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[FAQ] Aquaria: Newsgroup Topics and Conversion Tables

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Archive-name: aquaria/general-faq/intro
Rec-aquaria-archive-name: general-faq/intro
Alt-aquaria-archive-name: general-faq/intro
Sci-aquaria-archive-name: general-faq/intro
Posting-Frequency: monthly

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
*  This is only a text dump of part of the Aquaria FAQs.                *
*  The web "original" may be more current, is navigatable hypertext,    *
*  and contains enhanced content not available in this posted version!  *
*  or      *

                         FAQ: Welcome to Rec.Aquaria.*
contributed by Todd Zebert
edited by Erik Olson

   Welcome to the rec.aquaria.* newsgroups! Please read this entire
   document and whatever FAQs it may suggest before your first posting.
   We hope this will help you get the most from the newsgroups, and aid
   you in getting along with the people already here.
   This document will tell you about:
    1. the FAQs (answers to Frequently Asked Questions); what they are,
       and where to find them.
    2. Other Web Sites?
    3. proper etiquette for posting to rec.aquaria.*
    4. common acronyms and other terms used here.
    5. common questions (with answers) asked about the rec.aquaria.*
   There are several Usenet newsgroups collectively referred to as
   rec.aquaria.*. They compose an international forum for the discussion
   of almost everything related to aquaria and keeping fish. If you are
   new to the aquarium hobby, you will find them a valuable source of
   advice. If you are an advanced hobbyist but new to the Usenet forum,
   we welcome your input and hope you will find some interesting
   discussions and the new information that you need to keep current.
   If you have questions about Usenet, newsgroups, posting messages, the
   net in general, general netiquette, writing standards, how to FTP,
   etc., the answers can be found in the news.announce.newusers group.
   This is the single most important group for someone new to the net who
   wants to get acquainted with the system. Some of the important files
   (all written by Mark Moraes) in news.answers you should check out are:
     * Answers To Frequently Asked Questions about Usenet
     * A Primer on How To Work With the Usenet Community
     * Hints on writing style for Usenet
     * What is Usenet?
Just the FAQ, Ma'am

   Before posting for help, please read as much of the FAQs as you can.
   Really! They will most likely tell you everything you want to know
   about almost every beginner issue (if they don't answer your question,
   WE want to know!). Reading them should be your first order of business
   and is a simple courtesy to the readers of these newsgroups who get
   tired of reading the same questions from newcomers, over and over.
   The FAQs are available in three forms: World Wide Web, FTP, and
   monthly Usenet postings. The best and easiest way to read them is
   through World Wide Web at the URL
     * (U.S. mirror)
   Outside the U.S., you may get faster access through another mirror
   site, which are listed at the URL above.
   Many of the FAQs are also posted on the aquaria groups, and
   news.answers on a monthly basis. A bit of searching through articles
   with the subject ``FAQ'' should bring up the latest copies. One word
   of caution: now that the groups have been split, not all FAQs are
   posted to all newsgroups; some may be only found on relevant groups.
   If you do not have web access but do have ftp access, these text-only
   versions can also be downloaded from the Usenet FAQ archive at
Other Web Sites

   With the explosive growth of the web over the past few years, there
   are so many sites coming and going that it's impossible to name them
   here. One way to find them is to use your favorite search engine.
   Another good "jumping off place" is Fish Link Central, at The old Caltech index at is being phased out, but should
   remain for a time.
Posting to rec.aquaria.*

   If the following instructions seem unclear, read the newsgroups for a
   few weeks (called ``lurking'') and you'll get the hang of the way
   things work. There are many readers of rec.aquaria.*, some are old
   pros, some newcomers, but all would appreciate it if you would follow
   a few simple requests when posting. Remember, you're asking them for
   help so you should play by their rules!
   1) If you've looked around for the information requested, but come up
   with contradictory information, no information, or don't understand
   the information, please say so. This will show that you've been
   actively seeking out the information yourself.
   Also, PLEASE PLEASE do not buy a fish and THEN ask the newsgroup how
   you can properly care for it. Ask questions FIRST and read as much as
   you can BEFORE buying the fish. Allow several days for people to get
   back to you. Most stores will hold a fish for you if you ask. It also
   does not hurt to introduce yourself, and come to know the owner or
   some of the employees at your favorite store. They will be more
   willing to do things for you if they know you are a loyal customer. It
   is poor husbandry to buy a fish not knowing if you can keep it
   2) Fill in the rest of the subject line with a brief description of
   the problem or a couple of words that describe the concern of the
   post. A descriptive subject line is more likely to get read and
   responded to than a vague one (``Goldfish has white spots'' is better
   than ``Help!!'').
   3) When asking for help, please give a complete description of your
   tank size, lighting, filtration, its inhabitants and their sizes**,
   how long you've had it running, measures of water quality such as
   ammonia, pH, temperature, etc. You can't expect much of an answer (or
   any at all!) unless you include enough information. (i.e. not ``HI, My
   fish died! Why? Bye'')
   **Fish sizes are measured from the tip of their head to the beginning
   of their tail fin (where the tail meets the body).
   4) Please do not use all capital letters. IT LOOKS LIKE YOU ARE
   5) Make sure your newsreader is limiting line length to a maximum of
   75 characters (or columns) otherwise it will be difficult for others
   to read your post! If you don't know how to do this, ask your network
   6) Do not post pictures to the rec.aquaria.* groups. Graphics in
   general take lots of bandwidth, and are in general disallowed in
   "non-binaries" groups. If the picture is available on a web site,
   instead include the URL where others can find it. There is a special
   group created on the alt. heirarchy for fish pictures,
   alt.binaries.aquaria. Depending on whether your ISP carries so-called
   "binary newsgroups", it may or may not be accessible (if in doubt, ask
Responding to Posts

   When responding to a post, most newsreaders will include the original
   message with some sort of character prefixed on every line, usually a
   greater-than symbol, ``>''. Please delete as much unnecessary
   information from the original post as possible, while still
   maintaining continuity of the conversation. This includes extraneous
   headers and information from the previous post that is not relevant to
   the reply.
Terms and Acronyms

   As you read posts in these newsgroups, you're likely to come across
   the following terms, acronyms, and conventions commonly referred to as
   rec.aquaria, rec.aquaria.*
          Collectively refers to all groups in the rec.aquaria heirarchy.
          As far as I know
          Four popular aquaria magazines: Aquarium Fish Magazine, Marine
          Fish Magazine, Tropical Fish Hobbyist, and Freshwater and
          Marine Aquarium.
          America Online, CompuServe Information Systems; two commercial
          Internet providers.
          By The Way.
   cut, snip
          Means part of previous post has been removed.
          Do It Yourself, home made, a device or system that is built by
          the hobbyist.
   FAQ, FAQs
          Frequently Asked Question[s].
          A message which is abusive (see below)
          For Sale.
          File Transfer Protocol, and HyperText Transfer Protocol, two
          method of transferring files.
   FW, SW
          Freshwater, Saltwater
          For What It's Worth.
          For Your Information.
          HyperText Markup Language, used for creating web pages.
          In My Humble Opinion, In My Opinion, In My Not-So-Humble
          Opinion, etc.
          Local Fish Store
          reading a newsgroup, over a period of time, to gain knowledge
          from other people's questions and answers, without posting
          anything of your own.
   MO, M/O
          Mail Order
          Four M/O businesses: Mail Order Pet Shop, Pet Warehouse, That
          Fish Place, and Wet Thumb Aquatics.
          Net etiquette. The golden rule is: RTFF!
          A beginner. Often, but not always, used in a derogatory way.
          Don't feel too bad if someone calls another a newbie.
          On The Other Hand.
          An unfortunate correlation between Plocestomus Catfish deaths
          and mention of their name on the net has led to the use of
          `pl*co' as a superstitious habit. For our protection, the
          fish's full name has been deliberately misspelled above.
          message[s] on Usenet
          The rec.aquaria re-organization.
          Rolling On The Floor Laughing.
          Read the ``fine'' Manual, or FAQ. Usually directed at people
          who ask a question without first checking the obvious places to
          find the answer. Substitute expletives beginning with F for
          ``fine'', if you like.
          Siamese Algae Eater (see the ALGAE FAQ).
          The initial message and all the following replies to it, a
          Thanks In Advance
          Undergravel Filter, Reverse Under Gravel Filter.
   WD, W/D
          Wet/Dry Filter
          Wanted To Buy.
   WWW, W3, web
          World Wide Web
          Your Mileage May Vary, basically just because something works
          well in one situation, does not mean it will in another.
   Smileys :-) ;-) :-(
          (turn the page, monitor or your head to one side if you don't
          see it at first). Smileys are used to denote emotions that
          might otherwise not be understood from the text, e.g.
          explicitly point out a statement is meant to be humorous. The
          three shown here denote humor, a wink, and sadness,
Questions & Answers

  Q: What's up with all these different groups?
   A: Due to the sheer volume of postings on the original newsgroups, a
   proposal was passed by Usenet readers in March of 1996 splitting
   rec.aquaria into several sub-groups. The official charter of the new
   groups can be found in our FAQ ANNEX. Meanwhile, the old group
   rec.aquaria has been phased out (effectively replaced by
   rec.aquaria.misc), so you should not post to it. Please avoid
   crossposting (posting to multiple newsgroups) whenever possible,
   especially to the .misc groups.
          A general discussion group for topics not covered by the other
          groups, and topics that are appropriate to more than one group
          (rather than crossposting). Post here if the topic doesn't fit
          neatly into the usual freshwater/marine division (notably
          brackish aquaria), but does not have a large enough following
          to warrant a separate newsgroup at this time. Post here if the
          topic is of broad interest to many types of aquarists. Also
          appropriate are such things as pointers to more specific
          newsgroups, ftp and web sites, and other ``meta-issues.'' If
          you don't know where to post it, it probably belongs here.
          Topics specific to freshwater aquaria which do not fit into one
          of the more specialized newsgroups, as well as topics which fit
          into multiple specific freshwater newsgroups.
          Topics specific to marine aquaria which do not fit into one of
          the more specialized newsgroups, as well as topics which fit
          into multiple specific marine newsgroups.
          Allows ads to be found easily without burying or being buried
          in general discussion. Ads related to aquaria and aquarium
          products and inhabitants by private individuals and businesses.
          While the organisms and special techniques vary, both
          freshwater and marine aquaria face a similar set of fundamental
          problems and often rely on similar devices in their solution.
          Discussion about the technology of aquarium keeping, including
          homebuilt gadgets as well as commercial devices. Discussions of
          the technical details of such devices belong here, though the
          rationale for their use may be just as appropriate in another
          All topics related to both old- and new-world cichlids.
          All topics related to goldfish and their kin.
          Another specialized group, home to any and all discussion about
          freshwater plants. Topics may span the entire range of beginner
          to expert. Samples: ``My goldfish keeps destroying my plants,''
          ``How do you grow Echinodorus horemanii?''
          The fundamental division of the marine hobby is into reef and
          non-reef aquarists. This group provides a home for reef
          specialists while allowing non-reef aquarists to avoid the
          large number of reef related posts.
  Q: What about alt.aquaria and sci.aquaria?
   A: alt.aquaria is a historical remnant from the original newsgroup
   creation wars of 1989. The full story behind this is now a fascinating
   net.legend. We recommend that you not post to alt.aquaria as the
   rec.aquaria.* groups are in place. Nonetheless, the group continues to
   receive traffic more than two years after the revision.
   Sci.aquaria's unofficial purpose is for more serious `scientific'
   discussion. Now that the new rec.aquaria.* groups are in place, there
   is no need to crosspost to sci.aquaria. This group receives very
   little traffic.
  Q: Are there any other related groups? Mailing Lists? Chat Lines?
   A: None of these other groups are supported by this documentation or
   any of its FAQs or archives, but they do have related themes:
     * rec.ponds -- keeping outdoor ponds (usually with Koi and goldfish)
     * alt.aquaria.killies -- keeping Killifishes.
     * alt.aquaria.oscars -- keeping Oscars. Group created mid-1998 by
       Mark Stone of Oscar Study Page fame.
     * alt.binaries.aquaria -- pictures, may not be carried by many
   There are also some E-mailing lists. Here are some we know about:
List Name       Server Address                     What to Send as Message Body

Discus-L            SUBSCRIBE Discus-L
Cichlids,          subscribe cichlid Your Name
Dwarf Cichlids         subscribe Your Name
Aquatic Plants               subscribe aquatic-plants
Goldfish subscribe goldfish
Killies    subscribe killies

   For instance, to subscribe to the Aquatic Plants list, send e-mail to with the line "subscribe aquatic-plants" as the
   message body.
   Finally, there are interactive ``chat'' services, such as Fishroom, a
   classy virtual meeting place resembling the ultimate fish nerd's dream
   house. Fishroom was set up by Kevin Carpenter, and is accessible 24
   hours a day. Specialized groups now have meeting times when you might
   be able to talk to some experts. Simply
   telnet 1025
   and follow the directions. It is important to telnet to port 1025, or
   else you will get a normal boring unix prompt. Further help is
   available on the WWW, or via anonymous ftp from
  Q: Can I post Non-commercial Advertisements?
   A: Yes! There is a newsgroup just for you: rec.aquaria.marketplace,
   which is open to both commercial and private advertisements. Here are
   some guidelines:
     * Do not crosspost to the other newsgroups!
     * Since many are suspicious of people selling things on the net, be
       sure to include why the items are for sale, especially if a profit
       motive may be suspected.
     * If selling locally, include your location in the subject line
       (``US-NY-Buffalo'', for instance). This will help your intended
       buyer find you amongst all the posts.
     * It is advisable to limit the distribution of your post when the
       item is only of interest to a local area (for instance, a glass
       tank). This is done through your newsreader while composing your
     * Finally, after the item sells, you should delete (or cancel, as
       many newsreaders call it) your original posting. Again, this is
       done through the newsreader.
  Q4: Can I post Commercial Advertisements?
   A: If you are an aquarium-related business, as of the March 1996
   re-organization, you may post to rec.aquaria.marketplace without
   guilt. Beware, though, that non-advertisement posts from companies and
   their representatives may be subject to scrutiny by wary rec.aquaria.*
   readers. General guidelines for acceptable advertising on usenet can
   be found in the ADVERTISEMENT FAQ posted to news.announce.newusers.
   Here are some tips for keeping a friendly commercial presence on the
   rec.aquaria newsgroups:
     * Do not post or cross-post your advertisement to any of the
       rec.aquaria.* groups except for rec.aquaria.marketplace.
     * Retailers who are active participants of rec.aquaria.* can include
       a reference to their business in their message signature (or
       better yet, a reference to a WWW page). People can contact you or
       your web page directly if interested in your business. Netters
       generally do not get angry about this sort of advertisement.
     * If you respond to a post with a recommendation for your business,
       make sure to be clear that you are associated with that business
       (otherwise you are likely to get a bad reputation when your
       connection is discovered). It also goes without saying that your
       response should be relevant to the original post. :-)
     * E-mail advertising is never acceptable unless explicitly
       requested. If a reader didn't specifically ask for your
       advertisement, do not send it.
  Q: Why did no one answer my questions?
   A: This question is usually answered by ``YOU DIDN'T READ THE FAQ!''
   The FAQs are a collection of documents that members of these
   newsgroups have written to answer questions that beginners ask ad
   nauseum. Before posting, please read the relevant FAQs to be sure what
   you wish to know has not been dealt with before. Despite the
   world-wide nature of rec.aquaria.*, there are in fact only a few dozen
   members who answer the vast majority of questions. They get tired of
   answering the same questions over and over, and more often than not
   will simply ignore questions that could have been answered by reading
   the FAQ.
   Sometimes you won't get a reply if you haven't waited long enough;
   many people do not read rec.aquaria.* daily, and it can take a few
   days for the article to propagate to some hosts.
   Another common cause of the unanswered post is a non-descriptive
   subject line or vague message content. With hundreds of messages
   posted daily to rec.aquaria.*, it is easy to ignore ``irrelevant''
   subject lines such as ``Subject: My Fish''. Likewise, it is also
   important to convey all the necessary information in the body of your
   message. See the section above on Posting to rec.aquaria.* for hints
   on improving your technique.
  Q5: Why did I get flamed?
   A5: You may get flamed if you supply an ignorant answer to someone's
   question, or just general ``bad advice''. Bad questions usually are
   ignored, but bad answers are often flamed. You might also get flamed
   when discussing controversial issues.
   Threads on rec.aquaria.* are open uncensored conversations between
   adults (and sub-adults of all ages) and so occasionally smart-ass
   replies and jabs are made. These are not strictly discouraged and to
   throw flames DOES NOT immediately cause one to be labeled a social
   pariah, but flames should be on-topic and delivered with a sense of
   humor. Neither is swearing totally unacceptable on the net but the use
   of swear words will quickly remove any semblance of humor from your
   flames. This may result in seriously hurt feelings, and so swearing is
   to be strongly discouraged. Also, a few smileys (where appropriate)
   can go a long way to save people's feelings.
Final Words

   We hope that this introductory FAQ will improve your understanding of
   the rec.aquaria community, and make your interaction with other
   netters fun and productive. A great deal of time and thought has been
   devoted to making quality answers to the Frequently Asked Questions
   available at all times. A hurried post to the newsgroups might not
   yield an answer for days (if at all), but if you read the FAQs you may
   have an answer in minutes. Please give it a try!
   [The FAQ Team can be reached by e-mail, but since we've been getting
   so many irrelevant requests for help with individual problems, the
   address will no longer be posted here.]

   The FAQs owe their existence to the contributors of the net, and as
   such it belongs to the readers of rec.aquaria and alt.aquaria.
   Articles with attributions are copyrighted by their original authors.
   Copies of the FAQs can be made freely, as long as it is distributed at
   no charge, and the disclaimers and the copyright notice are included.
                                Tables of Data

   Celsius (Centigrade) = (Fahrenheit - 32) * 5/9
   C F
   15 59
   20 68
   25 77
   30 86
   1 Liter = 0.264 Gallon
   1 U.S. Gallon = 3.78 Liter
   1 British Gallon = 4.5446 Liter
   1 Meter = 39.4 inches
   1 Inch = 2.54 cm
   1 Foot = 12 inches
   1 Yard = 36 inches
   1 Ounce = 29 grams (on Earth)
Chemical Concentrations

   1 degree hardness (GH) = 17.8 ppm CaCO3
   1 degree "carbonate hardness*" (KH) = 17.8 ppm CaCO3
   1 meq/L alkalinity = 2.8 degrees KH
   1 ppm = 1 mg/L
   Nitrate-NO3 = 4.4 * Nitrate-N
   Nitrite-NO2 = 3.3 * Nitrite-N
   Ammonia-NH3 = 1.1 * Ammonia-N
   * Note that the term ``carbonate hardness'' is bit of a misnomer, and
   most amateur chemists would prefer we use the more appropriate term
   ``Alkalinity''. See the BEGINNER CHEMISTRY section for more details.
Tank Weight and Volume Calculations

   In metric, this calculation is quite easy because 1 cubic centimeter
   of water has a mass of 1 gram, or 1 liter of water has a mass of 1 kg.
   Thus, the water in a 200L tank will have a mass of 200 kg (don't
   forget to add the weight of rocks into your estimate!). If you need to
   work from tank dimensions, multiply the length times width, times
   height in centimeters to obtain the mass in grams.
   For those of us having to work in inches and pounds,
   1 gallon of water at 4C = 8.57 lbs approximate weight
   One foot of fresh water depth = .445 psi.
   231 cu inches (in ^ 3) = 1 gallon
   1 cu foot (ft ^ 3) = 7.48 gallons = 1728 in^3
   44x16x16 tank = 11264 in^3 = 48.76 gallons.
   Tank will weigh 418 lbs (roughly) (+ rocks which have an SG much
   higher than 1, so you can *roughly* say " + rocks ")
   The pressure at the bottom of the tank will be 0.59 psi, or 85 psf,
   roughly 13% more than the standard loading for code construction, so
   catch an extra joist or three with the stand!!
   Along the bottom strip of the tank, you will have a total (uniformly
   spread side to side) force of ( 15.5/12*.445*44 = 25 lbs) pushing
   outwards against your joints.
   The total force on the long side will be ( 8/12*.445*44*16 = 208
   Note: In general, this is NOT half of the water weight. This is a
   coincidence due to the same bottom and side shape.
  Other useful points...
   Weight = psi at bottom * bottom area
   ( (44x16=704 in^2) * .445*16/12 = 418 lbs)
   Note: If this doesn't give you the same answer as the volume
   calculation SOMETHING IS WRONG!
   Standard (new) wood joist floor loading is 75 psf. This corresponds to
   one 14" high tank of any other dimensions. Before you build that 30"
   high tank, think about where it goes! For old houses and houses not to
   code, this may be worse (or better, who knows?).
  Common tank sizes (courtesy of All-Glass Aquariums)
   These match the table on the back of Catalog AA693, but are sorted by
   the tank's "footprint".

Tank Size       Exact Outside Dimensions        Weight  Weight  Tempered
                (inches) (L x W x H)            Empty   Full    Bottom
                (Including frame)               (lbs)   (lbs)

10 Leader       20 1/4  x 10 1/2  x 12 9/16     11      111
15 High         20 1/4  x 10 1/2  x 18 3/4      22      170
20 X-High       20 1/4  x 10 1/2  x 23 3/4      32      232

10 Long         24 1/4  x  8 1/2  x 12 5/8      16      116
15 Show         24 1/4  x  8 1/2  x 16 5/8      22      170

15 Gallon       24 1/4  x 12 1/2  x 12 3/4      21      170
20 High         24 1/4  x 12 1/2  x 16 3/4      25      225
25 Gallon       24 1/4  x 12 1/2  x 20 3/4      32      282
30 X-High       24 1/4  x 12 1/2  x 24 3/4      41      340

20 Long         30 1/4  x 12 1/2  x 12 3/4      25      225
29 Gallon       30 1/4  x 12 1/2  x 18 3/4      40      330
37 Gallon       30 1/4  x 12 1/2  x 22 3/4      45      415     X

26 Flatback     36 1/4  x 12 1/2  x 16 5/8      42      300     X
23 Long         36 1/4  x 12 5/8  x 13          32      253
30 Gallon       36 1/4  x 12 5/8  x 16 3/4      43      343
38 Gallon       36 1/4  x 12 5/8  x 19 3/4      47      427
45 Gallon       36 1/4  x 12 5/8  x 23 3/4      66      515     X

30 Breeder      36 3/16 x 18 1/4  x 12 15/16    48      348
40 Breeder      36 3/16 x 18 1/4  x 16 15/16    58      458

50 Gallon       36 7/8  x 19      x 19 5/8      100     600
65 Gallon       36 7/8  x 19      x 24 5/8      126     775

33 Long         48 1/4  x 12 3/4  x 12 7/8      52      382     X
40 Long         48 1/4  x 12 3/4  x 16 7/8      55      455     X
45 Long         48 1/4  x 12 3/4  x 19          60      510     X
55 Gallon       48 1/4  x 12 3/4  x 21          78      625     X
60 Gallon       48 3/8  x 12 7/8  x 23 7/8      111     710     X

80 X-High       48 7/8  x 14      x 30 3/4      200     990

75 Gallon       48 1/2  x 18 1/2  x 21 3/8      140     850
90 Gallon       48 1/2  x 18 1/2  x 25 3/8      160     1050
110 X-High      48 7/8  x 19      x 30 3/4      228     1320

120 Gallon      48 1/2  x 24 1/4  x 25 1/2      215     1400

100 Gallon      72 1/2  x 18 1/2  x 19 3/8      182     1150
125 Gallon      72 1/2  x 18 1/2  x 23 3/8      206     1400
150 Gallon      72 1/2  x 18 1/2  x 28 1/2      338     1800

180 Gallon      72 1/2  x 24 1/2  x 25 5/8      338     2100

2 1/2 Mini      12 3/16 x  6 1/8  x  8 1/8      2.6     27
5 1/2 Gallon    16 3/16 x  8 3/8  x 10 1/2      7       62

4 Designer       8 1/4  x  8 1/4  x 18 7/8      9       49
6 Designer       8 1/4  x  8 1/4  x 24 7/8      10.5    70
10 Designer     13 5/8  x 13 5/8  x 19          18.5    115
15 Designer     13 5/8  x 13 5/8  x 25          25.5    175

10 Hexagon      14 1/2  x 12 9/16 x 18 3/4      12      110
20 Hexagon      18 3/4  x 16 1/4  x 20 5/8      23      220     X
35 Hexagon      23 1/4  x 20 3/16 x 24 3/4      43      390     X
60 Hexagon      27 1/4  x 24 1/8  x 29 1/2      110     750     X

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM