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[FAQ] Aquaria: Beginning Saltwater


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                       FAQ: Beginning Saltwater Aquaria
                                       
contributed by Thomas Sasala

Copyright

   The FAQs owe their existence to the contributors of the net, and as
   such it belongs to the readers of rec.aquaria and alt.aquaria.
   Articles with attributions are copyrighted by their original authors.
   Copies of the FAQs can be made freely, as long as it is distributed at
   no charge, and the disclaimers and the copyright notice are included.
   
Contents

     * Introduction
     * Before you buy your fish...
          + The Basic Parameters
          + The Basic Components
          + Setting Up The System
     * Buying your fish...
          + Beginner Saltwater Fish
          + Saltwater Invertebrates
          + Selecting a Saltwater Fish
          + Bringing the Fish Home
     * Long Term Success - Hint and Tips
          + Maintenance
          + Worth Noting
          + An Example Saltwater Tank
       
Introduction

   So, you are wondering if a saltwater aquarium is for you. Most people
   believe that marine aquarium keeping is infinitely more difficult than
   freshwater. Not so. The simple truth is that saltwater fish and
   invertebrates are not necessarily more difficult to keep, they just
   have different requirements than freshwater fish and are a bit less
   forgiving when it comes to mistakes. If you have not read the
   beginners section, please do it now. The key to fully understanding
   this section is to understand the basics presented there.
   

              FAQ: Beginning Saltwater -- Before Buying Your Fish
                                       
The Basic Parameters

   So what's different about saltwater versus freshwater? As alluded to
   above, saltwater fish are more sensitive to changes in their
   environment. The critical parameters of a saltwater tank are pH,
   nitrate, salinity, and temperature. During the cycling process,
   ammonia and nitrite can also be a problem. These elements are not
   different from those of a freshwater tank, but the degree to which
   they may stray is vastly different.
   
   The pH of a marine tank is one of the most important parameters.
   Marine fish and invertebrates are especially sensitive to rapid
   changes in their pH, so keeping pH fluctuations within 0.2 each day is
   very critical. All marine creatures like a pH near 8.2, ranging from
   8.0 to 8.4. The pH should never drop below 8.0.
   
   The next critical parameter is nitrates. Saltwater fish are more
   tolerant of higher nitrates than invertebrates (in general), but still
   like nitrates lower than 20ppm, with less than 5ppm being required for
   most invertebrates. Reef keepers tend to quote anything higher than
   0.5ppm as unacceptable, but this is an unrealistic goal for fish-only
   or minimal invertebrate tanks.
   
   The next parameter of concern is salinity, or specific gravity.
   Loosely (very loosely), specific gravity is the amount of salt in the
   water. Many aquarists treat specific gravity and salinity as one and
   the same, but technically speaking, they are not. Specific gravity is
   temperature dependent and salinity is not. Most hydrometers
   (hydrometers measure specific gravity) are calibrated to read the
   correct specific gravity at 59F. Since this is a little low for most
   tanks, hobbyist grade hydrometers are usually temperature corrected to
   read the correct specific gravity at or around 77F (25C).
   
   In any case, most creatures will acclimate to almost any specific
   gravity (within reason), so long as it does not vary widely. The
   specific gravity of a saltwater tank should be around 1.022. It's
   worth noting that the salinity of natural sea water varies according
   to location (ocean, to lagoons, to estuaries), ranging anywhere from
   1.020 to 1.030. So different fish might be native to different
   salinities, and may need some time to acclimate to a different
   salinity.
   
   Finally, the temperature of a saltwater tank is basically the same as
   a freshwater tank. Anywhere between 75F to 80F (24C - 27C), with 77F
   (25C) being a good midpoint. Wild temperature variations increase fish
   stress and invariably lead to disease, so a good heater (or chiller)
   is a must. As an aside, submersible heaters tend to be preferred over
   hang on the back kinds. Also, they seem to be somewhat more reliable
   than the less expensive `clip-on' kind.
   
   Other parameters worth keeping an eye on are alkalinity and calcium.
   The alkalinity of a saltwater tank is really critical for long term
   success. Without a decent alkalinity reading, the pH of the tank will
   drop over time and endanger the lives of your pets. The alkalinity of
   a saltwater tank should be around 2.5 to 3.5 meq/l.
   
   Calcium is more of a reef keeper's issue than a fish-only tank.
   However, once you advance and wish to keep invertebrates, monitoring
   calcium levels becomes a must. Without calcium, and other trace
   elements, invertebrates can not properly form their exoskeletons and
   will not survive. Calcium levels should be 400 to 450 ppm Ca++. For
   more information about adding calcium, see the REEFKEEPERS' FAQ.
   
   Some of the more easier to keep invertebrates, such as shrimps, also
   need regular supplements of iodine and other trace elements. Most
   foods will supply the necessary amounts of these elements. However, if
   you are using a protein skimmer, these elements will be stripped from
   the water and need to be replaced manually. Once a gain the
   reefkeeper's FAQ has more information about trace element additions.
   
The Basic Components

   Now that we are comfortable with the basic parameters of a saltwater
   aquarium, let's look into what is needed to run a successful tank.
   
   The components needed to run a successful saltwater tank depends a lot
   on who you talk to. You should never operate solely under the advice
   of one person. For example, many people advocate using under gravel
   filters for biological filtration. This however, must be tempered with
   wisdom. A saltwater tank running an under gravel filter (UGF) with
   minimal circulation will be much more work than a than a system
   running a wet/dry filter and a couple of powerheads. Wet/Dry filters
   tend to require less maintenance, as UGF's tend to become clogged over
   time.
   
   Not to get too buried in details, the basic components of a saltwater
   tank are the tank, decorations, filtration (including protein
   skimming), lighting, water, and test kits.
   
   One of the most important decisions in starting a saltwater aquarium
   will be the size of the tank. The basic rule of thumb is the bigger
   the better. A larger tank will be easier to control and gives a bit
   more leeway for mistakes (which are inevitable). The smallest tank for
   beginners should be no less than 20 gallons, with 55 gallons being
   even better. For someone versed in fish keeping (i.e., converting from
   fresh to saltwater), a 10 or 15 gallon tank will work, but is not
   suggested. In general, fish like long, wide tanks. The more surface
   area a tank has, the better the gas exchange will be and the happier
   the fish will be.
   
   Before finalizing on a tank size, remember that fish densities are
   much lower for saltwater than freshwater. That is, you can not put as
   many fish in a saltwater tank as you can in a freshwater tank. Putting
   more than 2 saltwater fish in 10 gallon tank is asking for trouble. A
   general rule of thumb is 4" (10cm) of small-to-medium fish per 10
   gallons, or 2" (5cm) of larger/fast growing fish per 10 gallons. This
   is just a rough estimate of the number of fish. There is no exact
   number since finding the stocking density has to take into account the
   filtration, maintenance, feeding schedule, etc..
   
   Beyond the number of fish you wish to keep, the tank's size will also
   affect your filtration and lighting choices, both in cost and design.
   Tanks which are 48 inches (122cm) long are usually cheaper to light
   because the lamps are more readily available. However, the larger the
   tank, the more light you will need to provide your inhabitants.
   Moreover, a larger tank needs efficient filtration to keep the system
   thriving. A good size tank is around 55 gallons.
   
   As a note, scrutinize hoods carefully. Many of them are designed for
   48" tanks, but require two 24" lamps rather than one 48" lamp. (24"
   lamps are usually more expensive than 48" lamps.)
   
   Once you have decided on a tank, make sure you have a place to put it.
   The tank should not be in direct sunlight or in an area which is very
   drafty. Also, make very certain the stand will be capable of holding
   the weight of the tank, plus substrate, plus rocks, plus water. In
   total, a 55 gallon tank will probably weigh over 800 pounds.
   
   After selecting the tank, consideration must be given to the
   substrate. It is best to use a calcareous substrate such as crushed
   coral or dolomite. These substrates will, at least initially, help
   buffer the water by adding ions to the buffering system. Generally the
   substrate should not be so tiny as to get sucked into the filter or
   pumps, and not so large as to make the tank unsightly. Also, some fish
   (e.g., Gobies) like smaller grades of substrate over larger ones.
   Something in the 2-5mm department seems average.
   
   Live sand is one substrate which has recently gained a fair amount of
   publicity. This technology is really in its infancy and is not
   recommended for beginners. You can find more information in the
   ARCHIVE.
   
   After you select a substrate, consider the filtration system you plan
   to use. Your choice in filtration may impact the amount to substrate
   you need. A UGF or RUGF filter should have about 2-3" (5cm) of medium
   grade (2-3mm) substrate covering the filter plate. You do not need
   substrate when you use non-UGF filters (e.g., hang-on-the-back power
   filters), but, most people use between a 1/2" to 1" for such tanks.
   It's interesting to note that too much substrate in a non-UGF system
   might lead to dead spots, which can kill your inhabitants (a plug for
   regular gravel cleaning). More detailed information about filtration
   can be found in the FILTER FAQ.
   
   Next, consider the decorations, of which there are a cornucopia of
   choices. Dead coral, lava rock, tufa rock, live rock, and many more.
   Coral pieces are the most popular, but are also some of the most
   expensive. Lava and tufa rock are inexpensive and may also be stacked
   to make interesting reef looking tanks. Live rock is one of those buzz
   words that people like to throw around and one which gets a lot of
   hype. Live rock is simply rock taken from a reef system which has been
   populated by many different organisms.
   
   Many aquarist dedicated to fish-only setups are beginning to discover
   the benefits of having live rock in their system. Live rock produces a
   more natural environment for the fish and also aids in nitrification
   and denitrification. This implies that the live rock is more that just
   a decoration, it is actually part of the filtration system. Although
   it is difficult to use live rock as the sole source of filtration in a
   fish-only setup, it certainly can be used effectively to reduce
   nitrates. The use of live rock in fish-only setups must be closely
   monitored though. If nutrient levels in the aquarium are high, the
   live rock will be the first to demonstrate this fact. Live rock in
   presence of high nutrient levels will grow unhealthy amounts of hair
   algae, and in some cases, cyanobacteria (slime algae). To avoid
   outbreaks of plague algaes, a few simple rules must be followed.
   
   First, you must start will high quality live rock; live rock which is
   highly encrusted in coralline algae. Avoid live rock which already has
   hair algae growing on it. Regular additions of calcium may also be
   needed to keep the coralline algae thriving. Next, you need to keep
   nitrate levels low (~10ppm) and ensure you have nearly undetectable
   levels of phosphate (~0.02 ppm). Finally, feed sparingly; decomposing
   food is one of the main avenues for introducing phosphate/nitrate and
   contributing to alga e problems.
   
   If you plan to add live rock to your system, remember live rock
   contains living organisms, so they can be killed along with any other
   organism in your tank. It's a good idea to wait until after the tank
   is set up before buying live rock. There is no good place to store
   live rock other than in a circulating tank. Trying to do otherwise
   will be disastrous and costly. Also, if you are going to put live rock
   into an established tank, the rock must be cured live rock (for a more
   detailed discussion of cured live rock, see the REEFKEEPERS' FAQ.
   
   Filtration is covered in detail in its own FAQ, with most of the
   information being relatively generic and applicable to marine tanks.
   However, there are certain caveats that should be noted. If you decide
   to use a UGF, reverse flow setups are better. A RUGF will keep
   nitrates lower by keeping the substrate cleaner and will aid water
   movement and circulation.
   
   In addition to good filtration, water movement is a must in saltwater
   aquaria. Without circulation the system will be unstable and usually
   tends to grow unhealthy amounts of algae and other undesirables. The
   easiest way to achieve water movement is to have a powerhead in the
   tank for circulation. One must be careful though, a medium sized
   powerhead in a small tank will easily make a tornado- like environment
   and cause problems for small or slow moving creatures.
   
   One of the best possible filtration systems for a fish-only marine
   tank is a wet/dry filter. Although commercial setups are fairly
   expensive, a wet/dry filter can be made very inexpensively at home
   with little effort. The ARCHIVE has a lot of information about
   constructing your own W/D filter system (as well as other fish related
   projects).
   
   Many people advocate wet/dry filters for marine tanks stating they are
   the only acceptable solution. This is simply not true. Any one of the
   popular filtration systems may be used for a marine tank. The key to
   success is providing adequate biological filtration without trapping
   excess detritus. Trapping detritus produces nitrates and inevitably
   leads to problem algae outbreaks. Which ever filtration system you
   choose, be sure to rinse the mechanical filtration media at least once
   a week. Ideally you should rinse the media in old saltwater from the
   tank to minimize the disruption of any nitrifying bacteria growing on
   the media.
   
   A part of filtration which most recently has gained wide spread
   acceptance is protein skimming, or foam fractionation. Protein
   skimmers are a must for a decently stocked saltwater tank as they
   strip dissolved organic particles from the water before they can be
   converted to nitrates.
   
   There are simply too many models and manufacturers to discuss all of
   them, but the two basic designs are air-driven and venturi. Air-driven
   protein skimmers use a wooden or glass airstone to produce bubbles in
   a column of water. Venturi skimmers use a venturi valve to inject
   bubbles into the water column. Both air-driven and venturi have
   co-current and counter-current designs, with counter-current protein
   skimmers being far superior to co-current models.
   
   In deciding on a protein skimmer, there are some basic things to
   consider. Air-driven skimmers use airstones which must be replaced on
   a regular basis (usually every month or so). Additionally, they
   usually require more maintenance than venturi skimmers to maintain
   proper skimming. Venturi skimmers on the other hand require very
   powerful pumps to achieve effective protein skimming. They are usually
   more expensive than air-driven skimmers as well. Also, any skimmer
   smaller than 24" should be avoided for heavily loaded tanks.
   
   Whichever type of skimmer you buy, the final cost of the skimmer must
   not overlook the need for an external water pump and potentially an
   air pump. A $200 venturi protein skimmer usually doesn't include a
   $150 high pressure pump; a fact that most people seem to miss the
   first time around.
   
   With the setup nearly complete, you need to consider your near-term
   and far-term lighting requirements. If you plan on having a fish-only
   tank forever, then you only need a single full spectrum bulb. However,
   if you plan to advance in your hobby and keep more sensitive animals
   such as anemones, you must carefully select your lighting (and
   filtration as well). Anemones require very strong, full spectrum
   lighting, supplemented with actinic blue. The general rule of thumb is
   a minimum of 3-4 watts per gallon, with the higher values for deeper
   tanks (greater than 18-24 inches). The standard Perfecto hood will not
   provide enough light to keep anemones alive (or other light-loving
   invertebrates for that matter).
   
   For a beginning aquarist, fluorescent lighting is probably the best.
   Metal halide lighting is really for reef keeping and heavily planted
   freshwater tanks. In any case, if you want or will need something more
   than a single lamp, your choices are limited. The best thing to do is
   to build your own hood with custom lighting, or buy one through mail
   order. Fish store prices usually preclude aquarists from getting
   proper lighting.
   
   If you select a custom fluorescent hood, then you will have to choose
   between normal output (NO), high output (HO) and very high output
   (VHO). Most people with fish-only tanks stay with NO lamps. Both HO
   and VHO lamps require special ballasts, are more expensive than NO
   lamps, and need to be replaced more often (more $$).
   
   One critical item in a saltwater tank that doesn't really fit into any
   of the above topics is that which sets it apart - the marine salt.
   There are many different brands of salt on the market, all of them
   being basically the same. The only difference among them is whether or
   not they have nitrates and phosphates. Both of these are very bad for
   aquaria, so salts which have them must be avoided. Good salts include
   Instant Ocean (IO), IO Reef Crystals, and Coralife. As a note,
   standard rock salt can not be used as a substitute for marine salt
   mixes. Rock salt does not contain the important elements that marine
   creatures need to survive.
   
   To measure the specific gravity of your saltwater you will need a
   hydrometer. There are two basic types of hydrometers available to
   hobbyist, the floating kind which usually measures temperature as
   well, and the plastic kind with a floating arm. It's basically a toss
   up as to which one to get, but the plastic kind has a larger scale and
   is easier to read.
   
   The final component needed to run a successful saltwater aquarium is
   test kits. In order of importance, they are pH, nitrate, phosphate,
   alkalinity, nitrite, ammonia and Calcium (for reef tanks, the calcium
   test kit is more important than nitrite and ammonia). A good pH test
   kit is critical, and an electronic pH monitor is even better. Ammonia
   and nitrite tests are only needed occasionally after cycling. A
   nitrate test kit is a good overall test for water quality after the
   tank becomes established. You should perform a pH test once a week and
   a nitrate test every two weeks. The other kits are not necessary, but
   may be needed to solve particular problems or after you advance to
   more delicate creatures.
   
Setting Up

   The following section briefly explains what you need to do to
   initially setup your tank.
   
   The first thing you need to do is to place the stand in it's final
   position. Make sure the stand is level in all direction. Next, place a
   piece of Styrofoam or rubber on the top of stand where the tank will
   sit. This eliminates small gaps between the stand and tank reducing
   pressure points which might cause the tank to crack after being
   filled. After the stand is positioned, place the tank on the stand.
   Make sure the tank is level in all directions. Note, a tank that is
   not level has a great chance of cracking after it is filled.
   
   Where ever you place the tank now is most likely where it will remain
   for its lifetime. You should never move a tank that has water in it
   since this is a sure way to crack it.
   
   Once the tank is placed, install the filtration. If it is an UGF, then
   place the filter plate(s) on the bottom of the tank. If it is a
   wet/dry, then connect the prefilter and all the hoses.
   
   Prior to adding the substrate, rinse it with plain water until the
   water runs clear, and then add it to the tank. On top of the substrate
   arrange the decorations. Now the saltwater may be added. The easiest
   way to add water to a tank is to place a plate on the substrate and
   pour the water onto the plate.
   
   When initially setting up your tank it is okay to fill the tank with
   dechlorinated water and then add the salt mix. However, subsequent
   water changes need to be premixed. Pre-mixing saltwater is done for
   two reasons, it gives time for the salt to thoroughly dissolve and
   also allows the water parameters to stabilize. Adding 10 gallons of
   freshwater and then an appropriate amount of salt to an established
   tank is a big mistake (and an excellent way to kill your inhabitants).
   
   One note on making saltwater. The source water you use for mixing is
   extremely important to the overall success and health of the system.
   There is more to be said about this later, but for now, realize that
   tap water probably won't be good enough for your tank.
   
   When all the water is in place, start up the filter system and check
   for any leaks (of both water and air). Let the tank sit for a day or
   so to clarify (with the filtration running). Now you can add fish.
   
   How many fish you add for the cycling process depends on the size of
   the tank and the cycling method you choose. You can cycle a tank
   without any fish at all. In this case, you add ammonium chloride to
   simulate fish waste and an initial source of nitrifying bacteria. It
   is best to get a bacteria culture from an established saltwater tank.
   This can be in the form of some substrate, old filter media, or some
   macroalgae such as Caulerpa spp.. Live rocks are also an excellent
   source of nitrifying bacteria.
   
   If you choose to cycle your tank using fish, which is infinitely more
   interesting than a tank full of circulating water, the number of fish
   needed depends on the size of the tank. In any case, two fish are
   preferable to one. If one fish dies, you will still have one to finish
   the cycling. Of course the second fish may pass on too. If all the
   fish die, then you have to remove all the contaminants from the tank
   and introduce more organisms (read this as start all over).
   
   Cycling doesn't have to be limited to fish though. Crabs and mollusks
   can also be used. However, since these organisms don't produce much
   waste, it will take longer to cycle the tank.
   

                 FAQ: Beginning Saltwater -- Buying Your Fish
                                       
Beginner Saltwater Fish

  Contributed by Mark Rosenstein and Tom Sasala
  
   It is easy to make mistakes when setting up your first saltwater tank.
   Both for the sake of the fish and your wallet, start with only a few
   hardy inexpensive fish. Most marine fish are collected in the wild
   rather than captive raised, so your mistakes impact the world's
   oceans!
   
  Damsels
  
   The best beginner fish for a marine tank are damsels. These fish are
   very hardy, being able to withstand worse water conditions than most
   other marine fish, they are not picky eaters, and they are fairly
   inexpensive. The down-side is that they are fairly aggressive. One or
   two will co-exist in a tank. There will be a lot of fighting if you
   put more in. Dealers get away with a lot in their tanks by keeping the
   tanks so crowded that none of the fish can establish a territory. This
   is not acceptable for long periods of time. It is best to use damsels
   to break in a new tank. If you are then going to add other aggressive
   fish, you can keep the damsels. If you want to keep shy or delicate
   fish, you should take the damsels back to the pet store once you and
   your tank are ready for more fish.
   
   Some damsels, such as the blue damsel and yellow tailed damsels, are
   not as aggressive as others, such as the three striped and domino
   damsels. In any case, damsels are certainly the best fish to start
   with.
   
  Mollies
  
   Some people like to break in a tank with mollies which have been
   acclimated to salt water. This gives you the benefit of starting with
   inexpensive fish and get used to maintaining salinity and pH on
   not-so-sensitive fish. Although safer, you don't achieve much marine
   experience this way. Mollies are captive raised and bred.
   
   If you buy mollies for your saltwater tank, you can acclimate them by
   dripping saltwater into the bag over a period of 6-8 hours, removing
   some water when the bag gets too full. Slowly increasing the salinity
   gives the mollies time to get used to their new environment. You can
   keep the mollies in the tank after it cycles, but any aggressive fish
   with continually harass the passive mollies.
   
  Clownfish
  
   Clownfish are related to damsels, and are fairly hardy. However, they
   are more difficult to acclimate to a new tank. Clowns, in general, are
   very territorial, but are not otherwise aggressive except to other
   clowns. They will do fine without an anemone, which is good since
   anemones are much more difficult to keep. Anemones require very clean
   water and high quality lighting. Also, each species of clown likes
   particular species of anemones, and none of them will regularly
   inhabit the inexpensive and easier to maintain Caribbean anemones.
   Some clowns are captive raised.
   
  Blennies/Gobies
  
   These small fish are somewhat hardy and are unlikely to cause trouble
   for the other fish in your tank. Some of them show a lot of
   personality, though they will get lost in a large tank. Many of these
   fish are excellent additions to a tank to help control algae. However,
   some feed by sifting through the substrate and will be very hard to
   keep fed in a fish-only tank (e.g., the mandarin fish).
   
  Tangs (Surgeonfish)
  
   Tangs are fairly hardy, though they are very susceptible to marine
   ich. Being algae eaters, they are useful to introduce when your tank
   starts growing algae. They must be fed leafy greens if there is no
   suitable algae growing in the tank (green algae). Many different tangs
   are commonly seen for reasonable prices.
   
  Triggerfish/Lionfish
  
   If you are setting up a tank for large aggressive fish, you can start
   with triggers and/or lionfish, as they are hardy. However, mistakes
   with them can be very costly, so you may want to practice on less
   expensive and easier fish. Also, carnivorous fish such as triggers and
   lions should be fed plenty of shell fish and other marine life.
   Specifically, many people feed lions feeder goldfish. This is really a
   bad practice because goldfish are freshwater fish and do not provide
   the same nutrition that a saltwater fish would. Specifically, feeding
   saltwater fish freshwater food can cause premature liver failure and
   the early demise of your fish.
   
  Angels and Butterflies
  
   These are fish that must be ignored while in the pet store - all are
   both delicate and difficult fish to keep. Many butterflies have
   specialized diets which make them hard to maintain in captivity.
   
   Batfish are also other fish that should be avoided.
   
  Others
  
   Other saltwater fish which can be attempted once you get good at
   controlling the fish's environment are hawkfishes, grammas,
   dottybacks, basslets, and wrasses. Some are more difficult to keep
   than others, but not nearly as difficult as angles and butterflies.
   
  Fishes to Stay Away From
  
   All angelfish, all butterflyfish, Pipefish, Seahorses, Long-nosed
   Filefish, Blue Ribbon Eels, Stonefish, and Moorish Idols. Mandarin
   fish should also be avoided in non-reef tanks (they are hard to feed).
   
Beginner Invertebrates

   Many people believe that invertebrates are only for mini or micro-reef
   tanks. Not so. There are quite a few invertebrates that do well in
   non-reef tanks. However, not a lot of invertebrates should be
   attempted by inexperienced saltwater fish keepers. Below is a brief
   summary of the more hardy invertebrates available to aquarists.
   
  Shrimps
  
   There are many different shrimps available on the market, with most of
   them being perfectly suitable for a lightly loaded saltwater tank. In
   fact, some shrimps are more suitable for fish and invertebrate tanks
   than for a reef tank since they like to eat corals.
   
   Some of the more popular shrimps are Cleaner shrimp Lysmata
   amboinensis, Blood shrimp Lysmata debelius, Candycane or Peppermint
   shrimp Periclimenes brevcarpalis, and Coral Banded shrimp Stenopus
   hispidus. The cleaner shrimp is denoted by a white on red stripe down
   the middle of its back. They are fairly inexpensive and easy to keep.
   They should, however, be kept in small groups (3-4), as this makes
   them more social and more likely to come out often. The Blood shrimp
   is intensely red with some white spots. It is a very striking animal,
   but usually commands a high price. The Coral Banded shrimp is very
   popular with reef keepers, but must be watched around small fish. This
   shrimp has been known to eat small fish without thinking twice.
   
   Most shrimps are scavengers and don't necessarily need to be fed
   overtly (they usually eat food dropped by fish). If your fish your
   fish consume most of the food before it makes it to the bottom of the
   tank, then some extra food should be given to the shrimps after the
   fishes have been fed, or at night (most shrimps are nocturnal).
   Shrimps readily accept most frozen foods and dried foods (brine
   shrimp, flake food, etc.).
   
   Stay away from Harlequin shrimps Hymenocera sp. as starfish are their
   only source of food.
   
  Crabs
  
   There are many different type of crabs, but the most commonly seen
   varieties are anemone crabs Neopetrolisthes ohshimia, arrow crabs
   Stenorhynchus seticornis, and hermit crabs Dardanus megistos. Anemone
   crabs live in anemones, as do clownfish (e.g., Sebae), and vary
   greatly in color and shape. They are usually acquired indirectly by
   buying an anemone, but are some times sold separately. These crabs
   should have a host anemone to feel comfortable. Arrow crabs are very
   interesting animals which should be kept one to a tank, as they will
   continually fight. Also, Arrow crabs should not be kept with Coral
   Banded Shrimps as they will fight as well. Hermit crabs are also
   interesting, and vary in color and size. Most are passive, butsome
   will eat corals and other invertebrates.
   
   Crabs are generally omnivorous and readily accept the same foods as
   your fish. Like shrimp, crabs can only eat food which has made it to
   the bottom of the tank. Thus, ensure some food is in reach of your
   crabs.
   
  Sea Urchins and Starfishes
  
   Most sea urchins and Starfishes are suitable for beginners who have a
   few months experience. Once again they vary greatly in size, shape,
   and color. Beware, some sea urchins are poisonous. Most sea urchins
   and starfish feed on detritus and algae, and small particles of food
   that have fallen within their reach.
   
  Anemones
  
   Simply put, amemones should not be kept by beginners (sorry folks).
   They all require very strong lighting and excellent water conditions.
   Do not believe a fish store guy that tells you otherwise. Unless you
   are willing to invest a lot of money in proper lighting, do not try to
   keep an anemone.
   
  Some Notes on Invertebrates
  
   Invertebrates are very sensitive to water quality. Signs of stress due
   to poor water quality will usually be exhibited first by
   invertebrates. Therefore, shrimps, anemones and other invertebrates
   should never be used to cycle a tank. Moreover, you should never add
   an invertebrate to a diseased tank or a tank which does not have
   stable water quality parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, etc.).
   
   Other points to note. Shrimps need iodine to properly molt, as well as
   calcium . If you do not change water regularly (which you should), or
   if you do not feed live or frozen food frequently, then you may need
   to supplement your water with iodine. Without proper levels of iodine,
   shrimps will not molt properly and will most likely die. Also, copper
   kills invertebrates at much lower concentrations than fish. If you
   have ever used copper in your tank, DO NOT put invertebrates into the
   tank. You will never be able to adequately remove all the copper such
   that you can keep invertebrates alive and happy. Finally, crabs
   usually outgrow their shell sooner or later. Therefore, you will need
   to provide a new larger shell (they usually try a few out before
   sticking with one, so you will probably need at least a couple).
   
  Invertebrates to Stay Away From
  
   Tridacna clams (they need strong lighting), Flame scallops (they are
   nearly impossible to feed in an aquarium as they are filter feeders),
   Octopi (they have very short life spans), Nudibranchs (they are
   difficult/impossible to feed), any hard or soft coral (they need very
   strong lighting), and sea squirts (they can release poisonous toxins
   into the water).
   
Selecting a Saltwater Fish

   Since saltwater fish are usually more expensive than freshwater fish,
   you have a great stake in getting them home alive and keeping them
   alive for the long term. You must realize that most fish you see in
   stores were swimming around the vast ocean a mere week ago. As such,
   the stress of capture and transportation can wreak havoc with the
   biological processes of the animal.
   
   The most important thing when buying a fish is to not be overcome by
   the buying impulse. Before buying any animal, you should ask `Can I
   keep it happy'. Merely keeping the fish or invertebrate alive doesn't
   mean it is happy. Fifty goldfish may live in a 10 gallon tank, but
   they certainly won't be happy or healthy. Buying a fish you know
   nothing about and then asking if you can keep this fish happy is a
   very bad practice. Also, as hard as it is to say this, don't feel like
   you are doing a sick fish any favors by taking it home. If you have
   the room and time to nurture the sick fish, then I suggest you help
   out the environment and care for the sick fish rather than letting it
   die. However, if you are just going to place the fish into your main
   tank because you don't have the time or inclination to set a up a
   quarantine tank, then don't bother. It will only result in the death
   of the fish and the lightening of your wallet.
   
   Once you decide on a particular fish, don't be afraid to ask the store
   to hold it for you. A good store will always hold a fish for you
   (don't patronize stores that won't!). Also, ask to see the fish eat.
   If the fish is healthy and eating, then it most likely is a good
   specimen. Finally, check the fish closely for spots, irregular
   patches, missing scales, and wounds. Torn fins will usually heal and
   are not much of a problem.
   
Bringing the Fish Home

   Once you get the fish home you should set the bag in the destination
   tank, thus allowing the temperature to equalize. After about a half
   hour or so, add a 1/4 cup of tank water to the bag. Repeat this
   process once every 15 minutes for an hour, removing any water if the
   bag gets too full. Any water you remove from the bag should be
   disposed of. It will most likely contain parasites and other bad
   things.
   
   After you have the fish acclimated to your tank's water chemistry,
   there are a couple of things you can do. You can place the fish
   directly into the main tank and hope for the best, you can give the
   fish a freshwater dip and then place it into the tank, or you could
   place the fish into a quarantine tank.
   
   The best scenario is to give the fish a freshwater dip and place it
   into a quarantine tank. Keep the fish in the quarantine tank for 2
   weeks and watch for signs of disease. If the fish gets sick, you can
   medicate the quarantine tank without affecting the chemistry of the
   main tank. If you are going to quarantine the fish, you should
   acclimate the fish to the quarantine tank's chemistry, not the main
   tank.
   
   If you don't use a quarantine tank, then it is a very good idea to
   give the fish a freshwater bath before placing it into your main tank.
   The freshwater bath will cause any parasites attached onto the fish to
   let go and remain in the freshwater (to die a lonely death).
   Otherwise, parasites left to their own will reproduce very rapidly in
   captivity and usually infect all the fish in the tank.
   
   To give a marine fish a freshwater dip, prepare a container of
   dechlorinated freshwater with a similar chemistry of the destination
   tank. That is, make sure the pH and temperature are as close as
   possible to the destination tank (this is critical!) . Remove the fish
   from the bag and place the fish into the container for 3 to 5 minutes.
   Watch the fish closely for signs of stress. If the fish stops moving
   or begins to float, remove it immediately and place it in the
   destination tank (either the main or quarantine tank).
   
   In placing the fish into the freshwater bath, never pour the fish into
   the container. Use a tupperware container or a net to capture the fish
   and place it into the dip. The store water should never be introduced
   to the freshwater bath, or any of your tanks. This water usually
   contains all sorts of nasty diseases and organisms.
   
   If you put the fish into the main tank and it comes down with an
   illness, it should be removed to a quarantine tank immediately. Do not
   risk spreading the illness to the other fish in the tank (although it
   may already be too late).
   
   Some more information on setting up a quarantine tank can be found in
   the Archive.
   

                 FAQ: Beginning Saltwater -- Long-term Success
                                       
Saltwater Maintenance

   The cycling process will undoubtedly be the most tense time for you
   and your new tank. So below is a guide to the first few days and
   months of your tank.
   
   Over the course of the first 4 to 6 weeks your tank will demonstrate
   the typical cycling process (which is described in detail the BEGINNER
   FAQ). During this critical time, you should carefully watch the
   ammonia and nitrites in the tank. If the fish look stressed (darting
   around the tank, gasping for air, or not moving at all), a partial
   water change might be in order. If the fish look really bad, they may
   have to be moved to another tank or storage location until the
   toxicity of the tank is reduced. You should always keep salt mix and
   dechlorinated water on hand for impromptu water changes.
   
   Along with monitoring ammonia and nitrites, you should keep a careful
   eye on the pH (you should always watch the pH, not just during the
   cycling process). The pH will tend to fall over time and needs to
   raised. The easiest way to raise the pH is through additions of sodium
   bicarbonate (i.e., baking soda). Mix a tablespoon or so of baking soda
   in a cup of dechlorinated water and slowly add it to the tank. Slowly
   means over the course of an hour or two. Baking soda will cause a
   short term drop in the pH, but will bring the pH to 8.2 over time.
   
   As time marches on, water will evaporate from the tank and need to be
   replenished. The water that evaporates is freshwater and needs to be
   replaced with freshwater. You should never use saltwater for makeup
   water (unless you want to increase the salinity of the tank).
   
   As the tank matures, algae will start to grow (usually around week 2
   or 3). Typically brown algae, otherwise known as diatoms, will be the
   first algae that shows up in the tank. Brown algae will usually cover
   everything in the tank and need to be cleaned every week or so. With
   time green algae should overtake the diatoms and the brown algae will
   disappear all together. If it doesn't, there might not be enough light
   for the green algae to out-compete the diatoms.
   
   After the tank completes cycling, it will be time for your first major
   water change. Although the amount of water you change is really up to
   you, it should be a significant portion of the water. Something like
   40 to 50%, with 100% of the water not being uncommon. When changing
   the water, the gravel should also be cleaned. There are many
   commercially available gravel cleaners on the market.
   
   The chemistry of the change water should be as close to the tank's
   water as possible. The pH should be within 0.2 and the temperature
   should be within 1-2 degrees. It is better to have the change water
   warmer than cooler (imagine the shock of a cold shower and you will
   know how your fish will react to cooler change water).
   
   After the first water change you should establish a regular
   maintenance schedule. Something like monthly water changes, weekly
   algae scrapings, and bi-weekly feedings are normal.
   
   A note on nutrition. Saltwater fish need varied diets. Constantly
   feeding your fish flake food may provide it with all the necessary
   vitamins and minerals, but this may ultimately cause a nutrition
   deficiency of sorts. Alternating between cut up shrimp and clam, flake
   food and frozen/live brine shrimp makes a good combination.
   Herbivorous fish, like Yellow Tangs, also like romaine lettuce or Nori
   (an algae regularly sold at oriental markets) on a regular basis.
   
Converting to Saltwater

   One of the most frequently asked questions in the news groups is how
   to convert from freshwater to saltwater. What equipment needs to
   replaced, what needs to purchased, etc..
   
   Most equipment used in freshwater can be used in a saltwater system,
   with a few exceptions. You should start by replacing your gravel with
   some sort of calcerous material. Examples include crushed coral,
   dolomite and argonite. Using these types of substrate tend to help
   buffer the water and produce a more stable environment. Next, you need
   to check all your equipment for anything metal. Saltwater will rust
   anything except the highest grade stainless steel. There are stainless
   steels on the market which will rust when exposed to saltwater.
   Needless to say, you need to replace or get rid of anything made of
   metal.
   
   The filtration system used in your freshwater system will usually be
   adequate for a saltwater system. However, you can use this opportunity
   to upgrade or change filtration mechanisms. Also, which ever type of
   filtration system you are using, you should add some sort of extra
   water circulation to the tank. Saltwater has a lower dissolved oxygen
   content than freshwater, so you need to keep the water in the tank
   moving. Actually, it needs to do more than move. You need to disrupt
   the surface of the water to maximize oxygen transfer with the
   atmosphere.
   
   The lighting you used for you freshwater system should also work for a
   fish-only saltwater tank. However, if you want to keep invertebrates,
   you will need to upgrade (more that just your lighting).
   
   One part of a freshwater system that needs to be replaced is the food.
   Marine fish need varied diets. You need to supply your fish with a
   combination of fresh, frozen and live food. Flake food, although
   adequate, should not be the major portion of your fish's diet.
   
   Finally, when you are ready to make the switch to saltwater, you
   really should replace all the water in your system. It is best to
   start with nitrate free water to minimize the potential for algae
   problems. Also, many people think that adding salt to a cycled
   freshwater tank will yield a cycled saltwater tank. Experience have
   shown this is not true. Saltwater nitrifying bacteria are different
   than freshwater nitrifying bacteria, so they must be cultured from
   scratch. As a note, nitrifying bacteria seem to be pH and temperature
   sensitive. So moving some gravel from a warm saltwater tank (~85F/24C)
   to a temperate saltwater tank (72F/21C) will shock the bacteria enough
   to nullify any advantage from using the gravel (e.g., to shorten the
   cycle time).
   
General Notes

   Keeping a quarantine tank is especially important for saltwater tanks.
   It can be very difficult to treat a sick fish when it is continually
   being harassed by healthier fish. Also, some medications, namely
   copper, will kill invertebrates. You should NEVER put copper into your
   main tank. Contrary to popular belief, you will never be able to get
   all of the copper out of the tank. Also, using copper in a tank which
   contains live rock will decimate the life forms populating the rock,
   as most of them are invertebrates.
   
   Source water for saltwater tanks is also very important. Although the
   water authority says that tap water is fit for human consumption, it
   may not be fit for your fish. Tap water typically contains chlorine
   and chloramine, which will kill your fish. Although these will have an
   immediate effect on your fish, there are usually other contaminates in
   tap water which need time to affect the tank. In particular,
   phosphates will cause massive growths of hair algae and potentially
   cyanobacteria outbreaks (red slime algae). Without good quality source
   water, your tank will not be the continuous joy you hoped it would be.
   
   The best water purifiers on the market are reverse osmosis units.
   These, coupled with de-ionizing resins, produce water which is 98%
   pure. If the price of a RO/DI combination is too much, then you can
   always use distilled water (not spring water). However, distilled
   water may have been stored in copper containers which will kill
   invertebrates.
   
   Before you start your saltwater tank, find a good store near you. Good
   stores will have knowledgeable staff and exhibit a general concern
   about the care of the animals. If the store has few saltwater tanks,
   with a lot of sick or dying fish, don't buy any fish there, even if
   they look healthy.
   
   The last point about keeping saltwater fish is to read, read, read.
   The FAQ is no substitution for reading a good book. Some of the best
   are The Marine Aquarium Handbook by Martin Moe, The Book of the Marine
   Aquarium distributed by Tetra Press, and The Marine Aquarium Reference
   also by Martin Moe. Also, don't be afraid to post to *.aquaria. Just
   don't forget to include all the importance specifications (e.g.,
   ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, pH, temperature, how old the tank is, how
   big the tank is, and what the inhabitants are). Happy fish keeping.
   
A Successful Saltwater Tank:

        30 gallon tank                  $30
        Custom Hood                     $20
        Custom Stand                    $30
        1 Phillips Ultralume            $11
        1 Coralife Actinic Blue $15
        Wizard Electronic Ballast       $28 (now $49 including the endcaps)
        DIY w/d filter                  $30
        Amiracle Prefilter              $50
        Eheim 1250                      $69
        DIY 30" Air-driven skimmer      $50
        Hagen 801 powerhead             $22
        Tetra Luft G Airpump            $20
        Hagen 301 (circulation)         $15
        Ebo Jaeger 100W heater          $16
        20 lbs dolomite                 $8
        Misc. Rocks                     $15
        
        2 Domino Damsels                $10
        
        Total                           $439.00

   End of Saltwater Beginner FAQ.
   

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