Search the FAQ Archives

3 - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M
N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z - Internet FAQ Archives

[FAQ] Aquaria: Beginning Fishkeeping

[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index | Property taxes ]
Archive-name: aquaria/general-faq/beginner
Rec-aquaria-archive-name: general-faq/beginner
Alt-aquaria-archive-name: general-faq/beginner
Sci-aquaria-archive-name: general-faq/beginner
Posting-Frequency: monthly

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
*  This is only a text dump of part of the Aquaria FAQs.                *
*  The web "original" may be more current, is navigatable hypertext,    *
*  and contains enhanced content not available in this posted version!  *
*  or      *

                          FAQ: Beginning Fishkeeping
contributed by Thomas Narten

   Welcome to the wonderful world of aquariums. This FAQ provides advice
   and guidance to help insure success in your endeavor. Though this
   document is designed for a first freshwater aquarium (saltwater
   people: make sure to read the SALTWATER BEGINNER FAQ), there is much
   information applicable to both freshwater and saltwater aquaria.
   This FAQ is a work in progress; if there is anything you feel we've
   left out, please drop a suggestion to the author or the FAQ Working
   Group, and we'll see if we can add it in on the next release. The FAQ

   The FAQs owe their existence to the contributors of the net, and as
   such it belongs to the readers of rec.aquaria and alt.aquaria.
   Articles with attributions are copyrighted by their original authors.
   Copies of the FAQs can be made freely, as long as it is distributed at
   no charge, and the disclaimers and the copyright notice are included.
Table Of Contents

  Before You Buy...
     * Introduction
          + Tips to Insure A Successful First Aquarium
          + How Much Time and Effort Is Involved?
     * Tank and Equipment
          + Where to Get It
          + What Is Essential
            (Tank, Heater, Thermometer, Filter, Gravel, Light and Hood,
            Powerhead or Airpump, Stand, Cleaning Tools, Bucket, Nets,
            and Test Kits)
     * How to Find a Good Aquarium Store
  Setting Up Your Tank...
     * Preparing Your Water
          + Tap Water
            (Chlorine, Chloramine, Other Chemicals)
          + Well Water
     * ``Cycling'' Your Tank
          + The Nitrogen Cycle
          + How Much Ammonia Is Too Much
          + Minimizing Cycling-Related Stress
          + Speeding Up the Cycling Process
     * Practical Freshwater Chemistry
          + The Big Components:
            (pH, Buffering Capacity, General Hardness, Salinity,
            Nutrients and Trace Elements)
          + Altering Your Tank Water's Chemistry
            (Hardening, Softening, Changing pH)
     * Which Test Kits are Important
          + Ammonia (yes)
          + Nitrite (maybe)
          + Nitrate (yes)
          + pH (yes)
          + General Hardness (maybe)
          + Buffering Capacity/KH (maybe)
  Setting Up Your Fish...
     * Fish Stress
          + The Meaning of Fish Stress
          + Causes of Fish Stress
          + Symptoms of Stressed Fish
     * Adding Fish
          + What's a Good Kind of Fish
          + How Many Fish Can one Keep
          + Acclimating New Fish
          + What and How Much to Feed
     * Partial Water Changes
          + Purpose
          + How Often
     * Long-term Success
          + Coping with Algae
          + Coping with Snails
          + Coping with Vacations
          + Coping with Moving
          + Euthanizing Fish
          + Breeding Fish
                          Beginner FAQ: Introduction
   What constitutes success? Healthy fish that live a long time, quite
   likely even breeding and having babies. Success also means having a
   tank that looks nice without a lot of maintenance (e.g., constantly
   battling excessive algae growth).
How To Insure Your First Aquarium Is a Success

   Having a successful tank is not difficult, nor is it necessarily a lot
   of work, provided you use some common sense. These guidelines are
   based partly on science and partly on experience gleaned from
   aquarists having many years experience in ``the art of fishkeeping.''
   The following list summarizes the most important rules for success.
   Each is discussed in more detail in subsequent sections of this
  Have patience.
   Buying a tank, setting it up and filling it with fish all in the same
   day, while possible, is a sure road to disaster. In fact, setting up
   and fully stocking your first tank will take close to two months!
  An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.
   Providing an environment that minimizes fish stress is the key to
   success. As fish become stressed, their immune systems weaken and they
   become more susceptible to disease. Moreover, most fish medicines
   don't work very well, aren't worth the money, and frequently do more
   damage than good. Often, the best treatment for sick fish is to
   relieve stress by
    1. performing regular partial water changes,
    2. not overfeeding,
    3. checking that your filtration system works,
    4. giving them enough room to live, and
    5. keeping them with compatible tank mates.
   (See the STRESS SECTION of this FAQ for full details.)
  Understand and respect the nitrogen cycle.
   Fish produce toxic wastes (ammonia) that must be broken down by
   bacteria through biological filtration. Most fish deaths for
   first-time tank owners are a direct result of not understanding the
   nitrogen cycle and are completely avoidable. (The NITROGEN CYCLE
   SECTION explains how the process works.)
  Perform regular maintenance on your filter to keep it clean.
   Dirty (clogged) filters operate at reduced efficiency. In the case of
   biological filtration, a clogged filter will be unable to remove
   ammonia properly, resulting in fish stress and eventually death.
   Floss-based biological filters are cleaned by gently rinsing them in
   used tank water that has been siphoned into a bucket. Undergravel
   filters are cleaned through regular vacuuming. (Filters are discussed
   briefly in this beginner FAQ, and in more detail in their own
  Properly treat all tap water before adding it to your tank.
   Municipal water contains such added chemicals as chlorine or
   chloramine to make it safe for human consumption. These substances are
   toxic to fish and can weaken, damage or even kill fish. (See the WATER
   TREATMENT section of this FAQ for details.)
  Take the time to learn basic water chemistry
   Basic water chemistry is pH, hardness and buffering. You needn't
   enroll in a chemistry course, but you should know enough about water
   chemistry and the specifics of your local water supply so that you can
   keep fish happy. Every location's water source is different, and some
   fish won't be able to survive in your water. You can learn details
   about your water from a local fish store, through the use of test
   kits, and from local aquarium clubs (or, amazingly, from the CHEMISTRY
   section of this FAQ).
  Keep the pH of your tank's water stable.
   Rapid pH changes stress fish. Tank water has a natural tendency to
   become acidic due to the production of nitric acid (nitrates) from the
   nitrogen cycle. Keeping pH stable requires having adequate
   ``buffering''. If your water is soft, you may need to add buffering
   agents. Again, see the CHEMISTRY section for details.
  Avoid adding chemicals that lower the pH (e.g. ``pH-Down'').
   Such chemicals frequently have undesirable side-effects (e.g.,
   stimulate algae growth). Moreover, in most cases (despite what books
   and stores tell you) the pH of water DOES NOT need to be adjusted to
   make it ``more perfect'' for a particular species of fish. If the pH
   of your tap water is between 6.5 and 7.5, it is just fine for most
   fish. (This is discussed in the CHEMISTRY section too!)
  Pick fish for your water.
   Select fish who are native to waters having a similar chemical
   properties (pH and GH) to your local tap water. If you have hard
   water, choose hard water fish. If you have soft water, choose soft
   water fish. This is especially important if you water is outside the
   6.5-7.5 pH range. Changing the natural hardness (or pH) of your tap
   water can be hard work and often takes the fun out of keeping
   aquariums. Moreover, bungled attempts at adjustment are common and
   often worse for fish than the original sub-optimal water conditions. A
   good way to learn which fish live happily in your local water is to
   check with a local fish store (or club).
  Choose the fish to fit your tank.
   Select fish that are compatible with each other and think long-term.
   That 1 inch fish sure looks cute at a store. But what will you do when
   it gets 6 inches long and views its cohabitants as potential meals?
   Fish have specific minimal space requirements that are dependent on
   their physical size and temperament. Select fish whose needs will be
   met in your tank. Be sure your tank has adequate hiding places (e.g.,
   rocks, plants, driftwood, etc.) for its inhabitants.
  Properly acclimate fish before adding them them to your tank.
   (Details are covered in the section on ADDING FISH.) NEVER add store
   water to your tank (it may contain diseases), and if feasible,
   quarantine new purchases for 2-3 weeks before adding them to your
  Perform regular partial water changes.
   Changing 25% of your tank's water every other week serves two
   purposes: it dilutes and removes nitrate before it accumulates to
   dangerous levels, and it replaces trace elements and buffers that get
   used up by bacteria, plants, etc. Finally, regular partial water
   changes help insure that your tank's water chemistry doesn't deviate
   significantly from that of your tap water. The latter benefit is
   especially important should disease strike your tank; water changes
   are the most important step in controlling disease, and large water
   changes are not safe unless the chemical composition (e.g., pH and GH)
   of your tank's water is similar to your tap water.
  Shop only at ``reputable'' stores.
   Sadly, many pet stores are more interested in taking your money than
   selling you healthy fish. It is almost always worth spending a little
   more money to get quality fish. Diseases introduced to your tank with
   newly purchase fish may infect your other fish with catastrophic
   results. Buying a low cost fish is also not much of a bargain if it
   dies less than a month later. But many stores will instead try to sell
   you equipment and medications you don't really need. Your best defense
   is to arm yourself with knowledge so that you can properly evaluate
   their advice. Some hints for finding ``reputable'' stores can be found
   The above summary serves as a reminder of the principles that lead to
   happy fish keeping. Each of these topics (and many more) is discussed
   in the remainder of this document.
How much time and effort is involved in keeping a fish tank?

   For a 10-20g tank, once it is set up, expect to spend about 30 minutes
   every other week doing partial water changes, cleaning the tank, etc.
   If this is too much time for you, DON'T GET INTO THIS HOBBY! You will
   also spend a few minutes once or twice a day feeding your fish,
   turning the lights on and off, etc. Warning: many people spend much
   more time than this simply looking at their tank and its inhabitants.
   Of course, that is the whole point. :-)
   Be prepared to spend several hours researching the hobby before you
   make your first purchase. The more time you spend BEFORE you actually
   get the tank, the smoother things will go. Go to several pet stores to
   find one that looks like a reputable place. Visit them again several
   more times. Get some beginner books. Read this beginner FAQ several
   Most people who get frustrated with fish tanks made mistakes that
   could have been easily avoided. The way to avoid mistakes is to learn
   the basics (e.g., the nitrogen cycle) BEFORE you put fish in your
   tank. There are few things more upsetting than frantically reading the
   FAQ for the first time, while three feet away your beloved fish are
   dying. Remember: most aquarium problems are easy to prevent, but hard
   to deal with after the fact.
                            Beginner FAQ: Equipment
Where To Get Your Equipment

   All fish stores sell tank setups containing ``everything you need''
   for one price. However, a smart shopper looks carefully at what the
   package contains to be sure it includes only what you need (and
   doesn't include things you don't). Packages vary from store to store,
   some are more appropriate than others. Be especially wary of setups
   bought at discount stores (e.g., ``Hartz'' brand). They often include
   obsolete technology, noisy pumps, cheap heaters, etc.
   Garage sales are a great way to get into the hobby cheaply. However, a
   few cautions are in order. Before buying the tank, examine it closely
   for cracks or scratches. Although cracks can be fixed, doing so is
   more hassle (for a beginner) than it is worth. Don't buy a scratched
   tank; algae will grow in the scratches making the tank look bad. Be
   wary of really old equipment. It may no longer work well.
   Before setting up the tank (especially if the tank is used), check it
   for leaks. Fill it with water outside and leave it for a week. A leak
   on your carport is a lot less of a problem than one in your living
   To clean the tank, NEVER use soaps or detergents. Use water and
   nothing else. If you want to sterilize the tank, gravel, etc. wash
   everything plastic in a mild bleach solution (use pure bleach, not one
   with other additives). Rinse everything well in clean water, and let
   everything soak a bit in a solution with a bit of added dechlorinator.
   (Non-plastic) gravel can be sterilized through boiling.
Equipment: What's Essential and What's Not

   Tons of aquarium gadgets are available at pet stores. Some are
   essential, others are useful only for specialized applications, and
   some are completely useless (though stores selling them probably won't
   tell you that). The following checklist shows the items that will
   likely to be of use to you.
   Tanks come in many shapes and sizes, but there are only two types:
   glass and acrylic. You will probably want to get a glass tank. In

Glass                           Acrylic
=====                           =======
cheapest per gallon             more expensive per gallon
hard to scratch                 scratches easily (e.g. scraping algae
                                    with razor blade)
scratches permanent             scratches can be buffed out (though
                                    not easily)
higher index of refraction      lower IOR (tank distorts less when
                                    viewed from angle)
empty tank heavy                same sized tank weighs less (empty)
    (important with tanks >30g)
Tank stand only needs to        Special stand needed that supports
    support edges                   entire base of tank (not just edges)
more easily broken              harder to  break

   The size and shape of the tank is completely up to you. However, keep
   the following in mind:
    1. Contrary to first impressions, larger tanks are not necessarily
       more work than smaller ones (within reason, see the TABLES AND
       CONVERSIONS for information on large tanks). In particular, it is
       easier to keep water chemistry stable in larger tanks than in
       smaller ones (the less water, the more easily a small chemical
       change causes a big change in relative concentration).
       Much of the regular maintenance work does not require twice the
       time for twice the size. For example, a regular partial water
       change for a larger tank may require one more bucket of water than
       for a small tank. That doesn't translate into twice the work,
       since you already have the bucket and siphon ready, your hands are
       already wet, etc.
    2. It is very common for people to really like their fish tank and
       want to add more fish. A larger tank can hold more fish safely.
       Indeed, a single 10g tank adequately supports only a handful of
       medium sized fish.
    3. Note, however, that the number of fish that a tank can safely hold
       depends not only on the volume of the tank, but on its shape. For
       example, some fish spend their entire lives near the bottom.
       Doubling the volume of a tank by doubling its height won't allow
       you to keep more bottom dwelling fish. Surface area is more
       important than volume in determining how many fish a tank can
   If possible, start with at 20g (or larger) rather than a 10g (or
   smaller). A 20g (``high'' or ``tall'') makes an excellent first tank
   size. Avoid all tanks smaller than 10g. They are simply too small to
   keep healthy. For example, although many stores sell them, the tiny 1
   gallon goldfish bowls are totally inadequate for even a single fish.
   Stay away from them!
   If you are keeping tropical fish, you will need a heater. A heater
   insures that a tank doesn't get too cool, and that the temperature
   stays steady during the course of the day, even when the room cools
   off (e.g., at night). For many tropical fish, a temperature of 78F is
   There are two main heater types. Submersible heaters stay completely
   below the water. A second, more traditional style, has a partially
   submerged glass tube (which contains the heating coils), but leaves
   the controls above the water. Submersible heaters are the better
   design, as they can be placed horizontally along the tank's bottom.
   This helps keep tank temperature uniform (heat rises), and prevents
   the heater from becoming exposed while doing partial water changes.
   With the traditional design, one must remember to unplug the heater
   before doing water changes; if the heater is accidentally left on
   while the coil is above the water, the tube gets hot and may crack
   when you fill the tank back up with water.
   If your room is never more than 8-10F degrees cooler than your target
   tank temperature, a heater of roughly 2.5 Watts per gallon will
   suffice. If the differential is higher, up to 5 Watts (or more) per
   gallon may be necessary. Remember, the heater needs to keep the tank
   at its target temperature, even when the room is at its coldest point;
   the tank's temperature should not fluctuate.
   Heaters (especially cheap ones) will fail. Most often the contact that
   actually turns the heater on and off gets permanently stuck, either in
   the on or off position. In the former case, your tank can get VERY
   hot, especially if the heater is larger than your tank actually
   requires. To minimize potential problems, avoid heaters larger than
   the optimal size for your tank. To prevent winter disasters, use two
   smaller heaters in parallel rather than one large one. That way if one
   fails, the consequences won't be as disastrous.
   You will need a thermometer to verify that your tank stays at its
   proper temperature. Two types are commonly available. The traditional
   bulb thermometer works the same way as the ones you can buy for your
   house. They either hang from the top edge of your tank, or float along
   the surface. The second common design is a flat model that sticks to
   the outside of the glass. In this design, liquid crystals activate at
   a specific temperature, either highlighting the numerical temperature
   or a bar that slides along a scale.
   Aquarium thermometers can be rather unreliable (check out the ones on
   display at a fish store --- they should all register the same
   temperature, but frequently don't). Thus, thermometers are good for
   verifying that your temperature is not too far off, but may be off by
   several degrees in some cases. When buying a thermometer, look at all
   the thermometers and pick one that has an ``average'' temperature,
   rather than one of the extremes.
   There are three types of filtration: biological, mechanical and
   chemical. Biological filtration decomposes the toxic ammonia that fish
   produce as waste products. All fish tanks MUST have biological
   filtration; biological filtration is the cheapest, most efficient and
   most stable way to breakdown toxic ammonia. Mechanical filtration
   traps such particles as plant leaves, uneaten food, etc. (collectively
   known as mulm), allowing them to be removed from the tank before they
   decompose into ammonia. Chemical filtration (e.g., activated carbon,
   zeolite, etc.) can remove (under limited circumstances) such
   substances as ammonia, heavy metals, dissolved organics, etc. through
   chemistry (e.g., ``adsorbtion'' or ``ion-exchange resins''). Chemical
   filtration is mostly useful for dealing with short-term problems, such
   as removing medications after they've served their purpose, or
   purifying tap water before it goes into a tank. A healthy tank DOES
   NOT require the use of chemical filters such as activated carbon.
   One point about filtration cannot be made enough. ALL FISH TANKS MUST
   HAVE BIOLOGICAL FILTRATION. Although chemical filtration can remove
   ammonia under limited circumstances, it are NOT a general solution.
   Typical filters perform some or all of the three filtration types in
   series. Mechanical filtration (if present) usually comes first (where
   it is called a ``pre-filter''), trapping particles that might clog
   remaining stages. Biological usually comes next, followed by the
   chemical filtration section (if present). Whether or not chemical
   filtration is useful (or even helpful) depends on who you talk to. It
   can be useful for removing fish medicines after their effectiveness
   has ended (partial water changes do the same thing though). They can
   also remove trace elements necessary for plant growth (with obvious
   results). Unless you have a good reason to believe that your
   circumstances require chemical filtration, avoid it.
   Filters are not maintenance-free. For example, if debris is allowed to
   accumulate in a mechanical filter, it decomposes into ammonia,
   negating its primary purpose. Likewise, a biological filter's
   effectiveness diminishes as it becomes clogged. Biological filtration
   requires water movement across a large surface area on which bacteria
   have attached (e.g., floss or gravel). The less surface area
   available, the less effective the filter. UGFs are cleaned by
   regularly vacuuming the gravel (e.g. while doing partial water
   changes). Canister and power filters are cleaned by removing the media
   and gently squeezing it in a bucket of used tank water (tap water may
   contain bacteria-killing chlorine).
   There is no magic formula for what size filter one needs. Consult with
   specific manufacturer's ratings and be conservative. You can't have
   too much filtering (though you can have too much water movement), so
   err on the side of overfiltering. Filters are discussed in more detail
   in a separate FILTER FAQ.
   Gravel serves three main purposes. First, it serves as decoration,
   making your tank look nicer. Second, if using an UGF, gravel is
   mandatory as it is the filter media (the surface area on which
   bacteria attach). Third, in plant tanks, it serves as a ``substrate''
   (e.g. dirt) for plant roots (consult the PLANT FAQ for details on what
   quantity and type of substrate is appropriate for plants). Ultimately,
   the choice of color, size, etc. is up to you. However, be aware that
   dark gravel better highlights a fish's colors. Fish adjust their
   colors to match that of the surroundings, and light gravel tends to
   wash out a fish's true colors.
   Most of the gravel sold for aquariums is plastic coated. For obvious
   reasons, you should not boil it. :-) It is also very expensive ($1 a
   pound). Gravel can be purchased for much less at patio stores (e.g.,
   Wallmart, Home Quarters, local sand and gravel suppliers, etc.).
   However, it often tends to be larger than ideal and too light in color
   (e.g., marble chips). Sand can also be used.
   Be aware that not all gravel is inert. For example, coral, sea shells,
   dolomite and limestone will release (leach) carbonates into the tank
   raising its pH buffering capacity (see the CHEMISTRY SECTION for
   details). When keeping African rift lake cichlids, this is desirable.
   But in most other cases, you will not want your gravel affecting the
   water chemistry. As a quick test, drip an acid (e.g., vinegar) onto
   the gravel in question. If it foams or bubbles, the gravel is going to
   leach carbonates into the water. To be absolutely sure, fill a bucket
   of gravel with water and measure the pH over a period of a week. If
   the pH remains stable, it should be safe to use in your tank.
   When used for the first time, gravel should be washed thoroughly.
   Simply rinse clean water through it until the water comes out clear
   (tap water is fine). For example, put the gravel in a bucket of water,
   fill it with water, and churn the gravel up. Drain the water and
   repeat the procedure until the water remains clear. Before using
   gravel of unknown origin (e.g., not purchased at a fish store), you
   may (as a precaution) want to boil it for 15 minutes to kill unwanted
  Driftwood and other Decorations
   It is safe to place items in your tank as long as they are inert,
   meaning they won't release (leach) chemicals into the water. Most
   plastics are inert inert, as are glass and ceramic.
   Wood may leach substances into the water, changing the pH in a
   possibly inappropriate manner. Driftwood often leaches tannins and
   other humic acids into the water (much like peat moss), possibly
   softening it and lowering its pH. The water may also obtain a
   yellowish tea-colored tint. The tint is not harmful and can be removed
   by filtering the water through activated charcoal.
   If you use wood that you've found yourself (e.g., woods or lake), boil
   it first to kill any pathogens. Boiling it (long enough) will also
   make it sink.
  Lights & Hood
   You will probably want to purchase lights and a hood. A hood prevents
   fish from jumping out of the tank and reduces the rate at which water
   evaporates. A good hood effectively seals the tank (except perhaps
   where the heater and filter reside). You want as little water as
   possible evaporating as it may raise the room's humidity to
   unacceptable levels and requires more maintenance (i.e., you will have
   to ``top off'' the tank once or twice a week to replace the lost
   There are two styles of hoods. Full hoods combine the light and hood
   as a single unit. Hoods include space for only 1 or 2 (parallel)
   fluorescent light tubes, which is fine for fish-only tanks, but not
   usually enough for growing plants. Glass ``canopies'' cover the tank
   with two strips of glass connected by a plastic hinge, but don't
   include lighting. A separate strip (or other) light is used in
   conjunction with it. Canopies are a bit better for plant tanks than
   full hoods; one can upgrade or change the lighting without replacing
   the entire hood, and in situations where very high wattage is needed,
   one can usually fit more light bulbs directly above the tank.
   Light serves two purposes. It highlights and shows off your fish's
   colors and provides (critical) energy for plants (if present).
   Unfortunately, the two purposes conflict somewhat. In a fish-only
   tank, a single low-wattage fluorescent bulb suffices and does a good
   job of showing a fish's true colors (most fish don't like bright
   lights either). If you want to grow plants, however, more light is
   needed, and the bulb's spectrum becomes an issue; be sure to consult
   the lighting sections in the PLANT FAQ before purchasing your light
   and hood setup.
   Whether or not you will be growing plants, fluorescent lights are the
   way to go. Incandescent bulbs give off too much heat, causing your
   tank to overheat in the summer. Fluorescent bulbs run cooler and use
   less electricity for the same amount of light. Note that in the summer
   time, even fluorescent lighting can produce enough heat to lead to
   tank overheating problems, if your house gets warm (e.g, you live in
   the tropics and don't have air conditioning).
   Unfortunately, light grows not only plants, but algae. If your tank
   contains lots of the kind of light plants desire, and there are no
   plants, algae quickly fills the void. Thus, the ideal lighting for
   fish-only tanks differs significantly from that for a plant tank. Two
   components of light are of particular importance: intensity (i.e.,
   wattage) and spectrum. Plants require intense light and certain
   spectral ranges produce more growth than others.
   Different types of bulbs give off light in different spectral regions.
   So-called ``full-spectrum'' bulbs attempt to reproduce the sun's full
   spectral range. They are good both for growing plants and bringing out
   a fish's natural colors. Specialized ``plant'' bulbs (e.g., gro-lux,
   etc.) emphasize a spectral range that stimulates plant growth. Such
   bulbs grow plants (and algae!) well, but fish don't look quite right
   under them, because the light does not have the spectrum of normal
   sunlight. The common ``cool white'' bulbs give off light designed for
   humans in windowless offices; they neither grow plants particularly
   well, nor bring out a fish's natural colors. As a quick rule of thumb,
   2-4 watts/gallon of full-spectrum (or specialized ``plant'') lighting
   is good for plants; for fish-only tanks, use less than 1 watt/gallon,
   and avoid using plant bulbs.
   A powerhead is a water pump that runs completely submerged in a tank.
   They typically attach to the ``lift tubes'' associated with UGF
   filters, pulling water through the lift tube. The stream of outgoing
   water can usually be oriented in (almost) any direction, and it is
   common to point them in such a way that water circulates throughout
   the tank and stirs up or ``agitates'' the surface a bit.
  Air Pumps
   An air pump simply bubbles air through your tank. Air pumps serve two
   purposes. First, they insure that your tank maintains an adequate
   concentration of oxygen. An air pump is NOT required for this purpose,
   as long as your tank maintains adequate water movement together with
   surface agitation. This is generally the case if external (e.g., box
   or cannister) filters are used. Second, air pumps can be used to force
   water through a filter (e.g., sponge or corner filter). If using a
   UGF, for example, an air pump produces bubbles that force water up the
   uplift tubes, pulling water through the filter. In larger tanks,
   powerheads perform the same function. Thus, an air pump is not
   required, provided your tank has good water circulation.
   You will need some sort of stand on which to place your tank. The
   stand can either be specially designed to hold your tank, or existing
   furniture. The first thing to consider is whether your chosen stand
   can support the tank's weight. When full of water, tanks weigh a LOT
   (the water alone weighs roughly 10 lbs/gallon). Consult THE TABLES in
   the INTRODUCTARY FAQ for detailed specs on common aquarium sizes.
   If you live in an older or cheaply constructed home, give
   consideration to how weight is distributed among the stand's supports.
   The larger the surface area of the leg stands, the less instantaneous
   pressure (per square inch) on the floor. You don't want the stand to
   crash through your floor! If you plan to have a large tank (e.g., 55g
   or more), be sure the floor itself can properly support the weight.
   For big tanks, try to place the tank perpendicular to the floor joists
   (so that the weight is distributed over multiple joists). Placing your
   tank near a load bearing wall is also safer than placing in the middle
   of your floor.
   Stands should keep the tank level, in order to keep weight distributed
   properly. An un-level tank places stress in the wrong places,
   increasing the odds of having the tank break (yes, this does actually
   happen sometimes). In order to more evenly distribute weight on the
   stand, it is a good idea to place a 1/4 inch sheet of Styrofoam
   between the stand and the tank.
   There are two kinds of plants (depending on who you talk to): real and
   plastic. Both kinds provide decoration and hiding places for fish.
   Plastic plants are (obviously) easier to maintain. Although it is
   possible to grow real plants in an aquarium, it is not always trivial
   to do so (e.g., plants have special lighting requirements). If you are
   at all interested in trying to grow real plants, consult the PLANT FAQ
   before purchasing your tank --- especially the hood.
  Miscellaneous Cleaning Tools
   Siphoning is the easiest way to remove water from a tank. For large
   tanks, using a ``water python'' or other long hose allows one to
   dispense with the bucket and siphon water directly into a drain or
   outside garden. When removing water via siphoning, you should also
   clean (``vacuum'') your gravel. Many ``water changing'' hoses are
   available at local fish stores and include a gravel cleaning
   attachment. The basic idea behind them is to connect a wide mouthed
   tube to the end of the siphon hose. When the tube is plunged into the
   gravel, the water flow churns up the gravel, but only the detritus
   (dirt, mulm, etc) is light enough to be siphoned out. Note that the
   dirty water being removed from your tank contains nitrates, which make
   an excellent fertilizer for your flower or vegetable garden.
   To remove algae from the side of your tank, a plastic, non-soapy
   scouring pad can be used. If you have an acrylic tank, be especially
   careful that the pad isn't hard enough to scratch the side. Many types
   of algae can be wiped free using the floss inserts made for Whisper
   filters (cheap and can't scratch).
   Some of the slower growing algae simply can't be removed with a
   scouring pad without a lot of work (and churning of the tank!). A
   razor blade works best at this point. Go to your local fish store and
   purchase a scraper that has a long (foot long) handle with a razor
   blade on one end. A razor blade can be used to remove just about
   anything from the sides of a tank. However, razor blades CAN scratch
   glass, if one is not careful.
   So-called ``magnet cleaners'' can also be helpful for removing algae.
   A scraping block on the inside of the tank is held in place by a
   magnet held on the outside of the tank. Moving the outside magnet
   moves the scraping block, removing algae without having to plunge your
   entire arm in the tank. The best magnet cleaners are those with a
   strong magnetic field (e.g., larger magnets), and they work best on
   smaller tanks, which have thinner glass.
   A toothbrush is one of the most effective tools for removing algae
   from the inside of plastic tubing.
  Bucket For Water Changes
   You will need at least one bucket for adding and removing water from
   your tank. Use the largest bucket you can comfortably work with (e.g.,
   up to 5 gallons). Use it only for your aquarium and don't ever put any
   chemicals in it.
   You will need at least one fish net, and having two is better;
   catching fish is easier if you use one net to chase fish into the
   other. Nets with a fine mesh are harder to use because of their high
   water resistance. The right net size will of course depend on the size
   of your fish.
   Note: netting fish is stressful. In particular, the fish net scrapes
   off some of a fish's protective slime coating. If possible, when
   catching fish, use a net to chase the fish into a small plastic or
   glass jar.
  Test Kits
   You will probably want to buy some test kits for measuring things like
   ammonia concentrations. Because there are so many kits,
   recommendations as to which to buy are given in a separate TEST KIT
   SECTION of this FAQ.
                  Beginner FAQ: Finding Reputable Fish Stores
   Like all businesses, fish stores have to make money to survive.
   Unfortunately, some are more interested in profits than selling you
   just what you need and nothing more. Consequently, a smart customer is
   a careful shopper.
   Of course no store is 100% perfect all the time, but the difference
   between a good store and poor one can be astonishing once you've been
   to a few. Visit a store several times, and don't rely on just one
   experience. If the same bad patterns are present on multiple visits,
   find another store.
   The following highlights some of the things that distinguish a good,
   reputable store from one you should avoid.
   If the fish don't look good at the store, chances are they won't
   survive long after you bring them home; they may already have been
   stressed beyond the point of recovery.
    1. A store's fish tanks should be clean and the fish should look
       healthy and unstressed (e.g., no nipped fins, good colors, fish
       active, etc.). Are dead fish removed quickly? All stores will have
       fish die in their tanks; good stores will remove them quickly
       (fish covered with fungus have probably been dead a long time).
    2. Do any of the fish show signs of disease such as ick (tiny white
       spots)? A good store won't sell you ANY fish from a tank that has
       ick, even if the specific fish you are purchasing looks OK.
    3. Are incompatible fish kept in the same tank? If so, how can you
       trust the advice they give you concerning compatible inhabitants
       for your tank?
    4. Check out the store's policy on fish returns. A good store will
       give you full credit on fish deaths for a period of a few days,
       provided you bring in a water sample so that they can test your
       water for ammonia.
    5. Are the sales staff knowledgeable about what they are selling? A
       good store will ask you about your tank (size, inhabitants, etc.)
       in order to find out whether a prospective fish purchase would be
       a good addition to your tank. A bad store will sell you whatever
       you want; they'll be happy to sell you more fish later, after
       incompatible inhabitants have killed each other.
       For beginning aquarists, a good store will take the time to
       explain the nitrogen cycle, and advise you to wait on fish
       purchases until your tank has become established. A bad store will
       neglect to mention the nitrogen cycle, until you return a few days
       later wondering wondering why your fish died (now they can sell
       you more fish, and maybe ``nitrification bacteria'' to go with
       Ask lots of questions. Be wary of vague answers; they are a sign
       that the seller doesn't know the answer (and isn't willing to find
       out), or worse.
       Like that tiny oscar fish? A good store will warn you that oscar
       fish get VERY big, and verify that your tank is big enough and
       that none of its inhabitants will get eaten by the oscar. A bad
       store will remain silent.
    6. Be wary of adding medications to your tank; they frequently don't
       work or are unnecessary. (See the DISEASE FAQ.) A good store will
       first ask about your tank's water quality, verify that cycling has
       completed, etc., and suggest water changes. They will also
       recommend medications only if they can identify the specific
       disease. A ``bad'' store will encourage you to buy medicine,
       without regard to whether the specific medicine is useful in
       combating the specific problem you have. A good store will ask you
       what fish you have in the tank, as some medications are toxic to
       certain species of fish. A bad store will let you find out the
       hard way.
    7. As a (very) general rule of thumb, stores that specialize in
       aquariums are better than stores that sell fish as a sideline. In
       the former case, a ``bad'' store won't make money over the long
       haul (they can only sucker customers once or twice) and will
       eventually go out of business. In the latter case, a store's fish
       department may continually lose money, but remain open because the
       rest of the store (e.g, puppy sales) is making money. Of course,
       there are exceptions.
    8. Finally, buying fish at the cheapest store isn't necessarily a
       good bargain. A healthy fish is worth paying extra for. A sick
       fish may infect all of your tank's inhabitants or die shortly
       after purchase; some bargain.
   Is a pattern becoming clear? A good store is knowledgeable about the
   products they sell and will take the time to be sure the customer is
   making a purchase that they will be happy with in the long term. They
   want your repeat business in the future. A bad store will encourage
   (or fail to discourage) you from buying things you don't need.
                         Beginner FAQ: Water Treatment
Municipal Tap Water in the Aquarium

   Most people use tap water in their tanks; it is cheap and easy to use.
   Unfortunately (for aquarists), local water companies add chemicals to
   the water to make it safe to drink (e.g., chlorine or chloramine to
   kill bacteria). More recently, concern about water flowing through
   older lead pipes has caused some water utilities to add pH-raising
   chemicals to the water (because lead dissolves less readily in
   alkaline water). Consequently, tap water must be specially treated
   before it can safely be used in fish tanks.
   Another potential problem concerns variability in the chemical
   properties of your water supply over time (e.g., month-to-month). Some
   water districts don't have enough water themselves, forcing them to
   purchase additional water from neighboring water districts in times of
   shortages. If this water has a different chemical properties (e.g.,
   hardness), your tap water's chemistry will vary as well. As a common
   example, high bacteria levels are more of a problem in summer than
   winter, especially in warmer climates. Consequently, it is not
   uncommon for water companies to use more chlorine in summer months to
   keep bacteria in check. Even such factors as local weather can have an
   impact; heavy rains may cause the hardness of your water supply to
   decrease as local reservoirs fill.
   In general, chlorine and chloramine are the two additives that cause
   the most problems. Note that these two substances are VERY DIFFERENT!
   Be sure you know what is in your tap water and treat appropriately.
   In the US, EPA guidelines require that tap water at any faucet contain
   a minimal chlorine concentration of 0.2 ppm, and stringently limits
   the concentration of bacteria (which may require more than 0.2 ppm
   chlorine to keep in check). Because chlorine breaks down over time,
   the chlorine concentration of the water that comes out of your tap
   will be lower than that put in at water plant. Thus, the exact
   concentration at your faucet depends on how far you are from the water
   plant, how long it takes the water to travel from the water plant to
   your house, how much chlorine is initially added, etc.
   Chlorine at high concentrations is toxic to fish; at lower
   concentrations, it stresses fish by damaging their gills.
   Concentrations of as little as 0.2-0.3 ppm kill most fish fairly
   rapidly. To prevent stress, concentrations as low as 0.003 ppm may be
   required. Fortunately, chlorine can easily be removed from water by
   the chemical sodium thiosulfate, readily available at fish stores
   under various brands. Sodium thiosulfate neutralizes chlorine
   instantly. Note that there are many ``water treatment'' products that
   are advertised as ``making tap water safe''. Read labels carefully.
   Inevitably, the ones that neutralize chlorine all contain sodium
   thiosulfate, plus other substances that may or may not be useful. If
   your water only contains chlorine (as opposed to chloramine), sodium
   thiosulfate is all you need. The most cost-effective treatments use
   only 1 drop per gallon of water. Most other water treatments are much
   more expensive in the long-term; they may require a teaspoon of
   treatment (or more) per gallon!
   Chlorine is relatively unstable in water, escaping to the atmosphere
   on its own. Water left in a bucket (or tank) with adequate water
   circulation (e.g. filter or airstone) will be free of chlorine in 24
   hours or less.
   Many netters report that they perform partial water changes without
   ever treating their tap water to remove chlorine. Keep in mind that
   even though fish show no APPARENT ill effects from untreated water,
   that doesn't mean that the chlorine isn't stressing your fish. How
   much stress depends on how much chlorine is introduced to the tank,
   which depends on many factors (including the percentage of new water
   added). Because chlorine removers are so cheap (pennies per usage),
   the insurance they provide should not be passed up.
   One problem with using chlorine to treat water is that it breaks down
   relatively quickly. Another concern with the use of chlorine is that
   it can combine with certain organics (that may or may not be present
   in your water) forming trihalomethanes, a family of carcinogens.
   Consequently, many water companies have switched from using chlorine
   to using chloramine. Chloramine, a compound containing both chlorine
   and ammonia, is much more stable than chlorine.
   Chloramine poses two significant headaches for aquarists. First,
   chlorine-neutralizing chemicals such as sodium thiosulfate only
   neutralize the chlorine portion of the chloramine, neglecting an even
   bigger problem: deadly ammonia. The consequences can be devastating to
   fish. Although a tank's biological filter will (eventually) convert
   the ammonia to nitrate, the time it takes to do so may be longer than
   what your fish can tolerate.
   The second problem relates to water changes. One of the primary
   reasons for doing regular water changes is to remove nitrates that
   build up. If your replacement tap water contains ammonia, you'll be
   putting nitrogen right back into your tank and it will be impossible
   to reduce the nitrates below the concentration in your tap water.
   Fortunately, tap water concentrations are relatively low (1 or 2 ppm);
   you are more likely to have a much higher concentration of nitrate in
   your tank.
   Chloramine can be safely neutralized through such products as Amquel,
   which neutralize both the ammonia and chlorine portions of the
   chloramine molecules. The neutralized ammonia will still be converted
   to nitrates via a biological filter.
   Another method for neutralizing chloramine is to age the water while
   simultaneously performing biological filtration. For example, get an
   appropriately-sized (plastic) garbage can, fill it with tap water,
   dechlorinate it with sodium thiosulfate, and then connect an
   established biological filter to it. Just as in your tank, the bio
   filter will convert the ammonia to nitrate, after which it can safely
   be added to your tank. Note: you must add sodium thiosulfate to
   neutralize the chlorine; otherwise, the chloramine will kill the
   bacteria in your biological filter.
   Alternatively, the ammonia can removed by filtering the water through
   zeolite or carbon before adding it to your tank. [Note: folks report
   mixed success with this. If you have concrete (positive or negative)
   experience to report, please notify the FAQ maintainers.]
  Other water impurities you should be aware of
   In addition to the additives described above (chlorine and
   chloramine), municipal water may (or may not!) contain other elements
   that the aquarist may need to know about. Water in some locations
   actually contains nitrates. In some places, water contains elevated
   concentrations of phosphates (1 ppm or more). High phosphate has been
   linked to algae problems, and a comprehensive algae control strategy
   may require removing phosphates. High levels of iron (1 ppm or more)
   have also been linked to thread algae. Consult the algae section of
   this FAQ for more details.
  How to Find out What Your Local Water Company Adds to Your Tapwater
   The quick answer is to ask someone who knows. A local fish store (if
   they reside in the same water district as you do) should be able to
   tell you. Alternatively, call your local water utility. Ask to speak
   with the ``water chemist''. Tell them you are an aquarist and want to
   know about the pH, GH, and KH of your water, as well as how much the
   water characteristics vary from month to month. Finally, (in the US)
   if you really want details, have them send you a copy of the periodic
   water report they are required to generate for the EPA. It contains a
   detailed listing of exactly what your water contains and in what
   concentrations (e.g., iron, nitrates, phosphates, etc.). By law, the
   report is available for public inspection.
Well Water

   You may have access to well water instead of municipal tap water. One
   advantage with well water is that you don't need to deal with chlorine
   and chloramine. On the other hand, well water is frequently (much!)
   harder than water available through local utilities. In addition, the
   only way to know its composition (GH, KH, etc.) is to run tests on it
   yourself. Alternatively, there are companies to which you can send
   water samples that will perform a detailed analysis of its contents
   (for $20-100).
   One potential problem with using well water is that it frequently
   contains high concentrations of dissolved gases (which may be
   dangerous to fish). For example, well water is frequently
   supersaturated with CO2, which lowers the water's pH. Once the CO2
   escapes, the pH will increase. Fish shouldn't be subjected to this
   temporary pH fluctuation. For safety, aerate well water thoroughly for
   several hours before adding it to your tank.
          Beginner FAQ: The Nitrogen Cycle, and ``New Tank Syndrome''
What Is the Nitrogen Cycle?

   Like all living creatures, fish give off waste products (pee and poo).
   These nitrogenous waste products break down into ammonia (NH3), which
   is highly toxic to most fishes. In nature, the volume of water per
   fish is extremely high, and waste products become diluted to low
   concentrations. In aquariums, however, it can take as little as a few
   hours for ammonia concentrations to reach toxic levels.
   How much ammonia is too much? The quick answer is: if a test kit is
   able to measure it, you've got too much (i.e., it's in a high enough
   concentrations to stress fish). Consider emergency action (water
   changes and zeolite clay) to reduce the danger. (A more detailed
   discussion of ammonia toxicity can be found later in this section.)
   In aquaria-speak, the ``nitrogen cycle'' (more precisely, the
   nitrification cycle) is the biological process that converts ammonia
   into other, relatively harmless nitrogen compounds. Fortunately,
   several species of bacteria do this conversion for us. Some species
   convert ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (N02-), while others convert nitrite
   to nitrate (NO3-). Thus, cycling the tank refers to the process of
   establishing bacterial colonies in the filter bed that convert ammonia
   -> nitrite -> nitrate.
   The desired species of nitrifying bacteria are present everywhere
   (e.g., in the air). Therefore, once you have an ammonia source in your
   tank, it's only a matter of time before the desired bacteria establish
   a colony in your filter bed. The most common way to do this is to
   place one or two (emphasis on one or two) hardy and inexpensive fish
   in your aquarium. The fish waste contains the ammonia on which the
   bacteria live. Don't overfeed them! More food means more ammonia! Some
   suggested species include: common goldfish (for cold water tanks),
   zebra danios and barbs for warmer tanks, and damselfishes in marine
   systems. Note: Do not use ``toughies'' or other feeder fishes.
   Although cheap, they are extremely unhealthy and using them may
   introduce unwanted diseases to your tank.
   During the cycling process, ammonia levels will go up and then
   suddenly plummet as the nitrite-forming bacteria take hold. Because
   nitrate-forming bacteria don't even begin to appear until nitrite is
   present in significant quantities, nitrite levels skyrocket (as the
   built-up ammonia is converted), continuing to rise as the
   continually-produced ammonia is converted to nitrite. Once the
   nitrate-forming bacteria take hold, nitrite levels fall, nitrate
   levels rise, and the tank is fully cycled.
   Your tank is fully cycled once nitrates are being produced (and
   ammonia and nitrite levels are zero). To determine when the cycle has
   completed, buy appropriate test kits (see the TEST KIT section) and
   measure the levels yourself, or bring water samples to your fish store
   and let them perform the test for you (perhaps for a small fee). The
   cycling process normally takes anywhere from 2-6 weeks. At
   temperatures below 70F, it takes even longer to cycle a tank. In
   comparison to other types of bacteria, nitrifying bacteria grow
   slowly. Under optimal conditions, it takes fully 15 hours for a colony
   to double in size!
   It is sometimes possible to speed up the cycling time. Some common
   procedures for this are detailed later in this section.
   HAS FULLY CYCLED! More fish means more ammonia production, increasing
   the stress on all fish and the likelihood of fish deaths. Once ammonia
   levels reach highly stressful or toxic levels, your tank has succumbed
   to ``New Tank Syndrome''; the tank has not yet fully cycled, and the
   accumulating ammonia has concentrations lethal to your fish.
How Much Ammonia Is Too Much?

   In an established tank, ammonia should be undetectable using standard
   test kits available at stores. The presence of detectable levels
   indicates that your bio filter is not working adequately, either
   because your tank has not yet cycled, or the filter is not functioning
   adequately (e.g., too small for fish load, clogged, etc.) It is
   imperative that you address the problem (filter) in addition to the
   symptoms (high ammonia levels).
   The exact concentration at which ammonia becomes toxic to fish varies
   among species; some are more tolerant than others. In addition, other
   factors like water temperature and chemistry play a significant role.
   For example, ammonia (NH3) continually changes to ammonium (NH4+) and
   vice versa, with the relative concentrations of each depending on the
   water's temperature and pH. Ammonia is extremely toxic; ammonium is
   relatively harmless. At higher temperatures and pH, more of the
   nitrogen is in the toxic ammonia form than at lower pH.
   Standard test kits measure total ammonia (ammonia plus ammonium)
   without distinguishing between the two forms. The following chart
   gives the maximum long-term level of ammonia-N in mg/L (ppm) that can
   be considered safe at a given temperature and pH. Again, note that a
   tank with an established biological filter will have no detectable
   ammonia; this chart is provided only for emergency purposes. If your
   levels approach or exceed the levels shown, take emergency action

                            Water Temperature
                pH      20C (68F)       25C (77F)
                6.5     15.4            11.1
                7.0     5.0             3.6
                7.5     1.6             1.2
                8.0     0.5             0.4
                8.5     0.2             0.1

Minimizing Fish Stress During Initial Cycling

   Should ammonia levels become high during the cycling process,
   corrective measures will need to be taken to prevent fish deaths. Most
   likely, you will simply perform a sequence of partial water changes,
   thereby diluting ammonia to safer concentrations.
   As a final caution, several commercial products (e.g., ``Amquel'' or
   ``Ammo-Lock'') safely neutralize ammonia's toxicity. Amquel does not
   remove the ammonia, it simply neutralizes its toxicity. Biological
   filtration is still needed to convert the (neutralized) ammonia to
   nitrite and nitrate. Thus, adding Amquel causes the ammonia produced
   by the fish to be neutralized instantly, yet still allows the nitrogen
   cycle to proceed. Using Amquel during the cycling phase has one
   significant drawback, however. Amquel (and similar products) may cause
   ammonia test kits to give false readings, making it difficult to
   determine exactly when cycling has completed. See the TEST KIT SECTION
   for details.
   It is also possible to cycle a tank without ever adding fish. The role
   fish provide in the cycling process is simply their steady production
   of ammonia; the same effect can be achieved by adding chemical forms
   of ammonia manually (e.g., ammonium chloride). However, it is a bit
   more complicated than using fish because the water chemistry needs to
   be monitored more closely in order to add the proper amount of ammonia
   on a day-to-day basis.
Speeding Up Cycling Time
(For the Impatient)

   The nitrogen cycle can be sped up or ``jump started'' in a number of
   ways. Unfortunately, they require access to an established tank, which
   a beginning aquarist may not have available. The basic idea is to find
   an established tank, take some of the bacteria out of it and place
   them in the new tank.
   Most filters have some sort of foam block or floss insert on which
   nitrifying bacteria attach. Borrowing all or part of such an insert
   and placing it in the new tank's filter gets things going more
   If the established tank uses an undergravel filter, nitrifying
   bacteria will be attached to the gravel. Take some of the gravel (a
   cup or more) and hang it in a mesh bag in your filter (if you can), or
   lay it over the top of the gravel in the new tank (if it has an UGF).
   If you have a box, sponge or corner filter, simply connect it to an
   established aquarium and let it run for a week or so. Bacteria in the
   water will establish a bed in the new filter. After a week, move the
   now ``seasoned'' filter to the new tank.
   More recently, products containing colonies of nitrifying bacteria
   have become available at pet shops (e.g., ``Fritz'', ``Bio-zyme'',
   ``Cycle''). In theory, adding the bacteria jump-starts the
   colonization process as above. Net experience with such products has
   been mixed; some folks report success, while others report they don't
   work at all. In principle, such products should work well. However,
   nitrifying bacteria cannot live indefinitely without oxygen and food.
   Thus, the effectiveness of a product depends on its freshness and can
   be adversely effected by poor handling (e.g., overheating).
   Unfortunately, these products don't come with a freshness date, so
   there is no way to know how old they are.
   Some (not many) aquarium stores will provide aquarium buyers with a
   cup of gravel from an established tank. A word of caution is
   appropriate here. Due to the nature of the business, tanks in stores
   are very likely to contain unwanted pathogens (bacteria, parasites,
   etc.); you don't want to add them to an established tank. For someone
   setting up their very first tank, however, all fish will probably be
   purchased from the same store, so the danger is relatively small, as
   the newly purchased fish will have been exposed to the same pathogens.
   If possible, seed a filter with bacteria from a non-store tank.
   Of course, there are many variations on the above that work. However,
   it is a bit difficult to give an exact recipe that is guaranteed to
   work. It is advisable to take a conservative approach and not add fish
   too quickly. In addition, testing the water to be sure nitrates are
   being produced eliminates the guesswork of determining when your tank
   has cycled.
                    Beginner FAQ: Practical Water Chemistry
What You Need to Know About Water Chemistry, and Why

   Water in nature is rarely pure in the ``distilled water'' sense; it
   contains dissolved salts, buffers, nutrients, etc., with exact
   concentrations dependent on local conditions. Fish (and plants) have
   evolved over millions of years to the specific water conditions in
   their native habitats and may be unable to survive in significantly
   different environments.
   Beginners (especially the lazy) should take the easy approach of
   selecting fish whose needs match the qualities of their normal tap
   water. Alternatively, an advanced (and energetic!) aquarist can change
   the water characteristics to match the fish's needs, though doing so
   is almost always more difficult than first appears. In either case,
   you need to know enough about water chemistry to ensure that the water
   in your tank has the right properties for the fish you are keeping.
   Water has four measurable properties that are commonly used to
   characterize its chemistry. They are pH, buffering capacity, general
   hardness and salinity. In addition, there are several nutrients and
   trace elements.
   pH refers to water being either an acid, base, or neither (neutral). A
   pH of 7 is said to be neutral, a pH below 7 is ``acidic'' and a pH
   above 7 is ``basic'' or ``alkaline''. Like the Richter scale used to
   measure earthquakes, the pH scale is logarithmic. A pH of 5.5 is 10
   times more acidic than water at a pH of 6.5. Thus, changing the pH by
   a small amount (suddenly) is more of a chemical change (and more
   stressful to fish!) than might first appear.
   To a fishkeeper, two aspects of pH are important. First, rapid changes
   in pH are stressful to fish and should be avoided. Changing the pH by
   more than .3 units per day is known to stress fish. Thus, you want the
   pH of your tank to remain constant and stable over the long haul.
   Second, fish have adapted to thrive in a (sometimes narrow) pH range.
   You want to be sure that your tank's pH matches the specific
   requirements of the fish you are keeping.
   Most fish can adjust to a pH somewhat outside of their optimal range.
   If your water's pH is naturally within the range of 6.5 to 7.5, you
   will be able to keep most species of fish without any problems. If
   your pH lies within this range, there is probably no need to adjust it
   upward or downward.
  Buffering Capacity (KH, Alkalinity)
   Buffering capacity refers to water's ability to keep the pH stable as
   acids or bases are added. pH and buffering capacity are intertwined
   with one another; although one might think that adding equal volumes
   of an acid and neutral water would result in a pH halfway in between,
   this rarely happens in practice. If the water has sufficient buffering
   capacity, the buffering capacity can absorb and neutralize the added
   acid without significantly changing the pH. Conceptually, a buffer
   acts somewhat like a large sponge. As more acid is added, the
   ``sponge'' absorbs the acid without changing the pH much. The
   ``sponge's'' capacity is limited however; once the buffering capacity
   is used up, the pH changes more rapidly as acids are added.
   Buffering has both positive and negative consequences. On the plus
   side, the nitrogen cycle produces nitric acid (nitrate). Without
   buffering, your tank's pH would drop over time (a bad thing). With
   sufficient buffering, the pH stays stable (a good thing). On the
   negative side, hard tap water often almost always has a large
   buffering capacity. If the pH of the water is too high for your fish,
   the buffering capacity makes it difficult to lower the pH to a more
   appropriate value. Naive attempts to change the pH of water usually
   fail because buffering effects are ignored.
   In freshwater aquariums, most of water's buffering capacity is due to
   carbonates and bicarbonates. Thus, the terms ``carbonate hardness''
   (KH), ``alkalinity'' and ``buffering capacity'' are used
   interchangeably. Although technically not the same things, they are
   equivalent in practice in the context of fishkeeping. Note: the term
   ``alkalinity'' should not be confused with the term ``alkaline''.
   Alkalinity refers to buffering, while alkaline refers to a solution
   that is a base (i.e., pH > 7).
   How much buffering does your tank need? Most aquarium buffering
   capacity test kits actually measure KH. The larger the KH, the more
   resistant to pH changes your water will be. A tank's KH should be high
   enough to prevent large pH swings in your tank over time. If your KH
   is below roughly 4.5 dH, you should pay special attention to your
   tank's pH (e.g, test weekly, until you get a feel for how stable the
   pH is). This is ESPECIALLY important if you neglect to do frequent
   partial water changes. In particular, the nitrogen cycle creates a
   tendency for an established tank's pH to decrease over time. The exact
   amount of pH change depends on the quantity and rate of nitrates
   produced, as well as the KH. If your pH drops more than roughly two
   tenths of a point over a month, you should consider increasing the KH
   or performing partial water changes more frequently. KH doesn't affect
   fish directly, so there is no need to match fish species to a
   particular KH.
   Note: it is not a good idea to use distilled water in your tank. By
   definition, distilled water has essentially no KH. That means that
   adding even a little bit of acid will change the pH significantly
   (stressing fish). Because of its instability, distilled (or any
   essentially pure water) is never used directly. Tap water or other
   salts must first be added to it in order to increase its GH and KH.
  General Hardness (GH)
   General hardness (GH) refers to the dissolved concentration of
   magnesium and calcium ions. When fish are said to prefer ``soft'' or
   ``hard'' water, it is GH (not KH) that is being referred to.
   Note: GH, KH and pH form the Bermuda's Triangle of water chemistry.
   Although the three properties are distinct, they all interact with
   each other to varying degrees, making it difficult to adjust one
   without impacting the other. That is one reason why beginning
   aquarists are advised NOT to tamper with these parameters unless
   absolutely necessary. As an example, ``hard'' water frequently often
   comes from limestone aquifers. Limestone contains calcium carbonate,
   which when dissolved in water increases both the GH (from calcium) and
   KH (from carbonate) components. Increasing the KH component also
   usually increases pH as well. Conceptually, the KH acts as a
   ``sponge'' absorbing the acid present in the water, raising the
   water's pH.
   Water hardness follows the following guidelines. The unit dH means
   ``degree hardness'', while ppm means ``parts per million'', which is
   roughly equivalent to mg/L in water. 1 unit dH equals 17.8 ppm CaCO3.
   Most test kits give the hardness in units of CaCO3; this means the
   hardness is equivalent to that much CaCO3 in water but does not mean
   it actually came from CaCO3.
                General Hardness

      0 -  4 dH,    0 -   70 ppm : very soft
      4 -  8 dH,   70 -  140 ppm : soft
      8 - 12 dH,  140 -  210 ppm : medium hard
     12 - 18 dH,  210 -  320 ppm : fairly hard
     18 - 30 dH,  320 -  530 ppm : hard
     higher : liquid rock (Lake Malawi and Los Angeles, CA)

   Salinity refers to the total amount of dissolved substances. Salinity
   measurements count both GH and KH components as well as such other
   substances as sodium. Knowing water's salinity becomes important in
   salt water aquariums. In freshwater tanks, knowing pH, GH and KH
   Salinity is usually expressed in terms of its specific gravity, the
   ratio of a solution's weight to weight of an equal volume of distilled
   water. Because water expands when heated (changing its density), a
   common reference temperature of 59F degrees is used. Salinity is
   measured with a hydrometer, which is calibrated for use at a specific
   temperature (e.g., 75F degrees is common).
   One component of salinity that neither GH or KH includes is sodium.
   Some freshwater fish tolerate (or even prefer) a small amount of salt
   (it stimulates slime coat growth). Moreover, parasites (e.g., ick) do
   not tolerate salt at all. Thus, salt in concentrations of (up to) 1
   tablespoon per 5 gallons can actually help prevent and cure ick and
   other parasitic infections.
   On the other hand, some species of fish do not tolerate ANY salt well.
   Scaleless fish (in general) and some Corydoras catfish are far more
   sensitive to salt than most freshwater fish. Add salt only if you are
   certain that all of your tank's inhabitants prefer it or can at least
   tolerate it.
  Nutrients and Trace Elements
   In addition to GH, KH, pH and salinity, there are a few other
   substances you may want to know about. Most tap water contains an
   assortment of nutrients and trace elements in very low concentrations.
   The presence (or absence) of trace elements can be important in some
   situations, specifically:
     * nitrates, which are discussed in great length in this FAQ in
       conjunction with the NITROGEN CYCLE;
     * phosphates, the second most prominent nutrient. Phosphates have
       been linked to algae growth. If you have persistent algae
       problems, high phosphates may be a contributing factor. In a plant
       tank, ideal phosphate levels are .2 mg/L or lower. To control
       algae, frequent partial water changes are often recommended to
       reduce nutrient levels. If your tap water contains excess
       phosphate, water changes may be aggravating the situation. Your
       local water company can tell you what the exact phosphate levels
     * iron, manganese and other trace elements. Plants need iron in
       trace quantities to grow. Tap water in many areas contains no iron
       at all. Consult the PLANT FAQ for more details.
Altering Your Water's Chemistry

  Hardening Your Water (Raising GH and/or KH)
   The following measurements are approximate; use a test kit to verify
   you've achieved the intended results. Note that if your water is
   extremely soft to begin with (1 degree KH or less), you may get a
   drastic change in pH as the buffer is added.
   To raise both GH and KH simultaneously, add calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
   1/2 teaspoon per 100 liters of water will increase both the KH and GH
   by about 1-2 dH. Alternatively, add some sea shells, coral, limestone,
   marble chips, etc. to your filter.
   To raise the KH without raising the GH, add sodium bicarbonate
   (NaHCO3), commonly known as baking soda. 1/2 teaspoon per 100 Liters
   raises the KH by about 1 dH. Sodium bicarbonate drives the pH towards
   an equilibrium value of 8.2.
  Raising and Lowering pH
   One can raise or lower pH by adding chemicals. Because of buffering,
   however, the process is difficult to get right. Increasing or
   decreasing the pH (in a stable way) actually involves changing the KH.
   The most common approach is to add a buffer (in the previous section)
   whose equilibrium holds the pH at the desired value.
   Muriatic (hydrochloric) acid can be used to reduce pH. Note that the
   exact quantity needed depends on the water's buffering capacity. In
   effect, you add enough acid to use up all the buffering capacity. Once
   this has been done, decreasing the pH is easy. However, it should be
   noted that the resultant lower-pH water has much less KH buffering
   than it did before, making it more susceptible to pH swings when (for
   instance) nitrate levels rise. Warning: It goes without saying that
   acids are VERY dangerous! Do not use this approach unless you know
   what you are doing, and you should treat the water BEFORE adding it to
   the aquarium.
   Products such as ``pH-Down'' are often based on a phosphoric acid
   buffer. Phosphoric acid tends to keep the pH at roughly 6.5, depending
   on how much you use. Unfortunately, use of phosphoric acid has the BIG
   side effect of raising the phosphate level in your tank, stimulating
   algae growth. It is difficult to control algae growth in a tank with
   elevated phosphate levels. The only advantage over hydrochloric acid
   is that pH will be somewhat better buffered at its lower value.
   One safe way to lower pH WITHOUT adjusting KH is to bubble CO2 (carbon
   dioxide) through the tank. The CO2 dissolves in water, and some of it
   forms carbonic acid. The formation of acid lowers the pH. Of course,
   in order for this approach to be practical, a steady source of CO2
   bubbles (e.g. a CO2 tank) is needed to hold the pH in place. As soon
   as the CO2 is gone, the pH bounces back to its previous value. The
   high cost of a CO2 injection system precludes its use as a pH lowering
   technique in most aquariums (though see the PLANT FAQ for inexpensive
   do-it-yourself alternatives). CO2 injection systems are highly popular
   in heavily-planted tanks, because the additional CO2 stimulates plant
  Softening Your Water (i.e., lowering GH)
   Some fish (e.g., discus, cardinal tetras, etc.) prefer soft water.
   Although they can survive in harder water, they are unlikely to breed
   in it. Thus, you may feel compelled to soften your water despite the
   hassle involved in doing so.
   Typical home water softeners soften water using a technique known as
   ``ion exchange''. That is, they remove calcium and magnesium ions by
   replacing them with sodium ions. Although this does technically make
   water softer, most fish won't notice the difference. That is, fish
   that prefer soft water don't like sodium either, and for them such
   water softeners don't help at all. Thus, home water softeners are not
   an appropriate way to soften water for aquarium use.
   Fish stores also market ``water softening pillows''. They use the same
   ion-exchange principle. One ``recharges'' the pillow by soaking it in
   a salt water solution, then places it in the tank where the sodium
   ions are released into the water and replaced by calcium and magnesium
   ions. After a few hours or days, the pillow (along with the calcium
   and magnesium) are removed, and the pillow recharged. The pillows sold
   in stores are too small to work well in practice, and shouldn't be
   used for the same reason cited above.
   Peat moss softens water and reduces its hardness (GH). The most
   effective way to soften water via peat is to aerate water for 1-2
   weeks in a bucket containing peat moss. For example, get a (plastic)
   bucket of the appropriate size. Then, get a large quantity of peat (a
   gallon or more), boil it (so that it sinks), stuff it in a pillow
   case, and place it in the water bucket. Use an air pump to aerate it.
   In 1-2 weeks, the water will be softer and more acidic. Use this aged
   water when making partial water changes on your tank.
   Peat can be bought at pet shops, but it is expensive. It is much more
   cost-effective to buy it in bulk at a local gardening shop. Read
   labels carefully! You don't want to use peat containing fertilizers or
   other additives.
   Although some folks place peat in the filters of their tanks, the
   technique has a number of drawbacks. First, peat clogs easily, so
   adding peat isn't always effective. Second, peat can be messy and may
   cloud the water in your tank. Third, the exact quantity of peat needed
   to effectively soften your water is difficult to estimate. Using the
   wrong amount results in the wrong water chemistry. Finally, when doing
   water changes, your tank's chemistry changes when new water is added
   (it has the wrong properties). Over the next few days, the chemistry
   changes as the peat takes effect. Using aged water helps ensure that
   the chemistry of your tank doesn't fluctuate while doing water
   Hard water can also be softened by diluting it with distilled water or
   R/O water. R/O (reverse-osmosis) water is purified water made by a R/O
   unit. Unfortunately, R/O units are too expensive ($100-$500) for most
   hobbyists. R/O water can also be purchased at some fish stores, but
   for most folks the expense and hassle are not worth it. The same
   applies to distilled water purchased at grocery stores.
                            Beginner FAQ: Test Kits
                               Which Are Useful?
   There is a seemingly endless array of test kits for testing everything
   from ammonia levels to phosphate levels. Does one really need to buy
   them? The quick answer is no. It is quite possible to have a healthy
   tank without ever buying a single test kit. However, test kits are
   extremely useful at eliminating guesswork when something goes wrong
   (e.g., fish appear stressed or die). In the following, we describe the
   test kits that are most useful and the conditions under which they are
Ammonia Test Kit

   Get one. Ammonia test kits are cheap ($5-10) and will tell you whether
   your tank has elevated ammonia levels. This is useful in two
   circumstances. First, during the tank-cycling phase, regular testing
   for ammonia will tell you when the first phase of the nitrogen cycle
   has completed. Second, should you have unexplained fish deaths,
   testing for ammonia verifies that your biological filter is (or is
   not) working correctly. Note that even in an established tank, the
   biological filter can sometimes weaken or fail outright. Common causes
     * not cleaning the filter regularly (water can't flow through a
       clogged filter, where the nitrifying bacteria reside),
     * naively adding fish medicines (antibiotics kill nitrifying
       bacteria (oops) as well as disease carrying ones),
     * having too small a filter for the fish load, etc.
   Be warned: if you have fish deaths and subsequently ask the net (or a
   fish store) for advice, the first question asked will be ``What are
   your ammonia (and nitrite) levels?''.
   Ammonia levels are measured in ppm. At concentrations as low as .2-.5
   ppm (for some fish), ammonia causes rapid death (consult the CYCLING
   SECTION for further details). Even at levels above 0.01-0.02 ppm, fish
   will be stressed. Common test kits don't register such low
   concentrations. Thus, test kits should NEVER detect ammonia in an
   established tank. If your test kit detects ANY ammonia, levels are too
   high and are stressing fish. Take corrective action immediately by
   changing water and identifying the source of the problem.
   Warning: Amquel and other similar ``ammonia-neutralizing'' water
   additives are incompatible with most ammonia test kits. Water treated
   with Amquel will falsely test positive for ammonia, even when ammonia
   is not present. Test kits using the ``Nessler'' method are known to
   give false readings under such conditions.
Nitrite Test Kit

   You might want to get one of these; nitrite kits are cheap ($5-10) and
   are useful in the same circumstances where an ammonia test is useful.
   The only time a nitrite kit provides information that an ammonia kit
   can't is while testing for completion of the second phase of the
   nitrogen cycle (see the CYCLING SECTION). As in the case for ammonia,
   if your test kits detects nitrite, your biological filter is not
   working adequately. Once a tank has cycled, nitrite kits are pretty
   much useless. (If the bio filter in an established tank isn't working,
   both ammonia and nitrite levels will be elevated.)
   Nitrite is an order of magnitude less toxic than ammonia. Thus, one
   common saying about tank cycling is: ``if your fish survive the
   ammonia spike, they'll probably survive the nitrite spike and the rest
   of the cycling process.'' However, even at levels above .5 ppm, fish
   become stressed. At 10-20 ppm, concentrations become lethal.
Nitrate Test Kit

   Get this kit! Nitrate levels increase over time in established tanks
   as the end result of the nitrogen cycle. (The only exception to this
   rule is heavily-planted tanks and some reef tanks, which MAY be able
   to consume nitrogen faster than it is produced.) Because nitrates
   become toxic at high concentrations, they must be removed periodically
   (e.g., through regular water changes). Having a nitrate test kit helps
   you determine whether or not your water changes are removing nitrates
   quickly enough.
   Nitrates become toxic to fish (and plants) at levels of 50-300 ppm,
   depending on the fish species. For fry, however, much lower
   concentrations become toxic.
   Note: A nitrate test kit is only of limited value in determining
   whether the nitrogen cycle has completed. Most nitrate test kits
   actually convert nitrate to nitrite first, then test for the
   concentration of nitrite. That is, they actually measure the combined
   concentration of nitrite and nitrate. In an established tank, nitrite
   levels are essentially zero, and the kits do properly measure nitrate
   levels. While a tank is cycling, however, a nitrate kit can't tell you
   how much of the reading (if any) comes from nitrate rather than
pH Test Kit

   Get one; these kits are extremely cheap, so there is no excuse for not
   owning one. You will want to know the pH of your tap water so that you
   can select fish whose requirements meet your water conditions. In
   addition, you will periodically want to check your tank's pH so that
   you can be sure it stays stable and doesn't increase or decrease
   significantly over time.
   In some cases, tank decorations (e.g., driftwood) or gravel (e.g.,
   made of coral, shells or limestone) change the pH of your water. For
   example, tank items may slowly leach ions into your tank's water,
   raising the GH and KH (and pH). With driftwood, it is not uncommon to
   have the wood slowly leach tannins that lower the pH.
General Hardness (GH) Kit

   You may want to get one of these, but having one is not critical. You
   don't need to know the exact hardness level. Knowing whether your
   water is ``soft'', ``very soft'', etc. is good enough. Your local fish
   store may be able to give you sufficient information. Alternatively,
   call your water utility (see the TAPWATER SECTION of this FAQ).
Carbonate Hardness (KH) Kit

   This kit is not critical to have. By regularly monitoring the pH, you
   can figure out whether your KH is ``high enough''. That is, the KH
   should be high enough that your pH stays stable over time. If you have
   trouble keeping the pH stable, you may want to increase your tank's
   buffering capacity. Your local fish store may be able to give you
   sufficient information as to your KH value. Alternatively, call your
   water utility.
   A KH kit is, however, indispensable to plant enthusiasts who use CO2
   injection. It is also strongly recommended that you get one if you
   want to change the pH of your water, and it is a very useful
   diagnostic tool if you are experiencing pH stability problems.
                                 Beginner FAQ:
                      Fish Stress and Healthy Fishkeeping
What Stress Means, and Why it is Bad for Your Fish.

   Most fish can tolerate environmental conditions that differ somewhat
   from the natural conditions in which they evolved. This does not mean,
   however, that they will be as healthy or live their full normal life
   span. For example, keeping a fish in water that is cooler (or warmer)
   than its preferred condition forces its body organs to work harder to
   keep it alive. That is, such conditions place the fish under increased
   Increased stress reduces a fish's ability to ward off diseases and
   heal itself (e.g., if its fins get nicked, or parasites get introduced
   into the tank with newly purchased fish). In addition, stress reduces
   a fish's ability to breed successfully and shortens its natural life
   span. A small amount of stress by itself is not usually fatal, but as
   stress levels increase, a fish's ability to cope with it decreases.
   Thus, one of the most important goals of a fishkeeper is to remove
   sources of stress wherever possible.
   It should be noted that eliminating stress does not guarantee that
   your tank will be healthy. But it significantly increases the odds.
   Many netters boast regularly about how they've kept fish (apparently)
   ``healthy and happy'' for long periods of time under (apparently)
   highly stressful conditions. Such aquarists are sitting on a
   time-bomb; the not uncommon followup story will refer to one fish
   getting sick, then another, with an end result of multiple fish
   deaths. Reducing stress simply increases the likelihood that a tank
   will stay healthy (much the same way as eating right, exercising and
   getting the proper amount sleep is generally associated with a long
   healthy life for humans).
Common Causes of Stress in the Aquarium

   In this section, we list some of the more common stress-inducing
   conditions. In all cases, the level of stress induced by a specific
   factor is highly species-dependent. You should be aware of the type of
   stress that will be present in your tanks and select fish known to
   tolerate such conditions well. For example, if your water is hard and
   alkaline, you're best off selecting fish that thrive under such
   Nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitrite and nitrate) have varying degrees
   of toxicity and are stressful at all levels. Ammonia is toxic in low
   concentrations and severely stresses fish under ANY concentration.
   Consequently, a healthy aquarium must have an adequate biological
   filter that quickly converts ammonia to nitrite (and nitrate).
   Although significantly less toxic than ammonia or nitrite, nitrate
   also stresses fish. Thus, a means of removing excess nitrate (e.g.,
   through regular water changes) helps keep an aquarium healthy.
   The water temperature of your tank should match the needs of its
   inhabitants. Keeping water temperature too cold or too warm for a
   particular species will stress those fish. For example, goldfish
   prefer cooler temperatures (under 70F) than most tropical fish
   (goldfish survive winters in ponds where temperatures approach
   freezing), guaranteeing that a tank containing both goldfish and
   tropicals will either be too cold or too warm for some of the
   Some fish prefer soft water, others prefer hard water. Keeping a
   soft-water preferring fish in harder water (and vice versa) is
   Some fish prefer acidic water, some prefer alkaline water, others
   prefer water with a neutral pH. (Some fish don't care too much.)
   Some fish live in brackish water conditions; they will do better in
   water with a small amount of added salt. Other species are extremely
   intolerant of salt. Add salt only if all of a tank's inhabitants can
   tolerate salinity. Mollies, for example are known to like salt,
   whereas many species of catfish tolerate no salt at all. In general,
   fish lacking scales (or having small scales) don't tolerate salt well.
   The amount of physical space required for a particular fish depends on
   its species. Some fish do just fine in a 10g tank, others need 100g or
   more. Keeping a fish in a tank that is too small for it increases the
   level of stress (on everyone), frequently leading to increased
   aggression among tank inhabitants. Note also that the amount of space
   required may change should fish pair off to breed. Cichlids, for
   example, claim a portion of the tank for themselves when in breeding
   form, chasing away any fish that encroach on their territory. Thus,
   the onset of breeding behaviors frequently increases stress levels.
   Not all species of fish mix well with others. As an obvious example,
   most cichlids will eat smaller tank inhabitants (e.g., anything they
   can fit in their mouths). Even if too big to be eaten, however,
   peaceful fish will be stressed if kept with aggressive fish that chase
   them around all day. Moreover, many fish communicate through behavior
   and body language (i.e., cichlids frequently establish a ``pecking
   order'' in which one fish is king). Fish of one type of species may
   not recognize the signals given off by others, guaranteeing continual
   Some fish school in nature, spending their entire lives in large
   groups (rather than individually); they never feel comfortable or
   ``safe'' when kept by themselves. Cory cats for example, do better in
   a tank with 6 or more other Corys than they do by themselves. While it
   may be tempting to buy six different kinds of fish, this may not be
   ideal for the fish themselves. The opposite can also be true. Some
   fish are more aggressive towards members of their own species (e.g.,
   mating behaviors), whereas they may not feel threatened by other
   species and pretty much ignore them.
   Fish need oxygen, and some fish are more tolerant of low-oxygen water
   than others. Water with insufficient oxygen stresses fish. Note that
   as the water temperature goes up, the amount of dissolved oxygen in
   water decreases.
   Poor nutrition also causes stress. A healthy diet is a varied diet,
   and one should avoid using old foods in which vitamins and other
   nutrients have broken down. ``Old food'' includes food that has been
   stored in hot places, been exposed to air (not sealed), etc.
   The ``cure'' of adding medicines to tanks is often worse than the
   original disease. Medications that kill bacteria, parasites, etc. are
   usually not too discerning: they may also kill your nitrifying
   bacteria (now you REALLY have a major problem) or be toxic to the fish
   themselves. For example, some species of fish do not tolerate certain
   types of medicines at all. Adding such medications may weaken healthy
   fish to the point that they become susceptible to the original
   Adding untreated water to your tank may introduce chlorine or
   chloramine, both of which are toxic to fish. Be sure to treat all
   water prior to adding it to your tank.
   Sudden changes in water conditions can be stressful. Within limits,
   most fish can adjust to sub-optimal water conditions (e.g., wrong
   temperature, wrong pH). However, fish have difficulty adjusting to a
   SUDDEN change in water chemistry. Thus suddenly raising (or lowering)
   the temperature, changing the pH, changing the water hardness, etc.
   stresses a fish. It is more important to keep the water chemistry
   stable over the long haul than to keep keep water conditions exactly
   In summary, many factors lead to fish stress. Minimizing and
   eliminating sources of stress increases the chances of keeping tank
   inhabitants healthy. The exact amount of stress an individual fish can
   take depends greatly on what species it is, its age and size, etc. A
   stressed fish is a weakened fish. Although it may appear healthy to
   the casual observer, it will be more susceptible to disease, injury,
   etc. In contrast, healthy (unstressed) fish will be able to ward off
   disease and infection on their own. Thus, the appearance of disease in
   a tank is frequently brought on by ``poor water conditions'' that
   leave fish with weakened immune systems.
Symptoms That Your Fish Is Stressed

   In short, stressed fish don't ``act normal'' (with ``normal'' defined
   according to the species of fish). Once you've had fish for a few
   weeks, you'll see that each species behaves in its own characteristic
   way (that's why fish are fun to have!). Some fish tend to always stay
   near the top of the water, others near the bottom. Some fish swim
   continuously, others stay in one place. Deviation from their norm
   usually indicates stress.
   Common symptoms of stress include:
     * Fish stays near the surface gasping for breath, indicating that it
       has trouble getting enough oxygen (the concentration of dissolved
       oxygen is highest near the water's surface). Possible causes
       include low oxygen concentration due to poor water circulation,
       toxins that have damaged its gills, high ammonia or nitrite
       levels, etc.
     * Fish won't eat, or doesn't eat as aggressively as in past.
     * Fish stays hidden continuously and won't come out where it can be
       seen. Possible causes: aggressive fish, insufficient cover (e.g.,
       plants, wood, etc.) to make fish feel ``safe'' while swimming
     * Fish has nicked fins, open wounds that don't seem to heal.
       Possible cause: fish is target of aggression. Normally, minor
       nicks and cuts heal quickly. If they don't, stress levels may be
       suppressing the fish's immune system.
     * Fish has disease (parasites, fungus, etc.) Of course, the disease
       itself is a major problem. But in most cases, a healthy fish's
       immune system keeps it from getting sick in the first place. Thus,
       getting sick is a sign that the fish is in a stressed state (or
       had been until recently).
                      Beginner FAQ: Adding & Feeding Fish
Contributed by Lots Of Writers

   So you've got your tank set up and the filter running, you know about
   the nitrogen cycle and a little water chemistry. You've got all your
   test kits poised and ready to monitor your first month. Armed with
   this knowledge, you make your way to the local fish store to buy your
   first fish (or two). In this section, we'll deal with some of the
   common questions about keeping your fish. (Whew! Didn't think we'd
   actually get to fish, did you?)
Selecting ``Good'' Fish

   There are so many things to say about good beginner fish, we've
   covered it in a whole separate FAQ (oddly-enough, called the GOOD
   BEGINNER FISH FAQ); it contains many suggestions for particular fish.
   Here is the author's general advice:
   If we define a good beginner's fish as one that is easy to feed and
   care for, hardy, able to live in a variety of water conditions, and
   attractive, then there are a number of widely available fish which fit
   the bill nicely. Many of these are regularly sold as beginner's fish.
   But watch out! Many of the fish sold as beginner's fish really are not
   well suited to that role.
   Many of the smaller schooling fish make ideal first fish. These
   include White Cloud Mountain Minnows, the several commonly available
   species of Danios and Rasboras, and most available species of Barbs.
   For those with a slightly larger tank, Rainbowfish make a great
   schooling fish. Corydoras Catfish are ever popular schooling catfish.
   While many beginners are tempted to get just one or two of each of
   several different schooling fish, this should be resisted. Schooling
   fish do better if there are several of their own species present for
   them to interact with. A minimum of six of each of the midwater
   schooling fish is recommended, while four is the bare minimum for
   Corys. In the long run, a school of a dozen fish showing their natural
   behavior will be more pleasing than a mixed group of fishes unhappily
   forced to share the same tank. (``Mom, why is that one fish hiding
   behind the heater and that other one just hanging in the corner?'')
How Many Fish Can Be Added?

   The easiest answer to that question is ``one fish at a time.'' As far
   as how many in total can safely survive, a frequently used
   rule-of-thumb is ``up to a maximum of 1 inch of fish per gallon.''
   Much discussion of this rule has suggested that it really should read
   ``up to a maximum of 1 inch of SLIM-BODIED fish per gallon.''
   ``Slim-bodied'' could be fish such as neon tetras, White Cloud
   Mountain Minnows, danios etc.; ``medium bodied'' might be red-tailed
   black sharks, tiger barbs, platys, cory cats etc.; ``heavy bodied''
   would be goldfish, oscars etc.
   In other words, this is only a rule of thumb, and the ``maximum''
   population that is safe and humane will vary from tank to tank.
   Factors that increase your possible fish load include:
     * regular and significant water changes,
     * HEALTHY live plants, and
     * more than one type of well-tended filtration (remember to think of
       your filter as alive; it needs care just as do your fish).
   Likewise, factors that decrease your possible load include:
     * erratic or sparse water changes,
     * no plants or UNhealthy live plants, and
     * limited or ill-tended filtration (an undergravel filter can do a
       great job, but if it fails for some reason and was the only
       filtration on the tank, a heavily stocked tank will experience
       much more disastrous consequences than one with a light load).
   So, back to adding fish. Often it is not practical to add fish one at
   a time - for instance, you find some especially great looking neons
   and want to add a small school (6 or 7 fish) to your recently cycled
   20 gallon tank. You currently have one 2-inch pl*co and three 1.5-inch
   platys. Adding the neons will essentially double the ``volume'' of
   fish in the tank. In this case, you will see the same effects as
   cycling your tank, i.e., an ammonia and nitrite spike before the
   bacteria grows to match the new fish population. Test your water
   frequently and be prepared to do emergency partial water changes if
   the ammonia levels go up too far.
   The bio-filter for your tank is only ``fed'' by the wastes of the fish
   you have in the tank. This means that no matter how large your filter
   (e.g., one rated for a fully stocked 50 gal tank on your 20 gal), the
   bacteria population will be limited by the ``food'' it has. Few fish =
   small bacteria population.
   We are accustomed to thinking of bacteria reproduction as
   ``explosive''. Many bacteria can double their population size in
   hours, after all... but as we have seen in the CYCLING SECTION, the
   appropriate nitrifying bacteria are relatively slow to reproduce.
   There will be a time delay between the increased waste production of
   additional fish, and increased waste processing by the bacteria. In
   extreme cases, the ammonia increase could harm or kill your fish
   before the bacteria population had time to ``catch up'' to the amount
   of available nitrogenous wastes.
   This is why it is wise to add fish slowly and gradually. Safely
   bringing your tank's population up to the maximum load can take more
   than 6 months; in fact, it should be permitted to take at least that
   long. Leave breaking the rules to those with more years experience
   than they have fish.
Acclimating the Fish to Your Tank

  (adapted from the SALTWATER BEGINNER FAQ)
   Once you get the fish home you should set the bag in your tank,
   allowing the temperature to equalize. After about a half an hour or
   so, add a 1/4 cup of tank water to the bag. Repeat this process once
   every 15 minutes for an hour, removing any water if the bag gets too
   full. Any water you remove from the bag should be disposed of. It will
   most likely contain parasites and other bad things.
   After you have the fish acclimated to your tank's water chemistry,
   there are a couple of things you can do. You can place the fish
   directly into the main tank and hope for the best, or you could place
   the fish into a quarantine tank. In either case, quickly net the fish
   from the bag to the tank so that no store water gets transferred to
   the tank.
   The best scenario is to place the fish in quarantine. Keep the fish in
   the quarantine tank for 2 weeks and watch for signs of disease. If the
   fish gets sick, you can medicate the quarantine tank without affecting
   the chemistry of the main tank's. If you are going to quarantine the
   fish, you should acclimate the fish to the quarantine tank's
   chemistry, not the main tank.
   While a quarantine tank is a good idea, it is most likely that you do
   not have such a luxury (for now, at least... :). In this case, be
   extra careful to select healthy fish at the store, and carefully
   monitor your new arrivals for the first few weeks in your tank for
   signs of stress and disease. You always risk infecting the other fish
   in your tank when skipping quarantine.
Feeding the Fish

   Most common fish sold in aquarium shops, especially those recommended
   for beginners, can subsist on processed (flake, stick or pellet) food.
   Some can even thrive on it... although for fish, just as for other
   animals, some variety in the diet is usually desirable.
   Fish food is somewhat delicate. Exposing it to sunlight, leaving the
   lid off so that damp can come in, or buying a very large container
   that takes 8 months to use up all can sabotage the nutritional value
   of your fish's food. Generally speaking, there are five classes of
   fish food:
     * various processed foods (processed ground stuff remade into
       flakes, sticks or pellets; often divided into categories for
       omnivorous, vegetarian, and carnivorous fish),
     * freeze dried foods (whole beasties such as blood worms, daphnia
     * frozen foods (more whole beasties),
     * live foods (live beasties), and
     * other fresh foods (home made carnivore food of beefheart, zucchini
       for your pl*co, etc).
   To many fishkeepers, flake food is like rice. It will do for most
   every meal, but a little something else now and again is important.
   Nearly every new fishkeeper will hear the rule ``feed your fish only
   what they will eat in 3 minutes'' or similar blandishment. This is
   terrifying to the beginner; after all, those fish are obviously
   ravenous! What if they starved! This is only a tiny pinch! How can it
   be enough?
   Take it seriously. The reason most folks have fish is, we hope, to
   observe them. If not up close and personal, at least in a general
   sense. The perfect time to do some of your observing is when you feed.
   Each time you feed, park yourself in front of the tank to watch. Put
   in less than you think can possibly be enough. Watch the fish consume
   it. Observe what falls to the bottom. If you don't have any fish who
   are primarily bottom feeders (pl*cos, corydoras, loaches etc.), take
   the time to learn if any of your other fish will glean the bottom;
   gouramis often will, but rainbows generally won't, for example. If you
   do have bottom feeders, watch to see how fast they eat.
   So you put a little pinch in, and after 2 minutes (you counted!) there
   is practically no food to be seen... except a little on the bottom
   which the cories are really going for. Yep, you can probably safely
   give them some more. But watch to make sure they really eat all of the
   second pinch too. It is better to feed a tiny bit several times a day,
   especially with fish who won't scour the bottom, than it is to feed a
   bunch all at once... but most adult fish will do fine being fed a 5
   minute ration once a day. In an established tank, even less often is
   preferred by some fish keepers; that way, the fish will eat more of
   the algae and other edibles that can naturally occur in a tank.
   Another thing to keep in mind: fish CAN get fat, especially if fed a
   lot of rich foods such as bloodworms. Many of the fish you'll buy to
   put in your tank are juveniles: how they develop into adult fish will
   be determined by your care of them. Just as high nitrates can stunt a
   fish's growth, shorten its life, and prevent it from ever breeding
   successfuly, fish who are overfed can end up with deformed bodies and
   other problems - plus they poop more... which has obvious
   ramifications :-). Feeding a good variety of foods ensures that your
   fish will get not only the rich foods, but also fiber (brine shrimp
   and other crustaceans) and vegetables (algae foods, vegetables).
   A word on live foods: certain commercially available live foods are
   considered risky by many hobbyists, as they can carry parasites -
   tubifex worms in particular. You will have to decide yourself how you
   feel about this risk. Be very sure that you are feeding food that is,
   indeed, still alive! Rinse the critters thoroughly, and especially if
   they are not able to live in your tank water, be just as careful about
   overfeeding live food as you are other foods. Live foods are covered
   in detail (including culturing instructions) in the LIVE FOOD FAQ.
                      Beginner FAQ: Partial Water Changes
Purpose of Water Changes

   The solution to pollution is dilution; water changes replace a portion
   of ``dirty'' water with an equal portion of clean water, effectively
   diluting the concentrations of undesirable substances in your tank. In
   an established tank, nitrate is the primary toxin that builds up.
   Regular water changes are the cheapest, safest and most effective way
   of keeping nitrate concentrations at reasonable levels. During the
   tank cycling phase, however, ammonia or nitrite may be the substances
   that need to be diluted and removed. Likewise, if medications have
   been added to your tank, they may need to be removed after they've
   served their primary purpose.
   The effectiveness of water changes is determined by two factors: their
   frequency and the percentage of water that is replaced. The more often
   water is replaced, or the greater the quantity of replaced water at a
   change determines overall effectiveness.
   The benefits of water changes must be balanced by the stress caused by
   a sudden change of your tank's water chemistry. If tank water has
   similar pH, GH and KH as tap water, changing 50% (or more) of the
   water at one time will not affect fish. On the other hand, if your
   tank's pH is (for example) 6.3, while your replacement water has a pH
   of 7.5, replacing 50% of the water all at once will change the pH of
   your tank significantly (possibly more than 50% depending on buffering
   factors), which will stress your fish, possibly enough to kill them.
   Because water changes are the first line of defense in dealing with
   problems such as disease, you want to be able to do large, frequent
   partial water changes during emergency periods. Consequently, you want
   your tank's water chemistry to closely match that of your replacement
   water. That way, you always have the option of performing large water
   changes on short notice. Note that this is the way tanks start out;
   when you initially set up your tank, the water is the same as that
   from your tap. Over time, however, the tank's water chemistry may
   ``drift'' relative to tap water due to acidification from the nitrogen
   cycle, the addition of chemical additives such as ``Ph-up'' or
   ``Ph-down'', the use of non-inert tank gravel (e.g. crushed coral or
   sea shells), etc.
How frequently should partial water changes be made?

   The more frequent the changes, the less water that needs to be
   replaced. However, the longer between changes, the more stressful each
   change potentially becomes, because a larger portion of the water gets
   replaced. Replacing roughly 25% of your tank's water bi-weekly is a
   good minimal starting point, but may not be enough. The proper
   frequency really depends on such factors as the fish load in your
   tank. Nonetheless, you should do water changes often enough so that
    1. nitrate levels stay at or below 50ppm, and preferably MUCH lower
       (less than 10ppm is a good optimal value);
    2. the change in water chemistry resulting from a change is small. In
       particular, the before and after pH of your tank shouldn't differ
       by more than .2 units. (Use a test kit the first few times to get
       a feel for what's right.) If your pH changes too much as a result
       of a water change, perform changes more frequently, but replace
       less water at each change.
   Water changes remove nitrates after they've been produced. Nitrogenous
   substances in the form of uneaten fish food, detritus, etc. can also
   be removed BEFORE they get broken down into nitrate. This is achieved
   by cleaning your mechanical and biological filter regularly, and by
   vacuuming the gravel with a gravel cleaner. This should be done every
   time you perform a water change, e.g., every two weeks.
   Note: if your heater becomes partially exposed to air as the water
   level drops while doing changes, be sure to unplug your heater while
   doing your water changes. The heater can crack if the water level
   drops below the heating coil!
   Also, be sure to dechlorinate/dechloriminate the replacement water
   before adding it to your tank! (See the WATER TREATMENT section.)
                                 Beginner FAQ:
                               Long-Term Success
Contributed by Lots Of Writers

   In this last section, we bring up popular issues that come up after
   your tank has been running for a while.
Stopping that !@*!@ Algae Plague

   You should first be aware that not all algae is ``bad''; Algae, like
   plants, feed off nutrients in the tank, so a good crop of
   regularly-harvested algae can help keep the pollution levels in check
   (this is the principle behind ALGAL SCRUBBER filtration). Likewise,
   algae plagues are usually symptoms of overfeeding or not enough water
   changes. The best thing to do is to learn what is causing the plague,
   and eliminate that cause. Test your nitrate and/or ammonia. Increase
   your water change volume and/or frequency, or feed your fish less.
   There are also a number of chemical remedies for specific algae types,
   and algae-eating fish which will consume some algaes. For full
   details, including specific remedies, please consult the ALGAE SECTION
   of the DISEASE FAQ.
Snail Plague

   Snails, like algae, can be both useful and detrimental to a tank. Some
   species will burrow in the gravel, aerating it and keeping it from
   being compacted; others will eat algae. However, some species will
   reproduce unchecked, destroying plants and generally being an eyesore.
   You can protect against snails by sanitizing anything inanimate you
   add to your tank in a 1:20 bleach solution, and treating new live
   plants in potassium permangenate or Alum. For ridding your tank of
   snails, you have little recourse other than vacuuming as many up as
   possible, though clown loaches are rumored to eat snails. The SNAIL
   SECTION of the DISEASE FAQ describes individual species of snails and
   specific remedies.
What to do on Vacations

   Healthy fish can easily go a week without food. When you go out of
   town for the weekend, don't bother getting someone to feed your fish.
   (Indeed, someone not familiar with fish tanks is likely to overfeed
   your fish while you are gone, leaving you a mess to deal with when you
   return.) Stay away from those ``vacation feeders'' that slowly
   dissolve. They can upset the pH of your tank and lead to excessive
   food in your tank. Electrically-operated automatic feeders, though,
   can be useful as you ``pre-measure'' the amount of food it dispenses
   each day.
   If you're going away for longer than a week you will have to make
   arrangements for someone to feed the fish. Tank minding companies and
   some fish stores will do this for a fee, but most people ask a friend
   or neighbor who doesn't keep fish themselves. Sustained overfeeding
   could overload your filter and wipe out your tank, and the best way to
   avoid the risk of this happening is to make up individual packages
   (such as small envelopes) each containing a day's worth of food. The
   fish don't have to be fed every day, and shouldn't be given more than
   one day's normal amount of food at a time, even if they've gone a few
   days without. Be sure to warn your helper not to make up for days they
   have missed by giving extra food.
   If your tank has a high evaporation rate you may also want to arrange
   for it to be topped off with fresh water. This is most important in a
   marine tank, as you don't want the salinity drifting too high.
   You can't guarantee there won't be a major equipment failure or some
   other kind of disaster while you're away, but you can minimize the
   risk by replacing any suspect equipment well in advance (so you can be
   sure the replacement is working). Don't add any new fish in the month
   before your vacation in case they introduce disease that takes some
   time to come to light. Clean your tank and filter and do a normal
   water change before you go, but if you've neglected maintenance don't
   wait until the day before you leave and then blitz it. That will
   stress your fish and perhaps damage your filtration bacteria just when
   they least need it.
   If there is a serious problem, the chances are that it will be
   discovered too late to do anything about it. However, looking after
   someone else's fish can feel like a heavy burden of responsibility,
   and your helper might have better peace of mind if they have the
   number of a fish store or some other source of expert advice to call
   in an emergency.
Moving a Tank

  contributed by Timothy Shimeall
   The best word on moving fish (and in this discussion, fish includes
   all aquarium animal life), beyond very short distances, is DON'T.
   Travel is very stressful on fish, and even with the best precautions
   you should expect to lose several. Given that this is true, you may
   want to seriously consider selling off your stock and getting new fish
   at your destination.
   If, given the above, you still want to try to move fish, then the
   following may help to minimize the pain and loss of fish.
   The task of moving fish splits into two tasks: moving the tank, and
   then (later) moving the fish. Never attempt to move the fish in their
  Moving the tank
   The main problem in moving the tank is the filtration system. After a
   very few hours (less than a day) without a flow of oxygen-laden water,
   aerobic bacteria start to die. If you are moving a short distance (a
   few hours' drive or so), it may be possible to preserve your bacteria
   colony; even for longer drives, some of the bacteria will survive and
   rebuild itself quickly. With a modest amount of ingenuity and
   planning, it should be possible to minimize the down time of the
   filter by keeping water flowing though the media until the last
   possible minute and restarting it as soon as you arrive. It is
   advisable to always try to save your old filter media rather than
   throw it away.
   The moving procedure is as follows:
    1. Put your fish in a holding container (more on that below)
    2. Drain your tank. If the move is going to be short, preserve some
       of the water to help preserve the bacteria colony.
    3. Disassemble your tank. Aquarium plants will survive a fair amount
       of time if their roots are kept wet, so it should be possible to
       bag them with some water and set them aside for hand-moving. If
       the move is going to be short, put your (unrinsed) filter medium
       in a sealed container (preferably a never-used pail or other
       chemical-free hard-sided container); keep the media wet, but not
       submerged. For long moves (more than one day), either clean or
       discard your filter media. Pumps, heaters, etc. can be packed as
       any fragile appliance.
    4. Move your tank. Don't use a moving company or professional
       packers, unless you have absolutely no choice AND you can
       supervise them packing the tank and loading it in the truck. It's
       far better to move it yourself or with the help of friends.
    5. Reassemble your tank at your destination. If you're doing a short
       move you should have enough dechlorinated/treated water available
       on arrival to fill your tank and get water moving through your
       filter. If you're doing a long move, then set your tank up as if
       it was a new tank-- including a week-long delay before putting
       fish in the tank. Initially, put in a few hardy fish to get the
       nitrate cycle established. After the tank is stable, put the fish
       from your old home back in.
  Moving the fish
   There are three problems in moving the fish:
    1. Where do you put them?
       You have two options: a friend's tank, and a pet store tank. Some
       pet stores will, for a fee, board fish during a move. A signed
       contract, detailing what responsibilities the pet store is
       assuming, is a very good idea. Some pet stores, for a further fee,
       will pack and air-ship the fish to you on request. This isn't
       cheap. Bear in mind that you'll be leaving the fish there for at
       least a couple of weeks.
    2. How do you pack them?
       For short periods of time (a couple of hours, tops) you can put
       the fish in sealed bags, half-filled with air. This time can be
       stretched somewhat by filling with oxygen, rather than air. Put
       the bags in a padded, compartmentalized container, and ship by
       air. (This is how pet stores receive their fish). For larger fish,
       or longer trips, one can use a sealed bucket for each fish, rather
       than a bag.
    3. How do you support them on the move?
       Fish won't eat during the move. They're too stressed, and you
       don't want to degrade the water quality by the food, anyway. Fish
       can survive a week or so without food if they've been previously
       well fed. Try to maintain an even temperature, perhaps by placing
       the fish in a sealed cooler, or compartmentalized cooler. For long
       trips, particularly by car, a battery-powered airpump and airstone
       is a good idea (if not a must). After the move, slowly condition
       the fish to the new tank location, as you would in adding new fish
       to a tank.

   It's come to this has it? You've read all the FAQs, found out
   everything you can about diseases, ailments and the proper treatments,
   asked for help from several knowledgeable sources and have come to the
   conclusion that you cannot nurse your fish back to health. And since
   you took on the responsibility of caring for the fish you now must
   find the most humane method in helping it to die.
   Several options exist for euthanizing your ill pet. They include
   chemicals, decapitation, and donation. The best method is probably
   through the use of chemicals. A few vets recommend an overdose of
   MS-222, a fish anesthetic. It can be purchased from chemical supply
   companies as MS-222, tricaine methanesulfonate or Ethyl
   3-aminobenzoate, methanesulfonic acid salt. Immerse the fish in a
   container of 350 ppm MS-222 (350 mg MS-222 per liter of water) for 10
   minutes. This is very humane and is non-traumatic for both the fish
   and owner. Another chemical method is the injection of pentothal into
   the abdominal cavity. This may be more difficult for the owner as
   syringes may be hard to come by and sticking animals with needles may
   not sit well with some people. It is almost painless for the fish if
   this helps ease your hesitations regarding this method. Finally one
   can use alcohol to euthanize a fish. Make a 1:5 (20%) solution of
   Vodka (or any other similar strong grain neutral alcohol) and water.
   Then place the fish into the container and it will simply `go to
   sleep'. These 3 methods are highly recommended as they are very
   One method that has been recommended by a non-veterinary (but
   experienced Oscar breeder) type is the use of Alka-Seltzer. Place the
   fish in a shallow container of water and place 2 Alka-Seltzer tablets
   in a position under the gills. The fish supposedly will `fall asleep'
   within minutes.
   A non-chemical but effective method is decapitation. Once again, some
   owners may be squeamish over this method. If done properly is quick
   and painless for the animal, and has the benefit of being cheap; most
   of us own knives but not anesthetics. Use a sharp knife and sever the
   spinal cord by quickly cutting down through the body just behind the
   eye at the level of the lateral line. The quicker you make this cut
   the better it will be for the fish. Remember to disinfect this knife
   after the procedure if you plan on using it for anything other than
   euthanizing fish.
   If you are unable to go through with any of the above methods try
   contacting a local university. It is possible that one of the
   departments in biology or similar fields will take your sick fish off
   your hands. They may use the fish for research and study its disease
   or will be able to dispose of it properly.
   Methods that are not recommended but are often mentioned include
   variations on freezing. Fish tend to suffer in these procedures. It
   does not matter whether they cool down slowly when you place them in a
   bowl of water in the freezer or if the water is already cold from the
   addition of ice cubes. Fish react to these methods in a negative way,
   and it is painful to watch. Finally one should NEVER flush a fish down
   the toilet. This is not an effective method of euthanasia but is a
   form of torture as the fish ends up in a septic tank or similar place
   where it is bathed in nasty chemicals and sewage before finally
   succumbing hours if not days later.
Breeding Your Fish

   At some point, you will find yourself unsatisfied with merely keeping
   healthy fish, and will yearn to delve into the fascinating world of
   fish breeding. Congratulations! You've gone beyond the scope of the
   FAQs. Go read some good books on fish breeding, and post questions to
   the newsgroups. Then write a FAQ on it,. :) [Editor's note: someone
   has taken us up on the challenge! There is a BREEDING FAQ at last.]
   End of Beginner FAQ.

User Contributions:

Mar 28, 2023 @ 9:09 am
Regardless if you believe in God or not, this message is a "must-read"!!

All throughout time, we can see how we have been carefully conditioned coming to this point where we are on the verge of a cashless society. Did you know that Jesus foretold of this event almost 2,000 years ago?

In the book of Revelation 13:16-18, we read,

"He (the false prophet who deceives many by his miracles--Revelation 19:20) causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666."

Referring to the last generation, this could only be speaking of a cashless society. Why's that? Revelation 13:17 says that we cannot buy or sell unless we receive the mark of the beast. If physical money was still in use, we could buy or sell with one another without receiving the mark. This would contradict scripture that states we need the mark to buy or sell!

These verses could not be referring to something purely spiritual as scripture references two physical locations (our right hand or forehead) stating the mark will be on one "OR" the other. If this mark was purely spiritual, it would indicate both places, or one--not one OR the other!

This is where it comes together. It is amazing how accurate the Bible is concerning the implantable RFID microchip. These are notes from a man named Carl Sanders who worked with a team of engineers to help develop this RFID chip:

"Carl Sanders sat in seventeen New World Order meetings with heads-of-state officials such as Henry Kissinger and Bob Gates of the C.I.A. to discuss plans on how to bring about this one-world system. The government commissioned Carl Sanders to design a microchip for identifying and controlling the peoples of the world—a microchip that could be inserted under the skin with a hypodermic needle (a quick, convenient method that would be gradually accepted by society).

Carl Sanders, with a team of engineers behind him, with U.S. grant monies supplied by tax dollars, took on this project and designed a microchip that is powered by a lithium battery, rechargeable through the temperature changes in our skin. Without the knowledge of the Bible (Brother Sanders was not a Christian at the time), these engineers spent one-and-a-half-million dollars doing research on the best and most convenient place to have the microchip inserted.

Guess what? These researchers found that the forehead and the back of the hand (the two places the Bible says the mark will go) are not just the most convenient places, but are also the only viable places for rapid, consistent temperature changes in the skin to recharge the lithium battery. The microchip is approximately seven millimeters in length, .75 millimeters in diameter, about the size of a grain of rice. It is capable of storing pages upon pages of information about you. All your general history, work history, criminal record, health history, and financial data can be stored on this chip.

Brother Sanders believes that this microchip, which he regretfully helped design, is the “mark” spoken about in Revelation 13:16–18. The original Greek word for “mark” is “charagma,” which means a “scratch or etching.” It is also interesting to note that the number 666 is actually a word in the original Greek. The word is “chi xi stigma,” with the last part, “stigma,” also meaning “to stick or prick.” Carl believes this is referring to a hypodermic needle when they poke into the skin to inject the microchip."

Mr. Sanders asked a doctor what would happen if the lithium contained within the RFID microchip leaked into the body. The doctor replied by saying a terribl (...)

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index ]

Send corrections/additions to the FAQ Maintainer:

Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM