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alt.2600 FAQ Revision .014 (3/4)

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 )
[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index | Airports ]
Archive-Name: alt-2600/faq/part3
Posting-Frequency: Random
Last-Modified: 2000/05/29
Version: .014

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
This is a second dial tone returned to an operator between digits
indicating that he/she may dial the remainder of the number.  For
example, when an operator reaches a link-type Community Dial Office via
a step-by-step office after dialing a routing code, he/she must pause
until an idle link at the Community Dial Office returns dial tone. This
method of operation is not recommended or considered standard.

Dial-Normal Transmission Signal is a steady Low Tone.

Dial Jack Tone
Low tone is used as a start-dial signal to tell a DSA operator that the
connection reached through a dial jack is ready to receive dialing.

Dial Jack Tone is a steady Low Tone.

Order Tone
High tones sent over interposition, local interoffice, or toll trunks

        (1) the the originating operator that the order should be
        (2) to the receiving operator that an order is about to be

For Call Announcement and Autometic Display Call Indicator, the tone
serves function two only.

        (a) Single-order tone - This is a relatively long (0.5 second)
            signal which means that the originating operator should
            pass the office name and number.

        (b) Double-order tone - This signal is two short spurts in quick
            succession and means that the operator should pass only the
            desired number.

        (c) Triple-order tone - This signal is three short spurts in
            quick succession and means that the operator should pass the
            office name only and wait for another order tone.

        (d) Quadruple-order tone - This signal is four short spurts in
            quick succession and means that the operator should pass the
            city name only and wait for another challenge.  It is used
            in manual toll tandem (also called zip tones or trunk
            assignment tones).

Single-order tone is one .5 spurt of High Tone.
Double-order tone is two short spurts of High Tone.
Triple-order tone is three short spurts of High Tone.
Quadruple-order tone is four short spurts of High Tone.

Intercepting Loopback Tone
High tone sent from an intercept operator to the 'A' board operator in
manual offices indicates that an intercept operator has completed the
call and that the 'A' should disconnect from the circuit.  The
completion of intercepted calls in this manner is no longer recommended.

Intercepting Loopback Tone is a steady High Tone.

Number Checking Tone
High tone is sometimes used at DSA switchboards in No. 1 crossbar and
some step-by-step areas to verify the verbal identification of the
calling line.

Number Checking Tone is a steady High Tone.  On some older systems,
Number Checking Tone was a steady 135 Hz tone.

Coin Denomination Tones
These tones enable the operator to determine the amount deposited in
coin telephones.

Coin Denomination Tones for the old 3 slot payphones were:

        Nickel  - One tap of 1050 Hz and 1100 Hz (bell)
        Dime    - Two taps of 1050 Hz and 1100 Hz (bell)
        Quarter - One tap at 800 Hz (gong)

Coin Collect Tone
Low tone over a coin recording-completing trunk informs the originating
toll operator that the local operator or coin control circuit has
collected the charge.

Coin Collect Tone is a steady Low Tone.

Coin Return Tone
High tone over a coin recording-completing trunk informs the originating
toll operator that the local operator or coin control circuit has
returned the change when the connection is not completed (also called
coin refund tone).

Coin Return Tone is a single .5 to 1 second burst of High Tone.

Coin Return (Test) Tone
High tone is used to tell an operator in a dial central office that a
tester has completed a call to his/her position over a coin trunk.

Coin Return (Test) Tone is a single .5 to 1 second burst of High Tone.

Group Busy Tone
This audible signal is indicated by low tone on the sleeve of trunk
jacks at cord switchboards.  Absense of the tone tells the operator that
there is at least one idle trunk in a group.

Group Busy Tone is a steady Low Tone.

Vacant Position Tone
Low tone is applied to all straightforward trunks terminating in a
vacated position in manual offices.

Vacant Position Tone is a steady Low Tone.

Dial Off-Normal Tone
Low tone is returned to an operator after he/she has completed a call
into a step-by-step office and after the calling party has answered to
remind him/her to restore the dial key.

Dial Off-Normal Tone is a steady Low Tone.

Permanent Signal
A customer line, not in use, which exhibits a steady off-hook condition
is routed to a permanent signal trunk.  High tone, superimposed on
battery, is supplied through a resistance lamp to the ring of the trunk.
The tone is used to inform an operator or other employee making a
verification test that the line is temporarily out of service.  An
intermittent ground may also be applied to the ring of the telephone
systems left in the hold condition.  Typical reasons for the line
condition are:

        (a) No dialing within the allowed waiting interval.
        (b) A handset is off-hook.
        (c) Low insulation resistance or other line trouble.

In some offices, if three or more digits are dialed but not a complete
telephone number or code, the call is released and dial tone is

Permanent Signal is a steady High Tone.

Warning Tone
High tone warns an operator that the circuit he/she is connected to is
not in condition for normal operation.  Examples:

        (1) An operator at an Automatic Display Call Indicator position
            plugs in the wrong jack.
        (2) An operator at a sender monitor position plugs into a
            sender supervisory jack while the sender is under test.

Warning Tone is a steady High Tone.

Trouble Tone
Low tone applied by an operator or test person at a B position in a
manual office to the jack sleeve of a line or trunk in a calling
multiple tells other operators the line or trunk is in trouble (also
called plugging up codr tone).

Trouble Tone is a steady Low Tone.

Service Observing Tone
This tone indicated that the trunk to which it is applied is being

Service Observing Tone is a steady 135 Hz.

Proceed to Send Tone (International Direct Distance Dialing)
This tone informs the operator that an overseas sender has been siezed
and the address information (KP-CC-CC-ST) should be transmitted.

Proceed to Send Tone is a steady 480 Hz at -22 dBm0.

Centralized Intercept Bureau Order Tone
This tone tells the centralized intercept bureau operator that a call
has reached the position.

Centralized Intercept Bureau Order Tone is a .5 second burst of 1850 Hz
at -17 dBm0.

ONI Order Tone
This tone tells the ONI operator that a call has reached the position.

ONI Order Tone is 700 Hz and 1100 Hz at -25 dBm for .095 to .25 seconds.


C-28. What is the voltage used to ring a telephone?

According to AT&T, the ringing signal is an 88v 20Hz A.C. signal
superimposed on 48v nominal D.C. supervisory voltage.  However, the
actual rining signal used can and does vary greatly from one location to
another.  The frequency of the AC signal is normally between 15 and
70Hz. The interval between ringing signals is normally four seconds.


C-29. What are all of the * (LASS) codes?

Local Area Signalling Services (LASS) and Custom Calling Feature
Control Codes:

Service                     Tone    Pulse/rotary   Notes
Assistance/Police           *12         n/a        [1]
Cancel forwarding           *30         n/a        [C1]
Automatic Forwarding        *31         n/a        [C1]
Notify                      *32         n/a        [C1] [2]
Intercom Ring 1 (..)        *51         1151       [3]
Intercom Ring 2 (.._)       *52         1152       [3]
Intercom Ring 3 (._.)       *53         1153       [3]
Extension Hold              *54         1154       [3]
Customer Originated Trace   *57         1157
Selective Call Rejection    *60         1160       (or Call Screen)
Selective Distinct Alert    *61         1161
Selective Call Acceptance   *62         1162
Selective Call Forwarding   *63         1163
ICLID Activation            *65         1165
Call Return (outgoing)      *66         1166
Number Display Blocking     *67         1167       [4]
Computer Access Restriction *68         1168
Call Return (incoming)      *69         1169
Call Waiting disable        *70         1170       [4]
No Answer Call Transfer     *71         1171
Usage Sensitive 3 way call  *71         1171
Call Forwarding: start      *72 or 72#  1172
Call Forwarding: cancel     *73 or 73#  1173
Speed Calling (8 numbers)   *74 or 74#  1174
Speed Calling (30 numbers)  *75 or 75#  1175
Anonymous Call Rejection    *77         1177       [5] [M: *58]
Call Screen Disable         *80         1180   (or Call Screen) [M:*50]
Selective Distinct Disable  *81         1181       [M: *51]
Select. Acceptance Disable  *82         1182       [4] [7]
Select. Forwarding Disable  *83         1183       [M: *53]
ICLID Disable               *85         1185
Call Return (cancel out)    *86         1186       [6] [M: *56]
Anon. Call Reject (cancel)  *87         1187       [5] [M: *68]
Call Return (cancel in)     *89         1189       [6] [M: *59]


[C1]     - Means code used for Cellular One service
[1]      - for cellular in Pittsburgh, PA A/C 412 in some areas
[2]      - indicates that you are not local and maybe how to reach you
[3]      - found in Pac Bell territory; Intercom ring causes a
           distinctive ring to be generated on the current line; Hold
           keeps a call connected until another extension is picked up
[4]      - applied once before each call
[5]      - A.C.R. blocks calls from those who blocked Caller ID
           (used in C&P territory, for instance)
[6]      - cancels further return attempts
[7]      - *82 (1182) has been mandated to be the nationwide code for
           "Send CLID info regardless of the default setting on this
           phone line."
[M: *xx] - alternate code used for MLVP (multi-line variety package)
           by Bellcore. It goes by different names in different RBOCs.
           In Bellsouth it is called Prestige. It is an arrangement of
           ESSEX like features for single or small multiple line

           The reason for different codes for some features in MLVP is
           that call-pickup is *8 in MLVP so all *8x codes are
           reassigned *5x

These appear to be standard, but may be changed locally

Under GTE, some LASS/CLASS tones may be changed from *NN to NN#. Under
pulse, GTD5 allows either NN<pause> or 11NN, but with 11NN it may
conflict with a test number.

At one time these were called CLASS Codes, for Custom Local Area
Signalling Services.


C-30. What frequencies do cordless phones operate on?

Here are the frequencies for the first generation 46/49mhz phones.

Channel    Handset Transmit    Base Transmit
-------    ----------------    -------------
   1          49.670mhz          46.610mhz
   2          49.845             46.630
   3          49.860             46.670
   4          49.770             46.710
   5          49.875             46.730
   6          49.830             46.770
   7          49.890             46.830
   8          49.930             46.870
   9          49.990             46.930
  10          49.970             46.970

The new "900mhz" cordless phones have been allocated the frequencies
between 902-228MHz, with channel spacing between 30-100KHz.

Following are some examples of the frequencies used by phones
currently on the market.

Panasonic KX-T9000 (60 Channels)
base     902.100 - 903.870 Base frequencies (30Khz spacing)
handset  926.100 - 927.870 Handset frequencies
--  -------  -------    --  -------  -------    --  ------- -------
01  902.100  926.100    11  902.400  926.400    21  902.700 926.700
02  902.130  926.130    12  902.430  926.430    22  902.730 926.730
03  902.160  926.160    13  902.460  926.460    23  902.760 926.760
04  902.190  926.190    14  902.490  926.490    24  902.790 926.790
05  902.220  926.220    15  902.520  926.520    25  902.820 926.820
06  902.250  926.250    16  902.550  926.550    26  902.850 926.850
07  902.280  926.280    17  902.580  926.580    27  902.880 926.880
08  902.310  926.310    18  902.610  926.610    28  902.910 926.910
09  902.340  926.340    19  902.640  926.640    29  902.940 926.940
10  902.370  926.370    20  902.670  926.670    30  902.970 926.970

31  903.000  927.000    41  903.300  927.300    51  903.600 927.600
32  903.030  927.030    42  903.330  927.330    52  903.630 927.630
33  903.060  927.060    43  903.360  927.360    53  903.660 927.660
34  903.090  927.090    44  903.390  927.390    54  903.690 927.690
35  903.120  927.120    45  903.420  927.420    55  903.720 927.720
36  903.150  927.150    46  903.450  927.450    56  903.750 927.750
37  903.180  927.180    47  903.480  927.480    57  903.780 927.780
38  903.210  927.210    48  903.510  927.510    58  903.810 927.810
39  903.240  927.240    49  903.540  927.540    59  903.840 927.840
40  903.270  927.270    50  903.570  927.570    60  903.870 927.870



--  -------  -------    --  -------  -------    --  ------- -------
01  905.600  925.500    08  906.300  926.200    15  907.000 926.900
02  905.700  925.600    09  906.400  926.300    16  907.100 927.000
03  905.800  925.700    10  906.500  926.400    17  907.200 927.100
04  905.900  925.800    11  906.600  926.500    18  907.300 927.200
05  906.000  925.900    12  906.700  926.600    19  907.400 927.300
06  906.100  926.000    13  906.800  926.700    20  907.500 927.400
07  906.200  926.100    14  906.900  926.800

Other 900mhz cordless phones
AT&T #9120  - - - - - 902.0 - 905.0 & 925.0 - 928.0 MHZ
OTRON CORP. #CP-1000  902.1 - 903.9 & 926.1 - 927.9 MHZ
SAMSUNG #SP-R912- - - 903.0         &         927.0 MHZ



C-31. What is Caller-ID?

This FAQ answer is stolen from Rockwell:

Calling Number Delivery (CND), better known as Caller ID, is a
telephone service intended for residential and small business
customers.  It allows the called Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) to
receive a calling party's directory number and the date and time of
the call during the first 4 second silent interval in the ringing

The data signalling interface has the following characteristics:

        Link Type:                              2-wire, simplex
        Transmission Scheme:            Analog, phase-coherent FSK
        Logical 1 (mark)                        1200 +/- 12 Hz
        Logical 0 (space)                       2200 +/- 22 Hz
        Transmission Rate:                      1200 bps
        Transmission Level:               13.5 +/- dBm into 900 ohm

The protocol uses 8-bit data words (bytes), each bounded by a start
bit and a stop bit.  The CND message uses the Single Data Message
format shown below.

| Channel  |  Carrier  |  Message  |  Message  |  Data       | Checksum |
| Seizure  |  Signal   |  Type     |  Length   |  Word(s)    | Word     |
| Signal   |           |  Word     |  Word     |             |          |

Channel Seizure Signal
The channel seizure is 30 continuous bytes of 55h (01010101) providing
a detectable alternating function to the CPE (i.e. the modem data

Carrier Signal
The carrier signal consists of 130 +/- 25 mS of mark (1200 Hz) to
condition the receiver for data.

Message Type Word
The message type word indicates the service and capability associated
with the data message.  The message type word for CND is 04h

Message Length Word
The message length word specifies the total number of data words to

Data Words
The data words are encoded in ASCII and represent the following

o  The first two words represent the month
o  The next two words represent the day of the month
o  The next two words represent the hour in local military time
o  The next two words represent the minute after the hour
o  The calling party's directory number is represented by the
   remaining  words in the data word field

If the calling party's directory number is not available to the
terminating central office, the data word field contains an ASCII "O".
If the calling party invokes the privacy capability, the data word
field contains an ASCII "P".

Checksum Word
The Checksum Word contains the twos complement of the modulo 256 sum
of the other words in the data message (i.e., message type, message
length, and data words).  The receiving equipment may calculate the
modulo 256 sum of the received words and add this sum to the received
checksum word.  A result of zero generally indicates that the message
was correctly received.  Message retransmission is not supported.

Example CNS Single Data Message
An example of a received CND message, beginning with the message type
word, follows:

04 12 30 39 33 30 31 32 32 34 36 30 39 35 35 35 31 32 31 32 51

04h=  Calling number delivery information code (message type word)
12h=  18 decimal; Number of data words (date,time, and directory
      number words)
ASCII 30,39= 09; September
ASCII 33,30= 30; 30th day
ASCII 31,32= 12; 12:00 PM
ASCII 32,34= 24; 24 minutes (i.e., 12:24 PM)
ASCII 36,30,39,35,35,35,31,32,31,32= (609) 555-1212; calling
      party's directory number
51h=  Checksum Word

Data Access Arrangement (DAA) Requirements
To receive CND information, the modem monitors the phone line between
the first and second ring bursts without causing the DAA to go off
hook in the conventional sense, which would inhibit the transmission
of CND by the local central office.  A simple modification to an
existing DAA circuit easily accomplishes the task.

Modem Requirements
Although the data signalling interface parameters match those of a
Bell 202 modem, the receiving CPE need not be a Bell 202 modem.  A
V.23 1200 bps modem receiver may be used to demodulate the Bell 202
signal.  The ring indicate bit (RI) may be used on a modem to indicate
when to monitor the phone line for CND information.  After the RI bit
sets, indicating the first ring burst, the host waits for the RI bit
to reset.  The host then configures the modem to monitor the phone
line for CND information.

According to Bellcore specifications, CND signalling starts as early
as 300 mS after the first ring burst and ends at least 475 mS before
the second ring burst

Once CND information is received the user may process the information
in a number of ways.

1.  The date, time, and calling party's directory number can be

2.  Using a look-up table, the calling party's directory number can be
    correlated with his or her name and the name displayed.

3.  CND information can also be used in additional ways such as for:

    a.  Bulletin board applications
    b.  Black-listing applications
    c.  Keeping logs of system user calls, or
    d.  Implementing a telemarketing data base

For more information on Calling Number Delivery (CND), refer to
Bellcore publications TR-TSY-000030 and TR-TSY-000031.

To obtain Bellcore documents contact:

        Bellcore Customer Service
        60 New England Avenue, Room 1B252
        Piscataway, NJ   08834-4196
        (908) 699-5800


C-32. How do I block Caller-ID?

Always test as much as possible before relying on any method of blocking
Caller-ID.  Some of these methods work in some areas, but not in others.

Dial *67 before you dial the number.  (141 in the United Kingdom)
Dial your local TelCo and have them add Caller-ID block to your line.
Dial the 0 Operator and have him or her place the call for you.
Dial the call using a pre-paid phone card.
Dial through Security Consultants at (900)PREVENT for U.S. calls
     ($1.99/minute) or (900)STONEWALL for international calls ($3.99/minute).
Dial from a pay phone.  :-)


C-33. How do I defeat Caller-ID blocking?

Forward your phone line to a friend who lives in another LATA.  When
he receives the anonymous phone call, have him use *69 Call Return
to dial to offending party back.  As he is now placing a long
distance phone call, the telephone number of the anonymous caller
will show up on your friends phone bill at the end of the month.

A variation of this system is available in areas where the local
phone company offers per-call billing (as opposed to unlimited
flat rate local calling) and where the local phone company issues
itemized bills on those local phone calls.  In those areas, you
can switch your phone line to itemized local calling, *69 Call Return
the anonymous telephone call, and read the anonymous callers telephone
number at the end of the month.

If you are particularly anxious, you can often request your toll
records from your local telephone company without waiting for your
final bill.


C-34. What is a PBX?

A PBX (Private Branch Exchange) is a small telephone switch owned by a
company or organization.  These organizations purchase PBX's to reduce
the total number of telephone lines they need to lease from the
telephone company.  Without a PBX, a company will need to lease one
telephone line for every employee with a telephone.

[Note from Dan Mellem: Technically, a phone switch is known as a PABX
(automatic) unless the inside people must call the operator to get an
outside line. H.]

With a PBX, every employees telephone line is wired to the PBX.  When an
employee takes the receiver off hook (i.e. picks up the telephone) and
dials the outside access code (usually 9), the PBX connect the employee
to an outside line (often, though somewhat incorrectly, referred to as a
trunk).  With a PBX, the company only needs to lease as many lines from
the telephone company as the maximum number of employees that will be
making outside calls at one time.  This is usually around 10% of the
number of extensions.

Two common PBX systems are AT&T's Definity series (also known as the
System 75 and Sytem 85) and Northern Telecom's Meridian series.  Other
manufacturers include ROLM, Siemens, NEC, and Mitel.


C-35. What is a VMB?

A VMB (Voice Mail Box) is a computer that acts as an answering machine
for hundreds or thousands of users.  Each user will have their own Voice
Mail Box on the system.  Each mail box will have a box number and a pass

Without a passcode, you will usually be able to leave messages to users
on the VMB system.  With a passcode, you can read messages and
administer a mailbox.  Often, mailboxes will exist that were created by
default or are no longer used.  These mailboxes may be taken over by
guessing their passcode.  Often the passcode will be the mailbox number
or a common number such as 1234.

Two common VMB systems are AT&T's Audix system and Northern Telecom's
Meridian Mail.


C-36. What are the ABCD tones for?

The ABCD tones are simply additional DTFM tones that may be used in any
way the standard (0-9) tones are used.  The ABCD tones are used in the
U.S. military telephone network (AutoVon), in some Automatic Call
Distributor (ACD) systems, for control messages in some PBX systems, and
in some amateur radio auto-patches.

In the AutoVon network, special telephones are equipped with ABCD keys.
The ABCD keys are defined as such:

A - Flash
B - Flash override priority
C - Priority communication
D - Priority override

Using a built-in maintenance mode of the Automatic Call Distributor
(ACD) systems once used by Directory Assistance operators, you could
connect two callers together.

The purpose of the Silver Box is to create the ABCD tones.

See also "What are the DTMF Frequencies?"


C-37. What are the International Direct Numbers?

The numbers are used so that you may connect to an operator from a
foreign telephone network, without incurring long distance charges.
These numbers may be useful in blue boxing, as many countries still have
older switching equipment in use.

  Australia         (800)682-2878
  Austria           (800)624-0043
  Belgium           (800)472-0032
  Belize            (800)235-1154
  Bermuda           (800)232-2067
  Brazil            (800)344-1055
  British VI        (800)278-6585
  Cayman            (800)852-3653
  Chile             (800)552-0056
  China (Shanghai)  (800)532-4462
  Costa Rica        (800)252-5114
  Denmark           (800)762-0045
  El Salvador       (800)422-2425
  Finland           (800)232-0358
  France            (800)537-2623
  Germany           (800)292-0049
  Greece            (800)443-5527
  Guam              (800)367-4826
  HK                (800)992-2323
  Hungary           (800)352-9469
  Indonesia         (800)242-4757
  Ireland           (800)562-6262
  Italy             (800)543-7662
  Japan             (800)543-0051
  Korea             (800)822-8256
  Macau             (800)622-2821
  Malaysia          (800)772-7369
  Netherlands       (800)432-0031
  Norway            (800)292-0047
  New Zealand       (800)248-0064
  Panama            (800)872-6106
  Portugal          (800)822-2776
  Philippines       (800)336-7445
  Singapore         (800)822-6588
  Spain             (800)247-7246
  Sweden            (800)345-0046
  Taiwan            (800)626-0979
  Thailand          (800)342-0066
  Turkey            (800)828-2646
  UK                (800)445-5667
  Uruguay           (800)245-8411
  Yugoslavia        (800)367-9842 (Belgrade)
                         367-9841 (Zagreb)
  USA from outside  (800)874-4000  Ext. 107


C-38. What are some telephone switches?

  --------  -------  -------  -----------------------------------
  1AES      AT&T     Analog   No. 1A ESS
  1ES       AT&T     Analog   No. 1  ESS
  2BES      AT&T     Analog   No. 2B ESS
  2ES       AT&T     Analog   No. 2  ESS
  3ES       AT&T     Analog   No. 3  ESS
  3XB       AT&T     E/M      No. 3  Cross-Bar
  4ES       AT&T     Digital  No. 4  ESS
  5AXB      AT&T     E/M      No. 5A Cross-Bar
  5ES       AT&T     Digital  No. 5  ESS
  5ORM      AT&T     Digital  Optical Remote Module
  5RSM      AT&T     Digital  Remote Switching Module
  5XB       AT&T     E/M      No. 5 Cross-Bar
  AXE10     Ericsson Digital  Stand Alone or Host
  AXRSS     Ericsson Digital  Remote
  DGTL               Digital  Generic Digital Switch
  DMS1/200  NTI      Digital  DMS 100/200
  DMS10     NTI      Digital  DMS 10
  DMS100    NTI      Digital  DMS 100
  DMS200    NTI      Digital  DMS 200
  DPN       NTI      Packet   Packet Switch
  EDX       Siemens  Packet   Packet Switch
  NC23      NEC      E/M      NEC Cross-Bar
  NEAX61E   NEC      Digital  NEC switch
  RLCM      NTI      Digital  Remote Line Conc Module
  RLCM-10   NTI      Digital  Remote Line Conc Module
  RLM       NTI      Digital  Remote Line Module
  RSC       NTI      Digital  Remote Switching Center
  RSCI      NTI      Digital  ISDN RSC
  RSLE      NTI      Digital  Remote Subscr Line Equip
  RSM       AT&T     Digital  Remote Switching System
  RSS       AT&T     Analog   Remote Switching System
  RSU                Digital  Generic Remote Switching Unit
  SXS       AT&T     E/M      Step by Step

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=  Section D -- Cellular Telephony  -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

D-01. What is a MTSO?

MTSO stands for Mobile Telephone Switching Office.  The MTSO is the
switching office that connects all of the individual cell towers to the
Central Office (CO).

The MTSO is responsible for monitoring the relative signal strength of
your cellular phone as reported by each of the cell towers, and
switching your conversation to the cell tower which will give you the
best possible reception.


D-02. What is a NAM?

NAM stands for Number Assignment Module.  The NAM is the EPROM that
holds information such as the MIN and SIDH.  Cellular fraud is committed
by modifying the information stored in this component.


D-03. What is an ESN?

ESN stands for Electronic Serial Number.  The is the serial number of
your cellular telephone which is transmitted to the cell site, and used
in conjuction with the NAM to verify that you are a legitimate user on
the system.


D-04. What is a MIN?

MIN stands for Mobile Identification Number.  This is the phone number
of the cellular telephone.


D-05. What is a SCM?

SCM stands for Station Class Mark.  The SCM is a 4 bit number which
holds three different pieces of information.  Your cellular telephone
transmits this information (and more) to the cell tower.  Bit 1 of the
SCM tells the cell tower whether your cellphone uses the older 666
channel cellular system, or the newer 832 channel cellular system. The
expansion to 832 channels occured in 1988.  Bit 2 tells the cellular
system whether your cellular telephone is a mobile unit or a voice
activated cellular telephone.  Bit's 3 and 4 tell the cell tower what
power your cellular telephone should be transmitting on.

Bit 1:    0 == 666 channels
          1 == 832 channels

Bit 2:    0 == Mobile cellular telephone
          1 == Voice activated cellular telephone

Bit 3/4: 00 == 3.0 watts (Mobiles)
         01 == 1.2 watts (Transportables)
         10 == .06 watts (Portables)
         11 == Reserved for future use


D-06. What is a SIDH?

SIDH stands for System Identification for Home System.  The SIDH in your
cellular telephone tells the cellular system what system your cellular
service originates from.  This is used in roaming (making cellular calls
when in an area not served by your cellular provider).

Every geographical region has two SIDH codes, one for the wireline
carrier and one for the nonwireline carrier.  These are the two
companies that are legally allowed to provide cellular telephone service
in that region. The wireline carrier is usually your local telephone
company, while the nonwireline carrier will be another company.  The
SIDH for the wireline carrier is always an even number, while the SIDH
for the nonwireline carrier is always an odd number.  The wireline
carrier is also known as the Side-B carrier and the non-wireline carrier
is also known as the Side-A carrier.

SIDH is often abbreviated to SID.


D-07. What are the forward/reverse channels?

Forward channels are the frequencies the cell towers use to talk to your
cellular telephone.  Reverse channels are the frequencies your cellular
telephone uses to talk to the cell towers.

The forward channel is 45 mhz above the reverse channel.  For example,
if the reverse channel is at 824 mhz, the forward channel would be at
869 mhz.

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=  Section E -- Resources  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

E-01. What are some ftp sites of interest to hackers?            /pub/dmackey                                               (2600 Magazine)                                          (Kerberos)      /links/security                 (Misc)                              (CyberWarriors of Xanadu) /pub/atari/Utilities/ (Atari PGP)     /pub/ATHENA                   (Athena Project)                                       (Anti-virus)                                            (Bellcore)                                                (CERT)                                           (CIAC)             /pub/security                   (Security)     /pub                          (Security/COAST)       /pub/security                   (Security)                                     (NIST Security)           /pub/security                   (Security)                                   (Internet documents)   /pub/novell /pub/Zines/PrivateLine           (PrivateLine)            /pub/nomad            /pub/Orange-Book                (Orange Book)        /pub                          (Mac Anti-virus)    /pub/security & /pub/irc      (Security & IRC)         /pub/tcpr                       (Tcpr)          /pub/user/kmartind              (H/P)          /pub/user/swallow               (H/P)      /pub                         (Australian CERT)            /pub/software/unix/security     (CERFnet)                                         (FIRST)                                           (Cisco)    /pub/standards/drafts/shttp.txt (Secure HyperText)           /pub/SECURITY                 (Security & PGP)          /pub/comp-privacy             (Privacy Digest)        /pub/security         /pub/nides                      (SRI) /mpj                                        (Cryptology)   /pub/cypherpunks                (Crypto)         /pub/misc/0800num.txt      (0800/0500 numbers)            /pub/security/tools/satan           /pub/access/dunk        /pub/security/crypt             (Crypto)         /pub/security/satan
N          (Telecom electronics)             /pub/Publications/CuD           (EFF)    /pub/security                   (Security)                                           (Etext)              /pub/deadkat                    (TNO)              /pub/defcon                     (DefCon)              /pub/defcon/BBEEP               (BlueBeep)              /pub/phrack                     (Phrack)            /pub/doc/CuD            /pub/users/laura            /pub/users/wakko          /pub/hacker/                    (H/P)     /pub/firewalls                  (Firewalls)           /pub/security                   (Security)        /www/evildawg/public_access/C&N/ /pub/sources/security     /pub/security                   (Security)            /users/oracle/                  (H/P       /security            /pub                            (CIAC)             /pub/unix/security         /pub/security      /ppp-pop/strata/mac             (Mac)            /security/archives/phrack       (Zines)  /pub/security/satan          /pub/br/bradleym                (Virii)          /pub/da/daemon9                 (H/P)          /pub/fi/filbert          /pub/gr/grady          /pub/il/illusion                (H/P+Virus)          /pub/je/jericho                 (H/P)          /pub/le/lewiz             (Social Engineering)          /pub/ty/tym                     (TYM)          /pub/va/vandal                  (DnA)          /pub/wt/wtech/          /pub/zi/zigweed                 (H/P)          /pub/zz/zzyzx                   (H/P)       /PC/Crypt                       (Cryptology)            /pub/comp/security            /pub/crypto                     (Cryptology)            /pub/wordlists                  (Wordlists)        /pub/toneloc/          (ToneLoc)           /pub/areacode                   (uk areacodes)        /users/i/insphrk        /users/k/kludge                 (H/P)        /users/s/scuzzy              (Copy Protection)          /pub/security                   (Security)        /pub/DES           /pub/conquest/DeadelviS/script/vms/           /pub/lps                     (Home of the FAQ)       /pub/users/mikes/haq             /archives/alt.locksmithing    (Locksmithing)             /obi/Mischief/            (MIT Guide to Locks)             /obi/Phracks                    (Zines)            /pub/network/monitoring    (Ethernet sniffers)            /pub/security                   (SURAnet)             /pub                            (TIS)      /pub/security                                        (Wordlists)              /doc/literary/obi/Phracks       (Zines)             /pub/dos/romulus/cracks      (Copy Protection)       /pub/cud                        (Zines)    /pub/security          /pub/security                   (Security)       /users/nitehwk                  (H/P)           /doc/EFF                        (EFF)    (Cryptology)          /pc/crypt                       (Cryptology)     /pub/grandi                 /pub/safetynet                              (Down for Summer)                     (Third Stone From The Sun)           /pub                            (The Guild)                                               (The L0pht)             /telecom-archives           (Telecom archives)                                               (Legion of Doom)            /pub/users/patriot              (Misc)        /pub/pgp            /pub/security/TAMU              (Security)               /pub                            (Max Headroom)             /scc                            (DDN Security)            /pub/security         /pub/hamradio                   (Ham Radio)         /SimTel/msdos/sound            (DTMF decoders)         /SimTel/msdos/sysutil         (BIOS attackers)           /pub/misc                 (Terrorist Handbook)      /pub/security                   (Security)    /doc/telecom-archives           (Telecom)          /pub/security                   (Security)        /dist/internet_security         (AT&T)           /pub/crypt                      (Ripem)                /pub2/KRaD                     (KRaD Magazine)                                            (Etext)            /pub/usenet-by-group            (Usenet FAQ's)        /pub/crypt                      (Cryptology)         /Security                       (SGI Security)                                                 (CSC)        /usenet/uk.telecom       (uk.telecom archives)   /pub/unix/security              (Security) /pub1/security                  (Security) /pub/security             (Security)      /pub/rsa129/README              (Breaking RSA)      /security                                       (Mac + H/P)            /pub/crypto                     (Cryptology)     /pub/aminet/util/crypt


E-02. What are some fsp sites of interest to hackers?

  None known at this time.


E-03. What are some newsgroups of interest to hackers?

  alt.2600                 Do it 'til it hertz
N alt.2600.414
N alt.2600.hackerz
N alt.2600.hope.announce
N alt.2600.hope.d
N alt.2600.phreakz
N alt.2600.programz
N alt.2600hz
N alt.2600.warez
N alt.2600.AOL
N alt.2600.QnA
  alt.cellular-phone-tech  Brilliant telephony mind blow netnews naming
  alt.comp.virus           An unmoderated forum for discussing viruses
  alt.cracks               Heavy toolbelt wearers of the world, unite
  alt.cyberpunk            High-tech low-life.
  alt.cyberspace           Cyberspace and how it should work.
  alt.dcom.telecom         Discussion of telecommunications technology
  alt.engr.explosives      [no description available]            Lewis De Payne fan club
  alt.hackers       Descriptions of projects currently under development
  alt.locksmithing         You locked your keys in *where*?
  alt.hackers.malicious The really bad guys - don't take candy from them                United Kingdom version of alt.2600
  alt.privacy.anon-server  Tech. & policy matters of anonymous contact
                                servers   Hide the gear, here comes the magic station-wagons.        Discussion of scanning radio receivers.  All about European satellite tv             Security issues on computer systems Pointers to good stuff in (Moderated)     Exchange of keys for public key encryption
                                systems         The Pretty Good Privacy package A secure email system illegal to export from the US
  comp.dcom.cellular       [no description available]
  comp.dcom.telecom        Telecommunications digest (Moderated)   [no description available]   Computer Professionals for Social
                                Responsibility       Issues of computing and social responsibility        News from the Electronic Frontiers Foundation        Discussion of EFF goals, strategies, etc. Netware Security issues
  comp.protocols.kerberos  The Kerberos authentification server
  comp.protocols.tcp-ip    TCP and IP network protocols
  comp.risks               Risks to the public from computers & users   Announcements from the CERT about security  Anything pertaining to network firewall
                                security       Security issues of computers and networks       Discussion of Unix security
  comp.virus               Computer viruses & security (Moderated)               Mitteilungen des CCC e.V.      Security in general, not just computers (Moderated)
  rec.pyrotechnics         Fireworks, rocketry, safety, & other topics        [no description available] Technical and regulatory issues of cable television
  sci.crypt                Different methods of data en/decryption


E-04. What are some telnet sites of interest to hackers?                  (NTIA)                             (The L0pht)                        (The Floating Pancreas)
  telnet 2600   (underground bbs) (temporarily down)                   (Virtual Doughnutland BBS) 31337              (Twilight of The Idols)                               (Computer Systems Consulting)


E-05. What are some gopher sites of interest to hackers?                  (Bell Atlantic)  (Cell Relay Retreat)
N     (COAST)      (NIST Security Gopher)          (SIGSAC (Security, Audit & Control))     (Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility)          (Electonic Frontier Foundation)        (Panix)          (Pacific Bell)            (NITA -- IITF)             (International Telegraph Union)      (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)                 (Open Source Solutions)                 (Computer Systems Consulting)       (Wiretap)


E-06. What are some World wide Web (WWW) sites of interest to hackers?

The maintenance of this section simply grew out of control.  There is
information of interest to hackers all over the World Wide Web.

To find what you are looking for, consult one of these fine search
engines:                HotBot: The Wired Search Center     AltaVista Search Network                 Yahoo!                 Lycos            WebCrawler             InfoSeek                eXcite              DejaNews
[Now H.]


E-07. What are some IRC channels of interest to hackers?



E-08. What are some BBS's of interest to hackers?

  Rune Stone                    (203)832-8441   NUP: Cyberdeck
N Strange Days                  (207)490-2158
  The Truth Sayer's Domain      (210)493-9975
  Independent Nation            (413)573-1809
  Ut0PiA                        (315)656-5135           (514)683-1894
  Alliance Communications       (612)251-8596
  Maas-Neotek                   (617)855-2923
  Apocalypse 2000               (847)831-0484
  K0dE Ab0dE                    (713)579-2276
  fARM R0Ad 666                 (713)855-0261
  kn0wledge Phreak <k0p> BBS    (719)578-8288   NUP=NO NUP
  The Edge of Reality           (805)496-7460
  Static Line                   (806)747-0802
  Area 51                       (908)526-4384
  The Drunk Forces              +972-3-5733477


E-09. What are some books of interest to hackers?

General Computer Security
  Computer Security Basics
  Author: Deborah Russell and G.T. Gengemi Sr.
  Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
  Copyright Date: 1991
  ISBN: 0-937175-71-4

        This is an excellent book.  It gives a broad overview of
        computer security without sacrificing detail.  A must read for
        the beginning security expert.

  Information Systems Security
  Author: Philip Fites and Martin Kratz
  Publisher: Van Nostrad Reinhold
  Copyright Date: 1993
  ISBN: 0-442-00180-0

  Computer Related Risks
  Author: Peter G. Neumann
  Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 0-201-55805-X

  Computer Security Management
  Author: Karen Forcht
  Publisher: boyd & fraser publishing company
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-87835-881-1

  The Stephen Cobb Complete Book of PC and LAN Security
  Author: Stephen Cobb
  Publisher: Windcrest Books
  Copyright Date: 1992
  ISBN: 0-8306-9280-0 (hardback) 0-8306-3280-8 (paperback)

  Security in Computing
  Author: Charles P. Pfleeger
  Publisher: Prentice Hall
  Copyright Date: 1989
  ISBN: 0-13-798943-1.

  Building a Secure Computer System
  Author: Morrie Gasser
  Publisher: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.
  Copyright Date:
  ISBN: 0-442-23022-2

  Modern Methods for Computer Security
  Author: Lance Hoffman
  Publisher: Prentice Hall
  Copyright Date: 1977

  Windows NT 3.5 Guidelines for Security, Audit and Control
  Publisher: Microsoft Press
  Copyright Date:
  ISBN: 1-55615-814-9

  Protection and Security on the Information Superhighway
  Author: Dr. Frederick B. Cohen)
  Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 0-471-11389-1

  Commonsense Computer Security
  Author: Martin Smith
  Publisher: McGraw-Hill
  Copyright Date: 1993
  ISBN: 0-07-707805-5

  Combatting Computer Crime
  Author: Jerry Papke
  Publisher: McGraw-Hill, Inc. / Chantico Publishing Company, Inc.
  Copyright Date: 1992
  ISBN: 0-8306-7664-3

  Computer Crime: a Crimefighters Handbook
  Author: David Icove, Karl Seger and William VonStorch
  Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 1-56592-086-4

Unix System Security
  Practical Unix Security
  Author: Simson Garfinkel and Gene Spafford
  Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
  Copyright Date: 1991
  ISBN: 0-937175-72-2

  Unix System Security
  Author: Rik Farrow
  Publisher: Addison Wesley
  Copyright Date: 1991
  ISBN: 0-201-57030-0

  Unix Security: A Practical Tutorial
  Author: N. Derek Arnold
  Publisher: McGraw Hill
  Copyright Date: 1993
  ISBN: 0-07-002560-6

  Unix System Security: A Guide for Users and Systems Administrators
  Author: David A. Curry
  Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  Copyright Date: 1992
  ISBN: 0-201-56327-4

  Unix System Security
  Author: Patrick H. Wood and Stephen G. Kochan
  Publisher: Hayden Books
  Copyright Date: 1985
  ISBN: 0-672-48494-3

  Unix Security for the Organization
  Author: Richard Bryant
  Publisher: Sams
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-672-30571-2

  Unix System Security Essentials
  Author: Christopher Braun
  Publisher: Addison Wesley
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 0-201-42775-3

  Building Internet Firewalls
  Author: D. Brent Chapman and Elizabeth D. Zwicky
  Publisher: O'Reilly and Associates, Inc.
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 1-56592-124-0

        If you are going to purchase a book on firewalls,
        this is the one to buy.

  Firewalls and Internet Security
  Author: William Cheswick and Steven Bellovin
  Publisher: Addison Wesley
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-201-63357-4

  Internet Firewalls and Network Security
  Author: Karanjit S. Siyan and Chris Hare
  Publisher: New Riders Publishing
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 1-56205-437-6

Network Security
  Network Security Secrets
  Author: David J. Stang and Sylvia Moon
  Publisher: IDG Books
  Copyright Date: 1993
  ISBN: 1-56884-021-7

        Not a total waste of paper, but definitely not worth the
        $49.95 purchase price.  The book is a rehash of previously
        published information.  The only secret we learn from reading
        the book is that Sylvia Moon is a younger woman madly in love
        with the older David Stang.

  Complete Lan Security and Control
  Author: Peter Davis
  Publisher: Windcrest / McGraw Hill
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-8306-4548-9 and 0-8306-4549-7

  Network Security
  Author: Steven Shaffer and Alan Simon
  Publisher: AP Professional
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-12-638010-4

  Network Security: How to Plan For It and How to Achieve It
  Author: Richard M. Baker
  Publisher: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
  Copyright Date:
  ISBN: 0-07-005141-0

  Network Security
  Author: Steven L. Shaffer and Alan R. Simon
  Publisher: Academic Press
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-12-638010-4

  Network Security: Private Communications in a Public World
  Author: Charlie Kaufman, Radia Perlman and Mike Speciner
  Publisher: Prentice Hall
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 0-13-061466-1

  Network and Internetwork Security: Principles and Practice
  Author: William Stallings
  Publisher: Prentice Hall
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 0-02-415483-0

  Implementing Internet Security
  Author: William Stallings
  Publisher: New Rider Publishing
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 1-56205-471-6

  Actually Useful Internet Security Techniques
  Author: Larry J. Hughes, Jr.
  Publisher: New Riders Publishing
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 1-56205-508-9

  Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C
  Author: Bruce Schneier
  Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-471-59756-2

        Bruce Schneier's book replaces all other texts on
        cryptography.  If you are interested in cryptography, this is
        a must read.  This may be the first and last book on
        cryptography you may ever need to buy.

  Cryptography and Data Security
  Author: Dorothy Denning
  Publisher: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
  Copyright Date: 1982
  ISBN: 0-201-10150-5

  Protect Your Privacy: A Guide for PGP Users
  Author: William Stallings
  Publisher: Prentice-Hall
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-13-185596-4

  Author: Kahn
  Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  Copyright Date:

  Codebreakers: The Inside Story of Bletchley Park
  Author: Francis Harry Hinsley and Alan Stripp
  Publisher: Oxford University Press,
  Copyright Date: 1993

  Cryptanalysis, a study of ciphers and their solution
  Author: Gaines, Helen Fouche
  Publisher: Dover Publications
  Copyright Date: 1956

  Computer Privacy Handbook
  Author: Andre' Bacard
  Publisher: Peachpit Press
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 1-56609-171-3

  E-Mail Security with PGP and PEM
  Author: Bruce Schneier
  Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 0-471-05318-X

  PGP: Pretty Good Privacy
  Author: Simson Garfinkel
  Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
  Copyright Date: 1995
  ISBN: 1-56592-098-8

Programmed Threats
  The Little Black Book of Computer Viruses
  Author: Mark Ludwig
  Publisher: American Eagle Publications
  Copyright Date: 1990
  ISBN: 0-929408-02-0

  The Giant Black Book of Computer Viruses
  Author: Mark Ludwig
  Publisher: American Eagle Publications
  Copyright Date: 1995

  Computer Viruses, Artificial Life and Evolution
  Author: Mark Ludwig
  Publisher: American Eagle Publications
  Copyright Date: 1993
  ISBN: 0-929408-07-1

  Computer Viruses, Worms, Data Diddlers, Killer Programs, and Other
        Threats to Your System
  Author: John McAfee and Colin Haynes
  Publisher: St. Martin's Press
  Copyright Date: 1989
  ISBN: 0-312-03064-9 and 0-312-02889-X

  The Virus Creation Labs: A Journey Into the Underground
  Author: George Smith
  Publisher: American Eagle Publications
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-929408-09-8

  A Short Course on Computer Viruses
  Author: Dr. Fred Cohen
  Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-471-00769-2

  Robert Slade's Guide to Computer Viruses
  Author: Robert Slade
  Publisher: Springer-Verlag
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 0-387-94311-0 / 3-540-94311-0

  Engineering and Operations in the Bell System
  Author: R.F. Rey
  Publisher: Bell Telephont Laboratories
  Copyright Date: 1983
  ISBN: 0-932764-04-5

        Although hopelessly out of date, this book remains *THE* book
        on telephony.  This book is 100% Bell, and is loved by phreaks
        the world over.

  Telephony: Today and Tomorrow
  Author: Dimitris N. Chorafas
  Publisher: Prentice-Hall
  Copyright Date: 1984
  ISBN: 0-13-902700-9

  The Telecommunications Fact Book and Illustrated Dictionary
  Author: Ahmed S. Khan
  Publisher: Delmar Publishers, Inc.
  Copyright Date: 1992
  ISBN: 0-8273-4615-8

        I find this dictionary to be an excellent reference book on
        telephony, and I recommend it to anyone with serious
        intentions in the field.

  Tandy/Radio Shack Cellular Hardware
  Author: Judas Gerard and Damien Thorn
  Publisher: Phoenix Rising Communications
  Copyright Date: 1994

  The Phone Book
  Author: Carl Oppendahl
  Publisher: Consumer Reports
  Copyright Date:
  ISBN: 0-89043-364-x

        Listing of every cellular ID in the us, plus roaming ports,
        and info numbers for each carrier.

  Principles of Caller I.D.
  Publisher: International MicroPower Corp.
  Copyright Date:

Hacking History and Culture
  The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier
  Author: Bruce Sterling
  Publisher: Bantam Books
  Copyright Date: 1982
  ISBN: 0-553-56370-X

        Bruce Sterling has recently released the book FREE to the net.
        The book is much easier to read in print form, and the
        paperback is only $5.99.  Either way you read it, you will be
        glad you did.  Mr. Sterling is an excellent science fiction
        author and has brought his talent with words to bear on the
        hacking culture.  A very enjoyable reading experience.

  Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution
  Author: Steven Levy
  Publisher: Doubleday
  Copyright Date: 1984
  ISBN: 0-440-13495-6

  Author: Katie Hafner and John Markoff
  Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  Copyright Date: 1991
  ISBN: 0-671-77879-X

  The Cuckoo's Egg
  Author: Cliff Stoll
  Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  Copyright Date: 1989
  ISBN: 0-671-72688-9

N Masters of Deception
  Author: Quittner, John
  Publisher: HarperCollins Publishers, Incorporated, New York, NY
  ISBN: 0-06-017030-1

  The Hacker's Handbook
  Author: Hugo Cornwall
  Publisher: E. Arthur Brown Company
  Copyright Date:
  ISBN: 0-912579-06-4

  Secrets of a Super Hacker
  Author: The Knightmare
  Publisher: Loompanics
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 1-55950-106-5

        The Knightmare is no super hacker.  There is little or no real
        information in this book.  The Knightmare gives useful advice
        like telling you not to dress up before going trashing.
        The Knightmare's best hack is fooling Loompanics into
        publishing this garbage.

  The Day The Phones Stopped
  Author: Leonard Lee
  Publisher: Primus / Donald I Fine, Inc.
  Copyright Date: 1992
  ISBN: 1-55611-286-6

        Total garbage.  Paranoid delusions of a lunatic.  Less factual
        data that an average issue of the Enquirer.

  Information Warfare
  Author: Winn Swartau
  Publisher: Thunder Mountain Press
  Copyright Date: 1994
  ISBN: 1-56025-080-1

  An Illustrated Guide to the Techniques and Equipment of Electronic
  Author: Doug Richardson
  Publisher: Salamander Press
  Copyright Date:
  ISBN: 0-668-06497-8


E-10. What are some videos of interest to hackers?

  'Unauthorized Access' by Annaliza Savage
  $25 on VH S format in 38-min
  Savage Productions
  1803 Mission St., #406
  Santa Cruz, CA 95060

  Hacker's '95 - a Phon-E & R.F. Burns Production
  See the video Emmanuel Goldstein thought would have the Feds knocking
  at his door. Coverage of Summercon'95 Coverage of Defcon III The big Y
  fiasco at Summercon.  PMF (narc) interviews Emmanuel Goldstein & Eric
  BloodAxe. Trip to Area 51 and interview with Psyhospy Coverage of the
  Secret Service briefing on Operation Cyber Snare (recent cell busts)
  Talks on Crypto, HERF, the Feds, etc.  All information is presented
  for educational purposes only.  Not for sale to government or law
  enforcement organizations.  Running time aproximately 90 minutes.
  $34.95 ($29.95 if ordered via the WWW page)
  Custom Video Productions
  For more infomation:


E-11. What are some mailing lists of interest to hackers?

  Academic Firewalls
  Registration Address: Send a message to
                containing the line "subscribe firewalls user@host"

  The Alert
  Registration Address: Send a message to
                        containing the line "subscribe alert"

  Reflector Address:
  Registration Address:

  Cert Tools
  Reflector Address:
  Registration Address:

  Computers and Society
  Reflector Address:
  Registration Address:

  Coordinated Feasibility Effort to Unravel State Data
  Reflector Address:
  Registration Address:

  CPSR Announcement List
  Reflector Address:
  Registration Address:

  CPSR - Intellectual Property
  Reflector Address:
  Registration Address:

  CPSR - Internet Library
  Reflector Address:
  Registration Address:

  Registration Address: Send a message to
                        containing the line "subscribe cypherpunks"
[Note from Ultraman: Your description for subscribing to the cypherpunks
list is incorrect. The list is named 'cypherpunks-unedited'. H.]

  DefCon Announcement List
  Registration Address: Send a message to containing
                        the line "subscribe dc-announce"

  DefCon Chat List
  Registration Address: Send a message to containing
                        the line "subscribe dc-stuff"

  Discount Long Distance Digest
  Registration Address: Send a message to:
                        containing the line "subscribe"

  Electronic Payment
  Registration Address:

  IDS (Intruder Detection Systems)
  Registration Address: Send a message to
                        containing the line "subscribe ids"

  Information Warfare
  Registration Address: E-mail with a request to be added.

  Registration Address:

  Registration Address:

  Macintosh Security
  Reflector Address:
  Registration Address:

N NetWare Security
  Registration Address: Send a message to
                        containing the line "subscribe netware-hack"

  NeXT Managers
  Registration Address:

  PGP3 announcement list
  Registration Address:
                        Subject: Your Name <user@host>
                        Body: *ignored*

  Registration Address: Send a message to
                containing the line "subscribe phiber-scream

  phruwt-l (Macintosh H/P)
  Registration Address: Send a message to
                        with the subject "phruwt-l"

  Reflector Address:    >
  Registration Address:

  RSA Users
  Reflector Address:
  Registration Address:

  WWW Security
  Registration Address:


E-12. What are some print magazines of interest to hackers?

2600 - The Hacker Quarterly
E-mail addresses: - to get info on 2600
         - to get a copy of our index
      - for info on starting your own meeting
         -- for subscription problems
         -- to send us a letter
         -- to send us an article
         -- to send us a general message

Subscription Address: 2600 Subscription Dept
                      PO Box 752
                      Middle Island, NY  11953-0752

Letters and article submission address: 2600 Editorial Dept
                                        PO Box 99
                                        Middle Island, NY  11953-0099

Phone Number: (516)751-2600
Fax Number: (516)474-2677
Voice BBS: (516)473-2626

Subscriptions: United States: $21/yr individual, $50 corporate.
               Overseas: $30/yr individual, $65 corporate.

Gray Areas
Gray Areas examines gray areas of law and morality and subject matter
which is illegal, immoral and/or controversial. Gray Areas explores
why hackers hack and puts hacking into a sociological framework of
deviant behavior.

E-Mail Address:
E-Mail Address:

U.S. Mail Address: Gray Areas
                   PO Box 808
                   Broomall, PA 19008

Subscriptions: $26.00 4 issues first class
               $34.00 4 issues foreign (shipped air mail)

Privacy Newsletter
Privacy Newsletter is a monthly newsletter devoted to showing
consumers how to get privacy and keep it.

E-Mail Address:

Subscription Address: Privacy Newsletter
                      P.O. Box 8206
                      Philadelphia, PA 19101-8206

Subscriptions: $99/yr (US)  $149/yr (Overseas)

Subscription Address:
                  or: Wired
                      PO Box 191826
                      San Francisco, CA 94119-9866

Letters and article submission address:
                                    or: Wired
                                        544 Second Street
                                        San Francisco, CA 94107-1427

Subscriptions: $39/yr (US) $64/yr (Canada/Mexico) $79/yr (Overseas)

Nuts & Volts
T& L Publications
430 Princeland Court
Corona, CA 91719
(800)783-4624 (Voice) (Subscription Only Order Line)
(909)371-8497 (Voice)
(909)371-3052 (Fax)
CIS: 74262,3664

Cybertek: The Cyberpunk Technical Journal
P.O. Box 64
Brewster, NY 10509

Frequency: Bimonthly
Domestic Subscription Rate: $15/year (6 issues)

5150 Fair Oaks Blvd. #101-348
Carmichael, CA 95608 USA


Subscriptions: $24 a year for six issues

Text of back issues are at the etext archive at Michigan.  Gopher over
or ftp to:


E-13. What are some e-zines of interest to hackers?

CoTNo: Communications of The New Order
Empire Times                    
The Infinity Concept            
Phrack                               /pub/phrack


E-14. What are some organizations of interest to hackers?

Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR)
CPSR empowers computer professionals and computer users to advocate for
the responsible use of information technology and empowers all who use
computer technology to participate in the public debate.   As technical
experts, CPSR members provide the public and policy makers with
realistic assessments of the power, promise, and limitations of computer
technology.  As an organization of concerned citizens, CPSR directs
public attention to critical choices concerning the applications of
computing and how those choices affect society.

By matching unimpeachable technical information with policy development
savvy, CPSR uses minimum dollars to have maximum impact and encourages
broad public participation in the shaping of technology policy.

Every project we undertake is based on five principles:

*  We foster and support public discussion of and public responsibility
   for decisions involving the use of computers in systems critical to

*  We work to dispel popular myths about the infallibility of
   technological systems.

*  We challenge the assumption that technology alone can solve political
   and social problems.

*  We critically examine social and technical issues within the computer
   profession, nationally and internationally.

*  We encourage the use of computer technology to improve the quality of

CPSR Membership Categories
  50  Basic member
 200  Supporting member
 500  Sponsoring member
1000  Lifetime member
  20  Student/low income member
  50  Foreign subscriber
  50  Library/institutional subscriber

CPSR National Office
P.O. Box 717
Palo Alto, CA  94301
415-322-3798 (FAX)

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is dedicated to the pursuit
of policies and activities that will advance freedom and openness in
computer-based communications. It is a member-supported, nonprofit
group that grew from the conviction that a new public interest
organization was needed in the information age; that this organization
would enhance and protect the democratic potential of new computer
communications technology. From the beginning, the EFF determined to
become an organization that would combine technical, legal, and public
policy expertise, and would apply these skills to the myriad issues
and concerns that arise whenever a new communications medium is born.

Memberships are $20.00 per year for students, $40.00 per year for
regular members, and $100.00 per year for organizations.

The Electronic Frontier Foundation, Inc.
1001 G Street, NW
Suite 950 East
Washington, D.C. 20001
(202)544 9237
(202)547 5481 FAX

Free Software Foundation (FSF) and GNU

The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating restrictions
on people's right to use, copy, modify, and redistribute computer
programs. We promote the development and use of free software in all
areas using computers.  Specifically, we are putting together a
complete, integrated software system named "GNU" ("GNU's Not Unix",
pronounced "guh-new") that will be upwardly compatible with Unix.
Most parts of this system are already being used and distributed.

The word "free" in our name refers to freedom, not price.  You may or
may not pay money to get GNU software, but regardless you have two
specific freedoms once you get it: first, the freedom to copy a
program and give it away to your friends and co-workers; and second,
the freedom to change a program as you wish, by having full access to
source code. You can study the source and learn how such programs are
written.  You may then be able to port it, improve it, and share your
changes with others.  If you redistribute GNU software you may charge
a distribution fee or give it away, so long as you include the source
code and the GPL (GNU General Public License).

Free Software Foundation, Inc.        Telephone: +1-617-876-3296
673 Massachusetts Avenue              Fax: +1-617-492-9057
Cambridge, MA 02139-3309 USA          Fax (in Japan): 0031-13-2473
Electronic mail:                  0066-3382-0158

GNU is to be a complete integrated computational environment:
everything you need to work with a computer, either as a programmer or
as a person in an office or home.  The core is an operating system,
which consists of a central program called a kernel that runs the
other programs on the computer, and a large number of ancillary
programs for handling files, etc.  The Free Software Foundation is
developing an advanced kernel called the Hurd.

A complete system has tools for programmers, such as compilers and
debuggers.  It also has editors, sketchpads, calendars, calculators,
spreadsheets, databases, electronic mail readers, and Internet
navigators.  The FSF already distributes most of the programs used in
an operating system, all the tools regularly used by programmers, and
much more.

The League for Programming Freedom (LPF)
The League for Programming Freedom is an organization of people who
oppose the attempt to monopolize common user interfaces through "look
and feel" copyright lawsuits.  Some of us are programmers, who worry
that such monopolies will obstruct our work.  Some of us are users,
who want new computer systems to be compatible with the interfaces we
know.  Some are founders of hardware or software companies, such as
Richard P. Gabriel. Some of us are professors or researchers,
including John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Guy L. Steele, Jr., Robert S.
Boyer and Patrick Winston.

"Look and feel" lawsuits aim to create a new class of government-
enforced monopolies broader in scope than ever before.  Such a system
of user-interface copyright would impose gratuitous incompatibility,
reduce competition, and stifle innovation.

We in the League hope to prevent these problems by preventing
user-interface copyright.  The League is NOT opposed to copyright law
as it was understood until 1986 -- copyright on particular programs.
Our aim is to stop changes in the copyright system which would take
away programmers' traditional freedom to write new programs compatible
with existing programs and practices.

Annual dues for individual members are $42 for employed professionals,
$10.50 for students, and $21 for others.  We appreciate activists, but
members who cannot contribute their time are also welcome.

To contact the League, phone (617) 243-4091, send Internet mail to the
address, or write to:

League for Programming Freedom
1 Kendall Square #143
P.O. Box 9171
Cambridge, MA 02139 USA

Founded in 1989, SotMesc is dedicated to preserving the integrity and
cohesion of the computing society.  By promoting computer education,
liberties and efficiency, we believe we can secure freedoms for all
computer users while retaining privacy.

SotMesc maintains the CSP Internet mailing list, the SotMesc
Scholarship Fund, and the SotMesc Newsletter.

The SotMESC is financed partly by membership fees, and donations, but
mostly by selling hacking, cracking, phreaking, electronics, internet,
and virus information and programs on disk and bound paper media.

SotMesc memberships are $20 to students and $40 to regular members.

P.O. Box 573
Long Beach, MS  39560

Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT

CERT is the Computer Emergency Response Team that was formed by the
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in November 1988 in
response to the needs exhibited during the Internet worm incident.
The CERT charter is to work with the Internet community to facilitate
its response to computer security events involving Internet hosts, to
take proactive steps to raise the community's awareness of computer
security issues, and to conduct research targeted at improving the
security of existing systems.

CERT products and services include 24-hour technical assistance for
responding to computer security incidents, product vulnerability
assistance, technical documents, and seminars.  In addition, the team
maintains a number of mailing lists (including one for CERT
advisories) and provides an anonymous FTP server:
(, where security-related documents, past CERT
advisories, and tools are archived.

CERT contact information:

U.S. mail address
  CERT Coordination Center
  Software Engineering Institute
  Carnegie Mellon University
  Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890

Internet E-mail address

Telephone number
  (412)268-7090 (24-hour hotline)
  CERT Coordination Center personnel answer
  7:30 a.m.- 6:00 p.m. EST(GMT-5)/EDT(GMT-4), on call for
  emergencies during other hours.

FAX number


E-15. What are some radio programs of interest to hackers?

Off The Hook          New York      99.5 FM                 Tue  8pm
Full Disclosure Live  Short Wave    WWCR 5065 khz           Sun  8pm
Full Disclosure Live  Oil City, PA  WOYL AM-1340            Sun  8pm
Full Disclosure Live  Satellite Telstar 302 (T2), Ch 21, 5.8 Sun 8pm


E-16. What are other FAQ's of interest to hackers?

The Unofficial Netware Hack FAQ
Author: Simple Nomad <>

The Unofficial NT Hack FAQ
Author: Simple Nomad <>

The Unofficial Web Hack FAQ
Author: Simple Nomad <>

The PGP Attack FAQ
Author: Route [ /] /pub/Philes/Cryptography/PGPattackFAQ.txt.gz

The UK Phone Phreaking F.A.Q.
Author: Pyro Teknik <>
<> FAQ
Mac Hack FAQ: Defeating Security
Author: AX1P (

Frequently Asked Questions About Red Boxing
Author: Mr. Sandman (

VMS FAQ (Frequently Ask Questions)
Author: The Beaver (

Anonymous FTP FAQ
Author: Christopher Klaus <> of Internet Security Systems,
Inc.    /pub/faq/anonftp

Compromise FAQ: What if your Machines are Compromised by an Intruder
Author: Christopher Klaus <> of Internet Security Systems,
Inc.    /pub/faq/compromise

Security Patches FAQ
Author: Christopher Klaus <> of Internet Security Systems,
ftpa//:    /pub/faq/patch

Sniffer FAQ
Author: Christopher Klaus <> of Internet Security Systems,
Inc.    /pub/faq/sniff

Vendor Security Contacts: Reporting Vulnerabilities and Obtaining New
Author: Christopher Klaus <> of Internet Security Systems,
Inc.    /pub/faq/vendor

Cryptography FAQ
Author: The Crypt Cabal /pub/usenet-by-group/sci.crypt/

Firewalls FAQ
Author: Marcus J. Ranum ( /pub/usenet-by-group/

Buying a Used Scanner Radio
Author: (Bob Parnass, AJ9S) /pub/usenet-by-group/

How to Find Scanner Frequencies
Author: (Bob Parnass, AJ9S) /pub/usenet-by-group/

Introduction to Scanning
Author: (Bob Parnass, AJ9S) /pub/usenet-by-group/

Low Power Broadcasting FAQ
Author: Rick Harrison. /pub/usenet-by-group/

RSA Cryptography Today FAQ
Author: Paul Fahn /pub/usenet-by-group/sci.crypt/

VIRUS-L comp.virus Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Author: Kenneth R. van Wyk <> /pub/usenet-by-group/comp.virus/

Where to get the latest PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) FAQ
Author: (Michael Johnson) /pub/usenet-by-group/

alt.locksmithing answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Author: (Joe Ilacqua) /pub/usenet-by-group/alt.locksmithing/ FAQ
Author: Fauzan Mirza <> /pub/usenet-by-group/

rec.pyrotechnics FAQ
Author: (Hans Josef Wagemueller) /pub/usenet-by-group/rec.pyrotechnics/


E-17. What are some conferences of interest to hackers?

Every year a hacker convention disappears and two new ones crop up in
it's place.  Two that are definitely upcoming are:

CuervoCon every Winter in Texas

DefCon every Summer in Las Vegas

For more information, keep your eyes on the web.


E-18. What are some telephone numbers of interest to hackers?

The DefCon Voice Bridge         (801)855-3326


E-19. Where can I purchase a magnetic stripe reader/writer?

20725 S. Annalee Avenue
Carson, CA 90746
(310)631-8602 (Voice)
(310)631-3956 (Fax)

   Track  Write  Interface          Model        Price
   2      No     Keyboard/RS-232
   1,2    No     Keyboard/RS-232
   2,3    No     Keyboard/RS-232
   1,2,3  No     RS-232
   1,2,3  Yes    Standalone/RS-232

American Microsystems
2190 Regal Parkway
Euless, TX 76040
(800)648-4452 (Voice)
(817)685-6232 (Fax)

   Track  Write  Interface          Model        Price
   2      No                                      $250

CPU Advance
PO Box 2434
Harwood Station
Littleton, MA 01460
(508)624-4819 (Fax)

   Track  Write  Interface          Model        Price
    1,2   Yes                       C1523         $389
    2,3   Yes                       C1534         $389

Herback and Rademan
18 Canal Street
P.O. Box 122
Bristol, PA 19007-0122
(215)788-5583 (Voice)
(215)788-9577 (Fax)

   Track  Write  Interface          Model        Price
   2      No                        TM92CMP1966    $15

Neuron Electronics
3848 Del Amo Boulevard
Suite #301
Torrance, CA 90503
(310)793-1300 (Voice)
(310)793-1304 (Fax)

   Track  Write  Interface          Model        Price
   2      Yes                       MCR 231-2A

Omron Electronics, Inc.
One East Commerce Drive
Schaumburg, IL 60173
(800)556-6766 (Voice)
(708)843-7787 (Fax)

Security Photo Corporation
1051 Commonwealth Avenue
Boston, MA 02215
(800)533-1162 (Voice)
(617)783-3200 (Voice)
(617)783-1966 (Voice)

Timeline Inc,
23605 Telo Avenue
Torrence, CA 90505
(800)872-8878 (Voice)
(800)223-9977 (Voice)

2300 Zanker Road
San Jose, CA 95131
(408) 943-9774 Voice
(408) 943-9776 Fax
(408) 943-0622 BBS
Part Number: 92U067

Atalla Corp, a division of Tandem Computers Incorporated
2304 Zanker Road
San Jose, CA 95131
(800)523-9981 (Voice)
(408)435-8850 (Voice)
(408)435-1116 (Fax)


E-20. What are the rainbow books and how can I get them?

Orange Book
DoD 5200.28-STD
Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria.

Green Book
Department of Defense Password Management Guideline.

Yellow Book
Computer Security Requirements -- Guidance for Applying the Department
of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria in Specific

Yellow Book
Technical Rationale Behind CSC-STD-003-85: Computer Security
Requirements.  Guidance for Applying the Department of Defense Trusted
Computer System Evaluation Criteria in Specific Environments.

Tan Book
A Guide to Understanding Audit in Trusted Systems.

Bright Blue Book
Trusted Product Evaluation - A Guide for Vendors.

Neon Orange Book
A Guide to Understanding Discretionary Access Control in Trusted

Teal Green Book
Glossary of Computer Security Terms.

Red Book
Trusted Network Interpretation of the Trusted Computer System
Evaluation Criteria.

Orange Book
A Guide to Understanding Configuration Management in Trusted Systems.

Burgundy Book
A Guide to Understanding Design Documentation in Trusted Systems.

Dark Lavender Book
A Guide to Understanding Trusted Distribution in Trusted Systems.

Venice Blue Book
Computer Security Subsystem Interpretation of the Trusted Computer
System Evaluation Criteria.

Aqua Book
A Guide to Understanding Security Modeling in Trusted Systems.

Dark Red Book
Trusted Network Interpretation Environments Guideline -- Guidance for
Applying the Trusted Network Interpretation.

Pink Book
Rating Maintenance Phase -- Program Document.

Purple Book
Guidelines for Formal Verification Systems.

Brown Book
A Guide to Understanding Trusted Facility Management.

Yellow-Green Book
Guidelines for Writing Trusted Facility Manuals.

Light Blue
A Guide to Understanding Identification and Authentication in Trusted

Light Blue Book
A Guide to Understanding Object Reuse in Trusted Systems.

Blue Book
Trusted Product Evaluation Questionnaire.

Gray Book
Trusted Unix Working Group (TRUSIX) Rationale for Selecting
Access Control List Features for the Unix System.

Lavender Book
Trusted Data Base Management System Interpretation of the Trusted
Computer System Evaluation Criteria.

Yellow Book
A Guide to Understanding Trusted Recovery in Trusted Systems.

Bright Orange Book
A Guide to Understandng Security Testing and Test Documentation in
Trusted Systems.

Purple Book
NCSC-TG-024  (Volume 1/4)
A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: An Introduction to
Procurement Initiators on Computer Security Requirements.

Purple Book
NCSC-TG-024 (Volume 2/4)
A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: Language for RFP
Specifications and Statements of Work - An Aid to Procurement

Purple Book
NCSC-TG-024  (Volume 3/4)
A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: Computer Security Contract
Data Requirements List and Data Item Description Tutorial.

Purple Book
NCSC-TG-024  (Volume 4/4)
A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: How to Evaluate a Bidder's
Proposal Document - An Aid to Procurement Initiators and Contractors.

Green Book
A Guide to Understanding Data Remanence in Automated Information

Hot Peach Book
A Guide to Writing the Security Features User's Guide for Trusted

Turquiose Book
A Guide to Understanding Information System Security Officer
Responsibilities for Automated Information Systems.

Violet Book
Assessing Controlled Access Protection.

Blue Book
Introduction to Certification and Accreditation.

Light Pink Book
A Guide to Understanding Covert Channel Analysis of Trusted Systems.

C1 Technical Report-001
Computer Viruses: Prevention, Detection, and Treatment.

C Technical Report 79-91
Integrity in Automated Information Systems.

C Technical Report 39-92
The Design and Evaluation of INFOSEC systems: The Computer Security
Contributions to the Composition Discussion.

C Technical Report 111-91
Integrity-Oriented Control Objectives: Proposed Revisions to the TCSEC,
October 1991.

NCSC Technical Report 002
Use of the TCSEC for Complex, Evolving, Multipolicy Systems.

NCSC Technical Report 003
Turning Multiple Evaluated Products Into Trusted Systems.

NCSC Technical Report 004
A Guide to Procurement of Single Connected Systems - Language for RFP
Specifications and Statements of Work - An Aid to Procurement Initiators
- Includes Complex, Evolving, and Multipolicy Systems.

NCSC Technical Report 005 Volume 1/5
Inference and Aggregation Issues In Secure Database Management

NCSC Technical Report 005 Volume 2/5
Entity and Referential Integrity Issues In Multilevel Secure Database

NCSC Technical Report 005 Volume 3/5
Polyinstantiation Issues In Multilevel Secure Database Management

NCSC Technical Report 005 Volume 4/5
Auditing Issues In Secure Database Management Systems.

NCSC Technical Report 005 Volume 5/5
Discretionary Access Control Issues In High Assurance Secure Database
Management Systems.

Advisory Memorandum on Office Automation Security Guideline.


You can get your own free copy of any or all of the books in by writing
or calling:

        INFOSEC Awareness
        ATTN: V/NISC
        9800 SAVAGE ROAD
        FT MEADE, MD 20755-6755

        NSA/ISSO Service Center (NISC)
        1-800-688-6115 ext 0

You may request the books in print or you may request a CD-ROM that
contains most of the books.

You can also get most of the Rainbow books in electronic form at

If you ask to be put on the mailing list, you'll get a copy of each new
book as it comes out.

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=  Section F -- 2600  -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

F-01. What is alt.2600?

Alt.2600 is a Usenet newsgroup for discussion of material relating to
2600 Magazine, the hacker quarterly.   It is NOT for the Atari 2600
game machine. created the group on Emmanuel
Goldstein's recommendation.  Emmanuel is the editor/publisher of 2600
Magazine. Following the barrage of postings about the Atari machine to
alt.2600, an alt.atari.2600 was created to divert all of the atari
traffic from alt.2600.  Atari 2600 people are advised to hie over to


[F-01b. Where is the alt.2600 Web site?

At and



F-02. What does "2600" mean?

2600Hz was a tone that was used by early phone phreaks (or phreakers) in
the 80's, and some currently.  If the tone was sent down the line at the
proper time, one could get away with all sorts of fun stuff.

A note from Emmanuel Goldstein:

"The Atari 2600 has NOTHING to do with blue boxes or telephones or the
2600 hertz tone.  The 2600 hertz tone was simply the first step towards
exploring the network.  If you were successful at getting a toll call to
drop, then billing would stop at that point but there would be billing
for the number already dialed up until the point of seizure.  800
numbers and long distance information were both free in the past and
records of who called what were either non-existent or very obscure with
regards to these numbers.  This, naturally, made them more popular than
numbers that showed up on a bill, even if it was only for a minute.
Today, many 800 numbers go overseas, which provides a quick and free way
into another country's phone system which may be more open for


F-03. Are there on-line versions of 2600 available?



F-04. I can't find 2600 at any bookstores.  What can I do?

Subscribe.  Or, let 2600 know via the subscription address that you
think 2600 should be in the bookstore.  Be sure to include the
bookstores name and address.


F-05. Why does 2600 cost more to subscribe to than to buy at a

A note from Emmanuel Goldstein:

  We've been selling 2600 at the same newsstand price ($4) since 1988
  and we hope to keep it at that price for as long as we can get away
  with it. At the same time, $21 is about the right price to cover
  subscriber costs, including postage and record keeping, etc. People
  who subscribe don't have to worry about finding an issue someplace,
  they tend to get issues several weeks before the newsstands get
  them, and they can take out free ads in the 2600 Marketplace.

  This is not uncommon in the publishing industry.  The NY Times, for
  example, costs $156.50 at the newsstands, and $234.75 delivered to
  your door.

Editors Note: The newstand price is now $4.50.

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=  Section G -- Miscellaneous  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

G-01. What does XXX stand for?

TLA     Three Letter Acronym

ACL     Access Control List
PIN     Personal Identification Number
TCB     Trusted Computing Base

ALRU    Automatic Line Record Update
AN      Associated Number
ARSB    Automated Repair Service Bureau
ATH     Abbreviated Trouble History
BOC     Bell Operating Company
BOR     Basic Output Report
BOSS    Business Office Servicing System
CA      Cable
COE     Central Office Equipment
COSMOS  Computer System for Main Frame Operations
CMC     Construction Maintenance Center
CNID    Calling Number IDentification
CO      Central Office
COCOT   Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephone
CRSAB   Centralized Repair Service Answering Bureau
DID     Direct Inbound Dialing
DDD     Direct Distance Dialing
ECC     Enter Cable Change
LD      Long Distance
LMOS    Loop Maintenance Operations System
MLT     Mechanized Loop Testing
NPA     Numbering Plan Area
PBX     Private Branch Exchange
POTS    Plain Old Telephone Service
RBOC    Regional Bell Operating Company
RSB     Repair Service Bureau
SS      Special Service
TAS     Telephone Answering Service
TH      Trouble History
TREAT   Trouble Report Evaluation and Analysis Tool

LOD     Legion of Doom
HFC     Hell Fire Club
TNO     The New Order

ACiD    Ansi Creators in Demand
CCi     Cybercrime International
FLT     Fairlight
iCE     Insane Creators Enterprise
iNC     International Network of Crackers
NTA     The Nocturnal Trading Alliance
PDX     Paradox
PE      Public Enemy
PSY     Psychose
QTX     Quartex
RZR     Razor (1911)
S!P     Supr!se Productions

User Contributions:

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM