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Apple ][ Emulator Resources Guide 1.3.5 (1/1)


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Archive-name: apple2/emulators-faq/part1
URL: http://purl.org/net/Apple2
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Version: 1.3.5

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
*******************************************************************************
*                                                                             *
*                      Apple ][ Emulator Resources Guide                      *
*                                version 1.3.5                                *
*                                                                             *
*                          © 1995-1998 Alex Maddison                          *
*                              <alexm@zip.com.au>                             *
*                                                                             *
*                Corrections and constructive criticism welcome.              *
*                                                                             *
* Last updated: March 1998                                                    *
*                                                                             *
* Newsgroups: comp.emulators.apple2, alt.emulators.ibmpc.apple2, *.answers    *
* Posted: First week of each month or on demand.                              *
*                                                                             *
* http://purl.org/net/Apple2                                                  *
* ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/apple2/emulators-faq/       *
*                                                                             *
*******************************************************************************



(An "*" represents new information - new versions do not constitute new 
information)

  1 - Introduction

1.1 What is an emulator?
1.2 What are disk-images?
1.3 The Apple ROMs

  2 - Apple Emulators

       2.1 General Emulator-Related Files
           2.1.1 APL2BMP
           2.1.2 ASB2TXT
           2.1.3 AP2IFC
           2.1.4 AP2INF
           2.1.5 SPEED.TEST
           2.1.6 Timer Module
       2.2 Apple Macintosh Platform
           2.2.1 Bernie ][ The Rescue
           2.2.2 Catakig
           2.2.3 Deja ][
           2.2.4 Gus
           2.2.5 Mac Apple //e Emulator - MacE
           2.2.6 Sim6502
           2.2.7 Stop The Madness - STM (v0.851r)
           2.2.8 Stop The Madness - STM (v0.881r)
           2.2.9 IIe
           2.2.10 //e Card for Macintosh LC
           2.2.11 ][ in a Mac
           2.2.12 XGS-Mac
       2.3 Apple Newton
           2.3.1 TwoInHand
       2.4 Atari Platform
           2.4.1 Apple ][ A2.04
       2.5 BeOS/BeBox Platform
         * 2.5.1 Open Bernie for Be
           2.5.2 Sargalo
       2.6 Commodore Amiga Platform
           2.6.1 AppleM
           2.6.2 Apple On Amiga
           2.6.3 Apple 2000
       2.7 Commodore 64 Platform
           2.7.1 Spartan Emulator
       2.8 IBM-PC - Linux Platform
           2.8.1 Apple ][+ Emulator for Linux
           2.8.2 ProDOS Emulator
           2.8.3 XGS
       2.9 IBM-PC - MSDOS Platform
           2.9.1 Apple Emu - Applemu
           2.9.2 ApplePC
           2.9.3 Appler
           2.9.4 Apl2Em
           2.9.5 Apl2Em-2
           2.9.6 Apl2Em-3
           2.9.7 Apple ][+ Emulator
           2.9.8 AppleUni
           2.9.9 Central Point Option Board
           2.9.10 SimSystem IIe - SimIIe
           2.9.11 TrackStar/TrackStar Plus
           2.9.12 ][ in a PC
           2.9.13 XGS-DOS
           2.9.14 XGS (Win32s)
       2.10 IBM-PC - Windows Platform
           2.10.1 Apple II Oasis for Windows
           2.10.2 Applewin
       2.11 Emulator Source Code
           2.11.1 6502 Emulation Package
           2.11.2 Apple2
           2.11.3 Apple2e
           2.11.4 Apple2Emul
           2.11.5 a2
           2.11.6 KEGS
         * 2.11.7 m65816
           2.11.8 ][+ Simulator
           2.11.9 Xapple2+
           2.11.10 XGS
           2.11.11 YAE
           2.11.12 zaniWok
       2.12 Old versions of YAE (Yet Another Apple ][ Emulator)
           2.12.1 YAE - DEC
           2.12.2 YAE - IBM
           2.12.3 YAE - MIPS
           2.12.4 YAE - SPARC

  3 - Emulator Resources (FTP/WWW, disk-image sites, software & information)
       3.1 Emulator & Related File Sites
           3.1.1 Apple Macintosh
           3.1.2 Atari
           3.1.3 Commodore Amiga
           3.1.4 IBM-PC (DOS, MS Windows & Linux)
           3.1.5 Unix
       3.2 Disk-Image & Software Sites
           3.2.1 Freeware/Public Domain/Shareware/Other (disk-image format)
           3.2.2 Freeware/Public Domain/Shareware (non disk-image format)
           3.2.3 Official Apple Software
       3.3 Miscellaneous Software Information
           3.3.1 Products
           3.3.2 Games
           3.3.3 Services
       3.4 World Wide Web Sites
       3.5 Usenet Groups

  4 - Compression Techniques

  5 - Creating/Extracting Disk-Images
       5.1 Creating Disk-Images
           5.1.1 Creating segmented disk-images
           5.1.2 Creating whole disk-images
           5.1.3 Creating shrunk disk-images
       5.2 Transferring Disk-Images
           5.2.1 Creating and sending disk-images "on the fly"
           5.2.2 Sending disk-images by modem/null-modem cable
           5.2.3 Transferring via disk to compatible drives
           5.2.4 Miscellaneous
       5.3 Making Copy-Protected Disk-Images
           5.3.1 Super Saltine's Transcopy
       5.4 Extracting Disk-Images

  6 - Disk-Image Formats & Conversion
       6.1 Emulator Disk-Images
           6.1.1 DOS3.3 Order (DO)
           6.1.2 ProDOS Order (PO)
           6.1.3 Nibble Order (NIB)
           6.1.4 2IMG Universal Format (2IMG)
           6.1.5 Apple II For Windows (A4W)
           6.1.6 TrackStore (APP)
           6.1.7 Dalton Disk Disintegrator (DDD)
           6.1.8 SimIIe (IIE)
           6.1.9 Copy II+ 7.1 Image (IMG)
           6.1.10 XGS Format (XGS)
           6.1.11 "Raw" Disk-Images
           6.1.12 Apple Program Files
       6.2 Distribution Disk-Images
           6.2.1 ShrinkIt
           6.2.2 Apple DiskCopy
           6.2.2 WinImage/Disk Copy Fast

  7 - Working With Disk-Images
       7.1 Adding/Removing Files
       7.2 Cataloging

  8 - Apple DOS/ProDOS commands

  9 - Further Reading


*******************************************************************************

-
1 - Introduction
-

---
1.1 What is an emulator?
---

  An emulator is a virtual-copy of a physical device (in terms of this document, 
an 8-bit or 16-bit Apple computer). Early home computers contained a number of 
basic hardware components - the ROM (hard-coded software, like a computer-game 
cartridge), the RAM (writeable application memory) and the CPU (the 
microprocessor which executes machine-language programs). The original 
instruction-set of the Apple's CPU is duplicated at the core of the emulator as 
software, and around this is built further emulation of storage devices (usually 
disk-drives) and translation so that the virtual-machine can use your physical 
computer's keyboard, display screen, RAM and sound features. Along with a 
software copy of the ROM (see below) the emulator can use the resources of your 
physical computer to mimic an Apple!

  If the concept of emulation sounds too good to be true - that's probably 
because it is. Emulators can use a large percentage of your physical computer's 
resources during operation. Efficient emulation of the Apple on modern machines 
is really only possible because of the expanding power of computers. At this 
point, it takes the processing power of a 486DX2/66 or 68030 CPU to comfortably 
emulate a 1MHz 6502 (the CPU of the 8-bit Apple ][). The 16-bit IIgs emulators 
coming into use now need the latest processors (Pentium or PowerPC chips).

---
1.2 What are disk-images?
---

  Apple II 5.25" diskettes are not compatible with that 5.25" floppy in the 
front of your PC. Period.

  A disk-image is a track-by-track copy of a physical diskette made to a fixed 
volume as a software file; basically there is little difference between it and a 
compressed archive (eg. a PKZIP or StuffIt file). In everyday use, this is 
useful because of a number of factors - an "image" of a diskette retains more 
information than an archived copy (eg. volume name, original file dates), 
physical diskettes may become defective, it makes duplication of master-
diskettes easier, disk-images can be stored on hard-disks eliminating the need 
for unwieldy numbers of diskettes, etc. All of the modern computing platforms 
use disk-images for storing and transferring disks over electronic networks 
(such as the Internet). Apple distributes its system software in DiskCopy image 
format (which is compatible with programs such as ShrinkWrap and MountImage 
allowing the image to be accessed like a real disk from the Finder). The PC uses 
WinImage (which is compatible with DiskCopyFast in DOS). Finally, the Amiga uses 
DiskMasher images. None of these image types are compatible with each other.

  Emulators use disk-images for a totally different purpose. Whereas modern 
computers use images to transfer physical diskettes electronically, emulators 
use disk-images because the original media is not compatible with the modern 
disk drives. Although the diskette media itself is the same, the method used to 
store data on it is totally different. Disk-images are used to trick the 
emulator software into thinking that there is an Apple ][ disk-drive attached 
(unlike modern software, most Apple ][ applications could not be installed onto 
a hard-drive and were dependent on the 140K diskette structure to operate). 
Unlike the different types of images above, emulator images can be used on any 
computer. There are six types of Apple ][ disk-images, of which three are 
standard to virtually every emulator on every platform... But why have more than 
one type of disk-image to emulate an Apple disk-drive? Because any disk-drive 
can access the information on a diskette in a number of ways. An Apple ][ drive 
alone supports DOS and ProDOS structuring, as well as a Nibble format which 
included half and quarter tracks used in some software as copy-protection. These 
are the three main types which are standard to most emulators.

For further information on disk-images, please refer to Chapter 6 of this guide.

---
1.3 - The Apple ROMs
---

  According to the 'Apple II User's Guide', the read-only memory (ROM) "contents 
never change, even when you turn the power off. ROM contains the programs which 
give the Apple II its unique identity and enables it to understand and respond 
appropriately to the commands you type in at the keyboard." (p.4) Every computer 
contains ROMs, and understandably, they are copyrighted by the manufacturer. As 
such, many of the emulator packages listed below do not include the ROMs 
required to emulate an Apple ][. ROMs can be duplicated from your original Apple 
computer in the form of binary files - usually the Apple, disk-drive and serial 
ROMs. Instructions for saving the information from the ROMs into binary files 
can be found in the text file "dumping-ROMs" available on wilbur. Emulator 
packages which do not include the ROMs often include instructions on dumping 
ROMs. This information is specifically indicated in the descriptions below. As 
an aside, the main Apple ROMs are included on the original DOS3.3 System Master 
Disk, in the "FPBASIC" and "INTBASIC" machine language files.

ftp://wilbur.stanford.edu/pub/apple2/dumping-ROMs

There are some ROM files available from the following addresses (legally you may 
only use these ROM files if you own a corresponding Apple computer):

ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/


*******************************************************************************

-
2 - Apple Emulators
-

The SHORT DESCRIPTION is intended only as a general guide; refer to the 
documentation that comes with each package for the complete technical 
information. The DISK-IMAGE FORMATS are explained in Chapter 6.

IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT FTP.APPLE.ASIMOV.NET: The files in /pub/apple_II/incoming/ 
directory are now locked to prevent download. Files will become "downloadable" 
after they have been moved into the normal file hierarchy.

IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT WILBUR.STANFORD.EDU (AKA FOGHORN.STANFORD.EDU): This site 
is down - some of the files listed in this guide were only available from 
wilbur. If you require any of these files, please email <alexm@zip.com.au> with 
your request. Due to download limits on my website, they cannot be made 
available.


---
2.1 General Emulator-Related Files
---

-----
2.1.1
-----

APL2BMP - Small MSDOS executable which converts Apple ][ screen-dumps (BSAVE 
FILE,A$2000,L$2000) to Windows bitmaps (*.BMP), by Arthur Levesque 
<backslash@erols.com>. Source code is available by request.
http://www.erols.com/backslash/binary/apl2bmp.zip

-----
2.1.2
-----

APS2BMP - Small MSDOS executable which converts Apple ][ Print Shop graphics 
files into monochrome 88x52 Windows bitmaps (*.BMP), by Arthur Levesque 
<backslash@erols.com>. Source code is available by request.
http://www.erols.com/backslash/binary/aps2bmp.zip

-----
2.1.3
-----

ASB2TXT - Small MSDOS executable which converts AppleSoft BASIC files
(after they've been transferred to the MS-DOS environment) to ASCII test,
by Arthur Levesque <backslash@erols.com>. Source code is available by request.
http://www.erols.com/backslash/binary/asb2txt.zip

-----
2.1.4
-----

AP2IFC - Pascal source and MSDOS executable which extracts Infocom data from 
disk-images, by Steve Hugg <hugg@pobox.com>.
ftp://ftp.gmd.de/if-archive/infocom/tools/

-----
2.1.5
-----

AP2INF - ANSI C source and MSDOS executable written to extract data from disk-
images of Infocom adventure games, by Stephen Tjasink
<stjasink@cs.uct.ac.za>.
ftp://ftp.gmd.de/if-archive/infocom/tools/ (v1.4)

-----
2.1.6
-----

SPEED.TEST - Disk-image containing a small program to test (and benchmark) 
emulator performance, by William Night <wnight@wimsey.com>.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/spedtest.zip (v1.0)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/spdt222.zip (v2.2.2)

-----
2.1.7
-----

Timer Module - Add-on which times Speed Test on the Macintosh emulator STM.
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/


---
2.2 Apple Macintosh Platform
---

HINT: Having trouble transferring files from a Macintosh to a ProDOS disk with 
PC Exchange? Try setting the fileís creator to Ďpdosí and the type to 'BINA' 
using ResEdit (or install the Snitch extension to allow filetype altering in 
Finder "Get Info" windows). This will prevent the creation of a forked file on 
the ProDOS disk (ie. it will transfer the data fork only, and not the Macintosh 
resource fork). It should not be necessary to change the ProDOS file type 
further if the file is a disk-image or ShrinkIt archive. If the file is text, 
substitute the file type 'TEXT' for 'BINA'.

-----
2.2.1 Bernie ][ The Rescue (version 1.2.5) - formerly Fast Eddie
-----

HOMEPAGE: http://www.magnet.ch/emutech/Bernie/index.html

AVAILABILITY: Shareware, available for free download from:
http://www.magnet.ch/emutech/Download/bernie3D.cpt.hqx (1.2.5i)
http://www.magnet.ch/emutech/Download/bernie121.cpt.hqx (1.2.1)
Older versions as below:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/fast_eddie/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/fast_eddie/ 
(1.0b1)
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/FastEddie1b1.hqx

  NOTE: Bernie ][ The Rescue is Shareware; registration costs $25 (US).

AUTHOR: Andre Horstmann <andre.horstmann@unifr.ch> and Henrik Gudat 
<gudath@ubaclu.unibas.ch>, F.E.Systems (formerly Bright Software). Contacts: 
<woof@kagi.com> technical support, <emutech@magnet.ch> 
corporate/media/registration.

STATUS: Development in progress.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Bernie ][ The Rescue is a software-only Apple IIGS emulator, 
closely integrated to the MacOS (optimized for the Power Macintosh) and capable 
of  running both Apple ][ and 16-bit IIGS software. The modular package includes 
a superfast 65816 emulator in hand-crafted PowerPC assembly that can be fine 
tuned to any speed between 0.8 and 4 Mhz (or as fast as possible). Bernie 
supports all graphic modes, 32 channel stereo sound, joystick and mouse 
emulation (incl. direct GamePad support), cached 3.5" IWM emulation (read & 
write), and text printing through "InkMeister", a cross-platform printing tool 
included with the application. Bernie features a very low memory and disk 
footprint. Bernie is shareware ($25) and can be registered through Kagi 
<http://www.kagi.com>. We support by e-mail <mailto:woof@kagi.com> or via 
newsgroups comp.emulators.apple2 and comp.sys.apple2.
http://www.magnet.ch/emutech/Bernie/Specifications/index.html

ROMS: Bernie ][ The Rescue does not come with the necessary IIGS version 1 or 3 
ROMs. Instructions are included in the "Fast Eddie Readme" file for saving the 
ROMs. To use choose between both ROM01 and ROM03 images, name the ROM dumps 
"APPLE2GS.ROM" and "APPLE2GS.ROM2" respectively and select the required ROM from 
the Setup menu.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DiskCopy, "hdrv", universal ("2img"), raw, and real ProDOS 
disks via the SuperDrive.

DISK-IMAGE RESOURCE INFO: File Creator: 'EDIE', File Type: 'VDSK' (Proprietary)
                          File Creator: 'EDIE', File Type: 'dImg' (DiskCopy)
                          File Creator: 'EDIE', File Type: 'hdrv' (hard-drive)

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: PowerPC-equipped Mac, 4Mb free RAM (this includes about 
1.5Mb RAM for the virtual IIgs), and MacOS 7.5.3 or better. Versions prior to 
Warp 5 require the DrawSprocket extension. Versions 1.0 and higher do not 
require DrawSprocket.
http://www.magnet.ch/emutech/Download/license.html
http://www.unsupported.com/Files/Release/DrawSprocket.sit.bin

FURTHER REFERENCE: "Fast Eddie Readme" (file included in the archive). Further 
documentation available from the homepage.
http://www.magnet.ch/emutech/Download/docs.cpt.hqx
http://www.magnet.ch/emutech/Bernie/Documentation (online documentation)
http://www.magnet.ch/emutech/Support

(Thanks to Henrik Gudat for email about this emulator. - Alex)

-----
2.2.2 Catakig (version 1.03)
-----

HOMEPAGE: http://purl.org/net/Catakig/

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
http://www.access.digex.net/~cklipsch/stage/catakig103.hqx
Older versions as below:
http://www.access.digex.net/~cklipsch/stage/catakig103b.sit.bin
http://www.access.digex.net/~cklipsch/stage/catakig102.sit.bin
ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/emulators/catakig102.sit
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/incoming/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/incoming/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/catakig/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/catakig/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/catakig/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/catakig/

AUTHOR: Colin Klipsch <cklipsch@access.digex.net>.

STATUS: Development in progress.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Catakig emulates a 64K Apple ][/][+ and a 128K //e, allowing 
multiple emulator windows to be opened at once. The emulator includes full sound 
support and all Apple video modes, as well as ProDOS hard-disk volumes and disk-
image read/write.

ROMS: Catakig does not come with the necessary ROMs. The missing ROMs are the 
main Apple ROMs ("APPLE2.ROM", "APPLE2P.ROM" and "APPLE2E.ROM") - depending on 
the type of Apple emulated.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes), Nibblized Dos Order 
(NDO - size: 232960 bytes) and a proprietary compressed format. Virtual ProDOS 
hard-disk volumes are also supported.

DISK-IMAGE RESOURCE INFO: File Creator: 'Ctkg', File Type: 'A2D5' (5.25" images)
                          File Creator: 'Ctkg', File Type: 'A2D3' (3.5" images)
                          File Creator: 'Ctkg', File Type: 'A2DH' (hard-drive)

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: PowerPC Macintosh running System 7 and above, with 
QuickTime installed.

FURTHER REFERENCE: "Read Me" (file included in the archive).

-----
2.2.3 Deja ][ (version 1.0)
-----

HOMEPAGE: http://www.hypermall.com/ego/Mac/HTML/deja.ii.html

AVAILABILITY: Commercial product, available from JEM Software for US$79.95.
           JEM Software
           7578 Lamar Ct.
           Arvada, CO 80003.
           Fax: 303-422-4856
           Email: rbJEM@aol.com

AUTHOR: Randy Brandt <rbJEM@aol.com> & Mike Munz <munz@wordperfect.com>.

STATUS: Development in progress.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: An AppleWorks emulator for 68K and PPC Macintoshes - 
literally, an "Apple II emulation engine", which requires AppleWorks 5. From a 
post on "comp.sys.apple2": "It supports most TimeOut applications, including 
UltraMacros.  It also tightly integrates AppleWorks 5 and the Mac environment. 
This includes automatic conversion between Macintosh and AppleWorks clipboards, 
being able to traverse through your Macintosh hard disk (no Prodos partition 
required), and macro commands to access Mac functions (like speaking text, 
dialing). And if you have PCExchange (or System 7.5), it will read Apple II 3.5" 
disks as well. It, however, is not a generic emulator".

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 68K or PowerPC Macintosh running System 7 and above; 
AppleWorks 5.

FURTHER REFERENCE: None.

-----
2.2.4 Gus
-----

HOMEPAGE: http://www.macos.apple.com/gus/

AVAILABILITY: Commercial product under development; screen shots at:
http://www.cs.csubak.edu/~jstiles/emulator/apple2/

AUTHOR: Dave Lyons and Andy Nicholas (Apple Computer, Inc.)

STATUS: Pre-release.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Gus is an Apple in-house project which should allow fully 
transparent IIgs emulation on Macintosh. Apparently, the emulation speed is 
quite fast, working approximately four to five times the speed of a real IIgs if 
speed regulation is turned off.

ROMS: N/A.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: Unknown.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Unknown.

FURTHER REFERENCE: None.

-----
2.2.5 Mac Apple //e Emulator - MacE (version 0.80)
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/IIe/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/misc/ (source code)

AUTHOR: W. Sheldon Simms III <sheldon@atlcom.net>.

STATUS: Source code released for public modification.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: An Apple //e emulator for 68K Macintoshes. The binhexed Think 
C 7.0 code was posted to "comp.emulators.apple2" on 5 July 1995. According to 
the author's accompanying message, it is an "emulator that boots into basic. I 
don't have time to work on it now so I'm posting the source in case anyone else 
wants to mess with it. It has a 65816 emulator (well 65802 really)...There's no 
documentation other than internal documentation."

ROMS: MacE comes with the necessary Apple //e ROMs and is ready for use after 
decompression.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 order (DO - size: 143360 bytes); there also seems to 
be an Icon resource for virtual hard-disk volumes in the code, but whether or 
not this is supported is unknown.

DISK-IMAGE RESOURCE INFO: File Creator: 'MacE', File Type: 'DSK5'.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: "Desktop" (colour) Macintosh - including Power Macintosh 
models. Will not work on "compact" (B&W) Macintoshes.

FURTHER REFERENCE: None.

-----
2.2.6 Sim6502 (version 0.1d)
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
http://www.emulation.net/apple1/sim6502.sit.hqx

AUTHOR: Achim Breidenbach <achim@boinx.com>.

STATUS: Development in progress.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Sim6502 emulates an Apple I, and was developed to commemorate 
the works of Steven Wozniak. Although the Apple I does not have a BASIC 
interpreter, there are several sample codes included in the archive. The 6502 
decimal mode is not emulated.

ROMS: N/A.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: N/A.

DISK-IMAGE RESOURCE INFO: N/A.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Power Macintosh models.

FURTHER REFERENCE: An HTML version of the original Apple I Operation Manual is 
included in the archive. An online version of the manual is available from:
http://www.emulation.net/apple1/manual/apple1manx.html

-----
2.2.7 Stop The Madness - STM (version 0.851r)
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/STM/0.851r.sea.bin
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/stm/
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/mac/0.851r.sea.bin
ftp://ftp.unsw.edu.au/pub/mac/emulators/

AUTHOR: Kevin Lund <kevin@locutus.ucr.edu> & Jim Nitchals <jimn8@netcom.com>.

STATUS: See STM v0.881r.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Stop The Madness emulates a 64K Apple ][+, and allows disk-
swapping. Although it cannot "save" (write information to a disk image) a small 
program called Save The Madness can be used simultaneously with STM (under 
Multifinder or System 7), writing altered disk-image files (see below). STM 
comes with the DOS 3.3 System Master disk-image "pre-installed" into virtual 
drive one.

ROMS: STM comes with the necessary Apple ][+ ROMs and is ready for use after 
decompression.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 order (DO - size: 143360 bytes).

DISK-IMAGE RESOURCE INFO: File Creator: 'A2EM', File Type: 'DSK5'.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: "Desktop" (colour) Macintosh - including Power Macintosh 
models. Runs ONLY in 256-colours! Will not display a picture on "compact" (B&W) 
Macintoshes.

  NOTE: On desktop Macintoshes, you must set the "Colors" control panel to 256-
colors, as STM does not support higher colour modes. This problem has 
erroneously been interpreted as non-compatibility of the emulator with some 
Macintoshes.

FURTHER REFERENCE: "docs 0.85" (DOCMaker file included in the archive), and 
"docs" (DOCMaker file included in the "Disks-n-Docs0.81.hqx" archive.
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/mac/Disks-n-Docs0.81.hqx

RELATED FILES:

Save The Madness - Application which adds write access to STM disk-images. 
Includes source.
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/incoming/
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/mac/SaveTM_1.02.sit.bin

-----
2.2.8 Stop The Madness - STM (version 0.881r)
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/STM/STM_0.881r.sit.hqx
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/stm/
ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/emulators/stm0.881r.sit
ftp://ftp.unsw.edu.au/pub/mac/emulators/

AUTHOR: Kevin Lund <kevin@locutus.ucr.edu> & Jim Nitchals <jimn8@netcom.com>.

STATUS: Unknown.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Stop The Madness emulates a 64K Apple ][+, and allows disk-
swapping. Version 0.881r (formerly known as 0.872d) is far more versatile than 
the previous version; configurable "modules" allow expansion limited only by 
available memory - for example, STM can support four Disk II drives. 
Additionally, STM can now "save" disk-images (see below). STM comes with the DOS 
3.3 System Master disk-image "pre-installed" into virtual drive one.

ROMS: STM comes with the necessary Apple ][+ ROMs and is ready for use after 
decompression.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 order (DO - size: 143360 bytes), and non-standard 
"pre-nibbleized". This second type is the only format the Disk II module will 
save images into. From the documentation: "this format is bulkier than the 
'.DSK' format, and has no cross-platform compatibility, but is more flexible, 
allowing non-standard formats and 1/4 track resolution." Version 1.00 of SaveTM 
(see below) is also compatible with STM 0.881r for those who prefer standard 
disk-image output.

DISK-IMAGE RESOURCE INFO: File Creator: 'A2EM', File Type: 'DSK5'.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: "Desktop" (colour) Macintosh - including Power Macintosh 
models - with System 7. Runs ONLY in 256-colours! Will not display a picture on 
"compact" (B&W) Macintoshes.

  NOTE: On desktop Macintoshes, you must set the "Colors" control panel to 256-
colors, as STM does not support higher colour modes. This problem has 
erroneously been interpreted as non-compatibility of the emulator with some 
Macintoshes.

FURTHER REFERENCE: "STM 0.881r docs" (DOCMaker file included in the archive). 
Online documentation is also provided.
http://www.ecnet.net/users/mumbv/pages/STMdoc.html

RELATED FILES:

Cassette speaker module for STM.
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/STM/cassettespeaker.sit.bin
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/speaker_cass_for_STM/cassettespe
aker.sit
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/speaker_cass_for_STM/speaker.bin

Disk ][ replacement module for STM.
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/STM/newdisk2.bin
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/formattingdiskII.sit

Save The Madness - Application which adds write access to STM disk-images. 
Includes source.
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/incoming/

-----
2.2.9 IIe (version 3.01)
-----

HOMEPAGE: http://www-personal.usyd.edu.au/~vtan/sw/index.html

AVAILABILITY: Shareware, available for free download from:
http://www-personal.usyd.edu.au/~vtan/sw/IIe/IIe_3.0.1.sit.hqx
Older versions as below:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/IIe/
ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/emulators/iie.3.0.sit
http://hyperarchive.lcs.mit.edu/HyperArchive/Archive/app/IIe-201.hqx
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/IIe/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/IIe/

NOTE: IIe is Shareware;
        registration costs $25 (US).

AUTHOR: Vincent Tan <VincentTan@kagi.com> & Victor Tan.

STATUS: Development in progress.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: IIe emulates an Apple //e. Excerpted from the text file: "IIe 
is a fully functional Apple //e emulator that supports all of the graphics 
modes, all of the Apple //e keyboard keys, and all of the currently available 
Apple II disk image formats. You can even access your 3.5" Apple II disks from 
your Mac's floppy disk drive! This version can also access any ProDOS partitions 
on your Mac's hard disk, and it can even save ProDOS files directly in any of 
your Mac's folders!" From the WWW page: "The next version will have sound card 
support. There is no expected date of release at this time."

ROMS: IIe does not come with the necessary Apple //e ROMs. The missing ROM is
the main Apple ROM ("APPLE2E.ROM"). The instructions suggest using ApplePC's
//e ROM:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 order (DO - size: 143360 bytes); the emulator can
also read 3.5" ProDOS disks directly from the Macintosh 800K/1.44Mb drive(s).
3.5" disk-images (Apple images in Apple DiskCopy format AND plain ProDOS-
order images) and virtual hard-drive (.HDV) files are also supported.

DISK-IMAGE RESOURCE INFO: File Creator: 'AIIe', File Type: 'DSK5' (5.25" images)
                          File Creator: 'AIIe', File Type: 'DSK3' (3.5" images)
                          File Creator: 'AIIe', File Type: 'dImg' (DiskCopy)
                          File Creator: 'AIIe', File Type: 'HDV ' (hard-drive)

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: "Desktop" (colour) Macintosh - including Power
Macintosh models - with System 7.0 (with QuickTime and Thread Manager) or
higher (System 7.5 recommended). Runs in most display modes (1-bit B&W and
4-bit colour) EXCEPT 16-bit and 24-bit colour. Will not work on "compact" (B&W)
Macintoshes.

FURTHER REFERENCE: "1. Read me first", "2. Instructions", "3. Configuring IIe" 
and "4. Other stuff" (Text files included in the archive).

------
2.2.10 //e Card for Macintosh LC
------

AVAILABILITY: Commercial product, no longer in production.

AUTHOR: Apple Computer.

STATUS: Development ceased.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: The LC //e Card is a combination hardware/software package 
which emulates an enhanced Apple //e, accelerated to 1.9 Mhz, monochrome, colour 
or inverse video, custom beep sound, RAM card, two super serial cards, a 
"printer" card (spools to Chooser device), clock, SmartPort card, AppleTalk 
card, Mouse card and extended 80-column card. Hardware is attached via a special 
connector with ports for a 9-pin joystick and a SmartPort drive (up to two 5.25" 
and one 3.5"). Files can easily be transferred between Macintosh and ProDOS 
hard-disk partitions using standard drag-and-drop copying (file copied to the 
ProDOS partition appear on fixed volume within the emulator). The problem of 
creating "forked files" is avoided by using the Resource Info below. Further 
installation, use and troubleshooting articles are available from the Apple 
Technical Information Library (search for "iie").
http://www.info.apple.com/til.html
The latest software for the card is available under copyright from the Apple FTP 
site.
ftp://ftp.info.apple.com 
/Apple.Support.Area/Apple.Software.Updates/US/Apple_II/For_Macintosh/ 
Apple_IIe_Card_2.2.1.sea.hqx
ftp://ftp.info.apple.com 
/Apple.Support.Area/Apple.Software.Updates/US/Apple_II/For_Macintosh/ 
IIe_Startup_2.2.2d1.sea.hqx

ROMS: N/A.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: N/A. The card actually runs original software on 5.25" or 
3.5" diskette, although it can be used to create disk-images for use with other 
emulators.

PRODOS FILE RESOURCE INFO: File Creator: 'pdos', File Type: 'BINA' (ProDOS 
binary)
                           File Creator: 'pdos', File Type: 'TEXT' (text file)

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Macintosh LC with PDS slot supporting 24-bit adressing, 
including the LC, LCII, LCIII, Color Classic, Color Classic II, LC 520, LC 550, 
LC 475/Quadra 605, LC 575 and the Performa 4xx and 5xx lines except the Quadra 
630, LC/Performa 580 and 5200/75 LC. 

FURTHER REFERENCE: N/A.

(The preceding information on the //e Card was obtained from information sent by 
Ivan Drucker <drucker@lclark.edu>).

------
2.2.11 ][ in a Mac (version 2.53)
------

AVAILABILITY: Commercial product, no longer in production.

AUTHOR: COMPUTER:applications
           12813 Lindeley Drive
           Raleigh, NC 27614.

STATUS: Development ceased.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: ][ in a Mac is a package which emulates an Apple //e. 
Functionally, it is probably similar to it's PC counterpart, "][ in a PC" (see 
below) with the following exceptions: it runs at sixty percent of the standard 
//e speed (on a MacPlus), uses only a portion of the Mac screen, has no colour 
support and limited graphics, no "real" joystick, doesn't handle copy-protected 
software, and can create problems with keyboard translation and modem port 
detection on some Macintoshes.

ROMS: N/A.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: ProDOS3.3 Order (PO - size: 143360 bytes); the emulator can 
also read 3.5" ProDOS disks (usually 800K) directly from the Macintosh internal 
or external drive(s).

DISK-IMAGE RESOURCE INFO: File Creator: 'CAI1', File Type: 'DISK'.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: MacPlus or SE. Some older versions of the software didn't 
run on the Mac II line. The software will not display colour even on colour 
Macintosh systems.

FURTHER REFERENCES: "][inamac.txt" (Review text file on wilbur).
ftp://wilbur.stanford.edu/pub/emulators/apple2/][inamac.txt

RELATED FILES:

Image Converter - Disk-image converter by Lazarus I. Long which converts between 
ProDOS (][ in a Mac), DOS3.3 and Copy ][+ 7.1 image formats.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/incoming/

(Thanks to Gaku Tomiyama for information on the disk-image format. - Alex)

------
2.2.12 XGS-Mac (version 0.50r3)
------

HOMEPAGE: http://www.cen.uiuc.edu/~m-bytnar/XGS-Mac/

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
http://www.students.uiuc.edu/~m-bytnar/XGS-Mac/xgs-mac0.50r3_PPC.sit.hqx (PPC)
http://www.students.uiuc.edu/~m-bytnar/XGS-Mac/xgs-mac0.50r3_68K.sit.hqx (68K)
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgs-0.53-src.tar.gz (beta source 
code)
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgs-0.50-src.tar.gz (source code)
Older versions as below:
http://www.students.uiuc.edu/~m-bytnar/XGS-Mac/xgs-mac0.50r2_PPC.sit.hqx (PPC)
http://www.students.uiuc.edu/~m-bytnar/XGS-Mac/xgs-mac0.50r1_68K.sit.hqx (68K)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/xgs/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/xgs/

AUTHOR: Joshua M. Thompson <funaho@jurai.org>; Mac version ported and maintained 
by Michael Bytnar <m-bytnar@uiuc.edu>.

STATUS: Development in progress. Check the mailing list for further information 
(email <majordomo@jurai.org> with the words "subscribe xgs-list" in the body of 
the letter) or the development mailing list (email <majordomo@jurai.org> with 
the words "subscribe xgs-dev" in the body of the letter). Announcements of the 
latest version of XGS-Mac are available from: 
http://internetter.com/titan/macemu/index.html.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: XGS emulates a ROM03 Apple IIGS, with the following features: 
CPU and memory map emulation, graphics modes up to super high resolution, ADB 
keyboard, clock chip, battery RAM, IWM hardware emulation for Slot 5 & 6 drives, 
ProDOS block device in Slot 7 and classic Apple ][ sound. Further IIGS features 
such as Ensoniq sound and GS/OS 6 capacity will be added in future releases. 

ROMS: XGS does not come with the necessary ROMs. The emulator requires a copy of 
the Apple IIGS ROM03 - these ROMs can be copied from your Apple IIGS by 
following the procedures in the "README" text file included with the package.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: 2IMG universal format, from version 0.50. From version 0.50 
onwards the previous proprietary image type is no longer supported. The archive 
includes a utility named "imgconv" to convert disk-images from the previous type 
into XGS image files.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: "Higher end" 68K "desktop" (colour) Macintosh with FPU or 
PowerPC Macintosh with 6Mb RAM, extended keyboard and 1-20Mb of free hard-disk 
space. Versions 0.50r2 and higher require the DrawSprocket extension.
http://www.unsupported.com/Files/Release/DrawSprocket.sit.bin

FURTHER REFERENCES: "README" (Text file included in the archive) and "The 
Official XGS FAQ (version 1.3)".
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgsfaq13.txt

RELATED FILES:

Image Utilities for XGS-DOS v0.50 - A Macintosh port of "imageconv" and 
"imageutil" are provided in the XGS-Mac archive. These are basically identical 
in operation to their MS-DOS counterparts.

ROMverify - An application which validates the XGS.ROM file. It is included in 
the XGS-Mac archive.

"Using .SHK Files on an XGS" - Two-part article on using *.SHK and *.BSC files 
with XGS, by Bruce E. Fleury <bfleury@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu>.
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Faqs/
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Faqs/


---
2.3 Apple Newton Platform
---


-----
2.3.1 TwoInHand
-----

AVAILABILITY: Under development; Freeware.

AUTHOR: Peter Liethen <pliethen@globaldialog.com>.

STATUS: Alpha testing.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: TwoInHand emulates a 128K Apple //c, with dual 5.25" 
floppies, modem and printer ports. Joystick, mouse and keyboard options depend 
upon the Newton configuration. Sound is fully emulated with a lag.

ROMS: Unknown.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: Non-standard (size: 160 kilobytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Newton PDA, with 452K of free space for the program, 150K 
free heap space and 160K per disk-image.

FURTHER REFERENCE: None.


---
2.4 Atari Platform
---


-----
2.4.1 Apple ][ A2.04
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://atari.archive.umich.edu/atari/Emulators/ - SEE UMICH MIRRORS
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/atari/appleemu.arc
ftp://ftp.wustl.edu/systems/atari/umich.edu/Emulators/
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Emulators/
ftp://nic.switch.ch/mirror/atari/Emulators/appleemu.arc

AUTHOR: Darek Mihocka.

STATUS: Unknown (date on readme file: Dec. 31, 1986).

SHORT DESCRIPTION: An Apple ][ emulator for the Atari ST. Excerpted from the 
documentation: "it can be used as a tool to learn 6502 machine language, but 
also, it allows the ST to run Apple...software."

ROMS: Apple ][ does not include the necessary ROMS - they must be copied from 
your Apple and titled "APPLSOFT.BIN" and "INTBASIC.BIN".
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: N/A. Binary files must be transferred from the Apple ][ and 
then converted using a source code program from Apple monitor hex dump into an 
Atari DOS (.BIN) format.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Atari ST with 512K, colour or monochrome.

FURTHER REFERENCE: "EMULATOR.DOC" (Text file included in the archive).

RELATED FILES:

Disk Server - A disk-image server for the Atari 1040 ST, written in OMICRON 
BASIC, by Peter Koch <pkoch@kiss.de>. It serves four disk-images over a serial 
null modem line to an Apple II.
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Emulators/


---
2.5 BeOS/BeBox Platform
---

-----
2.5.1 Open Bernie for Be (version 0.5d1)
-----

HOMEPAGE: http://www.magnet.ch/emutech/Bernie/index.html

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
http://www.magnet.ch/emutech/Bernie/Be/bernie.tar.gz

AUTHOR: Andre Horstmann <andre.horstmann@unifr.ch>, F.E.Systems (formerly Bright 
Software).

STATUS: Development in progress.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Open Bernie is a BeOS version of the Power Macintosh Bernie 
][ The Rescue, and emulates an Apple IIGS (ROM 01/03 depending upon ROM-file 
version). From the "Readme" file in the archive, "it therefore features an 
ultrafast CPU emulation kernel written entirely in handcrafted PPC assembly 
language. Bernie is also known for its extremely high compatibility level, 
running virtually every Apple II+/IIe or IIgs program."

ROMS: Open Bernie does not come with the necessary IIGS version 1 or 3 ROMs.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3, ProDOS, 2IMG universal format, DiskCopy, raw data 
disk-images and harddrive files.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: BeOS compatible PowerPC Macintosh.

FURTHER REFERENCE: "Read me - or crash!" (Text file included in the archive).

-----
2.5.2 Sargalo (version 0.11)
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Emulators/

AUTHOR: Kevin Lund <kevin@locutus.ucr.edu>.

STATUS: Development in progress.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Sargalo emulates an Apple ][+, running under 8-bit video on a 
BeOS compatible PowerMac.

ROMS: Sargalo comes with necessary Apple ][+ ROMs and is ready for use after 
decompression.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 order (DO - size: 143360 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: BeOS compatible PowerPC Macintosh, or BeBox.

FURTHER REFERENCE: "README" (Text file included in the archive).


---
2.6 Commodore Amiga Platform
---


-----
2.6.1 AppleM (DEMO version)
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.wustl.edu/systems/amiga/aminet/misc/emu/
                                                        - AMINET & SOME MIRRORS

AUTHOR: Greg Dunlap <gdunlap@ecst.csuchico.edu>.

STATUS: Unknown (date on readme file: July 6, 1992).

SHORT DESCRIPTION: AppleM emulates an Apple ][+ through Rexx C; it supports all 
Apple display modes, sound, joystick and language card. Additional enhancements 
are available: lowercase text is displayed and the 6502C instruction set is 
emulated. There is no disk, modem or printer support.

ROMS: AppleM does not come with the necessary ROMs. These ROMs can be copied 
from your old Apple ][ by following the procedures in the "Readme" text file 
included with the package.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: N/A.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Amiga 1000, Amiga 500 and higher running KS1.2.

FURTHER REFERENCE: "README" (Text file included in the archive).

RELATED FILES:

Load RAM - Load Apple 2000 programs into AppleM (Rexx C).
ftp://ftp.wustl.edu/systems/amiga/aminet/misc/emu/

-----
2.6.2 Apple On Amiga (version 0.1)
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/AppleOnAmiga.tar.Z
ftp://ftp.wustl.edu/systems/amiga/aminet/misc/emu/
                                                        - AMINET & SOME MIRRORS

AUTHOR: Claudio Nieder <claudio@dial.eunet.ch>.

STATUS: Further development ceased. The author no longer programs on the Amiga.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Apple on Amiga emulates a 48K Apple ][+, with two disk drives 
(read/write but not save). It runs BASIC programs at 1/10 the speed of an Apple 
][ and disk access can be as slow as 1/60 of an Apple ][. Booting can take five 
to six minutes. Written in Modula-2.

ROMS: Apple On Amiga does not come with the necessary ROMs. These ROMs can be 
copied from your old Apple ][ by following the procedures in the "Readme" text 
file included with the package (including an uncompiled Apple ][ program which 
must be transferred).
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: Non-standard (size: 230 kilobytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: "Fast" Amiga with Workbench 2.0.4, and 1MB RAM free (such 
as 25MHZ Amiga 3000).

FURTHER REFERENCE: "Readme" (Text file included in the archive).

------
2.6.3 Apple 2000 (version 1.3)
------

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Emulators/
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/amiga/Apple2000v13.lha
ftp://ftp.wustl.edu/systems/amiga/aminet/misc/emu/
                                                        - AMINET & MIRRORS

AUTHOR: Kevin Kralian <Kevin_Kralian@sacbbx.com>.

STATUS: Further development ceased. The author posted a message to 
comp.sys.amiga.emulations stating that he will no longer be doing anything for 
the Amiga, therefore V1.3 is the last version.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Apple 2000 emulates a 64K Apple ][+, allowing loading (Right-
Amiga-L) from and saving (Right-Amiga-S) to DDD Apple compressed disk archives 
from any Amiga device. All video modes are available (Text, LoRes, HiRes and 
mixed), along with a two button joystick. Apple 2000 is able to instantly load 
and run Apple files from any Amiga device (without "disk-booting"). The emulator 
supports Amiga multi-tasking. Version 1.3 introduces a number of improvements in 
the emulator; be sure to read the documentation.

ROMS: Apple 2000 does not come with the necessary ROMs. The missing ROMs are the 
disk-drive ROMs ("_DISK.ROM") and main Apple ROMs ("_APPLE.ROM") - these ROMs 
can be copied from your old Apple ][ by following the procedures in the "Apple 
2000.doc" text file included with the package.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DDD archives, plain Apple ][ files, raw disk-images (size: 
220 kilobytes). It is possible to use standard DOS3.3 order (DO - size: 143360 
bytes) images by renaming the 143360 byte disk-image with a *.disk extension.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 68020 Amiga with Kickstart 2.0, 1MB RAM and 
ReqTools.library (by Nico FranÁois). Will not work on 68000 Amiga (A500,2000).

FURTHER REFERENCE: "Apple 2000.doc" (Text file included in the archive).


---
2.7 Commodore 64 Platform
---


-----
2.7.1 Spartan Emulator
-----

AVAILABILITY: Commercial product, no longer in production.

AUTHOR: Mimic Systems.

STATUS: Development ceased.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: The Apple ][ emulator for the Commodore 64 which was 
advertised as offering 100% Apple emulation and other features, all for the low 
price of US $595, but which turned out to be a package to transfer and re-
compile BASIC programs on the C64.

ROMS: N/A.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: N/A.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Commodore 64 (with V2.0 BASIC).

FURTHER REFERENCE: None.

(The preceding information on the Spartan Emulator was obtained from information 
sent by Paul Allen Panks <pap@dana.ucc.nau.edu>).


---
2.8 IBM-PC - Linux OS
---


-----
2.8.1 Apple ][+ Emulator for Linux (version 0.05)
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/incoming/
ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/Incoming/apple2-emul-v005-linux.tar.gz
Older versions as below:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/incoming/
ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/emulators/apple2-emul-v004-linux.tar.gz
ftp://tsx-11.mit.edu/pub/linux/sources/usr.bin/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/incoming/
ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/emulators/apple2-emul-v002-linux.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/apple2-emu-linux/
v002-linux.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/apple2-emu-linux/
v001-linux.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/Linux/util/emulators/
(v0.00 was distributed under the filename: "apple2.tar.gz").

AUTHOR: Alexander Bottema <d91a1bo@meryl.csd.uu.se>; v004 and v005 by Aaron 
Culliney <chernabog@baldmountain.bbn.com>.

STATUS: Development in progress.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Apple ][+ Emulator for Linux "is partly written in 386 (AT&T) 
assembler and partly in C. You can switch diskettes using a diskette database 
through an intuitive interface. Furthermore, it is possible to trim the speed of 
the emulator and it runs in full speed (approximately) twice as fast as an 
standard Apple II+ on a 486DX-50...[It uses] the svgalib's key scancodes. I've 
also taken the opportunity to implement the undocumented 6502 instructions. I've 
noticed that at least two games use these undocumented instrucions; Bug Attack 
and MS Pacman. Currently I have transfered about 40 diskettes to my emulator and 
all programs/games seem to work" (from a post on "comp.emulators.apple2"). 
Requires compiling (C source code).

ROMS: Apple ][+ Emulator for Linux does not come with the necessary Apple ][+ 
ROMs. The missing ROMs are the main Apple ROM ("apple_II.rom") and disk-
controller ROM ("slot6.rom") - these ROMs can be copied from your Apple //e by 
following the instructions in the README file accompanying the archive.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 order (DO - size: 143360 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: SVGA lib version 1.2.9 (or later) - tested under 1.2.10. 
Kernel 1.0 (or later) - tested under 2.0.28. libc 4.4.4 (or later) - tested 
under 5.2.18. joystick 0.8.0 (or later) for PC Joystick support. flex 2.5.2 
(optional for recompiling lex files).

FURTHER REFERENCE: "README" (Text file included in the archive).

-----
2.8.2 ProDOS Emulator (version 0.1)
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/prodosemu/
z
ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/emulators/prodosemu.v0.1.tar.gz

AUTHOR: Matthew Ghio <ghio@netcom.com> (based on Randy Frank's 65C02 emulator 
and I/O code).

STATUS: Development in progress.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: ProDOS Emulator emulates the ProDOS functions of an Apple 
//e, using a directory on the Unix system as a simulated drive (Slot 7, Drive 1) 
- thus eliminating the need for disk-images. Put the ProDOS files (such as 
BASIC.SYSTEM or SHRINKIT) in the same directory as the emulator; under the 
emulator the current directory appears as a disk named /UNIX at S7,D1. Requires 
compiling (C source code).

ROMS: ProDOS Emulator does not come with the necessary Apple //e ROMs. The 
missing ROM is the main Apple ROM ("apple.rom") - these ROMs can be copied from 
your Apple //e by following the instructions in the README file accompanying the 
archive.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: N/A; uses current directory as simulated drive.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Unknown.

FURTHER REFERENCE: "README"  (Text file included in the archive).

-----
2.8.3 XGS (version 0.50)
-----

HOMEPAGE: http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgs-0.50-LinuxX11.tar.gz
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgs-0.53-src.tar.gz (beta source 
code)
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgs-0.50-src.tar.gz (source code)

AUTHOR: Joshua M. Thompson <funaho@jurai.org>.

STATUS: Development in progress. Check the mailing list for further information 
(email <majordomo@jurai.org> with the words "subscribe xgs-list" in the body of 
the letter) or the development mailing list (email <majordomo@jurai.org> with 
the words "subscribe xgs-dev" in the body of the letter).

SHORT DESCRIPTION: XGS emulates a ROM03 Apple IIGS, with the following features: 
CPU and memory map emulation, graphics modes up to super high resolution, ADB 
keyboard, clock chip, battery RAM, IWM hardware emulation for Slot 5 & 6 drives, 
ProDOS block device in Slot 7 and classic Apple ][ sound. Further IIGS features 
such as Ensoniq sound and GS/OS 6 capacity will be added in future releases. 

ROMS: XGS does not come with the necessary ROMs. The emulator requires a copy of 
the Apple IIGS ROM03 - these ROMs can be copied from your Apple IIGS by 
following the procedures in the "README" text file included with the package.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: 2IMG universal format, from version 0.50. From version 0.50 
onwards the previous proprietary image type is no longer supported. The archive 
includes a utility named "imgconv" to convert disk-images from the previous type 
into XGS image files.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Linux+X11 (ELF format only).

FURTHER REFERENCES: "README" (Text file included in the archive) and "The 
Official XGS FAQ (version 1.3)".
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgsfaq13.txt

RELATED FILES:

Revival - a 2IMG image utility for Windows 95, by Thomas Fok 
<thomas@glink.net.hk> (2IMG format not compatible with XGS versions prior to 
0.48)
http://www.glink.net.hk/~thomas/revival.htm

"Using .SHK Files on an XGS" - Two-part article on using *.SHK and *.BSC files 
with XGS, by Bruce E. Fleury <bfleury@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu>.
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Faqs/
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Faqs/


---
2.9 IBM-PC - MSDOS OS
---

HINT: Canít run Wizardry or any other software which requires the disk-image 
being write protected? Just set the MSDOS read-only attribute (ATTRIB +r) on the 
disk-image...

-----
2.9.1 Applemu (Apple Emu)
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/ibmpc/applemu.zip

AUTHOR: Unknown.

STATUS: Development ceased.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Applemu emulates a 48K Apple ][+, and allows disk-swapping. 
Disk-images are "saved" to directly on the hard-disk from within the emulator. 
An option to write protect the disk-image being loaded into either drive is 
offered. The function keys control disk-swapping routines. Unfortunately, most 
of the more advanced Apple software requires a 64K machine, and thus will not 
load on Applemu.

ROMS: Applemu comes with the necessary Apple ][+ ROMs and is ready for use after 
decompression. The Apple ROMs are stored in "APPLBIOS.COM".

  NOTE: To run Intbasic programs, get the "INTBASIC.COM" file, rename 
"APPLBIOS.COM" as "FPBASIC.COM", and then rename "INTBASIC.COM" as 
"APPLBIOS.COM".

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: Nibblized Dos Order (NDO - size: 232960 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 80286 cpu with CGA graphics (recommended) - according to 
the documentation, any PC with "128K memory, DOS 2.0 or greater", although on a 
4.77 MHZ 8088 it takes almost a minute to boot a disk.

FURTHER REFERENCES: "APPLE.DOC" (Text file included in the archive). The "Apple2 
Emulation Frequently Asked Questions" guide contains a great deal of information 
on this emulator as well as converting disk-image files for use with it.

RELATED FILES:

INTBASIC.COM - File containing the Integer Basic language for Apple Emu.
ftp://wilbur.stanford.edu/pub/apple2/incoming/intbasic.com

-----
2.9.2 ApplePC (version 2.52b)
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://users.aol.com/davidells/ApplePC/ (version 2.52b)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
Older versions as below:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/emulators/applepc2.40.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/
ftp://ftp.gmd.de/if-archive/emulators/appleII/

AUTHOR: David Ellsworth <davidells@aol.com> (based on code by Randy Spurlock).

STATUS: Unknown.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: ApplePC emulates a 128K Apple //c. From a post by the author 
on "comp.emulators.apple2": "It is extremely fast, has true 'pixel-perfect' 
graphics (switchable between mono and colour), a built-in debugger, and disk-
swapping." The emulator will work with it's own (non-standard) //c, //e files 
and Applewin's //e ROM file - to provide additional software compatibility. From 
v2.00a it also uses Applewin's ][+ ROM to supply an Apple ][+ mode.

ROMS: ApplePC comes with the necessary Apple ROMs, which are supplied in 
separate files for the //c and //e ROMs.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://users.aol.com/davidells/ApplePC/
ftp://users.aol.com/davidells/ApplePC/
ftp://users.aol.com/davidells/ApplePC/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes); from version 2.05a 
the emulator also supports Nibblized Dos Order (NDO - size: 232960 bytes); from 
version 2.40a is also supports ProDOS Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes). It also 
supports virtual hard-disk volumes in //e emulation mode only.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 80386 CPU with VGA graphics.

FURTHER REFERENCES: "APPLE.DOC" (Text file included in the archive). An online 
version of the documentation is available from:
http://www.ecnet.net/users/mumbv/pages/applepcdoc.html

RELATED FILES:

A2PCText v0.2 - Command-line based program which extracts 40 and 80 column text 
images from ApplePC's "save state" file.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applepc/

sdv2hdv - A small PC utility to remove the 15 byte header from Sim2E .HDVs for 
use with ApplePC, by Greg Elkin <beermat@cix.compulink.co.uk>.
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Emulators/

Bootable hard-drive - Details for creating a bootable virtual hard-drive 
suggested by Rejean Bazinet:
  1) Use debug in DOS to create the hard-disk file by typing:
     debug harddisk.hdv
     w
     q
     and return to DOS with the harddisk.hdv file of 0 bytes.
  2) Start ApplePC and select 'D' for disk, then 'S' to change to Slot 7, then
     '1' and press TAB to select the file harddisk.hdv.
  3) Press 'Z' to set harddisk emulation to ON, and press 'S' to return to
     Slot 6.
  4) Select a ProDOS master disk-image with SYSUTIL.SYSTEM, and type
     '-sysutil.system'. Select Format a Disk, choose Slot 7 and Drive 1, and
     after the drive is formatted, copy the master ProDOS files to harddisk.hdv.
  5) Return to the ] prompt and type 'PR#7' to test the harddisk.hdv.

-----
2.9.3 Appler
-----

HOMEPAGE: http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Bay/3577/appler.html

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Bay/3577/appler.zip
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Bay/3577/aplersrc.zip (Source Code)

AUTHOR: Emil Dochevsky <zajo@geocities.com> & Alexander Patalensky.

STATUS: Development in progress.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Appler emulates a 64K Apple ][. It supports all video modes, 
a digital joystick (using the number-pad) and two floppy disk drives. Realtime 
mode can be toggled for faster machines. Other options include an inbuilt 
debugger, file- and disk-manager, keyboard setup feature and help screens. The 
RAM state of the emulator can be saved at any time to a disk file.

ROMS: Appler comes with the necessary Apple II ROMs and is ready for use after 
decompression. The Apple ROMs are stored in "APPLE.ROM" and "FLOPPY.ROM".

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes) and Nibblized Dos 
Order (NDO - size: 232960 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 80386 cpu with 1Mb RAM, EGA graphics, MS-DOS 3.30 
(486/33MHz recommended).

FURTHER REFERENCES: "APPLER.DOC" (Text file included in the archive).

-----
2.9.4 Apl2Em
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/apple_2_for_windows/apl2em/apl
2em.zip
ftp://sunb.ocs.mq.edu.au/PC/Emulators/
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/ibmpc/apl2em.zip

AUTHOR: Randy Spurlock <randys@gocart.eng.hou.compaq.com>.

STATUS: Development ceased.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Apl2Em emulates a 64K Apple][+, but does not allow disk-
swapping whilst in use. Disk-images are "saved" to directly on the hard-disk 
from within the emulator. This means that although Apl2Em can run all of the 64K 
multi-disk software that Applemu cannot, you can only pre-load two disks (D1 and 
D2).

ROMS: Apl2Em comes with the necessary Apple ][+ ROMs and is ready for use after 
decompression. The Apple ROMs in "APPLE.ROM" and the disk-drive controller ROMs 
are stored in "DISK.ROM".

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 80286 cpu with CGA graphics (will not display correctly on 
a monochrome monitor).

FURTHER REFERENCES: "APPLE.DOC" (Text file included in the archive). The "Apple2 
Emulation Frequently Asked Questions" guide contains a great deal of information 
on this emulator as well as converting disk-image files for use with it.

RELATED FILES:

Appjoy - Modified executable for Apl2Em by Dan Wolfsond <wolfsond@cse.fau.edu>, 
which replaces the numeric joystick emulation with a PC analog joystick.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/apple_2_for_windows/apl2em/app
joy.zip

-----
2.9.5 Apl2Em-2 (Apl2Em v2)
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/apple_2_for_windows/apl2em/apl
2em-2.zip
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/ibmpc/apl2em-2.zip

AUTHOR: Randy Spurlock <randys@gocart.eng.hou.compaq.com>.

STATUS: See Apl2Em-3.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Apl2Em-2 emulates a 64K Apple ][+, but does not allow disk-
swapping whilst in use. Disk-images are "saved" to directly on the hard-disk 
from within the emulator. This means that although Apl2Em can run all of the 64K 
multi-disk software that Applemu cannot, you can only pre-load two disks (D1 and 
D2).

  NOTE: Some people have found a way to "swap" disk-image files whilst the 
emulator is running by using the multi-tasking abilities of Windows or OS/2. It 
would be a case of moving the "SYSTEM.DSK" file (or whatever the default DSK 
name is for D1) out of the A2EM directory and replacing it with a subsequent 
disk (also titled "SYSTEM.DSK"). A routine to handle disk-swapping under OS/2 is 
available (see below).

ROMS: Apl2Em-2 does not come with the necessary Apple ][+ ROMs. The missing ROMs 
are the main Apple ROMs ("APPLE.ROM") and disk-drive ROMs ("FLOPPY.ROM") - these 
ROMs can be copied from your old Apple ][ by following the procedures in the 
"dumping-ROMs" text file on wilbur. You don't really need the Serial ROMs to use 
Apl2Em-2 - just edit the "APPLE.INI" file at Slot 1 to read "Type=Empty".
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 80286 cpu with CGA graphics (will not display correctly on 
a monochrome monitor).

FURTHER REFERENCES: "APPLE.DOC" (Text file included in the archive). The 
"emulate-apple2-faq" contains a great deal of information on this emulator as 
well as converting disk-image files for us with it.

RELATED FILES:

Apl2em2f - A routine to handle disk-swapping for Apl2Em-2 under OS/2.
ftp://frmap711.mathp7.jussieu.fr/pub/scratch/rideau/misc/apple2/apl2em2f.zip

CAPPLE v2.0 - Routines released by Scott Crow <corvus@am.ucsc.edu> which replace 
the keyboard joystick emulation with a PC analog joystick routine, as well as a 
speed delay.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/apple_2_for_windows/apl2em/cap
ple-v2.zip

Lowercase - Activate the full lowercase features of the Apple's character ROM on 
the ][+ emulator, with a hex editor, APPLE.ROM and the simple instructions in 
this file! From Rich Williamson <glitch@eskimo.com>.
ftp://wilbur.stanford.edu/pub/apple2/apl-lower.txt

-----
2.9.6 Apl2Em-3 (Apl2Em v3)
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/apple_2_for_windows/apl2em/apl
2em-3.zip
ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/emulators/apl2em3.zip

AUTHOR: Tew Neal T. <loopy@bert.cs.byu.edu> (based on Apl2Em by Randy Spurlock).

STATUS: Development in progress.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Apl2Em-3 emulates a 64K Apple][+ (see Apl2Em-2 above for 
details). New items added are: adjustable emulator speed, disk-switching, mixed 
low resolution and text mode, a fix for low resolution colours, improved high 
resolution graphics and joystick support.

ROMS: Apl2Em-3 comes with the necessary Apple ][+ ROMs and is ready for use 
after decompression. The Apple ROMs are stored in "APPLE.ROM", the disk-drive 
ROMs in "FLOPPY.ROM" and the serial ROMs in "SERIAL.ROM".

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 80286 cpu with CGA graphics (will not display correctly on 
a monochrome monitor).

FURTHER REFERENCES: "APPLE.DOC" (Text file included in the archive). The 
"emulate-apple2-faq" contains a great deal of information on this emulator as 
well as converting disk-image files for us with it.

-----
2.9.7 Apple ][+ Emulator
-----

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/ibmpc/apl6502.zip

AUTHOR: Steven E. Hugg <hugg@cs.fsu.edu>.

STATUS: Development ceased.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Apple ][+ Emulator is a partially-completed project with a 
number of bugs.

ROMS: Apple ][+ Emulator does not include the necessary ROMs. The ROMs required 
are: Apple ROM ("ROM.DAT") and the disk controller ROM ("DABOOT.DAT").
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Unknown.

FURTHER REFERENCES: "6502.DOC" (Text file included in the archive).

-----
2.9.8 AppleUni (version 2.79.40)
-----

HOMEPAGE: http://apple.rum.org/inside.html
http://freenet.buffalo.edu/~ag784/
http://ftsoy.falcon.org/appleuni/AppleUni/ (Mirror)

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
http://apple.rum.org/AppleUni/AppleUni-2.79.40.exe (upgrade executable)
http://apple.rum.org/AppleUni/AppleUni-2.79.40.zip (base package)
Older versions as below:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/appleuni/appleuni-2.79.30.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/appleuni/appleuni-2.79.19.pre-
release.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/appleuni/apluni2.73.zip
ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/emulators/apluni2.73.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/appleuni/apluni24.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/appleuni/apluni21.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/appleuni/apluni19.zip
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/ibmpc/apluni19.zip

AUTHOR: Andrew J. Kroll <ag784@freenet.buffalo.edu> <ajk@ftsoy.falcon.org> 
(earlier versions based on code by Randy Spurlock).

STATUS: Development in progress.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: AppleUni emulates an Apple ][+; it supports all Apple video 
modes except mixed mode with four lines of text below the graphics, has a 32K 
language card and allows saving to disk-images. Mixed text/graphics and //e 
emulation with 80 column card are planned for future releases. Hard-drive 
emulation is supported from version 2.79.

ROMS: Later versions of AppleUni come with the necessary Apple ][+ ROMs and are 
ready for use after decompression. The ROMs included (or required) are: Apple 
ROM (IIP.IMG), disk controller ROM (DSK.IMG) and the super serial card ROM 
(SER.IMG).

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes); from version 2.73 the 
emulator also supports Nibblized Dos Order (NDO - size: 232960 bytes). From 
version 2.79 it also support virtual hard-disk volumes.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 8088 cpu with CGA graphics (minimum), EGA or VGA 
recommended ("the only emulator that will run on an XT, and that fully emulates 
Apple's Super Serial Card!" - from "APPLEUNI.DOC"). VGA minimum from version 
2.79.35.

FURTHER REFERENCES: "APPLEUNI.DOC", "HISTORY.DOC" and "APPLUNI.FAQ" (Text files 
included with the archive).

-----
2.9.9 Central Point Option Board
-----

HOMEPAGE: http://www.ece.nwu.edu/~cbachman/apple.html (Information and software 
for the Option Board)

AVAILABILITY: Commercial product, no longer in production.

AUTHOR: Central Point.

STATUS: Development ceased.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: This product is not strictly an emulator, but a hardware card 
which acts as an addition to the drive controller. Functionally, it allows PC 
drives to read GCR encoded disks (Mac 800K and Apple ][).

ROMS: N/A.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: N/A.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Unknown.

FURTHER REFERENCES: N/A.

RELATED FILES:

IMG2DSK - Small executable which converts Option Board disk-images to the 
standard emulator format.
http://www.ece.nwu.edu/~cbachman/img2dsk.zip

------
2.9.10 SimIIe - SimSystem IIe (version 1.0)
------

AVAILABILITY: Shareware, available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/simiie/
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Emulators/
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/ibmpc/simiie.zip

  NOTE: SimIIe is Shareware for ten days;
        registration costs $50 (US) + $6 shipping.
           American Research Inc.
           2120 Deercreek Rd.
           Simi Valley, CA 93065.

AUTHOR: Jim Sproul.

STATUS: Unknown.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: SimIIe emulates a 128K Apple //e, using "clean-room" ROMs. It 
allows disk-swapping and saving to a disk-image - in short, is does just about 
everything: 80 columns, parallel printer adaptor, FOUR simulated disk-drives (5 
1/4, 3 1/2 and ProDOS hard-drives), real joystick routines and more!  On the 
negative side, this emulator is extremely slow on 33mHz computers.

ROMS: N/A (Apple ROMs are not used in this emulator).

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: SimIIe (IIe - size: 143390 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 80286 cpu with CGA graphics, 80486 recommended. SimIIe 
will not work on 8086, 8088 or V20 microprocessors, and is not compatible with 
Microsoft Windows (it cannot be run as a DOS task).

FURTHER REFERENCES: "SIMIIE.DOC" (Text file included in the archive).

RELATED FILES:

PATSIM2E - A patched version of the SimIIe executable, for computers which hang 
after pressing "R" in the configuration screen, giving a black screen.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/simiie/

SIM2DU10 - Utilities for SimIIe released by Galen C. Hunt <gchunt@cc.dixie.edu>. 
These include .IIE and .HDV creation programs and a single file transfer 
utility. Source code included.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/simiie/

SIMIIE_F - A simple patch to fix hanging at the directory/file select box, by 
<mpohores@sfu.ca>.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/simiie/

32MB_HD - A 32Mb virtual hard-disk (.HDV) for SimIIe, containing Apple ProDOS 
2.0.3, BASIC.SYSTEM 1.5 and ShrinkIt 3.4, by <beermat@cix.compulink.co.uk>.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/simiie/

------
2.9.11 TrackStar/TrackStar Plus
------

AVAILABILITY: Commercial product, no longer in production.

AUTHOR: Diamond Computer Systems, Inc.
           470 Lakeside Drive
           Sunnyvale, California 94086.
           (408)736-2000 Telephone
           (408)730-5750 FAX

STATUS: Development ceased.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: The TrackStar Plus is an 8-bit ISA card for the PC AT, 
emulating a a 128K //e. Standard features include a 65C02 microprocessor, with 
128K main memory, 40 and 80 column text, and LoRes, HiRes and Double HiRes 
graphic modes. Four disk-drives and a hard-drive are supported, along with local 
area networks, and standard serial and parallel ports. The TrackStar can access 
up to 10Mb of the PC hard-drive, allows the attachment of an Apple floppy drive 
for complete compatibility with protected software, and has joystick support.

ROMS: N/A.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: "TrackStore" (40/80 track images capable of duplicating 
protected software, file extension *.APP) and virtual hard-disk support (10Mb of 
the PC hard-drive). The card actually runs original software on 5.25" diskette, 
although it can be used to create disk-images for use with other emulators.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 80286 CPU with CGA graphics.

FURTHER REFERENCES: N/A.

(The preceding information on the TrackStar was obtained from information sent 
by Tony Ramos <ramos.15@osu.edu>).

------
2.9.12 ][ in a PC
------

AVAILABILITY: Commercial product, no longer in production.

AUTHOR: COMPUTER:applications
           12813 Lindeley Drive
           Raleigh, NC 27614.

STATUS: Development ceased.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: ][ in a PC is a package which emulates an unenhanced Apple 
//e, including all necessary utility programs for transferring Apple II software 
bidirectionally between an Apple II and IBM compatible computer. The emulator 
supports 128K memory, serial and parallel outputs, two 5.25" drives, two 3.5" 
drives, ProDOS hard-disk, 40/80 column text, full colour HiRes/LoRes graphics, 
joystick support, and Applesoft compatible BASIC.

ROMS: N/A.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: N/A.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 80286 CPU with CGA graphics/Apple ][+ or greater with 
serial card.

FURTHER REFERENCES: N/A.

(The preceding information on ][ in a PC was obtained from a review compiled by 
Arthur A. Luna <netcoking@aol.com>).

------
2.9.13 XGS-DOS (version 0.50r4)
------

HOMEPAGE: http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/xd0504.zip
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/xd0504.rar

AUTHOR: Joshua M. Thompson <funaho@jurai.org>; DOS version ported and maintained 
by Gilles Tschopp <gilles.tschopp@icare.ch>.

STATUS: Development in progress. Check the mailing list for further information 
(email <majordomo@jurai.org> with the words "subscribe xgs-list" in the body of 
the letter) or the development mailing list (email <majordomo@jurai.org> with 
the words "subscribe xgs-dev" in the body of the letter).

SHORT DESCRIPTION: XGS emulates a ROM03 Apple IIGS, with the following features: 
CPU and memory map emulation, graphics modes up to super high resolution, ADB 
keyboard, clock chip, battery RAM, IWM hardware emulation for Slot 5 & 6 drives, 
ProDOS block device in Slot 7 and classic Apple ][ sound. Further IIGS features 
such as GS/OS 6 capacity will be added in future releases. 

ROMS: XGS does not come with the necessary ROMs. The emulator requires a copy of 
the Apple IIGS ROM03 - these ROMs can be copied from your Apple IIGS by 
following the procedures in the "README" text file included with the package.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: 2IMG universal format, from version 0.50. From version 0.50 
onwards the previous proprietary image type is no longer supported. The archive 
includes a utility named "imgconv" to convert disk-images from the previous type 
into XGS image files.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 90 MHz Pentium or better, running DOS 5.0, Win95 or OS/2 
Warp 3.0 or higher, with 8Mb RAM (for DOS) or 16Mb (Win95/Warp). XGS-DOS will 
NOT work with 486 systems.

FURTHER REFERENCES: "README" (Text file included in the archive) and "The 
Official XGS FAQ (version 1.3)".
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgsfaq13.txt

RELATED FILES:

An image file for testing XGS-DOS.
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgtest.zip
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgtest.rar

Image Utilities for XGS-DOS v0.48, written by Matthew Conte 
<itsbroke@ix.netcom.com>.
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutil.zip (DOS)
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutil.rar (DOS)
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutos2.zip (OS/2 Warp)
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutos2.rar (OS/2 Warp)

Revival - a 2IMG image utility for Windows 95, by Thomas Fok 
<thomas@glink.net.hk> (2IMG format not compatible with XGS versions prior to 
0.48)
http://www.glink.net.hk/~thomas/revival.htm

"Using .SHK Files on an XGS" - Two-part article on using *.SHK and *.BSC files 
with XGS, by Bruce E. Fleury <bfleury@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu>.
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Faqs/
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Faqs/

XCHANGE 1.0B2
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/xchange.zip
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/XCHANGE.RAR

------
2.9.14 XGS (version 0.50)
------

HOMEPAGE: http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgs050.zip
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgs-0.53-src.tar.gz (beta source 
code)
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgs-0.50-src.tar.gz (source code)

AUTHOR: Joshua M. Thompson <funaho@jurai.org>.

STATUS: Development in progress. Check the mailing list for further information 
(email <majordomo@jurai.org> with the words "subscribe xgs-list" in the body of 
the letter) or the development mailing list (email <majordomo@jurai.org> with 
the words "subscribe xgs-dev" in the body of the letter).

SHORT DESCRIPTION: XGS emulates a ROM03 Apple IIGS, with the following features: 
CPU and memory map emulation, graphics modes up to super high resolution, ADB 
keyboard, clock chip, battery RAM, IWM hardware emulation for Slot 5 & 6 drives, 
ProDOS block device in Slot 7 and classic Apple ][ sound. Further IIGS features 
such as Ensoniq sound and GS/OS 6 capacity will be added in future releases. 

ROMS: XGS does not come with the necessary ROMs. The emulator requires a copy of 
the Apple IIGS ROM03 - these ROMs can be copied from your Apple IIGS by 
following the procedures in the "README" text file included with the package.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: 2IMG universal format, from version 0.50. From version 0.50 
onwards the previous proprietary image type is no longer supported. The archive 
includes a utility named "imgconv" to convert disk-images from the previous type 
into XGS image files.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 90 MHz Pentium or better, running Win32 with DirectX.

FURTHER REFERENCES: "README" (Text file included in the archive) and "The 
Official XGS FAQ (version 1.3)".
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgsfaq13.txt

RELATED FILES:

Image Utilities for XGS-DOS v0.48, written by Matthew Conte 
<itsbroke@ix.netcom.com>.
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutil.zip (DOS)
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutil.rar (DOS)
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutos2.zip (OS/2 Warp)
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutos2.rar (OS/2 Warp)

Revival - a 2IMG image utility for Windows 95, by Thomas Fok 
<thomas@glink.net.hk> (2IMG format not compatible with XGS versions prior to 
0.48)
http://www.glink.net.hk/~thomas/revival.htm

"Using .SHK Files on an XGS" - Two-part article on using *.SHK and *.BSC files 
with XGS, by Bruce E. Fleury <bfleury@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu>.
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Faqs/
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Faqs/

XCHANGE 1.0B2
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/xchange.zip
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/XCHANGE.RAR


----
2.10 IBM-PC - Windows OS
----

HINT: Canít run Wizardry or any other software which requires the disk-image 
being write protected? Just set the MSDOS read-only attribute (ATTRIB +r) on the 
disk-image...

------
2.10.1 Apple II Oasis for Windows (v1.5)
------

HOMEPAGE: http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Lakes/4414

AVAILABILITY: Shareware, available for free download from:
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Lakes/4414/apl24win.zip
ftp://ftp.tu-varna.acad.bg/private/TA/apl24win.zip
Older versions as below:
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Emulators/ (v1.45)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/apple_2_for_windows/
ip (v1.30)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/apple_2_for_windows/
p (v1.30)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/apple_2_for_windows/
ma.gz (WinImage/DCF file) (v1.20)

  Also distributed from:
           Public (software) Library (http://pslweb.com/)
           P.O. Box 35705
           Houston, TX 77235-5705

           Use program name: Apple II Emulator for Windows
           and item number #11972

           Public (software) Library requires a small fee covering the
           cost of the disk, plus shipping.

  NOTE: Apple II Oasis for Windows is Shareware; registration costs $25 (US).

AUTHOR: Teodor Angeloff <apl24win@usa.net> or <ta@ms3.tu-varna.acad.bg>.

STATUS: Development in progress.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Apple II Oasis for Windows emulates a 128K+ Apple //e, with 
65C02 and Z80 microprocessors, an 80-column card, all video modes, Disk II 
drives and fixed disks, real-time clock, joystick and Apple II mouse, amongst 
other things. From version 1.45 onwards, the package also includes two Apple II 
disk utilities - the Apple II Disk Manager and the Apple II Disk Server.

ROMS: Apple II Oasis for Windows comes with the necessary Apple //e ROMs.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: A4W (A4W - size: 143388 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 80386 or better running Windows 3.1.

FURTHER REFERENCES: Unknown.

RELATED FILES:

Apple II Disk Manager - An application which performs directory list, copy, 
move, delete, etc. operations on Apple DOS 3.3 and ProDOS formatted disk-images. 
This application is included in the emulator archive.

Apple II Disk Server - A remote ProDOS hard-disk in a disk-image file. Included 
in the emulator archive.

(Thanks to the author for sending a copy of his emulator. - Alex)

------
2.10.2 AppleWin (version 1.4)
------

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/incoming/ (executable)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applewin/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applewin/
Older versions as below:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applewin/ 
(executable only)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applewin/ 
(executable only)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applewin/ 
(executable only)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applewin/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applewin/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applewin/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applewin/
ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/emulators/aplwinb2.zip
ftp://ftp.netcom.com/pub/ap/applewin/aplwinb2.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applewin/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applewin/

AUTHOR: Michael O'Brien <mobrien@netcom.com>; upgrade executables by Terry Hsu 
<TERA.bbs@bbs.ee.nthu.edu.tw>.

STATUS: Source code released for public modification.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: AppleWin is a 32-bit Windows program which emulates a 
"Platinum" model enhanced Apple //e with 128k RAM.  It supports all video modes, 
including double high-res and mixed mode.  It plays sound through a sound card 
(preferred) or the PC speaker.  It supports emulating an Apple joystick using 
the PC keyboard, joystick, or mouse.  It allows saving to disk images and on-
the-fly swapping of disk images.

There are two versions of AppleWin, both included in the ZIP file:
applew31.exe -- Use this version if you are running Windows 3.1 or Windows for
                Workgroups.  You must also install the Win32s 32-bit
                extensions, which are available from the same FTP site.
applewin.exe -- Use this version if you are running Windows 95 or Windows NT.

It is recommended that you switch your video card to 256-color mode for best 
performance when running AppleWin.  If you are having trouble using AppleWin 
with your video driver, or trouble formatting disks under AppleWin, obtain and 
install "patch2.zip" which is available from the same FTP site.

If you do not have a joystick driver for Windows, you can obtain "ibmjoy.zip" 
from the FTP site.  Remember to calibrate your joystick using the Windows 
Control Panel before using it in AppleWin.

By default, AppleWin controls its emulation speed so that it runs exactly as 
fast as a real Apple //e.  If you would like for it to run as fast as possible 
on your system, click on the Configuration button (on the bottom) and turn off 
the "control system speed" option.

Versions 1.00 and 1.10 are faster and includes speed control, modem support, and 
monochrome monitor emulation.  Version 1.00 requires Windows 95 or NT (not 
Win32s). And both now come with source code!

ROMS: AppleWin comes with the necessary Apple ][+ and //e ROMs, stored in 
"APPLE2.ROM" and "APPLE2E.ROM".

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3, ProDOS and nibblized orders (auto-detecting).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 80486 or better running Windows 95, Windows NT 3.5, or 
Windows 3.1 (Windows 3.1 requires Win32s).

FURTHER REFERENCES: "README.TXT" (Text file included in the archive).  Online 
help available from within AppleWin.

(Thanks to the author for the description of the emulator appearing above. - 
Alex)

RELATED FILES:

IBMJOY - Joystick driver which replaces the emulated number-pad joystick.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applewin/
ftp://ftp.netcom.com/pub/ap/applewin/ibmjoy.zip

Replacement patches for Applewin - fixes some video driver/disk formatting 
problems.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/applewin/
ftp://ftp.netcom.com/pub/ap/applewin/patch2.zip

AppleWin speed patch  - Undocumented method of speeding up AppleWin, suggested 
by Bruno Zeitoun <100125.2116@compuserve.com>:
  1) Launch Regedit.exe (under Win95)
  2) Open HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/Software/AppleWin/CurrentVersion/Calibation/
     CycleGranularity
  3) Modify the value: the higher the value, the faster AppleWin runs...


----
2.11 Emulator Source Code
----


------
2.11.1 6502 Emulation Package (March 28 1997)
------

HOMEPAGE: http://www.komkon.org/fms/CPUs/

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
http://www.komkon.org/fms/CPUs/M6502-032897.tar.Z
http://www.komkon.org/fms/CPUs/M6502-032897.zip

AUTHOR: Marat Fayzullin <fms@cs.umd.edu>.

STATUS: N/A.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: This package contains the source for the emulation core of 
the 6502 CPU. Although not an actual emulator, the 6502 CPU was used in the 8-
bit Apple ][ series. See http://www.komkon.org/fms/CPUs/ for terms of use, as 
well as other emulator resources such as how to write an emulator.

ROMS: N/A

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: N/A.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: N/A.

FURTHER REFERENCES: N/A.

------
2.11.2 Apple2
------

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/apple2.tar.Z
ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/emulators/a2shar.Z

AUTHOR: Peter Koch <pkoch@kiss.de>.

STATUS: Development in progress. Contact Peter Koch <pkoch@kiss.de> for more 
information.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Apple2 emulates an Apple ][ or ][+ with 64k. Supports disk 
swapping. Any disk, which is copyable with COPYA or FILER can be used as disk 
image. Supports 40 column text, 80 column text (videx emulation), lores, hires 
and mixed modes. Requires compiling (C source code).

ROMS: Apple2 does not come with the necessary ROMs.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Unix/X Windows.

FURTHER REFERENCES: The "Apple2 Emulation Frequently Asked Questions" guide 
contains information on this emulator. There is some more documentation in the 
tar-archive.

RELATED FILES:

Emulating - Discussion by Peter Koch on how he built his emulator.
ftp://wilbur.stanford.edu/pub/apple2/emulating.txt

(Thanks to the author for the description of the emulator appearing above. - 
Alex)

------
2.11.3 Apple2e
------

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/ap2e.tar.Z (curses code)
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/ap2egl.tar.Z (GL code)
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/emu.disks.tar.Z (Disks)

AUTHOR: Randy Frank <randy@tessa.iaf.uiowa.edu>.

STATUS: Unknown.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Apple2e emulates a 128K Apple //e, with an 80 column card in 
slot 3 and a combination of cards in slots 5, 6 and 7. Requires compiling (C 
source code).

ROMS: Apple2e requires ROMs copied from an Enhanced //e ONLY! and a copy of the 
PRODOS file from a bootable ProDOS disk. These should be binary files named 
"CDROM" and "PRODOS" respectively.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes). The "aii.docs" text 
file contains a short program for creating disk-images on the Apple for use with 
the emulator.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Unix.

FURTHER REFERENCES: "aii.docs" (Text file included in the archive), and the 
"emua2e.docs" text file. The "Apple2 Emulation Frequently Asked Questions" guide 
contains information on this emulator.
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/emua2e.docs

------
2.11.4 Apple2Emul
------

HOMEPAGE: http://www.pbm.com/skrenta/a2/

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
http://www.pbm.com/skrenta/a2/a2.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/Apple2Emul.tar.Z

STATUS: Unknown.

AUTHOR: Rich Skrenta <skrenta@pbm.com> and Tom Markson.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Apple2Emul is an emulator for Unix. Requires compiling (C 
source code).

ROMS: Unknown.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 order (DO - size: 143360 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Unix.

FURTHER REFERENCES: "Apple2Emul.readme" and "a2.readme" (Text files included in 
the archive).

------
2.11.5 a2
------

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/a2.tar.Z

AUTHOR: Rich Skrenta <skrenta@pbm.com>; additions by Mat Hostetter 
<mjhostet@athena.mit.edu>.

STATUS: Unknown.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: a2 is an adaptation of Rich Skrenta's emulator code, for NeXT 
step. Fast hi-res graphics support added by Mat Hostetter using WozView. 
Requires compiling (C source code).

ROMS: a2 does not include the necessary ROMs. The "SNARF" document contains 
instructions on how to get a copy of the Apple ROMs.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: Unknown (size: 215040 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: NeXT.

FURTHER REFERENCES: "README" and "NOTES" (Text files included in the archive).

------
2.11.6 KEGS (Kent's Emulated GS) (version 0.32)
------

HOMEPAGE: http://www.mtnweb.com/~kentd/

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
http://www.mtnweb.com/~kentd/kegs.0.32b.tar.gz
Older versions as below:
http://www.mtnweb.com/~kentd/kegs.0.31.tar.gz
http://www.mtnweb.com/~kentd/kegs.0.30.tar.gz
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Emulators/

AUTHOR: Kent Dickey <kentd@mtnweb.com>.

STATUS: Development in progress.

SCREENSHOTS:
http://www.mtnweb.com/~kentd/screenshots.html

SHORT DESCRIPTION: KEGS emulates a 4MB Apple //gs. Excerpted from the 
"README.kegs" text file: "Fast 65816 emulation (about 6MHz on a 712/80, and 
15MHz on a C180). Emulates low-level 5.25" and 3.5" drive accesses (even nibble-
copiers work!). Emulates classic Apple II sound and 32-voice Ensoniq sound. All 
sound is played in 16-bit stereo at 48KHz. Emulates all Apple //gs graphics 
modes, including border effects. Can handle mixed-displays (superhires at the 
top, lores at the bottom). Mouse and joystick support (although the joystick is 
hard to use). Emulates all Apple //gs memory "tricks" for full compatibility. 
Low-level ADB keyboard and mouse emulation enables Wolfenstein 3D to run. Clock 
chip emulation makes the Unix time available to the Apple //gs. Emulated battery 
RAM remembers control panel settings...KEGS is so accurate, even the built-in 
ROM selftests pass (you must be in 2.5MHz speed mode to pass the self-
tests)...KEGS boots s7d1 by default. You can change this using the emulated 
control panel, just like a real Apple //gs. KEGS emulates a //gs with two 5.25" 
drives in slot 6, two 3.5" drives in slot 5, and up to 32 "hard drives" in slot 
7." The archive contains an executable as well as C source code.

ROMS: KEGS does not include the necessary ROM; it needs to be provided in the 
form of a file called "ROM" in the KEGS directory. It can be either from a ROM 
01 (131072 bytes) or from a ROM 03 machine (262144 bytes).
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: "Raw" format of any size, with no header or compression, 
including standard DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes). A file named 
"disk_conf" in the KEGS directory tells the emulator the virtual location of the 
disk-image.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: HP series 9000/700 workstations. Will not compile on other 
platforms (Macintosh/PC) or even other Unix versions since the 65816 interpreter 
is written in PA-RISC assembly code.

FURTHER REFERENCES: "README.kegs" (Text file included with the archive).

RELATED FILES:

to_pro - Utility which "formats" disk images, and moves files from Unix into the 
simulator. It is included in the KEGS archive.

------
2.11.7 m65816 (version 1.1)
------

HOMEPAGE: http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/m65816-1.1.tar.gz

AUTHOR: Joshua M. Thompson <funaho@jurai.org>.

STATUS: Development in progress.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: m65816 is a portable 65816 CPU emulator developed as part of 
the XGS project. Requires compiling (C source code).

ROMS: N/A.

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: N/A.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: N/A.

FURTHER REFERENCES: "README" (Text file included with the archive).

------
2.11.8 ][+ Simulator
------

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/II+simulator.tar.Z

AUTHOR: Ben Koning <ben@apple.com>.

STATUS: Unknown (date on readme file: 1989).

SHORT DESCRIPTION: ][+ Simulator emulates a Apple ][+. Requires compiling (C 
source code).

ROMS: ][+ Simulator does not include the necessary ROMs; they need to be 
provided in the form of four binary files titled "APPLESOFT.ROM, 
"AUTOSTART.ROM", "INTEGER.ROM" and "MONITOR.ROM".
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: Unix binaries.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Unix machine.

FURTHER REFERENCES: "README" and "README2" (Text files included with the 
archive).

------
2.11.9 XApple2+ (version 1.0)
------

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/emulator.tar.Z

AUTHOR: Philip J. Stephens <philip@labtam.oz.au>.

STATUS: Unknown.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Xapple2+ emulates an Apple ][. The emulator supports disk-
image swapping and joystick emulation. Requires compiling (C source code).

ROMS: XApple2+ does not include the necessary Apple and disk-controller ROMs.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: Non-standard. Includes a utility named "convertdisk" to 
convert disk-images from .dsk and .bin (MacBinary) format to low-level nibblised 
format.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Medium-performance Sun SparcStation IPX or Sun SparcServer 
1000, using a X terminal with 100,000+ XStones of performance.

FURTHER REFERENCES: "README" (Text file included in the archive).

-------
2.11.10 XGS (version 0.50)
-------

HOMEPAGE: http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgs0.5hpux9.05.tar.gz (HPUX 9.02 
binary version)
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgs-0.53-src.tar.gz (beta source 
code)
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgs-0.50-src.tar.gz (source code)

AUTHOR: Joshua M. Thompson <funaho@jurai.org>; HPUX version compiled by Gordon 
Aplin <gordon@cdc.hp.com>.

STATUS: Development in progress. Check the mailing list for further information 
(email <majordomo@jurai.org> with the words "subscribe xgs-list" in the body of 
the letter) or the development mailing list (email <majordomo@jurai.org> with 
the words "subscribe xgs-dev" in the body of the letter).

SHORT DESCRIPTION: XGS emulates a ROM03 Apple IIGS, with the following features: 
CPU and memory map emulation, graphics modes up to super high resolution, ADB 
keyboard, clock chip, battery RAM, IWM hardware emulation for Slot 5 & 6 drives, 
ProDOS block device in Slot 7 and classic Apple ][ sound. Further IIGS features 
such as Ensoniq sound and GS/OS 6 capacity will be added in future releases. 

ROMS: XGS does not come with the necessary ROMs. The emulator requires a copy of 
the Apple IIGS ROM03 - these ROMs can be copied from your Apple IIGS by 
following the procedures in the "README" text file included with the package.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: 2IMG universal format, from version 0.50. From version 0.50 
onwards the previous proprietary image type is no longer supported. The archive 
includes a utility named "imgconv" to convert disk-images from the previous type 
into XGS image files.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: 90 MHz Pentium or better, running some sort of Unix 
operating system, an X server running in 16- or 24-bit color at a resolution of 
at least 800 x 600 pixels (8-bit support will be available from version 0.20), 
Unix Sound System (USS) and a USS-supported sound card.

FURTHER REFERENCES: "README" (Text file included in the archive) and "The 
Official XGS FAQ (version 1.3)".
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgsfaq13.txt

RELATED FILES:

Revival - a 2IMG image utility for Windows 95, by Thomas Fok 
<thomas@glink.net.hk> (2IMG format not compatible with XGS versions prior to 
0.48)
http://www.glink.net.hk/~thomas/revival.htm

"Using .SHK Files on an XGS" - Two-part article on using *.SHK and *.BSC files 
with XGS, by Bruce E. Fleury <bfleury@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu>.
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Faqs/
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Faqs/

-------
2.11.11 YAE (Yet Another Apple ][ Emulator) (version 0.5)
-------

HOMEPAGE: http://quark.netfront.net:6502/

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://quark.netfront.net/pub/YAE/yae.tar.gz
For older versions see 2.12 Old versions of YAE below.

AUTHOR: Doug Kwan <ctkwan@cs.hku.hk>.

STATUS: Beta testing.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: YAE emulates an Apple //e. This is the source code of the 
basic emulator without the compiler. Because of the work in IIe emulation, the 
dynamic compiler in this version is disabled. From the author's website: "I have 
re-written the video emulation of YAE to make use of the MIT-SHM shared memory 
extention of X11 to produce better graphics. The new video driver is optimized 
for a typical 32 bit workstation with an 8-bit pseudo colour display. Therefore 
the new version is *NOT* portable but the above set-up (32-bit CPU, 8-bit 
display and MIT-SHM) is quite common in the UNIX community and I will also write 
a generic but slower version later." Requires compiling.

ROMS: Not included.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: "Typical" Unix 32-bit workstation (32-bit CPU, 8-bit 
display and MIT-SHM).

FURTHER REFERENCES: Unknown.

-------
2.11.12 zaniWok
-------

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/zaniWok.tar.Z
http://www.grin.net/~cturley/gsezine/GS.WorldView/*A2.RARE.EMULATORS/A2.EMULATOR
.EXAMPLES/zaniWok/

AUTHOR: Mat Hostetter <mjhostet@athena.mit.edu>.

STATUS: Development in progress. Check the mailing list for further information 
(email <na2sig-request@byu-ed>).

SHORT DESCRIPTION: zaniWok emulates a 128K Apple //e, with 40/80 columns, all 
graphics modes, and a lot more. Requires compiling (C source code).

ROMS: zaniWok does not include the necessary ROMs.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes), ProDOS Order (PO), 
and raw disk-images.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: NeXT.

FURTHER REFERENCES: The "Apple2 Emulation Frequently Asked Questions" guide 
contains information on this emulator (and the modifications to the DO disk-
images).


----
2.12 Old versions of YAE (Yet Another Apple ][ Emulator)
----


Excerpted from a message from Doug Kwan (thanks for the e-mail! - Alex):

"The name of the emulator is now YAE (Yet another Apple ][ Emulator) though the 
virtual machine for the XXX platform is still called apple2.XXX. Sources of the 
basic emulator (w/o the compiler), is now available. The file 'yae.tar.gz' is a 
compressed tar file containing the source codes."

From a post by Doug Kwan on "comp.emulators.apple2" (6 Aug 1994):

>****************************************************************************
> YAE is an Apple ][ emulator written especially for RISC based workstations
>running Unix with X. The Sun and SGI versions of YAE have 
>run-time code generators tranlating on-the-fly 6502 machine code
>into SPARC or MIPS RISC machine code respectively. The software is currently
>under development and needs testers. The simple document README.apple2.sparc
>is available through my WWW home page. (See below)
>****************************************************************************
>
>I have just ported the run-time code generator to the MIPS architecture.
>As usual, I would like voluteers to try the new version of YAE for SGI 
>workstations and give me feed back. The new SGI version has been tested
>on an Indigo XS 24, an Indigo XZ 4000 and a Crimson, all running IRIX
>4.0.5. I would appreciate if someone test this on an Indy, a Indigo2
>an Onyx or any other SGI machines other than the ones I tried.
>The compressed binary is available through my home page
>
>       URL http://quark.netfront.net:6502/
>
>The non-graphics performance of YAE SGI is satisfactory. On an Indigo XZ 4000,
>(R4000) the effective clock speed is ~ 2.5Mhz whereas that on an Indigo XS 24
>(R3000) is ~ 1.5Mhz. Graphics of YAE still needs improvement. Action games is
>playable on most SGI's but the speed is slower than a real Apple for very
>graphics extensive games. For games with medium graphics workload like 
>Lode-runner or One-on-One. The emulator run at 90% to above 100% of a
>real Apple on an Indigo XZ 4000. YAE SGI also support 16KHz sampling sound
>emulation on most SGI's I've tested.
>
>Since last week, I have been asked by people where to get the necessary ROM
>images and whether I could give them away. If you are not a regular reader of
>comp.emulators.apple2, get and read the FAQ list of comp.emulators.apple2.
>The FAQ list contains all you need to know about ROM images.
>
>Cheers
>
>-Doug

------
2.12.1 Yet Another Apple ][ Emulator - DEC
------

HOMEPAGE: http://quark.netfront.net:6502/

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/d_kwan/apple2.dec.Z
ftp://quark.netfront.net/pub/YAE/old/apple2.dec.gz
ftp://quark.netfront.net/pub/YAE/old/yae.tar.gz (source)
ftp://quark.netfront.net/pub/YAE/old/yae_wip.tar.gz (source & compiler)

AUTHOR: Doug Kwan <ctkwan@cs.hku.hk>.

STATUS: Under development.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: DEC version of the emulator.

ROMS: Not included.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: DEC.

FURTHER REFERENCES: The "README.apple2.sparc" document describes non-Sun 
versions.
http://quark.netfront.net:6502/README.html

------
2.12.2 Yet Another Apple ][ Emulator - IBM
------

HOMEPAGE: http://quark.netfront.net:6502/

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/d_kwan/apple2.ibm.Z
ftp://quark.netfront.net/pub/YAE/old/apple2.ibm.gz
ftp://quark.netfront.net/pub/YAE/old/yae.tar.gz (source)
ftp://quark.netfront.net/pub/YAE/old/yae_wip.tar.gz (source & compiler)

AUTHOR: Doug Kwan <ctkwan@cs.hku.hk>.

STATUS: Under development.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: From a posting by the author to comp.emulators.apple2: "I 
have just uploaded another two binaries for Silicon Graphics workstations and 
IBM RS6000 workstations (include PowerPC). These files are apple2.mips.gz (40k) 
and apple2.ibm.gz (21k) respectively. The non-Sun versions do not have a 
compiler built in but games are very playable with medium fast to very fast 
workstations. Even with a lot of graphics, the SGI version runs almost native on 
an R4000 indigo and run faster than a real Apple on an Indigo2 Extreme. The SGI 
version supports audio."

ROMS: Not included.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: IBM RS6000/PowerPC workstations running AIX 2.3.

FURTHER REFERENCES: The "README.apple2.sparc" document describes non-Sun 
versions.
http://quark.netfront.net:6502/README.html

------
2.12.3 Yet Another Apple ][ Emulator - MIPS
------

HOMEPAGE: http://quark.netfront.net:6502/

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/d_kwan/apple2.mips.Z
ftp://quark.netfront.net/pub/YAE/old/apple2.mips.gz
ftp://quark.netfront.net/pub/YAE/old/apple2.mips.elf.gz
ftp://quark.netfront.net/pub/YAE/old/yae.tar.gz (source)
ftp://quark.netfront.net/pub/YAE/old/yae_wip.tar.gz (source & compiler)

AUTHOR: Doug Kwan <ctkwan@cs.hku.hk>.

STATUS: Under development.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: From a posting by the author to comp.emulators.apple2: "I 
have just uploaded another two binaries for Silicon Graphics workstations and 
IBM RS6000 workstations (include PowerPC). These files are apple2.mips.gz (40k) 
and apple2.ibm.gz (21k) respectively. The non-Sun versions do not have a 
compiler built in but games are very playable with medium fast to very fast 
workstations. Even with a lot of graphics, the SGI version runs almost native on 
an R4000 indigo and run faster than a real Apple on an Indigo2 Extreme. The SGI 
version supports audio."

ROMS: Not included.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Silicon Graphics Iris Indigo (R3000/R4000), Crimson, 
Indigo2, Indigo2 Extreme running Irix 4.0.X.

FURTHER REFERENCES: The "README.apple2.sparc" document describes non-Sun 
versions.
http://quark.netfront.net:6502/README.html

------
2.12.4 Yet Another Apple ][ Emulator - SPARC
------

HOMEPAGE: http://quark.netfront.net:6502/

AVAILABILITY: Available for free download from:
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/emulators/d_kwan/apple2.sparc.Z
ftp://quark.netfront.net/pub/YAE/old/apple2.sparc.gz
ftp://quark.netfront.net/pub/YAE/old/yae.tar.gz (source)
ftp://quark.netfront.net/pub/YAE/old/yae_wip.tar.gz (source & compiler)

AUTHOR: Doug Kwan <ctkwan@cs.hku.hk>.

STATUS: Under development.

SHORT DESCRIPTION: Apple2.sparc is an emulator still in the testing stage. It 
translates on-the-fly 6502 machine codes into SPARC equivalents. Only one slot 6 
disk-drive is supported, although the emulator can write to the disk-images. 
Check the README file for further emulator specifications. The Apple ROMs are 
not provided; they must be copied into two binary files named "APPLE.ROM" and 
"DISK.ROM". Only the Sun version supports run-time code generation.

ROMS: Not included.
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/rom_images/

DISK-IMAGE FORMAT: DOS3.3 Order (DO - size: 143360 bytes).

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Sun SPARC's running SunOS 4.X and Solaris (SunOS 5.X).

FURTHER REFERENCES: The "README.apple2.sparc" document contains basic 
information on this emulator. The document also describes non-Sun versions.
http://quark.netfront.net:6502/README.html


*******************************************************************************

-
3 - Emulator Resources
-


---
3.1 Emulator & Software Sites
---

A NOTE ABOUT DISK-IMAGES - Like the Apple ][ ROMs, disk-images are duplicates of 
copyrighted material; as a result, few FTP sites feel that they can legally 
maintain copies of such software. However, from a commercial point of view, the 
majority of said software is no longer for sale (notable exceptions include the 
Ultima and Infocom series) and most of the companies themselves no longer exist. 
Basically, the software in it's original format would not be commercially viable 
EXCEPT to the emulator market, but the Apple ][ community still exists to a 
greater extent than the C64 and Spectrum platforms (which both possess FTP sites 
of disk-image software) so the capacity to transfer disk-images BACK to the 
Apple computer is seen as a possible source of software piracy. Some Apple ][ 
software has been released into the public domain, is free or Shareware: these 
include the Eamon adventure series amongst others. Most of this type of software 
is, however, not in disk-image format and can be found on the Apple II FTP sites 
below.

-----
3.1.1 Emulator/Disk-Image FTP Sites
-----

ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/
http://www.asimov.net/apple_ii/
  Site Maintainer - Patrick Michael Kane <modus@robot.asimov.net>.
ftp://ftp.ncu.edu.tw/Packages/apple_II/ (140.115.1.71)
  Mirror of Asimov, by Wole <u810309@Oz.nthu.edu.tw>.
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/ (138.23.90.119)
  Site Maintainer - Kevin Lund <kevin@locutus.ucr.edu>.
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/ (131.246.9.95)
  Site Maintainer - Unknown.
ftp://ftp.gmd.de/if-archive/games/appleII/
  Site Maintainer - Volker Blasius <blasius@gmd.de>.

-----
3.1.2 Apple II FTP Sites
-----

See "Apple II Resources" by Nathan Mates <nathan@visi.com>.
http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/#ftpmajor

-----
3.1.3 Apple II WWW Sites
-----

Apple Computer
http://www.apple.com/

Apple II Companies - Page devoted to companies which still support the Apple II 
community, by Nathan Mates <nathan@visi.com>.
http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/com/index.html

COMP.SYS.APPLE2 Frequently Asked Questions - by Nathan Mates <nathan@visi.com>.
http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/

Golden Orchard (Apple II CD-ROM) - Primary focus is on the IIgs. "It contains 
over 600 megabytes of files useful to Apple II owners, including tons of 
freeware, shareware, utilities, games, graphics, sounds, music, source code, and 
much more...[it] can be fully accessed on a Mac or Apple IIGS equipped with CD-
ROM drive. (Apple IIe owners can access the ProDOS partition only.)" ProDOS and 
(Mac) HFS partitioned (not PC-compatible). Information and purchase details 
available from sites below:
email: <digisoft@hypermall.com>
http://www-leland.stanford.edu/~jagaroth/digisoft/orchard.html

GS WorldView - Apple IIgs information and software.
http://www.grin.net/~cturley/gsezine/GS.WorldView/

Pete Handel's Apple II Page
http://www.stolaf.edu/people/handel/a2/a2.html

History Pages
http://www.hypermall.com/History/
http://www.laughton.com/Apple/Apple.html

Nova Scotia Apple Users Group - Links to technical information on the Apple II 
series, Apple II FTP sites and other Apple groups online.
http://www.ccn.cs.dal.ca/Technology/AppleUsersGroup/NSAUG.html

The Treasure Chest Project - the "Reclassification Project of comp.sys.apple2 
(Commercial to FreeWare/ShareWare or Public Domain)".
http://www.tals.dis.qut.edu.au/staff/willie/

USoX - The Used Software Exchange is a marketplace for buying and selling used 
software. Software for a variety of platforms is supported, including the Apple 
II.
http://www.midwinter.com/usox/

-----
3.1.4 Apple III Sites
-----

To subscribe to the Apple /// mailing list, send e-mail to 
<listserv@wvnvm.wvnet.edu> with a first line reading "subscribe APPLE3-L 
YourName". The list address is <apple3-l@wvnvm.wvnet.edu>. To contact the 
maintainer email <jfritz@wvnvm.wvnet.edu>. Several FAQs exist for the Apple ///: 
consult the "THE APPLE /// FAQ FILE" by David Ottalini <dave.ottalini@pro-
applepi.wap.org> and the "APPLE /// INTERNET FAQ" by Jeff Marraccini 
<jeff@oak.oakland.edu>, edited by Dave Ottalini <Dave.Ottalini@tcs.wap.org> for 
further information. Information on the Apple /// is available from the Obsolete 
Computer Museum, and an Apple /// software archive is located at the following 
FTP site.
http://www.wap.org/info/techstuff/a3faq.text
http://cpre1.ee.iastate.edu/~ddkilzer/apple3/
http://www.wap.org/info/techstuff/a3inet.html
http://www.ncsc.dni.us/fun/user/tcc/cmuseum/apple3.htm
ftp://names.wvu.edu/pub/apple3/

-----
3.1.5 Usenet Newsgroups
-----

The following Usenet newsgroups are used to discuss Apple II emulation, Apple II 
computers, or emulators in general.

usenet: comp.emulators.apple2
usenet: alt.emulators.ibmpc.apple2 (Obsolete)
usenet: comp.emulators.announce (Moderated)
usenet: comp.emulators.misc
usenet: comp.sys.apple2
usenet: comp.binaries.apple2


---
3.2 WWW Sites
---

There are a growing number of emulator pages specifically or tangentially 
related to the Apple II computers.

Jonathan Badger's Apple II Home Page
http://geta.life.uiuc.edu/~badger/apple2.html

Chi-Yuan Lin's Apple II Page
http://www.tfrin.gov.tw/D-FI/~cylin/apple2.html

Chris's list of emulators for the PC (including the Apple II)
http://members.aol.com/chrissalo/emu1.htm

Chris, Mark & Terry's Apple II Home Page
http://www.duke-net.com/apple/main.shtml

Emulation.Net - John Stiles's list of emulators for MacOS - Apple II Page
http://emulation.net/apple2/index.html

Marat Fayzullin's [FMS] list of emulators - Apple II and Macintosh Page
http://www.komkon.org/fms/comp/sys/Apple.html#apple2

Arthur Levesque's Apple II Page
http://www.erols.com/backslash/apple2.html

The Pirate's Guild - Dave Morrison's Apple II software download page
http://www.ozemail.com.au/~deth2/a2/

---
3.3 Miscellaneous Sites
---

Scott Adams - Adventure series solutions.
ftp://ftp.gmd.de/if-archive/games/scott-adams/

Adventure Game List - "This page contains my index to all adventure games 
produced over the years. Of course, no such list can ever be complete for a 
number of reasons. To begin with, the distinction between what is an adventure 
and what is not is not clear. It's also not meaningful to list every last 
adventure game ever written, but only those that actually reached a reasonable 
audience. What constitutes a "reasonable audience" is, of course, also 
debatable." Maintained by Hans Persson <unicorn@lysator.liu.se>.
http://www.lysator.liu.se/adventure/

Bilestoad - Information concerning the port of this classic Apple ][ game to the 
Macintosh.
http://www.continuumsi.com/~marc/bilestoad.html

BrÝderbund - Lode Runner Fan Site, new levels for LR Classic and The Legend 
Returns, Macintosh conversion utilities - might be of some use to the 8-bit 
version of the game.
ftp://wcl-l.bham.ac.uk/pub/djh/loderunner/

Castle Smurfenstein - Homepage for this hack of Castle Wolfenstein.
http://evlweb.eecs.uic.edu/aej/smurf.html

Colossal Caves - Rick Adams' homepage for Colossal Cave by Willie Crowther and 
Don Woods, contains hints on solving the adventure.
http://www.winternet.com/~radams/adventure/

Donkey Kong - The Classic Donkey Kong Homepage.
http://http.earlham.edu/www/students/stanlje/dk/index.html

Eamon - Adventure series information, links, and copies of the software.
http://www.lysator.liu.se/eamon/
ftp://ftp.gmd.de/if-archive/games/appleII/eamon/
usenet: alt.games.eamon

Infocom - Resources including hompages, FTP sites and newsgroups. The 
Interactive Fiction archive contains adventure series information, solutions, 
Inform compilers, and new ports.
http://www.csd.uwo.ca/~pete/Infocom/
http://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs.cmu.edu/user/wsr/Web/IF/homepage.html
ftp://ftp.gmd.de/if-archive/games/infocom/
usenet: rec.arts.int-fiction
usenet: rec.games.int-fiction

Project 64 - An attempt to preserve Commodore 64 related documents in electronic 
text format. A number of game manuals are relevant to the Apple II.
http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/pcgeek/proj64.htm

Screenshots - Axel Bauer's Apple II Classic Games Page contains screenshots of 
classic Apple II games. Other pages contain Commodore 64 and Vic-20 games.
http://jones.netplace.com/apple.html (Apple II)
http://www.io.com/~vga2000/computes.htm (Commodore 64 and Vic-20)

Sirius Software - A homepage devoted to the adventure game Gruds in Space.
http://www.geocities.com/area51/lair/7268

Software deprotection tips (by Zelix).
ftp://ftp.stolaf.edu/pub/apple2/apple.tips.txt

Solutions - These are mainly for newer games, but occasional Apple II/C64 games 
- mostly adventures - are listed.
http://www.gamesdomain.com/ (The Games Domain)
http://www.spoiler.et.ee/ (The Spoiler's Centre)

SPAG - The Society for the Preservation of Adventure Games is an e-mail zine 
dedicated to (mainly) text adventures. Apple II and compatible format games are 
listed/reviewed. Subscriptions are available from G. Kevin Wilson 
<whizzard@uclink.berkeley.edu>.
http://wcl-l.bham.ac.uk/pub/djh/faqs/SPAG.faq (FAQ)
ftp://ftp.gmd.de/if-archive/magazines/SPAG/ (back issues)

SSI - Strategic Simulations, Inc. strategy series by Evin <evin@concentric.net>.
http://www.concentric.net/~evin/ssi/

Ultima - Non-official Ultima homepages, walkthroughs, maps, and cracks. The 
"Commodore 64 and Apple 2 Ultima FAQ" by Caliaber Dragon <Caliaber@primenet.com> 
contains further information about 8-bit Ultima versions.
http://www.udic.org/ultima/
http://www.mindspring.com/~herrin/ultima/
http://www.why.com/ultima/
ftp://ftp.udic.org/pub/ud/
usenet: alt.games.ultima

  UDIC - The Ultima Dragons Internet Chapter is a social club whose members 
share the common interest of the Ultima series.
http://www.udic.org/ultima/ ftp://ftp.udic.org/pub/ud/
usenet: alt.games.ultima.dragons
usenet: rec.games.computer.ultima-dragons

  Ultima III - Information concerning the port of this classic Apple ][ game to 
the Macintosh.
http://www.swcp.com/~beastie/ultima3.html

Videogames - The "Coin-Ops-A-Poppin' Killer List of Video Games". See where some 
of those Apple games came from (and where some of them went!)
ftp://wiretap.spies.com/game_archive/gameList/

Wasteland - The Ranger Center homepage contains the Frequently Asked Questions 
(FAQ) file for this outstanding RPG.
http://www.cris.com/~chbaer/ranger.shtml
http://www.cris.com/~chbaer/wasteland.txt (FAQ English version)
http://www.cris.com/~chbaer/deutsch_wasteland.txt (FAQ German version)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/documentation/games/wasteland/
http://www.cris.com/~chbaer/stm.html (Tips for running Wasteland with STM)


*******************************************************************************

-
4 - Compression Techniques
-

HINT: Want to decompress Apple II "*.shk" archives on a PC or Mac and donít have 
the software? Just import the archive into a disk-image (see in "ADDING/REMOVING 
FILES" in Chapter 7), run your favourite emulator and use ShrinkIt!

The list of extensions below will indicate what format the compression or 
translation is; from there refer to the "compression" document for cross-
platform applications or executables. For Apple ][ compression formats (which 
are not covered here) check Section 5 in Part 3 of "The Apple II Frequently 
Asked Questions (FAQ)".
ftp://ftp.cso.uiuc.edu/doc/pcnet/compression (128.174.5.61)
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/apple2/faq/

  .arc       Arc (Amiga/Atari) - transfer as a binary file ['DArj'/'TEXT']
  .arj       Arj (PC) - transfer as a binary file ['arc@'/'TEXT']
* .bin       BinHex 5.0/MacBinary (Mac) - transfer as binary file['BnHq'/'TEXT']
* .bsc       Binscii (Apple ][) - transfer as a text file
  .cpt       Compact Pro (Mac) - transfer as a binary file ['CPCT'/'PACT']
# .dsz       GNU Zip (Unix) - rename to ".gz" before decompressing
# .gz        GNU Zip (Unix) - transfer as a binary file ['Gzip'/'Gzip']
* .hqx       BinHex 4.0 (Mac) - transfer as a text file ['BNHQ'/'TEXT']
  .lha       LHA (Amiga/PC) - transfer as a binary file ['LARC'/'LHA ']
  .lzh       LHA (Amiga/PC) - transfer as a binary file ['LARC'/'LARC']
$ .shk/sdk   ShrinkIt archive (Apple ][ format containing files or a disk-image)
  .sit       StuffIt Lite/Deluxe (Mac) - transfer as binary file ['SIT!'/'SITD']
  .tar       TAR/Tape ARchive (Unix) - transfer as a binary file ['TAR '/'TARF']
* .uue       Uuencode/Uudecode (PC/Unix) - transfer as text file ['JeFF'/'TEXT']
# .Z         Compress (Unix) - transfer as a binary file ['LZIV'/'ZIVU']
  .zip       PK Zip (PC) - transfer as a binary file ['ZIP '/'pZIP']
  .zoo       Zoo (Amiga/PC) - transfer as a binary file ['Booz'/'ZOO ']

[Square brackets] denote Macintosh file creator/type information .

* These formats are translators; uuencoding (*.uue) and binhexing (*.hqx) are 
used to convert binary files into text files so that they can be posted to a 
binary newsgroup or e-mailed. Binscii (*.bsc) is a similar process for the Apple 
][; use "Shrink II" on the Macintosh (see below). The BinHex 5.0 format (*.bin) 
is Macintosh-specific; it is used to append the file/type creator information to 
the file in the first 128 bytes. Although emulators such as AppleWin can read 
disks with the MacBinary header, for compatibility with other emulators it is 
often better to remove the header. On the PC, use "bin2dsk" or "mactopc".
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/Bin2dsk.zip
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/incoming/Compress/bin2dsk.zip
ftp://wilbur.stanford.edu/pub/apple2/incoming/mactopc.exe

# These formats are single-file compressors - the other compressors on the list 
compress AND archive. Consequently, *.Z and *.gz are often used in conjunction 
with other archivers, primarily Tar (*.tar), resulting in the following: 
"filename.tar.gz" or "filename.tar.Z". Usually easier to remove on a Unix 
platform prior to download (use "uncompress" or "gzip" to extract).

$ Okay, so I said I wasn't going to cover Apple ][ formats... Use "Nulib" by 
Andy McFadden <fadden@uts.amdahl.com> for the PC or Unix to extract shrunk disk-
images (usually shown by *.SDK rather than *.SHK) or files from this type of 
archive. For Macintosh users, EGO Systems provide a commercial product called 
"Shrink II" which can create/extract NuFX/ShrinkIt archives and other Apple ][ 
formats. Cost: US$39.95, from EGO Systems, 7918 Cove Ridge Rd., Hixson, TN 
37343. Phone: 1-800-662-3634. Additionally, Matthew Russotto <russotto@pond.com> 
compiled "A2dearc", a Macintosh dearchiver for *.SHK, *.QQ and *.HQX files.
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/nulib324.zip (PC compile version 
3.24)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/nulib.zip (PC compile version 
3.03)
ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/nulib324.tar.Z (Unix source)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/A2dearc.gz
http://www.hypermall.com/ego (EGO Systems product information & ordering)

IMPORTANT NOTE: Where a filename possesses two or more extensions (eg. 
"filename.tar.gz" or "filename.sit.hqx") ALWAYS download the file according to 
the LAST extension (ie. if the last extension is .uue then it is safe to 
download it as text). If in doubt, download it as a BINARY file. When 
processing, start at the LAST extension and work inwards. Remember, if using a 
PC, it is only possible to have one extension visible in the filename at a time.

To find out more about compression in detail, try the "comp.compression.faq".
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/compression_faq/
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/compression_faq/
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/compression_faq/


*******************************************************************************

-
5 - Creating/extracting disk-images
-

  Eager PC-owners have no doubt turned quickly to this section to learn how to 
read Apple ][ disks in their 5.25" drives... Well, you can't. Basically, PC 
drives and Apple drives use different encoding techniques. Check out Section 
5.10 in Part 3 of "The Apple II Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)" guide for more 
information. But don't panic! Follow this easy two step guide to creating disk-
images, and transferring them to the required computer. The following steps 
apply only to standard DOS, ProDOS and compatible disks (those that can be 
copied by "Copya"). More detailed instructions are usually given in the archive 
packages. To transfer ROMs or text files (or indeed any file from an Apple ][), 
just substitute those files in place of the disk-images in the following 
examples.

  These instructions are primarily intended for creating disk-images of 5.25" 
diskettes (usually software for 8-bit Apples). With the advent of IIgs 
emulators, it has become necessary to transfer 800K ProDOS disks. Once again, 
although these disks are the same media as 720K DOS disks, they are not 
compatible with PC disk drives. The easiest method to create an 800K disk-image 
for IIgs emulators on non-Macintosh platforms is to use a Macintosh (which read 
800K ProDOS disks as standard) and make a DiskCopy image. This image can then be 
converted for use with XGS on non-Macintosh platforms (see the 2IMG disk-image 
format below). 

---
5.1 Creating Disk-Images
---

  There are several methods of creating disk-images, depending upon either 
personal preference or (more likely) the Apple ][ hardware you have available. 
The minimum required is an Apple ][ with at least two 5.25" disk drives and a 
serial card (preferably capable of running ProDOS). It is possible to read an 
image from a 5.25" drive and transfer it at the same time (if you only have one 
5.25" drive, for example). This is covered in 5.2.1, in which case you may skip 
5.1.

The options for creating a disk-image are broken up as follows:

5.1.1 creating segmented disk-images (if you only have two 5.25" drives),
5.1.2 creating whole disk-images (if you have a storage device larger than 141K, 
such as a hard-drive or 800K drive)
5.1.3 creating shrunk disk-images (similar to 5.1.1 but requires extraction 
software)

5.1.1 Creating segmented disk-images - The largest obstacle to creating a disk-
image is storing the resulting file prior to transfer. Unless you own a 3.5" 
drive, hard-drive or have enough RAM on your Apple to store the file, then 
segmenting the disk-image will permit its storage over multiple volumes. This is 
useful, for example, in reading a 5.25" disk in Slot 6 Drive 1 and storing it in 
two (or more) parts on disks in Slot 6 Drive 2. "DSK2FILE v4.4" by Ron Kneusel 
<rkneusel@post.its.mcw.edu> offers segmentation as an option. It will 
automatically prompt for a ProDOS pathname and filename prior to start and 
halfway through the operation, thus creating two files. The "CHOP" application 
(for MSDOS and Macintosh, C source code for Unix) by the same author can be used 
to reassemble the disk-image on other platforms. Alternatively, "Diskread" by 
Damon J. Rand <D.Rand@cantva.canterbury.ac.nu>, is a DOS 3.3 BASIC application 
which allows the user to specify start and end tracks for segmentation (useful 
for varying the size of output files). Similarly, the DOS 3.3 program "Diskdump" 
by David A. Curran <curran@titan.ucs.umass.edu> will segment a DOS 3.3 disk into 
eight binary files over two disks. The resulting files from both programs can be 
rejoined by using the "copy" command under MSDOS or concatenated by any usual 
method for binary files on any platform (check the documentation for further 
details).

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
ftp://kreeft.intmed.mcw.edu/Q/pub/apple2/dsk2file/4.0/
ftp://kreeft.intmed.mcw.edu/Q/pub/apple2/dsk2file/4.0/ (Source)
ftp://kreeft.intmed.mcw.edu/Q/pub/apple2/dsk2file/4.0/ (Mac 
executable)
ftp://kreeft.intmed.mcw.edu/Q/pub/apple2/dsk2file/4.0/ (PC executable)
http://keaggy.intmed.mcw.edu/dsk2file.html (WWW access to FTP site)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/diskread.bsc
ftp://ftp.uu.net/systems/apple2/unix/diskdump.aaf.Z


5.1.2 Creating whole disk-images - If your Apple system has enough RAM, a 3.5" 
drive, Appleshare volume or hard-disk, then you can store a disk-image in its 
entirety prior to transfer. The versatile "DSK2FILE v4.4" by Ron Kneusel 
<rkneusel@post.its.mcw.edu> can be used to create whole DOS or ProDOS order 
disk-images. "Image" by Randy Shackelford <shack@crash.cts.com> is a faster 
ProDOS program which creates DOS order disk-images only. "RTRK" by Andrew 
Kingdom <agk@ausom.oz.au> will write disk-images from 5.25" disks to larger 
volumes. "Asimov" by Jesse Blue <ug0a@rzstud.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de> is an Apple 
IIgs application which can create DOS and ProDOS order disk-images. Central 
Point's "Copy II+ 7.1" also allows the creation of a proprietary disk-image 
format (this can be converted into a standard disk-image on the Macintosh using 
"Image Converter" by Lazarus I. Long).

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
ftp://kreeft.intmed.mcw.edu/Q/pub/apple2/dsk2file/4.0/
http://keaggy.intmed.mcw.edu/dsk2file.html (WWW access to FTP site)
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/rtrk.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/incoming/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/images/utility/disk_utils/.
do.gz
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/incoming/


5.1.3 Creating shrunk disk-images - "Shrunk" disk-images were not originally 
intended for use with emulators, being a type of NuFX archive created by 
ShrinkIt. As opposed to a standard .SHK file which usually contains files, an 
.SDK file contains a whole compressed disk (for archival or transfer purposes). 
This can be extracted to a disk-image under MSDOS or Unix using "Nulib" by Andy 
McFadden <fadden@uts.amdahl.com> - and as such, is a better method than creating 
a standard disk-image, since the .SDK file is compressed for faster transfer. 
"Nulib" outputs a ProDOS order disk-image. Although any version of ShrinkIt can 
create shrunk disk archives, it is preferable to use ShrinkIt 3.0 and above 
(hence using a 128K //e, //c or IIGS) since earlier versions (such as IIPLUS 
Shrinkit) don't prompt for a disk-image title within the archive. Without a 
title, "Nulib" cannot extract the (nameless) image from the .SDK archive.

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/nulib324.zip (PC compile version 
3.24)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/nulib.zip (PC compile version 
3.03)
ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/nulib324.tar.Z (Unix source)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/shrinkit34.sdk

---
5.2 Transferring Disk-Images
---

5.2.1 Creating and sending disk-images "on the fly" - In order to bypass the 
problems with storing disk-images on the Apple, it is possible to simultaneously 
create and send images via null-modem cable to a Macintosh, PC, Amiga etc. This 
requires a serial card and at least one 5.25" drive on the Apple. This process 
is intended for older Apples (those with actual serial CARDS rather than PORTS). 
"Apple Disk Transfer v1.21" by Paul Guertin <guertinp@iro.umontreal.ca> is a 
comprehensive package with MSDOS and Apple ][ (DOS 3.3) executables to simplify 
transfer. "MacADT v120a1s" by Hideki Naito <pbc03243@niftyserve.or.jp> gives a 
Macintosh interface for ADT. "][2Mac v1.0.5" by Adam van Gaalen 
<vangaalen@caiw.nl> is another Macintosh/DOS 3.3 or CHE-DOS 3.4 package for 
transferring complete disk-images. Another similar transfer program is 
"Senddisk" by Rich Williamson <glitch@eskimo.com>, which also has a DOS 3.3 and 
MSDOS executable. "A2PCTR v1.1" by Nye Liu <nyet@halycon.com> transfers a disk-
image as a hex dump to the MSDOS platform. The "Apple II Disk Transfer Utility 
PRO v2.0.6" by Ronald W.H. Mak and Alan W.L. Siu is an integrated Apple II/MSDOS 
package written in assembly. For further details consult the instructions 
included with the relevant package.

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/adt121.zip
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/incoming/
http://www.caiw.nl/~adam/downloadable/II2Mac.sea.hqx (v1.0.5)
http://hyperarchive.lcs.mit.edu/HyperArchive/Archive/disk/ii-2-mac-105.hqx
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/senddisk.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/a2pctr11.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/appleibm/


5.2.2 Sending disk-images by modem/null-modem cable - With your disk-image(s) 
created in Step One, there are several methods which can be used to move them to 
your Macintosh, PC or Amiga. Using the serial card or port on the Apple and a 
telecommunications package (see Section 5.6 in Part 3 of "The Apple II 
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)" guide for Apple comm programs) send the image 
via null-modem cable to another computer, or via modem to an Internet account, 
BBS, etc. The Apple //e and IIGS can be networked to a Macintosh, allowing easy 
transferral of disk-images from the Apple to a network volume.
    The "][ in a Mac" emulator by COMPUTER:applications, Inc. also possesses the 
ability to create ProDOS order disk-images via a null-modem cable.

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/apple2/faq/ 
ftp://wilbur.stanford.edu/pub/apple2/][inamac.txt


5.2.3 Transferring via disk to compatible drives - As mentioned earlier, the 
standard PC 5.25" drive cannot read Apple ][ disks. However, all Macintosh 
computers can read, write and format 3.5" ProDOS disks - with the "ProDOS File 
System" extension, System 7.5 (with standard DOS-mounting software) or Apple 
File Exchange installed. Since Macintosh Superdrives can also read PC 3.5" 
floppies, disk-images can by easily transferred to MSDOS computers. 
Alternatively, use a Macintosh LC which has the IIE card attached. Place your 
5.25" disk into the attached external drive and use the "DSK2FILE" program under 
the emulator, specifying either the Macintosh hard-drive, RAM, or the 3.5" 
floppy as the path. From there, take the ProDOS 800K disk and insert it into the 
internal Macintosh drive.
  For Apple //e, //c, IIGS compatibility with 3.5" drives and Macintosh 880K 
disks, check Q#37-45 in Part 2 of "COMP.SYS.APPLE2 - Frequently Asked 
Questions".
  Amiga owners with an Amiga 1020 5.25" disk-drive (or equivalent) can use 
"Disk2File" by Ron Menelli <menelli@uiuc.edu> to read unprotected Apple 5.25" 
disks and create a standard disk-image. A 40 track drive is recommended, 
although 80 track drives are supported. There MAY be problems with drive-speed 
reading Apple ][ disks; this can be adjusted following instructions appearing in 
the "1541.doc" file ("1541" allows Amiga 5.25" drives to read C64 disks). 
"Disk2File" is included as part of the "Apple2000" emulator package for the 
Amiga.

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
ftp://ftp.apple.com/software/aii/lc.iiecard/
(the "ProDOS File System" is part of the disk-image - use Disk Copy to extract).
ftp://kreeft.intmed.mcw.edu/Q/pub/apple2/dsk2file/4.0/
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/apple2/faq/
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/amiga/Apple2000v13.lha (contains "Disk2File")
ftp://ftp.wustl.edu/systems/amiga/aminet/misc/emu/


5.2.4 Miscellaneous - If you don't have a serial card on your Apple, try 
"Ap2222PC" by Clay Chang. This DOS 3.3 program will transfer disk and sequential 
text files between the PC and Apple using the Apple game I/O port, one 5.25" 
drive and the PC parallel port (use 48K DOS only!). Alternatively, "Apl2serial" 
by Warren Toomey <wkt@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au> contains details on connecting an 
Apple's cassette port output to a PC via RS232 cable, as well as binary 
executables for creation/transfer. Or, use "SoundReader" by Mike Kienenberger 
<SXMLK@ACAD3.ALASKA.EDU>, which transmits binary data from an Apple to a NeXT 
via the audio ports on the respective machines.

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
http://www.tfrin.gov.tw/D-FI/~cylin/ap2222pc.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/ap2222pc.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/apl2serial.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/SoundReader.tar.gz


    NOTE: It is a great deal easier to transfer disk-images from the Macintosh 
or Amiga to the PC (via 720K or 1.44Mb DOS disks) than it is from the Apple ][ 
straight to the PC (although there are hardware boards to connect Apple 5.25"  
drives to the PC, they are rare). On the Macintosh, use either PC Exchange 
software (which allows PC 720K and 1.44Mb disks to be inserted into Mac HD disk-
drives), Apple File Exchange, or System 7.5 (with standard DOS-mounting 
software). On the PC, use Macsee or Mac-Ette (both Shareware) or Macindos, which 
all read 1.44Mb Macintosh disks. On the Amiga, use Dos2Dos (KS 1.2/1.3) or 
CrossDOS (inbuilt KS/WB2.1) to read 720K DOS disks in the Amiga 3.5" drive. 
NOTE: Macintosh 400/800K disks are NOT compatible with either Amiga or PC 
drives. Always ensure Binary/Data translation rather than MacBinary!


---
5.3 Making Copy-Protected Disk-Images
---

Super Saltine's Transcopy (SST) - A complete package for the expert disk-image 
creator!  The "Sst.readme" file contains the necessary instructions (which are 
too detailed to repeat here). SST may not work on some computers; a suggested 
fix from Bob Colbert <rcolbert@oasis.novia.net> follows:

  1) Boot the Dos 3.3 floppy with SST on it and get to the ] prompt
  2) Type: CALL -151
  3) Type: BLOAD SST
  4) Type: 1F4E:EA
  5) Type: BSAVE SST, A$B00, L$5500

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/images/utility/Super_Saltines_Transcopy/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/sst.zip (archive of package)


---
5.4 Extracting Disk-Images
---

It is possible to convert a disk-image BACK to an Apple ][ 5.25" disk. "UnImage 
v0.1" by Ivan Drucker <drucker@lclark.edu> will convert disk-images back to 
disks. One of the options of "DSK2FILE 4.4" by Ron Kneusel 
<rkneusel@post.its.mcw.edu> is to write an image file back to 5.25" floppy. 
Alternatively, "DeImage v0.1" by Ivan Drucker extracts Applesoft and Binary 
files from disk-images into ProDOS, although the process will only work with 
standard DOS3.3 disks (ie. disks possessing a catalog). Finally, "UnForkIt v0.1" 
also by Ivan Drucker converts forked files on ProDOS volumes to one or two 
unforked files. These utilities all require the disk-image to be on a mounted 
ProDOS volume. "Apple Disk Transfer 1.20" by Paul Guertin 
<guertinp@iro.umontreal.ca> can transfer a disk-image from MSDOS or Macintosh to 
a 5.25" Apple drive via null-modem cable. Finally, it is possible to create a 
"shrunk" disk-image in reverse. Having reordered the disk-image into ProDOS 
Order (if necessary), use "Nulib" (version 3.2 or greater is required) to create 
a shrunk-disk (.sdk) archive. Transfer the file back to the Apple and use 
ShrinkIt to decompress the image back to a diskette.

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/incoming/
ftp://kreeft.intmed.mcw.edu/Q/pub/apple2/dsk2file/4.0/
http://keaggy.intmed.mcw.edu/dsk2file.html (WWW access to FTP site)
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/incoming/
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/incoming/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/adt120.zip
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/incoming/
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/nulib324.zip (PC compile version 
3.24)
ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/nulib324.tar.Z (source code)


*******************************************************************************

-
6 - Disk-Image Formats & Conversion
-


---
6.1 Emulator Disk-Images
---

There are four main types of cross-platform disk-images. The most common types - 
DO and PO (*.DSK), Nibble (*.NIB) and 2IMG (*.2MG) - will be found on emulator 
FTP sites. The first three types are primarily intended for transferring 8-bit 
Apple software on 5.25" disk. The IIgs emulator XGS uses the 2IMG universal 
format (which may be easily converted to/from 800K DiskCopy images). The other 
types are proprietary formats required by a specific emulator, or created by a 
certain method of conversion. Since these types are unlikely to be found on FTP 
sites, they are included for completeness. In these cases, more information on 
the proprietary types can be found in the documentation of the specific emulator 
package they are designed for. There are a couple of disk-image types which have 
not been listed here - these are generally "raw" disk-image formats as noted in 
Section 2 - and these types are not capable of conversion into standard disk-
images. "Raw" disk-images of 5.25" disks will generally be 200-220K in size.

THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS APPLY TO UNCOMPRESSED DISK-IMAGE FILES ONLY!

Disk-images with extensions such as *.gz, *.Z or *.zip are in compressed format 
and must be extracted by the appropriate program prior to use. Disk-images CAN 
be copied between platforms and they WILL work with a variety of emulators. If 
in doubt ALWAYS ensure BINARY translation between platforms!


6.1.1 DOS3.3 Order (DO/*.DSK) - This image is 143360 bytes in size (143488 with 
MacBinary header). It usually has the *.DSK extension, but may also be found 
with the *.DO extension as well. As suggested by the title, data is stored track 
by track and sector by sector (Track 0, Sector 0 -> Track 22, Sector 15) for a 
standard 1:1 copy of a 35 track, 16 sector DOS 3.3 disk (256 bytes per sector). 
This is the most widely-used disk-image format for 8-bit emulators, and is 
easily translated into other formats. This format is incapable of storing copy-
protected software unless it has been "cracked" first. A basic guide to 
determining what type is software may be stored in a DO image is whether it can 
be first duplicated on an Apple with standard copy utilities such as "copya".

On the MACINTOSH - Unlike the PC, which determines file-types by the extension, 
the Macintosh adds a "resource header" to all files containing file type and 
creator information (creating a "forked" file). Files stored on Internet FTP 
sites, or transferred from a Unix or PC platform, will generally not contain 
this resource header. As such, the disk-image will not appear as a file usuable 
by any of the Macintosh emulators. It is a (relatively) simple case to change 
the File Type and File Creator information to "register" the disk-images to 
belong to a certain emulator. The relevant disk-image File Type and Creator 
information is displayed in the reviews of each Macintosh emulator in Section 2. 
For example, to use this format with Stop The Madness, ensure that the file is 
downloaded or transferred in binary - not Macbinary - mode (and is 143360 
bytes). STM will *NOT* recognize the disk-image unless it has the correct file 
type/creator, even if it is of the correct size and is a binary file. Set the 
file type to 'DSK5' and the creator to 'A2EM' using ResEdit, UUlite, etc. 
Alternatively "Drop?Disk" is a drag-and-drop application which automatically 
converts the file type and creator of disk-images for use with STM. For the 
other Macintosh emulators, a useful utility to bulk-change resource information 
is the "Snitch" extension by Mitch Jones <mjones@netcom.com>, which adds 
resource functionality to the Finder's "Get Info" window. Simply select a number 
of disk-image files, do a simultaneous "Get Info" command and change the active 
window's resource information. Then select "Change All" from Snitch's menu. 

There are a number of utilities for the Macintosh which modify to and from 
ProDOS Order disk-images: "Easy.STM Convert.1.0" by Jim Surine 
<xevious@holonet.net>, "Aconv v1.0" by Dan Bornstein and "Converter" will 
reorder PO disk-image sectors into the DO type used by STM. To re-order the 
sectors into ProDOS order, use "DOS Order Converter" by Rene Gaudet 
<reneg@cpqhou.compaq.com> or "ProDOS-Order Converter" (the "mapper" algorithm 
automatically reorders between the two formats).

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
ftp://ftp.wustl.edu/systems/mac/info-mac/cfg/
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/do2po_v0.1.sit.hqx
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/Po_to_Do.gz
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/ProDOSOrderConv.sit.bin

On the PC - The PC simply determines file-type by extension (although the 
emulators themselves may do some checking with regard to correct file size). To 
use this format with all of the PC emulators, ensure that the file is downloaded 
or transferred in binary mode (and is 143360 bytes) and that it has an eight 
character filename and *.DSK extension. The current version of Apl2Em requires 
that the D1 and D2 disk-images have default names (usually SYSTEM.DSK and 
BLANK.DSK respectively), so you will have to rename your disk-image files to use 
them. Applewin can actually read *.DSK files of 143488 bytes (MacBinary files 
with the *BIN extension) but for compatibility with other emulators it is better 
to translate the files correctly prior to use - see Section 4. No other form of 
conversion is necessary.

6.1.2 ProDOS Order (PO/*.DSK) - This image is 143360 bytes in size (143488 with 
MacBinary header). It usually has the *.DSK extension, but may also be found 
with the *.PO extension as well. This disk-image stores data in block rather 
than track/sector format (block 0, block 1 -> block 279) - the difference in the 
structure is due to ProDOS interleaving data in blocks (which equal two DOS 
sectors). Although newer emulators are capable of distinguishing between DO and 
PO (and thus using both) older emulators strictly require the DO type despite 
the identical size. ProDOS Order images are still useful since they are capable 
of being converted back into SDK images by "Nulib" (which are compatible with 
ShrinkIt on the Apple). DO images are not capable of this. PO is an older disk-
image format (used more widely with Unix emulators, since ShrinkIt archives 
extracted by "Nulib" produce PO images). Like DO, this format is incapable of 
storing copy-protected software unless it has been "cracked" first. A basic 
guide to determining what type is software may be stored in a PO image is 
whether it can be first duplicated on an Apple with standard copy utilities such 
as "copya".

On the MACINTOSH - The file must be downloaded in binary mode. None of the 
Macintosh emulators really use the PO format, except for "][ In a Mac", which 
uses images of non-standard size. To use this format with "][ In a Mac", drop a 
DO or Copy II+ 7.1 image file onto "Image Converter" by Lazarus I. Long and 
select the required format; output images will have the correct resource 
information. The application "Easy Convert" will re-order the sectors of a PO 
disk-image into DOS3.3 Order, and will automatically set the file type/creator 
attributes upon output to 'DSK5'/'A2EM' for use with STM. Alternatively, use 
"ProDOS-Order Converter".

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/incoming/
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/Po_to_Do.gz
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/ProDOSOrderConv.sit.bin

On the PC - No emulators on the PC require PO images (although newer emulators 
such as AppleWin support them). Use "Mapper" by Rene Gaudet 
<reneg@cpqhou.compaq.com> to convert DO to PO and vice versa.

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/mapper.zip


6.1.3 Nibble DOS3.3 Order (NDO/*.NIB) - This image is 232960 bytes in size, and 
it usually has the *.NIB extension. According to the original "Apple2 Emulation 
Frequently Asked Questions" guide, "every three bytes of data have been 'bit 
twiddled' into four bytes, and each sector has an 'address field' that has the 
track and sector numbers." The format was originally used solely in the 
"ApplEmu" emulator before becoming widely used to store copy-protected software. 
The conversion utilities listed below are solely for use with "ApplEmu" images 
containing standard software! NDO images rely on the extra space to store non-
standard track information which would otherwise be lost in a DO or PO image. 
With newer emulators such as AppleWin and ApplePC, NDO can be used to store 
copy-protected or non-standard Apple disk-images (created by SST - see "Super 
Saltines Transcopy" in Section 5.3).

On the MACINTOSH - There is currently no way to convert either from or to NDO on 
the Macintosh. NDO images are used by the "Catakig" emulator (File Creator: 
'Ctkg', File Type: 'A2D5')

On the PC - To convert PO disk-images to NDO (for use with ApplEmu), use 
"Em2Emu" by Tom Baker <tombaker@world.std.com>. To convert NDO back to DO use 
"Emu2Em" by Dan Scholnik <dpscholn@mtu.edu> to re-order this format back into 
the "standard" 143360 size. AppleEmu can run NDO images containing copy-
protected software without conversion. Newer emulators support multiple disk-
images types but will support all NDO types containing standard software.

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/em2emu.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/emu2em.zip


6.1.4 2IMG Universal Format (2IMG/*.2MG) - This image is usually 800K in size, 
and is a proprietary format used by the XGS multi-platform IIgs emulator as well 
as Bernie ][ The Rescue on the Macintosh. It usually has the *.2MG extension. 
The size of the image is due to fact it contains a copy of an 800K 3.5" disk 
(usually ProDOS) rather than a single density 5.25" disk (although these may 
also be imported into 2IMG format by the utilities below). The format is 
primarily created by converting a ProDOS 800K disk into a DiskCopy image on a 
Macintosh, and then using the XGS "Image" utilities by Matthew Conte 
<itsbroke@ix.netcom.com>, or "Revival" by Thomas Fok <thomas@glink.net.hk>. 
"Revival" can also convert DOS 3.3 Ordered, ProDOS Ordered, and ApplePC HDV 
images into 2IMG format. The 2IMG format is explained at:
http://www.glink.net.hk/~thomas/2img.txt

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutil.zip (DOS)
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutil.rar (DOS)
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutos2.zip (OS/2 Warp)
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutos2.rar (OS/2 Warp)
http://www.glink.net.hk/~thomas/revival.htm

6.1.5 Apple II For Windows (A4W/*.A4W) - This image is 143388 bytes in size, and 
is a proprietary format used solely by the Apple II Emulator for Windows. 
According to the "Apple II Emulator for Windows" help file this format adds a 
file header separated from the data section of the disk-image by two bytes with 
value 26 (1Ah). This binary format is used to store non copy-protected images. 
This format is used solely by the Apple II Emulator for Windows, and is 
recognised by a .A4W extension. Since no FTP sites store disk-images in A4W 
format, there is currently no need for a program to convert A4W back to DO or 
NDO formats.

On the MACINTOSH - There is currently no way to convert either from or to A4W on 
the Macintosh.

On the PC - Follow the instructions under the 'Disk II Diskette File Format' 
heading in the "Apple II Emulator for Windows" help file.

6.1.6 TrackStore (*.APP) - This is a proprietary format created by the TrackStar 
Card for the PC, which can read actual Apple disks. The image can store either 
40 or 80 tracks (the 80 track version is similar to NDO images, allowing 
information for duplicating protected software).

6.1.7 Dalton Disk Disintegrator (DDD) - DDD is compression utility on the Apple, 
capable of archiving both files and entire disks. The Apple 2000 emulator on the 
Amiga can decompress and compress DDD disk-images (allowing compatibility with 
the Apple). Further information on this format is available in the "Apple 
2000.doc" file included with the Apple 2000 package. DDD disk archives are not 
compatible with ShrinkIt SDK disk archives.

6.1.8 SimIIe (IIE/*.IIE) - This image is generally 143390 bytes in size, and is 
a proprietary format used solely by the SimSystem IIE emulator. According to 
"SIMIIE.DOC" this format adds a 30 byte header to the binary and GCR disk-images 
(none of the other formats possess a header) and adjusts the interleaving of the 
binary disk-image from DOS3.3 to raw hardware format. This image can also store 
GCR format - "disk data in its purest GCR encoded format, the same way it is 
stored on a real Apple II...which makes this format suitable for many copy-
protection methods used on Apple II products." GCR format files will vary in 
length - usually greater than 200K. Since no FTP sites store disk-images in IIE 
format, there is currently no need for a program to convert IIE back to DO or 
NDO formats.

On the MACINTOSH - There is currently no way to convert either from or to IIE on 
the Macintosh.

On the PC - Use "Dsk2iie" to convert disks from DO format to IIE format. SimIIe 
utilities, including "dsk2iie", are available in the "sim2du10.zip" archive 
released by Galen C. Hunt <gchunt@cc.dixie.edu>.

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/simiie/ (contains 
"dsk2iie")

6.1.9 Copy II+ 7.1 Image (IMG/*.IMG) - This image is 143360 bytes in size. It is 
not compatible with DO or PO disks of equivalent size. This format is created 
using Central Point's Copy II+ 7.1, and selecting 'Copy', 'Disk', and then any 
5.25" source drive to any 3.5" target drive or RAM volume. Copy II+ will then 
prompt for an image filename. For some reason ONLY Copy II+ version 7.1 
possesses the ability to write disk-images (both earlier and later versions lack 
this feature).

On the MACINTOSH - This image can be converted into a standard disk-image on the 
Macintosh using "Image Converter" by Lazarus I. Long. "Image Converter" can also 
turn standard DO and PO images into *.IMG for transferring disks back to the 
Apple.

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/incoming/

6.1.10 XGS Format (XGS/*.XGS) - This image is usually 800K in size (identical to 
the newer 2IMG format), and is the older proprietary format used by the earlier 
versions of XGS. It has been superseded by the 2IMG Universal Format. It usually 
has the *.XGS extension. XGS images can be easily converted into 2IMG format 
using the XGS "Image" utilities by Matthew Conte <itsbroke@ix.netcom.com>, or 
"Revival" by Thomas Fok <thomas@glink.net.hk>.

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutil.zip (DOS)
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutil.rar (DOS)
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutos2.zip (OS/2 Warp)
http://classicgaming.com/xgsdos/Download/imgutos2.rar (OS/2 Warp)
http://www.glink.net.hk/~thomas/revival.htm

6.1.11 "Raw" Disk-Images (*.DISK) - There are a couple of disk-image types which 
have not been listed here - these are generally "raw" disk-image formats with no 
compression as used by some of the emulators in Section 2 - and these types are 
not capable of conversion into standard disk-images. "Raw" disk-images of 5.25" 
disks will generally be 200-220K in size. According to the "Apple 2000.doc" file 
included with the Apple 2000 emulator, "raw" disk-images are capable of storing 
images of non-DOS and copy-protected disks.

6.1.12 Apple Program Files (*.PROG) - Unlike disk-images, which simulate the 
structure of an Apple disk, some emulators are capable of running Apple software 
without the disk-image itself. The "Apple 2000" emulator on the Amiga does this 
with single executable files (so software with multiple data files will not 
work). Filenames with a *.PROG suffix become executable files; these are single 
files that were runnable from Apple DOS 3.3/ProDOS and did not require any disk 
access thereafter. These files now do not even require booting any Apple disk 
and are simply loaded into the appropriate Apple memory areas and instantly 
started. Alternatively, the Linux "ProDOS Emulator" uses a directory on the Unix 
system as a simulated drive (Slot 7, Drive 1) - thus eliminating the need for 
disk-images. With the ProDOS files (such as BASIC.SYSTEM or SHRINKIT) in the 
same directory as the emulator; the current directory appears within the 
emulator as a disk named /UNIX at S7,D1.


---
6.2 Distribution Disk-Images
---

The disk-image concept is used for a variety of tasks beyond emulation. Mainly, 
they are used for software distribution since, unlike compressed archives, disk-
images can retain additional information such as file allocation (FAT files on 
PC disks) and icon placement (on Macintosh disks). Disks duplicated from an 
image are identical to the original, not mere copies. The following types of 
distribution images are not directly intended for emulation purposes.

6.2.1 ShrinkIt (*.SDK) - "Shrunk" disk-images were not originally intended for 
use with emulators, being a type of NuFX archive created by ShrinkIt. As opposed 
to a standard .SHK file which usually contains files, an .SDK file contains a 
whole compressed disk (for archival or transfer purposes). Unlike the similar 
Dalton Disk Disintegrator (DDD) archive, SDK images cannot be used directly with 
an emulator. The SDK image can be extracted to a disk-image under MSDOS or Unix 
using "Nulib" by Andy McFadden <fadden@uts.amdahl.com>.

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/nulib324.zip (PC compile version 
3.24)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/nulib.zip (PC compile version 
3.03)
ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/nulib324.tar.Z (Unix source)
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/shrinkit34.sdk

6.2.2 Apple DiskCopy (*.IMAGE) - Excerpted from "Dealing with Disk Images" 
available on the Apple Computer WWW site: "Disk Copy is an application program 
that creates reliable exact copies of floppy disks from a 3.5-inch master disk 
or from a disk image file on your hard disk. Disk Copy is used both to create 
the image files from a master floppy disk, and to create duplicate floppy disks 
from those image files. Although there is some similarity between disks 
duplicated from disk images and disks copied by dragging icons, the results are 
not identical. Floppy disks created from image files are exact duplicates, 
including the exact icon placement, appearance of all windows, and the correct 
name of the disk." Usually Apple System Software is distributed in this format.

DiskCopy images can contain MacOS, ProDOS and MS-DOS disks of 800K and 1.44Mb 
size. ProDOS DiskCopy images (usually 800K) are compatible with a number of 
emulators including Bernie ][ The Rescue, IIe, and XGS.
http://www.apple.com.au//documents/aboutapple/dskimg.html

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:       
ftp://ftp.info.apple.com/Apple.Support.Area/Apple.Software.Updates/US/Macintosh/
Utilities/Disk_Copy_4.2.sea.hqx 
ftp://ftp.info.apple.com/Apple.Support.Area/Apple.Software.Updates/US/Macintosh/
Utilities/Disk_Copy_6.1.3.sea.hqx 
ftp://ftp.info.apple.com/Apple.Support.Area/Apple.Software.Updates/US/Macintosh/
Utilities/Disk_Copy_Manual_6.1.2.img.hqx

6.2.3 WinImage/Disk Copy Fast (*.IMA,*.IMG) - These are the MS-DOS/Microsoft 
Windows equivalents of the Apple DiskCopy program. WinImage files can contain 
720K and 1.44Mb MS-DOS disks, and 1.44Mb MacOS disks, and are not compatible 
with DiskCopy. They are not used in any emulators.


*******************************************************************************

-
7 - Working With Disk-Images
-


---
7.1 Adding/Removing Files
---

  Applications exist which allow the incorporation of single DOS 3.3 files or 
compressed archives  - such as those found on "pure" Apple ][ FTP sites or in 
the Apple binary newsgroup - into existing or new disk-images. Programs such as 
"dsk_in" and "dsk_out" by Tom Baker <tombaker@world.std.com> and "VIEWDISK" and 
can write Apple files into disk-images, and extract same to MSDOS files. The 
"Apple2 Dos Utility Package v1.0" by William Night <wnight@wimsey.com> contains 
MSDOS executables for "DosStrip" and "DFormat" to copy a disk's DOS and format 
other disk-images with that DOS (useful for removing or replacing DOS 3.3), as 
well as "DiskRead" and "DiskWrit" which read and write files for disk-images. 
For Windows users, try "a2dsk v001" by Jeff Miller. On the Macintosh, "Apple ][ 
DOS 3.3 Utility v1.0.0" and "A2 Disk Edit v1.1.0" by Hideki Naito 
<pbc03243@niftyserve.or.jp> offer the ability to transfer different types of 
Basic (binary and Applesoft) files as well as text files. "Image2File v1.1" is 
another Macintosh utility by Ron Kneusel <rkneusel@post.its.mcw.edu> which can 
read Dos, ProDOS and Pascal DO and PO images. For SimSystem disk-images, use 
"aftp" by Galen C. Hunt <gchunt@cc.dixie.edu> which browses, extracts and adds 
files to SimIIe disk (*.IIE) and hard-disk volumes (*.HDV) - part of the 
"sim2du10" archive. The SST package contains ANSI C, MSDOS and Amiga executables 
for "Extract", a file which extracts binary files from disk-images. "Extract 2" 
by Bob Colbert <rcolbert@oasis.novia.net> is a newer version of the MS-DOS 
executable. Amiga users can also use "afid" by George Phillips 
<phillips@cs.ubc.ca> on DOS3.3 disk-images to catalog, read and write files 
(also available in C source code). "afid" is included as part of the "Apple2000" 
emulator package for the Amiga. By the same author, "udisk" is a program (in C 
source code) which can read files from ProDOS and C64 1541 disk-images.

These applications are of vital use to use who do not possess the ability to 
make disk-images on an original Apple ][; finding a single Apple file on an FTP 
site and using it with an emulator is no longer an insurmountable problem. 
Unfortunately, all of the utilities described above (except "udisk") are 
designed only for DOS 3.3 disks and will not work on ProDOS volumes.

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/dsk_in.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/dsk_out.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/viewdisk.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/a2_dos_utils_v1.zip
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/incoming/
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/incoming/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/image2file.cpt.hqx
ftp://kreeft.intmed.mcw.edu/Q/pub/mac/
http://keaggy.intmed.mcw.edu/image2file.html
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/simiie/
                                                      (contains "aftp")
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/extract.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/extract2.zip
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/amiga/Apple2000v13.lha (contains "afid")
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/udisk.shar.gz


---
7.2 Cataloging
---

 To find out the contents of a disk-image without running an emulator, try 
"catalogger" by Kevin Lund <kevin@locutus.ucr.edu> on the Macintosh or 
"dsk_cat.zip" on the PC. For SimIIe disk-images, use "aftp" by Galen C. Hunt 
<gchunt@cc.dixie.edu> - part of the "sim2du10" archive. The SST package contains 
ANSI C, MSDOS and Amiga executables for "CATALOG", a file which catalogs 
standard DOS 3.3 images. Amiga users can also use "afid" by George Phillips 
<phillips@cs.ubc.ca> on DOS3.3 disk-images to catalog, read and write files 
(also available in C source code). "Afid" is included as part of the "Apple2000" 
emulator package for the Amiga.

PROGRAM LOCATIONS:
ftp://cassandra.ucr.edu/pub/apple2/incoming/
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/dsk_cat.zip
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/emulators/simiie/
                                                      (contains "aftp")
ftp://ftp.apple.asimov.net/pub/apple_II/utility/sst.zip (contains "CATALOG")
ftp://ftp.uni-kl.de/pub/apple2/amiga/Apple2000v13.lha (contains "afid")


*******************************************************************************

-
8 - Apple DOS/ProDOS Commands
-

These commands are intended for use with disk-images which contain either DOS 
3.3 or any version of ProDOS. "Changing" the disk-image is equivalent to 
physically removing a disk from the Apple 5.25" or 3.5" drive and replacing it 
with another. As such, there is no DOS command to "change" a disk-image - it is 
a function integral to the emulator you are using (a menu command, icon or key 
equivalent)... Most disks use custom DOS (especially games) and will 
automatically boot when the computer is switched on or reset. If it comes up 
with a "*" prompt after boot, it means that DOS on that disk(-image) is bad, and 
the computer (or emulator) has entered the Assembly Language Monitor.

"All disk-related operations are controlled by a special program called the DISK 
OPERATING SYSTEM, or DOS. BASIC transmits requests to DOS for any operation 
involving the disk. The DOS returns the results to BASIC." ('Apple II User's 
Guide' p.164) Several versions of DOS exist for the Apple. DOS 3.2 used 13 
sector per disk; DOS 3.3 used 16. Filenames under DOS 3.3 could be from 1 to 30 
characters in length (comprising any uppercase keyboard character - including 
spaces and excepting commas). DOS 3.3 cannot accept lower-case commands (so 
remember to press CAPS LOCK on ][+ machines and emulators) and does not support 
sub-directories. ProDOS similarly uses uppercase filenames but they are 
restricted to 15 characters, lowercase commands and sub-directories are 
accepted. Both DOS 3.3 and ProDOS use the "]" prompt. DOS 3.3 also uses the ">" 
prompt for Integer BASIC programs.

For a comprehensive guide to the Apple II operating system, try the "Apple II 
DOS & Commands FAQ" by Nathan Mates <nathan@visi.com>.
http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/dos.html

A partial list of commands follows:

BLOAD - Loads a machine language (binary) file.

BRUN - Executes a machine language (binary) file.

BSAVE - Saves a machine language (binary) file.

BYE (ProDOS only) - Exits BASIC.SYSTEM.

CAT (ProDOS only) - Abbreviated 40-column catalog giving a list of files,
  file type, size in blocks and last modification date. Some common ProDOS file
  type are given below:
      SYS - System executable
      TXT - Text file
      BAS - Applesoft BASIC program (executable)
      BIN - Machine language (binary) file

CATALOG - Under ProDOS, it provides an 80-column listing giving a list of files,
  file type, size in blocks, modification and creation dates, endfile data and
  subtype. Under DOS 3.3 it produces a list of files, file type, size in sectors
  (1 - 255) and disk label. Common DOS 3.3 file types are given below:
      A   - AppleSoft BASIC programs
      B   - Binary image (machine language) files
      I   - Integer BASIC programs
      T   - Text files
      R   - Relocatable binary
      S   - Source
      *   - File is locked (protected from modification/deletion)

CREATE (ProDOS only) - Creates sub-directories.

DELETE - Deletes UNLOCKED files. The command can specify slot, drive or volume
  number (DOS 3.3) or volume prefix (ProDOS); otherwise it assumes the file is
  in the current directory.

EXEC - Executes a text file; any text file containing a BASIC program will be
  automatically input as though it was typed. Direct commands will be executed.
  Thus BASIC programs can be more easily entered into a text-editor and then
  EXECuted on an Apple, and then saved.

INIT - Initializes a disk under DOS 3.3, with a greeting program of choice
  (typically named HELLO). Usage INIT HELLO.

LOAD - Loads an AppleSoft BASIC (or Integer BASIC under DOS 3.3) file.

LOCK - Locks a file.

PREFIX (ProDOS only) - Changes sub-directory.

RENAME - Renames files. Usage RENAME OLDNAME,NEWNAME under DOS 3.3.

RUN - Executes an AppleSoft or Integer BASIC program under DOS 3.3; AppleSoft
  only under ProDOS (which does not support Integer BASIC). To execute any
  ProDOS filetype, use the "-" character instead of RUN or BRUN.

SAVE - Saves an AppleSoft BASIC file. Since it is saved into a "tokenised"
  format (ie. AppleSoft reserved words are replaced by ASCII codes or "tokens")
  the BASIC files are not plain text. To reverse the EXEC command and produce a
  plain text copy of a BASIC file; place the following line in the BASIC
  program and RUN:

  0 TEXT:PRINT CHR$(21):HOME:POKE 33,33:PRINT CHR$(4);"OPEN filename.txt":PRINT
  CHR$(4);"WRITE filename.txt":LIST 1,63999:PRINT CHR$(4);"CLOSE filename.txt":
  TEXT:END (suggested by Dave Althoff, Jr. <dalloff@freenet.columbus.oh.us>).

UNLOCK - Unlocks the file.

VERIFY - Verifies file (under DOS 3.3, it recalculates the checksum for each
  sector of the file).


*******************************************************************************

-
9 - Further Reading
-

The respective documents for each emulator are in their archive package. The 
Apple ][ documents I mentioned (and related items of interest) are listed 
alphabetically below:

"Apple2 Emulation Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)" by James Vera 
<vera@anna.stanford.edu> and Tom Baker <tombaker@world.std.com>.

'Apple II User's Guide' by Lon Poole with Martin McNiff & Steven Cook. (c) 1981 
OSBORNE/McGraw-Hill, 630 Bancroft Way, Berkeley, California 94710, USA. ISBN 0-
931988-46-2. Exerpts are quoted without permission.

"AppleUni FAQ" is a compilation of E-Mail questions from Peter Pauen and was 
prepared by Andrew J. Kroll <ag784@freenet.buffalo.edu>. The FAQ is included in 
the AppleUni archive (see "AppleUni" in Chapter 2 of this FAQ).

"Commodore 64 and Apple 2 Ultima FAQ" by Caliaber Dragon 
<Caliaber@primenet.com>; this FAQ appears regularly on alt.games.ultima.dragons 
and rec.games.computer.ultima-dragons.

"COMP.EMULATORS.APPLE2 FAQ" - see "Apple2 Emulation Frequently Asked Questions"

"COMP.SYS.APPLE2 - FAQ" by Nathan Mates <nathan@visi.com>; this FAQ appears 
regularly on comp.sys.apple2.

http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/csa2.html
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/apple2/faq/
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/apple2/faq/
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/apple2/faq/
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/apple2/faq/

"The Definitive Source Guide to Secret Keys, Easter Eggs and Hidden Messages: 
1st Edition Apr. 15, 1992" (for the Apple II) compiled by Sam Ismail 
<dastar@crl.com>. Email the author for a copy of the most recent document.

"The Official XGS FAQ (version 1.3)" by Matthew Conte <itsbroke@ix.netcom.com>.
http://www.jurai.org/~funaho/emulators/XGS/xgsfaq13.txt

For a list of general emulators (listed by platform/processor emulation), try:

"COMP.EMULATORS.MISC Frequently Asked Questions" by Adam Roach 
<adam.roach@exu.ericsson.se>; this FAQ appears regularly on comp.emulators.misc.
http://www.why.net/home/adam/cem/
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/emulators-faq/
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/emulators-faq/
ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/emulators-faq/

                             *****END OF FILE*****


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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM