviewees were given a
newspaper article to read.  At the start of the interview they were
asked to summarise the main points, then present an argument based on
facts in the article. Other sorts of questions:

Explain what something is to someone with very little knowledge. 
Describe an experience in working as part of a team.  
Given a description of a situation describe how you would allocate
people to work on a problem. 
How have you found out about medical practice?
What do you think you would like to specialise in?
What do you see as the most positive and most negative aspects of
medical practice?
Describe a goal you've set yourself and how you've gone about achieving
it.  Any setbacks? How did you overcome them?
What would be your greatest difficulty in medical school?
Given a description of a situation in which someone is under a lot of
stress describe what you'd do to help them. 
If one of your coworkers is spreading libellous rumours about you what
do you do?

The program at Newcastle (which is not restricted to graduates and does
not use GAMSAT) has a similar interview plus additional psychometric
testing.  Newcastle apparently takes a fairly high proportion of mature
students.  Their application deadline is very early (some time in June). 

Evidently other Australian medical schools have also found it desirable
to give applicants coming straight from high school a similar sort of
interview (e.g.  Monash apparently does this). 

For more information on this program, contact Dr Jillian Teubner at
jillian.teubner@flinders.edu.au or call 1800 686 3562 (which apparently
will work from the USA)


6.FOR AUSTRALIANS OVERSEAS

6.1 Radio Australia (update)

Up-to-date information on frequencies can be found on rec.radio.shortwave, 
or ftp from nic.funet.fi:/pub/dx/text/schedules/Oceania/australia.prog.txt.
(ftp://nic.funet.fi/pub/dx/text/schedules/Oceania/australia.prog.txt)

These frequencies are for August 1992:

  21740 - 0100 to 0400 GMT
  17795 - 0100 to 0400  "
  15240 - 0300 to 0500  "
  13605 - 1600 to 1800  "
   9580 - 0830 to 1500  "
  11800 - 

On the east coast of the USA, I can Radio Australia on 9580 Hz and
11800 in the morning. In the spring and summer I can get RA on 15240
late at night when they are doing sporting broadcasts.  I can also get
15365 during the evening. Radio Australia comes in better in spring
and summer in North America, than in autumn and winter, especially for
the higher frequencies, due to differences in the ionosphere.  [AN]

Sports Broadcasts [JM]: Radio Australia broadcasts the Saturday sports
program called `Grandstand' on Saturday afternoons. The broadcasts are
primarily aimed at Asia and the Pacific but the transmissions can be
received all over the world.  Grandstand is broadcast between 0200 and
0730 UT (= 1200 and 1730 AEST) on Saturdays for AFL football and 0300
and 0730 UT (=1300 and 1730 AEST) on Sundays for Rugby League. Updates
of the Sunday AFL match scores are available during the Rugby League
broadcasts.

 The frequencies published for Radio Australia broadcasts are:

  Pacific          - 17795 kHz, 15240 kHz, 11720 kHz
  Papua New Guinea - 11880 kHz
  South Asia       - 21595 kHz
  South East Asia  - 17715 kHz

 For other areas during these times, try these frequencies:

  Japan                 - 17715 kHz
  Middle East/NE Africa - 21595 kHz
  UK/Europe             - 21595 kHz
  USA/Canada            - 17860 kHz, 17795 kHz, 15365 kHz, 11910 kHz, 9860 kHz,
                           9580 kHz

            For a copy of the Radio Australia guide, write to:
      Radio Australia, PO Box 755, Glen Waverly VIC. 3150, Australia
                          Telephone 61-3-881-2222
                             Fax 61-3-881-2346

6.2 Newspapers

NYC: on 42nd St between 7th and 8th Avs., south side
UCSD: Melbourne Age (4-6 weeks late)- International Relations & Pacific
 Studies Library
Palo Alto: Mac's Newsagent, Printers Inc., Kepler's Books, Tower
 Records Bookstore
Boston: The Newsagent's in the middle of Harvard Square has 
 copies of the Australian (and maybe the Sydney Morning Herald) [AN]

"The Australian" is a national (Murdoch owned) daily which advertises
computing jobs in its Tuesday edition, and other jobs in the Wed. and
Saturday editions.  Available from most Australian consulates.
Address: The Australian, 2 Holt Street, Surrey Hills, 2010, +61 2 288 3000

Try the following on WWW:

The Age: 
http://www.theage.com.au/

The Sydney Morning Herald: 
http://www.smh.com.au/index.html

The Weekend Independent: 
http://www.uq.oz.au/jrn/twi/twi.html

Australian Financial Review: 
http://www.afr.com.au/

Australia Online: Australian News Reports: 
http://australia-online.com/anr.html

[ Others ? -SW ]

6.3 Australiana in the USA

* The Australian Catalogue Company: 7412 Wingfoot Dr., Raleigh, NC
27615. Tel: 919-878-8266 Fax: 919-878-0553.  They have a fair
selection of food [biscuits, sweets, etc], Australiana (pins,
calendars, posters), a range of Women's Weekly Cookbooks, tapes of
Australian music, boomerangs, didgeridoo, books on Australia, etc. The
prices aren't particularly cheap because they get things sent over by
air themselves, but is probably cheaper than getting them sent to you.
They will send you a free catalogue if you ring them up. [AN]

Apparently, they are also available via email at auscat@metaplex.com.

They also have the "upside down map", with North at the top, with the
caption "Australia, No Longer Down Under": McArthur's Universal
Corrective Map of the World - Gives a true perspective of how the
world looks to an Aussie. A talking piece.  Item Number: rmmc00 Price
US$8.95 + Tax & Shipping

* Koala Baskets, San Jose, CA. They will send a catalog if you ask.
Catalog is not that extensive and prices fairly high [SW].I don't 
have a phone number, I guess you can use directory assistance
in San Jose.

* Kangaroo Connection, Chicago, IL. Australian sweets, chocolate bars,
biscuits, etc. They do mail order. Their number is: (312) 248-5499.
They will send you a catalogue. They also sell a Vegemite Cookbook
($8.95).

* Down Under in Denver, Denver, CO.   Located at 2031A S. Hannibal St
Aurora CO 80013.  Phone and Fax (303) 696-1179.  Limited selection
but they are cheaper than both the Australian Catalog Company and
Kangaroo Connection. The owner's name is "Hutch" Hutcheson.  I believe
that he mail orders (call him) or he delivers to offices around the
Denver area. He tells me that he is the exclusive distributor of 
Wallaby World Cup gear in the USA.  He also has Sydney 2000 gear. [SW]

* Aussie Trader in Baton Rouge, LA.  Phone (504) 769 6154 10AM till
6PM Central Time Mon-Sat.  fax on (504) 767-2232.  They sell Aboriginal
Arts and Crafts, Didgeridoos, Boomerangs, Clothing (hats, coats, UGG
shoes etc), T-Shirts, Cards, Stationery and Viddles (Tim Tams and other
staples).  Call for more information.  Email the proprietor on
jami1@ix.netcom.com

* Vegemite: [AJ] More info on Vegemite in the U.S. I buy the medium
jars (235g.) for $4.95 from a chain store in the area --Foods of All
Nations.The address to try is:

Kraft Foods Limited
162 Salmon Street
Port Melbourne Vic. Aust.

A friend told me she wrote there looking for another product and got a
response about where she could find it wholesale--she paid the price
of the product and shipping only, no grocer markup.

In Seattle, the cheapest place I've found Vegemite is at Cost Plus
Imports for $2.19 for a small jar (115g). [GV]

Lee's Nutritions, Kendall Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts ($3/jar)

Vegemite Cookbook available from Kangaroo Connection (see above)

Vegemite availability for D.C. summary:
- Koala Blue, Tyson's II Galleria
- Dean Deluca's, Georgetown
- Beautiful Day and other health stores (maybe)
- Gourmet Giant, McLean, Cabin John Plaza Bethesda..etc
- Magruders, Rockville

6.4 Video Conversion 

* There is a service in Raleigh, NC where video conversion from any
country format to any format can be made for several types of
cassettes(BETA, VHS, VHS-C and 8 mm). This will allow playback of
videotapes made overseas, here on U.S. TV's and VCR's(NTSC System).
The service will also convert the other way around, from U.S.  system
to any of the systems used anywhere else in the world (PAL, SECAM,
etc..)

Mailing Address: INTERNATIONAL VIDEO CONVERSION
                 520 Harvest Lane
                 Raleigh, NC 27606-2217
Phone:    (919) 233-8689
Fees:     $24.90 + $5.00 S&H 
(Price of a High Grade Cassette Included, 2hrs or less)
Delivery:  Mailed back the next day, express shipping at request. 
Payment:   Cheque, Cash or Money Order mailed with tape.

* We've also had a recommendation for SOMI International.  "I have
used their services and found them to be professional, and of course
their price is good ($12.99/tape plus $3 for UPS)."
Address: SOMI International
         50 Summer St,
         Edison, NJ 08820.
         Phone 908 548 3065.  

* Another one
	Since so many of my Ozzie friends have asked me to do this for
them I thought others might need this as well. 

	Just write for a free FAQ file E-mailed.
	It explains the differences between multistandard VCRs-TVs and
Converters, benefits of both, gives a wide range of models/specs, where to
get them cheap and shipped world-wide, includes all world-standards
list and lots more (PAL camcorders too).

	jdulaney@best.com

	Also here:	http://www.best.com/~jdulaney

[ I found this to be very commercially oriented - a sales pitch sort
  of, but some of you may find it interesting..... -SW ]

6.5 Expatriate organisation

* Info on Australian contacts, organisations, news, arts, sport, etc.-  
    The Australian Expatriate
    3809 Plaza Dr, Ste 107-307
    Oceanside, CA 92056
    USA

* A sort of a professional society for expats in NY and the surrounding area-
    The Australia Society Inc.
    P.O. Box 5441
    New York NY 10185
    USA

* The Australian American Chamber of Commerce (Rocky Mountain Region)
  999 18th Street
  Suite 1370
  Denver CO 80202
  USA

  They often have social events in the Denver region for Australian expats


6.6 Oz News

Kym Horsell (khorsell@ee.latrobe.edu.au) regularly posts Australian News 
extracts to soc.culture.australian.  Here's what he has to say about it....

[KH]
			  Welcome to Oz News

This sometime service attempts to summarise local and international
news of general interest to Australians and, in particular, to the
editor. ;-) News items are gathered daily from a number of major
Australian newspapers, TV networks (including American NBC and ABC),
and other sources including just plain rumour. All sources are usually
disclosed in the body of the article concerned, and material is almost
always used without permission.  An attempt will be made to include
articles of interest to the readership as well. But no guarantees can
be made on this score.

Generally gross editorialising is enclosed between [], but entire
articles are generally summarised from other sources so various
editorial bias will creep in from time-to-time. For this the editor
makes no apology whatever. ;-) Quotations appearing between "" in
articles may be from EITHER speakers heard/seen on TV or radio, or
from the text of newspaper reports. The sources of quotations should
be apparent from context, but the editor can't guarantee this will
always be so. Non-English speakers may be translated incorrectly and,
in any case, some paraphrasing may occur since tape recordings used
for final preparation are of a poor quality (i.e. the acoustics of 
lounge rooms is pretty poor -- esp when dogs and kids may be playing
in the background).

The publication schedule is roughly 2 times per week, with about 100
lines of text associated with each day's news. On slow news days
previous or random articles will be inserted at the discretion of the 
editor.

In short, people, you are getting what you pay for here.
--
| | | | | |   Stephen Wales               | Internet: stephenw@mincom.com
|M|I|N|C|O|M  Denver, Colorado, U.S.A.    | No employer opinion included

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