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The NeXT-FAQ (Frequently asked questions)

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Posted-By: auto-faq 2.4
Archive-name: NeXT-FAQ
Last-modified: Saturday, 11. March 1998
Posting-Frequency: monthly

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
    The NEXTSTEP/OpenStep FAQ
                           THE NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP FAQ
     * 1 Introduction
     * 2 General information
     * 3 What is ...
     * 4 Miscellaneous information
     * 5 Black (NeXT) hardware
     * 6 White (Intel) hardware
     * 7 Storage
     * 8 Printing
     * 9 Obsolete but still interesting?
1 Introduction

   1.2 About this FAQ
   1.3 Submissions
   1.4 Availability
   1.5 Copyright
   1.6 Disclaimer
   1.7 Thanks
2 General information

   2.1 Information available but not in the written FAQ version
   2.2 Where to get answers?
   2.3 How may I contact NeXT, Inc.?
   2.4 FTP servers
   2.5 Software on CD
   2.6 What is the current status of NEXTSTEP/OpenStep?
   2.7 Will there be a public implementation of OpenStep?
   2.8 Are there differences between Openstep for Mach and other
   2.9 What information is available by NeXT
   2.10 What is the correct spelling?
   2.11 How do I start an official NeXT User Group?
   2.12 Are there differences in the NEXTSTEP implementations?
   2.13 What are the names of the ftp sites that have NeXT-related files?
   2.14 Additional information sources
   2.15 How to get FTP files via e-mail.
   2.16 References on Objective C
   2.17 How to contact music interested people.
   2.18 How to announce upcoming events
   2.19 Can I mix different hardware running NEXTSTEP?
   2.20 Can I exchange software running on different hardware?
3 What is ...

   3.2 Mach
   3.4 Objective-C
   3.5 NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP Developer
   3.6 D'OLE
   3.7 PDO --- Portable Distributed Objects
   3.8 EOF --- Enterprise Objects Framework
   3.9 WebObjects
   3.10 Rhapsody
   3.11 WWW Browser
   3.12 Newsreader
4 Miscellaneous information

   4.1 How do I get pictures of people from remote sites to appear in and NewsGrazer?
   4.2 How to manipulate and examine default settings
   4.3 How do I run NextApps remotely?
   4.4 Why does UUCP hangs on outgoing connections after sending the
   password, but other communications software do not have a problem
   with it?
   4.5 How do I access the NeXT's Digital Webster Dictionary from a
   4.6 How do I get the arrow keys to work in csh?
   4.7 What default affects menu location?
   4.8 How to get Gourmet to boot up the Mathematica 2.0 kernel?
   4.9 Manipulating the Loginwindow
   4.10 How does one set UNIX man pages to be viewed in nroff format with
   DL like the standard manual pages in NS2.x?
   4.11 Appending a signature and addition headers to your e-mail
   4.12 How can I quickly find a file if I don't know its directory?
   4.13 suddenly stopped working!
   4.14 Recycler doesn't work anymore?!
   4.15 How to hear sound from thought NEXTSTEP system?
   4.16 How do I decompress a file with the extension .compressed?
   4.17 How do I change the Workspace compression app?
   4.18 console: loginwindow: netinfo problem - No such directory.
   4.19 Root login not possible on client machine
   4.20 How to boot NEXTSTEP from the second (higher SCSI ID) HD?
   4.21 How to make swapfile shrink to the normal size?
   4.22 Does netinfo work between machines running NEXTSTEP 2.x and 3.x?
   4.23 Why does the console user "own" the external disk filesystem?
   4.24 How to limit coredump sizes?
   4.25 What is the maximum value of nbuf that I can specify on bootup?
   4.26 How can I change the mouse pointer shape and color?
   4.27 How do I customize BuildDisk to create a bootable disk of my own
   4.28 Are there any more dwrites useful for the workspace, ...?
   4.29 What is the @LongLink message from gnutar all about?
   4.30 What stands the file .place3_0.wmd for?
   4.31 How to create transparent icons with IconBuilder
   4.32 How to access the MAC format of a mixed DOS/MAC CD-ROM
   4.33 Is there a PPP for NEXTSTEP
   4.34 NIS and OpenStep
   4.35 System overloaded due to swapping
   4.36 Swapfile issues
   4.37 Garbage collection and Objective-C
   4.38 Setting up an anonymous FTP server
5 Black (NeXT) hardware

   5.1 What disk drives will work with the NeXT?
   5.2 Will a 68030 NeXT Computer run NEXTSTEP 3.3?
   5.3 Does a FUJITSU MO (256 MB) works with NeXT original Hardware?
   5.4 Can I run my SCSI-2 disks in synchronous mode?
   5.5 How do I configure my HP 660 to boot properly?
   5.6 What is the procedure for installing a Fujitsu M2263SA/SB SCSI
   Disk as the NeXT Boot Disk?
   5.7 How to mount a corrupted OD that won't automount?
   5.8 What non-NeXT CD Players that work with a NeXT?
   5.9 What are some other sources of toner cartridges and trays for the
   NeXT laser printer?
   5.10 What printers (laser or otherwise) may be used with a NeXT?
   5.11 What can I do to prevent my NeXT printer from running all the
   5.12 What type of microphones will work with the NeXT?
   5.13 How do I connect a modem to the NeXT?
   5.14 Are there any alternative sources for the SCSI-II to SCSI-I cable
   required to attach external SCSI devices to the 040 NeXTs?
   5.15 What fax modems will work with the NeXT?
   5.16 How may I attach more than two serial ports to the NeXT?
   5.17 What is the best and/or cheapest way to connect a NeXT to a thick
   5.18 How can I connect my NeXT to the telephone line and use it like
   an answering Machine?
   5.19 What color monitors can I use with the Color NeXT machines?
   5.20 Where can I get 13W3 to BNC adapters to connect third party color
   5.21 How may I attach Centronics or 16 bit wide parallel ports to the
   5.22 Why does an unused serial port consume cpu?
   5.23 How to adjust MegaPixel Display brightness and focus?
   5.24 I want to emulate a macintosh, how?
   5.25 My NeXT laser printer fails to fully eject the sheet - how to
   5.26 What are the NeXT mouse connections?
   5.27 What type of memory may be installed in a NeXT?
   5.28 What is the NeXT SIMM tool?
   5.29 Where can I purchase a NeXT machine?
   5.30 Where to obtain hardware service?
   5.31 What types of NeXT machines were manufactured?
   5.32 What can be done about older 030 NeXT cubes that have a fan that
   turns in the "wrong" direction?
   5.33 Can I connect SONY MPX-111N to my 68030 NeXT Computer?
   5.34 Why does the OD continually spin up and spin down?
   5.35 How many colors can NeXT machines display?
   5.36 Why is my machine so slow when I run the monochrome and
   NeXTdimension displays?
   5.37 Where to obtain replacement mouse parts?
   5.38 Where to obtain extra batteries?
   5.39 How to convert a Turbo system to use ADB?
   5.40 68030 board in the same NeXTcube as a 68040 board?
   5.41 How to expand DSP memory?
   5.42 How to boot a NeXT without a monitor?
   5.43 Where can I get black spray paint for my NeXT?
   5.44 What makes aged NeXT monitors dim?
   5.45 How to use two internal hard drives
6 White (Intel) hardware

   6.1 What about support for NeXT Computer specific hardware features
   such as the DSP?
   6.2 Do Multi-Architecture Binaries take a lot of extra disk space?
   6.3 How difficult is it to recompile existing NeXT applications over
   to NEXTSTEP/Intel?
   6.4 When developing programs, are there any portability issues I
   should be aware of?
   6.5 What is the difference between the NEXTSTEP/Intel User Environment
   and Developer Environment?
   6.6 If a specific I/O card is not supported by NeXT, can 3rd parties
   write drivers for NEXTSTEP/Intel?
   6.7 How is NEXTSTEP/Intel installed?
   6.8 Will NEXTSTEP/Intel run on 386 machines?
   6.9 Will NEXTSTEP/Intel run on the Cyrix 486SLC?
   6.10 Will NEXTSTEP/Intel run on the future Intel Microprocessors in
   the x86 family?
   6.11 Will NEXTSTEP/Intel run on portable computers?
   6.12 Will NEXTSTEP/Intel be able to run MS-DOS and Windows programs?
   6.13 How will my DOS and Windows applications perform under
   6.14 Is the window I use to run Microsoft Windows applications
   6.15 Will this DOS/Windows compatibility system allow me to run
   several DOS programs at once?
   6.16 Can I cut and paste between DOS/Windows sessions and NEXTSTEP
   6.17 Can I use both DOS and NEXTSTEP/Intel partitions on the same hard
   6.18 Can NEXTSTEP/Intel read, write, and format DOS and Mac floppies?
   6.19 NEXTSTEP/Intel 3.1, DOS, Linux/NT multi-boot system?
   6.21 NS 3.2 Tseng ET4000 Video Driver doesn't work.
   6.22 Accessing ROM monitor on Intel-System, how?
   6.23 Adaptec 2940 Fast and Sync. SCSI explanation...
   6.24 Do EIDE-Drives work with NEXTSTEP?
   6.25 Anyone have a driver yet that does 8 bit color on an ET4000/w32p
   card? (Hercules Dynamite Pro VLB)
   6.26 Does a Glidepoint pointing device work with NEXTSTEP?
   6.27 AppleTalk under NEXTSTEP/Intel?
   6.28 Booting hangs with black screen
   6.29 Why are the features of my graphic card useless?
   6.30 How to use MIDI without the MusicKit?
   6.31 Installation problems with EIDE and ATAPI drives
   6.32 Error message during boot time
   6.33 Does NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP run with ...
   6.34 RAM greater 64MB, now I get a black screen!
   6.35 Lost root password
7 Storage

   7.1 Disktab help needed: ST15230N
   7.2 Formatting DEC DSP3105 with 1024-byte blocks.
   7.3 My formatted disk has much less space then advertised!
   7.4 Can't initialise my disk within the Workspace
   7.5 Initialing Opticals for NeXT
   7.6 How to use a tape drive ?
   7.7 How to recover from an partially formatted disk?
   7.8 What about the ZIP drive?
   7.9 How to partition a 4GB drive
   7.10 How to mount/ignore a disk during boot
   7.11 Can't read multisession CD-ROMs!
8 Printing

   8.1 What printers (laser or otherwise) may be used with NEXTSTEP?
   8.2 What fonts can I use with NEXTSTEP?
   8.3 How can I save my printable documents to a postscript file?
   8.4 How can I print only the even or odd pages of a document?
   8.5 How do I get banner pages on my printer output?
   8.6 How do I get [la]TeX files to print correctly on non-NeXT
   8.7 What if I have a PostScript font has not been ported to NEXTSTEP?
   8.8 What color printers (laser or otherwise) may be used with
   8.9 How can I make the Page Layout default to A4 in all applications?
   8.10 /usr/lib/NextPrinter/Server/pstf: syntax error at line 31: `end
   of file' unexpected?
   8.11 How to get TeX with NEXTSTEP to make proper fonts for a 600 dpi
   8.12 How to get printer description files (PPD)?
   8.13 What are the Canon part numbers for ink cartridges equivalent to
   those NeXT's Color Printer uses?
   8.14 JetPilot does not work with my JetDirect box, why?
   8.15 powering down NeXTprinter during bootup, printer still works
   8.16 How to set up the HP LaserJet 4M?
   8.17 Laserwriter NTX & NEXTSTEP
   8.18 Problems with gray levels in printout
   8.19 Can't print using additional fonts
9 Obsolete but still interesting?

   9.1 Where can I get NeXT paraphernalia?
   9.2 Is there any way to change the text in the title bar of a terminal
   9.3 I can't get my pictures in OmniWeb
   9.4 How do I remap the and | keys on my keyboard?
   9.5 How do I stop NeXTMail/Sendmail adding &Mcirc;s onto the end of
   9.6 Why does NEXTSTEP 1.0 hang a few seconds after attempting to boot?
   9.7 Modem hangs under NS2.0 by incoming calls
   9.8 NS2.0 doesn't recognize /LocalApps path
   This document was converted from LaTeX using Karl Ewald's latex2html.

    The NEXTSTEP/OpenStep FAQ
   ! to the table of contents
                               1 INTRODUCTION

   This is now preliminary version of the FAQ. It hasn't been updated for
   2 years. Because I was lacking to update it on a regular basis, I'm
   now struggling to continue working on it. So be aware, that most
   information isn't still up-to-date! (In fact it's sometimes more than
   2 years old). However I believe, I've rechecked a lot and most
   information should be correct. Please let me now, if you discover any
   wrong information.
   This FAQ is going to be updated monthly, at least on the Peanuts Web
   site. Postings to the newsgroups might change, because the FAQ is
   really huge now (over 110 pages, using >200kB).
   Please excuse misspellings, wrong grammar, etc. English isn't my
   native language and I have only school knowledge.
   Have fun!
1.2 About this FAQ

   These are the frequently asked questions concerning NeXT, NeXTSTEP or
   any other NeXT related topics.
   This compilation is meant primarily as a service to the (
   and community.
   NeXT Software,Inc. was a privately held company, heading towards
   software business. It sold NEXTSTEP and OPENSTEP its award winning OS
   and several other software packages (most included with NEXTSTEP):
   EOF, NEXTSTEP Developer, WebObjects, NetInfo, ...
   However all properties of NeXT Software, Inc. are now owned by Apple
   Computer. Apple is still distributed the NeXT software and currently
   developing a new operating system based on the NeXT technology, code
   name: Rhapsody.
   The latest version is OPENSTEP (based on the white paper 'OpenStep'),
   which runs not only on top of Mach (as NEXTSTEP does) but also on
   Solaris, Windows NT, Windows 95, HP-UX. The user of NeXT's software is
   confronted with a wide range of different software and hardware.
   To help in the unaware user, this FAQ was founded. But also
   professional users might find some interesting information, which they
   didn't knew already.
   Note that NEXTSTEP,OpenStep and Rhapsody questions often concern
   related topics like Objective-C, UNIX, administration tasks, etc. for
   which already separate FAQs do exist. See the new.answers newsgroup
   for additional FAQs, if your problem isn't covered by this FAQ.
1.3 Submissions

   As with all FAQs the quality of the information provided here is
   mostly depending on the Usenet community, which in most cases serves
   for the information resource. Feel free to e-mail the FAQ author to
   contribute, or send error reports.
   If you contact the author, use the following subject for submissions:
   FAQ submission. To report errors use: FAQ error. Additionally you
   might want to add the chapter where the submission/error report
   belongs to.
1.4 Availability

   This FAQ is published monthly in the* newsgroups and in
   the near future news.answer.
   It may be downloaded via FTP from Special
   additions for redistributors and homeusers do exist.
   This FAQ may be accessed only through Peanuts as well:
   In the near future we want to implement an e-mail service for those
   who don't have access to news. You may add yourself to the mailinglist
   by sending an e-mail with subject: FAQ mailme. Note that this service
   isn't available, yet completely, because there is too little
   interested. However I keep a list of all the registered people and
   they will still receive e-mail copies.
1.5 Copyright

   This FAQ is copyrighted by Bernhard Scholz. (Internet e-mails:
   Mentioned trademarks belong to their holder and are not explicitly
   We do not collect any royalties, charge any fees, or compensate anyone
   in connection with this endeavor, but of course we would be happy
   about each e-mail commenting on the FAQ, about pizzas (lasagne is
   accepted, too :-) ), postcards, ...
   Anyway we reserve a copyright on the the published information in this
   FAQ. Any questions concerning other redistribution should be send to
   the author of the FAQ.
   Reprinting of this FAQ, even in parts, is prohibited without
   permission by the author except for printings for private use.
   Newsletter editors wishing to excerpt from this work for publication
   should consider using local electronic bulletin boards to disseminate
   this information rather than preparing hardcopies. This allows for
   readers to access the most recent information, and perhaps save a
   couple of trees.
1.6 Disclaimer

   Of course there is no warranty in any case using the information
   provided here. We haven't tested the information to be correct.
   We are not affiliated with any of the companies mentioned in this FAQ.
1.7 Thanks

   Especially we want to thank the Usenet community for contributing to
   the FAQ and all the people who have written us.
   Then I want to thank the people who worked on the FAQ before I did
   take them over (in order of working): Pascal Chesnais and Erik Kay,
   Nathan F. Janette, Maximilian Goedel (never released anything but
   cleaned up some things for me).
   Thanks also to Karl Ewald, who contributed his latex2html Perl script
   which replaced the non working original latex2html version.
                            2 GENERAL INFORMATION
   General information
2.1 Information available but not in the written FAQ version

   pinout patches
   There is additional information available for the following topics:
   mouse pinouts, monitor cable pinouts, common addresses, mousepointer
   patch, windowmanager patch.
   These inforamations are not included in the written FAQ, because they
   are considered rarely referenced resources and of not much use for the
   written FAQ. However you'll get these information when you download
   the whole FAQ via FTP or HTTP as a package for your computer. Please
   look at for further information.
2.2 Where to get answers?

   If you run into a problem, first read the FAQ of course :-) Second you
   might consider asking NeXT directly through the electronic service: Send an e-mail with subject: ascii help index to
   If all fails, post to the newsgroups concerning NeXT related topics:*,
2.3 How may I contact NeXT, Inc.?

   Next, Inc. Contacting NeXT, Inc. Address of NeXT, Inc.
   NeXT, Inc. can be reached under the following addresses.

        USA:    NeXT, Inc.
                900 Chesapeake Drive
                Redwood City, CA 94063
                Voice: 800-848-NeXT (Redwood City #)
                Voice: (415)-366-0900

        Japan:  NeXT marketing div. of Canon - Japan
                Phone:  (81)-44-549-5295
                Fax:    (81)-44-549-5462

        EUROPE: Munich:
                Phone:  (49)-89-996-5310

        UK:     Technology House
                Furlong Road
                Bourne End
                SL8 5AJ
                Phone: (44)-1628 535222
                Fax:   (44)-1628 535200

   Note: numbers abroad are listed with the country codes first. You will
   need to dial the international access number of your long distance
   carrier before proceeding to dialing the country code, area code and
   phone number.
2.4 FTP servers

   FTP Software
   The FAQ mentions a lot of software packages which you might find
   useful. In general there are two big sites serving Europe and the US.
   These sites keep most of the software available and do mirror
   themselves to keep up to date (although the structure of the archive
   differ). If the software isn't on one of these sites, the appr
   opriate site is listed in the text.
   If you get slow connections you might want to consider contacting a
   mirror of the both sites. For the Peanuts archive (Europe) the WWW
   pages give you links to an updated list of
   mirrors and other FTP sites.
   The addresses are: (formerly the archive) (Peanuts archive in Europe) (Peanuts mirror USA)
   (Peanuts mirror Switzerland)
2.5 Software on CD

   There are currently two CD (sets) which serve you with
   NEXTSTEP/OpenStep software:
   Nebula. Nebula is published by Walnut Creek and mostly contains actual
   recompiled software for all supported hardware platforms. It might be
   the best choice for those who don't own a compiler. A big font
   collection and a developer section complete the disk.
   Peanuts Archive Disks. The Peanuts FTP Archive in Munich distributes
   their complete NEXTSTEP/OpenStep archive on CD. This currently brings
   you 4CDs full with software. Although the software isn't compiled for
   each hardware (it is provided 'as uploaded') it is the most complete
   software and information resource available on CD. (It includes the
   NeXTanswers published by NeXT).,
   Fatted Calf CD-ROM. The Fatted Calf CD-ROM is published by Ensuing
   Technologies, LasVegas, Nevada. Currently I don't know it's special
   Big Green CD. Selected software for NEXTSTEP. Also this software is on
   any other CD, too. It might be a good startes collection.,
   Font Garden for NEXTSTEP CDROM. Some more fonts for computers running
   NEXTSTEP. These fonts should be capable of the NEXTSTEP encoding
   sheme. However we got noticed that only very few are ISO-LATIN_1. So
   it is possible of most interested to English speaking countries.
   Clips for QuickTime. Quicktime is NeXT's native format for movies, so
   some samples might be quite nice. Note: On the latest Peanuts Archive,
   you'll get about 200MB of quicktime movies which might be enough, too.
2.6 What is the current status of NEXTSTEP/OpenStep?

   status, NEXTSTEP status, OpenStep
   The third production version 3.3, has been released for Intel
   Processors (i486 and higher) as well as for NeXT hardware (not
   manufactured any longer but still supported), HP workstations and Sun
   OpenStep versions are announced and will be available this year (1996)
   for Windows NT, Windows 95, Mach, Solaris and hopefully HP-UX. The
   status for DEC machines and their OS (OSF/1, OpenVMS) is unknown. At
   least it is uncertain that there will be a port to OSF/1 or even
   OpenVMS, because DEC is doing the port alone. At least you can run
   OpenStep on DEC machines running Windows NT in the near future. For
   Sun's Solaris systems OpenStep will probably be part of the
   There will be no NEXTSTEP 4.0, because NeXT changed the naming
   conventions. NEXTSTEP 4.0 (also sometimes referenced as 'Mecca') is
   now named 'OpenStep for Mach'
2.7 Will there be a public implementation of OpenStep?

   Yes, there is a project by GNU. The so named GNUStep is available in
   pre-alpha state from the archive sites. Be aware that it is not fully
   functional and currently requires Motif.
   In its current state, GNUStep is on it's way to port the FoundationKit
   completely. This alone makes it worth to give it a try.
2.8 Are there differences between Openstep for Mach and other implementations?

   Yes there are. OpenStep for Mach will include all the well known
   features from NEXTSTEP (Services, Filters, SoundKit, ...) which the
   other implementations will lack, due to the underlying OS.
   To get all the benefits which is offered in NEXTSTEP today, you need
   to go for OpenStep for Mach.
2.9 What information is available by NeXT

   information NeXT
   NeXT, Inc. now operates an automatic e-mail response system. Send
   e-mail to "" with the subject

        "ascii help index"

   to start.
   If you do have access to the world wide web, you even want to try the
   following URL:
2.10 What is the correct spelling?

   NeXT did (and probably will) change their naming conventions a lot.
   E.g. NEXTSTEP is the current correct spelling for their operating
   system. With the shipping of OpenStep, there will be no more NEXTSTEP,
   but OpenStep for Mach/Solaris/HP-UX/Windows95/Wind
   Incorrect spellings are: NeXTSTEP, NeXTstep, NeXTStep.
   A common shortcut used in the newsgroups is: NS for NEXTSTEP.
2.11 How do I start an official NeXT User Group?

   NUG user groups NeXT user groups To start a user group, just send
   e-mail to
2.12 Are there differences in the NEXTSTEP implementations?

   No, there are no differences beside the DSP, which is a hardware
   feature of NeXT computers. On other hardware platforms you have to buy
   additional hardware.
2.13 What are the names of the ftp sites that have NeXT-related files?

   FTP, servers
   There are too many to list them all, so are here are just a few.

        MIT GNU:

        MIT X:


2.14 Additional information sources

   Additional information Information, additional Every NeXT machine
   owner has access to manuals to a degree. Network and System
   Administration (NSA), for example contains answers to many of the
   questions asked to Some of the important man pages are
   reproduced in the NSA as appendices.
   User manuals were shipped with every NeXT. Additional copies available
   from NeXT (N6002/N6003/N6014/N6026) $25.
   The following books are available directly from NeXT:
     * Operating System Software
     * NeXTstep Concepts
     * NeXTstep Reference, v. 1
     * NeXTstep Reference, v. 2
     * Development Tools
     * Sound, Music, and Signal Processing: Concepts
     * Sound, Music, and Signal Processing: Reference
     * Writing Loadable Kernel Servers
     * Technical Summaries
     * Supplemental Documentation
   Unix man pages, which are included in the online docs.
   BSD unix documentation (MISC, PS1, PS2, SMM, USD). Available from to
   USENIX site members. A lot of this has been integrated into the NeXT
   documentation. Some of this is sorely missing. The SMM Unix System
   Manager's Manual is really useful!

        USENIX Association
        2560 Ninth Street, Suite 215
        Berkeley, CA  94710
        USA +1 510 528 8649
        fax +1 510 548 5738

     * PS1 = Programmer's Supplementary Documents, Volume 1
     * PS2 = Programmer's Supplementary Documents, Volume 2
     * SMM = System Manager's Manual
     * USD = User's Supplementary Documents
   The SMM and the rest of the berkeley documentation are also available
   directly and for free via anon ftp e.g. from

   To format them properly for viewing and printing on the NeXT use nroff
   with the package indicated by the file suffix (e.g. to format the
   documentation file 0.t use nroff -mt 0.t).
   Adobe documentation. Available machine-readable by e-mail from Hardcopy available from Adobe Developer
   Support Line +1 415 961-4111 for a nominal charge. NeXT last shipped
   these as part of the 1.0a release; hardcopies appeared in 0.9
   Technical Documentation, were omitted in 1.0, and have returned in
   updated form in Supplemental Documentation of the 2.0 Tech Docs (which
   is not available on-line).
   Get NextAnswers for Digital Librarian from NeXT. The current versions
   are actually on or available via the mailserver at
   Get NeXT Support Bulletin from the archives. It is meant for support
   Another good source of information is the archives of previously
   posted notes from the* newsgroups. Note that since the
   split of, there is a group archive maintained at
   NeXTstep Advantage book is available electronically from the archive
   The file name is NeXTstepAdvantage.tar.Z; (its compressed size is
   about 1.3 megabytes; uncompressed, it's about 9.5 megabytes). It is a
   good introduction to the NeXT programming environment.
2.15 How to get FTP files via e-mail.

   FTP, e-mail access Some ftp sites are configured as an e-mail archive
   server. This means you can upload and download files via e-mail.

       Send mail to:

   (with the subject line help and you will get a complete description of
   this service)
   Submissions: Mail should be sent to with
   the subject of 'submission' (no ticks) if a person is submitting
   material to the archives. They need to include a 1-2 sentence
   description of the submission, the OS release the product runs on, and
   if it is source, binary, newsletter, etc.
2.16 References on Objective C

   Objective-C, documents Objective-C and other useful Object-oriented
   programming references:
   Budd, Timothy, An Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming
   (Addison-Wesley) [It discusses Smalltalk, Object Pascal, C++ and
   Cox, Brad J., Object Oriented Programming: An Evolutionary Approach
   ISBN 0-201-10393-1. (Addison-Wesley) [Note: 2nd edition - ISBN is
   0-201-54834-8 and has coauthor A.J. Novobilski]
   Huizenga, Gerrit, Slides from a short course on Objective-C available
   via anonymous ftp from:,, or
   Meyer, Bertrand, Object-Oriented Software Construction
   NeXT Technical Documentation
   Pinson and Weiner, Objective-C: Object-Oriented Programming Techniques
   (Addison-Wesley). 350 pages, ISBN 0 201 50828 1, paperback.
   User Reference Manual for Objective-C which is available from
   Stepstone Corporation. (203)426-1875. Note: There are some differences
   between Stepstone's Objective-C and NeXT's.
2.17 How to contact music interested people.

   Music, contacts
   Since NeXT has become for now the platform of choice for much of the
   computer music composition and research community, the newsgroup is one good place to find people with information and
   interest in music on the NeXT.
   There is also a mailing list specifically for NeXT music. For posting
   to the dist list:
   To subscribe, unsubscribe, change addresses, etc.:
2.18 How to announce upcoming events

   Announcements Please send any announcements of upcoming NeXT-related
   events to These events will be posted to Be sure to send your announcement in plenty of
   time to have it posted prior to the event. One to two weeks in advance
   would be a good idea.
   Since postings will be carried across many networks, commercial
   announcements may be edited down to reflect network usage policies.
   Look for current guidelines posted weekly in the newsgroup.
2.19 Can I mix different hardware running NEXTSTEP?

   NeXT, networking Networking
   Of course! NEXTSTEP is design to plug and play with existing NeXT
   installations. NeXT has addressed interoperability between NEXTSTEP
   systems in the following ways:
     * NEXTSTEP systems share identical networking capabilities.
     * NEXTSTEP systems share the same Distributed Objects.
     * NEXTSTEP systems use the same system and network administration
     * NEXTSTEP systems use the same mass storage format. Yes, you can
       take a external SCSI drive, removable media (e.g. Bernoulli etc)
       or floppy disk and use it interchangeably between NeXT Computers
       running NEXTSTEP.
2.20 Can I exchange software running on different hardware?

   With the shipping of NEXTSTEP 3.x binaries are distributed FAT. This
   means, that a binary might include different versions of the
   executable for each hardware platform NEXTSTEP is running on. On the
   archive sites you might easily recognize the supported h
   ardware by a key letter: N = NeXT computers, I=Intel based, H=HP
   hardware, S=Sun hardware. A FAT binary is runable by every supported
   hardware listed in the binary file. NeXT ships tools to examine such a
   fat binary and to add/strip different hardwa
   re modules to/from a binary.
   The correct spelling for a fat binary is: MAB binary (multi
   architecture binary) but most commonly 'fat' is used.
   With the shipping of OpenStep this will change. OpenStep applications
   are only sourcecode compatible and have to be recompiled for each
   architecture. This implies that you need a compiler for future
   PD/SW/FW-software, although OpenStep for Mach will still
   support FAT binaries and NEXTSTEP 3.x applications will continue to
   run under OpenStep for Mach.
                                3 WHAT IS ...
   What is ...
   This chapter tries to give you some overview over NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP
   software and related software. For a detailed description you should
   contact the producer's WWW server. E.g. for more information about
   OPENSTEP contact

   NEXTSTEP is a complete development and user environment by NeXT it
   provides an unique GUI (graphical user interface), which currently
   gets copied by several other OS provider like Microsoft, combined with
   the currently most advanced and tested OS, named Mach. NeXT applied
   several changes to the Mach kernel to add special features which makes
   NEXTSTEP unique.
   NEXTSTEP comes with a lot of development kits (bundles of classes to
   build on), like: Sound Kit, Indexing Kit, 3D Graphics Kit, Database or
   EOF Kit and Application Kit.
   Bundled with NEXTSTEP are several user applications which enhance the
   daily use dramatically: NeXTMail (a MIME compatible mail application),
   Edit (a simple but powerful editor), FaxReader (for reading incoming
   faxes, you are able to send faxes from every application which
   supports printing), DigitalWebster (Webster's Ninth New Collegiate
   Dictionary and Collegiate Thesaurus), Digital Librarian (indexing and
   full text search utility, usable over groups of files) Preview (a
   PostScript and TIFF display utility), Terminal (UNIX terminal
   application for VT100 and TN3270 emulation), TeX (a well known
   compiler for formatted text), SYBASE and ORACLE adapters (to contact
   to SYBASE and ORACLE databases within EOF applications).
   One special thing about NEXTSTEP is the display system. NeXT uses DPS
   (Display Post Script), which gives you true WYSIWYG on every NEXTSTEP
   system. The window server supports PostScript Level II, Interactive
   RenderMan and Photorealistic RenderMan (an distributed engine for fast
   high quality rendering, based on Pixar's RenderMan).
   To be used in networks, NEXTSTEP supports NFS, NetInfo, Novell Netware
   (as client only), Ethernet and Token Ring and different filesystems
   (Mac, DOS, ISO 9660, High Sierra, Rock Ridge).
   For multimedia purposes NeXT uses Lempel-Ziv compression for text,
   Audio Transform Compression for Sound (comparable to Sony MiniDisc),
   JPEG for TIFF and Group 4 for Fax. Of course these are only standard
   modes and NEXTSTEP is extensible to use other methods too.
   For system administration (remember that NEXTSTEP is using Mach as an
   UNIX derivate), NeXT supplies several administration applications
   which make it easy to configure NEXTSTEP as needed, like:
   SimpleNetworkStarter, UserManager, PrintManager, NFSManager,
   HostManager, NetInfo Manager, BuildDisk, Upgrader and the complete
   documentation and manual pages online.
3.2 Mach

   Mach is the the basic OS layer NeXT uses for NEXTSTEP. It is a micro
   kernel, which means it is extensible at runtime. Micro kernel often
   stands for a small kernel size, too, but due to the compatibility to
   BSD 4.3 Mach is currently about 1MB in size.
   Features of Mach are: loadable kernel services (extensions during
   runtime), different scheduling algorithms, an advanced messaging
   system, an advanced memory allocation mechanism (copy on demand, world
   wide message broadcasting), true multitasking, multi-threading and BSD

   OPENSTEP is the latest release of NeXT's NEXTSTEP with the ability to
   be OS independent (NEXTSTEP depends on Mach).
   OPENSTEP is currently available for Mach, Windows NT and Solaris and
   will get available for other operating systems in the future.
   The architecture of OPENSTEP was made public in late 1995 and since
   then GNU is working on a public port of OPENSTEP to e.g. X11 based
   UNIX systems.
   To express the new standard, 'OPENSTEP/Mach' is now the correct
   spelling for the formerly named NEXTSTEP product by NeXT, but it is
   known that NeXT itself is still using the same version numbering
   scheme for at least the Mach product line, so the first release of
   OPENSTEP for Mach is equivalent to NEXTSTEP 4.0 and in fact the first
   OPENSTEP product is named 'OPENSTEP/Mach 4.0'.
   OPENSTEP is supposed to be an industry standard for developing object
   oriented, system independent, scalable solutions for client/server
   architectures. It was adopted by Sun, Hewlett Packard and Digital. It
   provides distributed applications through PDO (Portable Distributed
   Objects) and D'OLE (Distributed OLE) based on CORBA. The usage of EOF
   supplies object persistence with traditional relational databases. And
   finally with WebObjects, objects are accessible through the internet
   or in your own private network.
   OPENSTEP, like NEXTSTEP 3.3 provides several kits for software
   developers like: Application Kit and Foundation Kit as well as Display
   Applications written for OPENSTEP are sourcecode compatible to all
   other architectures running OPENSTEP, although fat binaries are only
   available under OPENSTEP for Mach (because the binary format is
   depending on the operating system). It's rumored, that OPENSTEP
   applications will also compile fine under Apple's new Rhapsody
   For the NEXTSTEP user OPENSTEP doesn't take away old known features.
   In addition with OPENSTEP for Mach you get Mach enhancements, an
   enhanced workspace manager, Perl5, TaylerUUCP, PPP and Samba.
   Old applications will continue to run under OPENSTEP for Mach and need
   to be recompiled to run under Windows NT, Solaris, and other OPENSTEP
   platforms. Which goes side by side to become true OPENSTEP
   The following are some new advantages/disadvantages over the known
   NEXTSTEP product:
     * documented NEXTIME library for developing
     * faster message handling
     * handling of disks >2GB in automatically. Paritioning size is still
       limited to 2GB.
     * no Novell Netware support (supposed to be included with OPENSTEP
     * Renderman still included
     * Indexing Kit available by third party (MiscKit)
     * no more POSIX! (Hopefully included again in OPENSTEP 4.1)
3.4 Objective-C

   To develop applications NeXT uses Objective-C as its native
   programming language. Objective-C is a more strict OO language then
   C++ but covers C as well as C++. Because NeXT uses the GNU C/C++
   compiler, you go with the most spreaded and tested C compiler
   available for most UNIX platforms of today. (Of course you can use
   Objective-C on every platform on which gcc is available).
   Objective-C is different to other languages in the way it executes
   code. Objective-C uses a runtime library to dynamically access objects
   at runtime. This allows you to change objects at runtime etc. All this
   goes with nearly no speed penalty, because hashing mechanisms are used
   to access the different methods of an object.
   There is also ObjC which is an different product, available as a
   commercial compiler for different operating systems. Don't mix up
   things by using the expression ObjC instead of Objective-C. For
   shortcut purposes the NeXT community also uses the term ObjC/Obj-C but
   of course thinks of Objective-C by NeXT.
   Objective-C isn't standardized, yet.
   In Objective-C you are able to mix code. E.g. you can use C++ and C in
   any Objective-C program.
   Objective-C is a simple and concise object-oriented extension to
   ANSI-C. It has a runtime messaging facility and offers dynamic
   binding. Distributed objects are supported and the code is optimized
   for native compilations.
   It's syntax and programming technique is much like in SmallTalk. Using
   Objective-C you can even message objects in other applications, also
   over a network!

   NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP Developer is currently the only way to develop
   applications under NEXTSTEP because it includes all the necessary
   include files and libraries.(Of course you can get any GNU C version
   precompiled, but it won't help you without the include files and
   linker libraries).
   In addition to a precompiled GCC, include files and the linker
   libraries you will get the famous NeXT developer tools: ProjectBuilder
   (your commando center for building applications and managing sources),
   InterfaceBuilder (for designing the application's GUI and making
   object connections), an graphical addition to GDB (GNU Debugger)
   integrated in Edit (NEXTSTEP) or ProjectBuilder (OPENSTEP),
   MallocDebug (for seeking memory leaks), HeaderViewer (access class
   information in header files and in documented form in a browser),
   DBModeler (for building data models, based on Database Kit) (NEXTSTEP
   only), Yap (an interactive PostScript interpreter and viewer),
   IconBuilder (a very simple but extensible pixel-based editor for
   creating icons) and popular UNIX utilities like GNU Emacs, yacc, lex,
3.6 D'OLE

   D'OLE is a shortcut for Distributed OLE. OLE is Microsoft's standard
   for Object Linking and Embedding and is currently not distributable
   across platforms. With D'OLE you can distribute OLE objects across the
   network like e.g. in SOM by IBM. But D'OLE is more. It uses NeXT's
   object model PDO (Portable Distributed Objects) from Unix to Windows
   platforms and enables OLE objects to communicate with OPENSTEP objects
   natively, which means without changing the application. OPENSTEP
   objects behave like OLE objects and vice versa.
   D'OLE also supports EOF (Enterprise Objects Framework) which enables a
   distributed computing environment to access database and provides an
   infinitely flexible choice of application deployment of application
   deployment strategies.
   D'OLE uses the Foundation Framework, Distributed Object Framework and
   other core classes. It comes bundled with C/Objective-C compiler and
   GNU make, although Microsoft Visual C++ is required. Further you get a
   portable nmserver, Mach emulation and on-line documentation.
3.7 PDO --- Portable Distributed Objects

   PDO is a shortcut for Portable Distributed Objects. In the near future
   PDO will become CORBA 2.0 compliant.
   It is the industry's first product to provide a heterogeneous
   client/server framework on objects. With PDO it is possible to deploy
   objects on non-NEXTSTEP server Machines and therefore deployed
   anywhere in a network, wherever they are most appropriate for a task.
   PDO encapsulates low-level network protocols, making messaging a
   remote object as straightforward as messaging a local object. You even
   don't have to learn new programming tools or techniques, because PDO
   is a subset of NeXT tools and objects. Because PDO makes object
   location completely transparent to the application, the application
   communicates with every object the same way regardless wether it is
   local, in the local network or anywhere in the world.
   Because of the free location of objects, objects may get moved to
   other locations, e.g. to optimize performance, without modification of
   the application using it.
   PDO also runs on non-NEXTSTEP servers. It comes with it's own set of
   classes, libraries and even an Objective-C++ compiler, etc. Neverless
   you can build, maintain, etc. from any NEXTSTEP client connected to a
   PDO server. The tools used for building the final objects however are
   native to the server's OS.
   PDO comes with Foundation Framework, Distributed Objects Framework,
   DOEventLoop and other core classes. Bundled tools are: Objective-C++
   compiler, GDB, libg++, GNU make, Portable BuildServer, Portable
   nmserver, Mach Emulation, NEXTSTEP's default system, on-line
   documentation. Currently supported platforms are: HP-UX, SunOS,
   Solaris, Digital UNIX.
3.8 EOF --- Enterprise Objects Framework

   EOF is the latest replacement for the DatabaseKit and available as an
   extra product.
   EOF bridges the gap between objects and relational databases. With EOF
   you can bring the advantage of object oriented design etc. to
   applications which use relational databases. (Therefore you don't need
   an object oriented database!)
   EOF clarifies many things. It supports a three-tier client/server
   architecture by separating the user interface, business objects and
   the database. In fact you can simply exchange the database (by
   changing the adapter) and still use the same application!
   Developing under EOF doesn't limit you to e.g. Objective-C. EOF allows
   the integration of e.g. 4GL code as well as SQL etc. all combined
   under the advantage of NeXT's developer tools.
   EOF includes client and server software. It consists of the Enterprise
   Object Modeler, runtime libraries and adapters for SYBASE,ORACLE and
   Informix (other adapters available from the DBMS producers). It
   currently runs under HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, Digital UNIX and always
   requires PDO. For client use you additionally need NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP.
3.9 WebObjects

   WebObjects helps you building dynamic Web pages. It is targeted to the
   server side of the Web and there mostly to the intranets, also most
   people might find it very useful for the Internet, too. It is
   operating system independent and runs under Windows NT, Solaris,
   WebObjects contains development tools to build components for your
   application logic, as well as a set of reusable components to manage
   the rendering of your application. Because WebObjects is Java
   compatible, you even can integrate Java applets in your application
   today. It supports the standard http servers which have to support CGI
   or NSAPI interface. WebObjects supports database access to Informix,
   Oracle, Sybase and DB/2.
   What's unique about WebObjects is the ability to share the logic of
   your Web application and your data with other internal applications.
   It means that you are not required to maintain a dedicated database or
   write specific application code for your Web application.
   Currently there are three versions of WebObjects: WebObjects,
   WebObjects Pro and WebObjects Enterprise. WebObjects itself is freely
   available to anybody interested in. WebObjects Pro contains PDO and
   WebObjects Enterprise contains PDO and EOF with a special license to
   connect to the Internet. But because WebObjects is a brand new
   product, look at for further
   WebObjects is free for academic usage.
3.10 Rhapsody

   Rhapsody Rhapsody is the code name for Apple's new operating system,
   based on BSD 4.4 and OPENSTEP frameworks. Because it's not released
   yet, we don't talk about it. (Also we could, of course, spread some
   details, but it would only produce more noise.) Please refer to,,, for more details
3.11 WWW Browser

   WWW Browser Browser OmniWeb NetSurfer SpiderWoman NetScape
   First: There is no Java capable browser.
   Several NEXTSTEP browsers are available for NEXTSTEP. The currently
   most advanced browser is named 'OmniWeb'. OmniWeb is commercial in the
   way that you need a license to use it in a network. A single user
   license is free. OmniWeb seems to be continuesly updated and support
   is known to be good. OmniWeb is also supporting a lot of well known
   Netscape features.
   There is also a public domain WWW browser named 'SpiderWoman'. It's
   plus is the NEXTSTEP look and feel (e.g. you navigate through the Web
   like you navigate your filesystem with WorkspaceManager). Anyway
   SpiderWoman is somehow unstable and it seems as if development
   Another commercial browser is NetSurfer. Demos are available on the
   ftp sites. This browser is preferred by several people because it
   integrates ftp access very well. Anyway you have to pay for it.
   Netscape isn't available for NEXTSTEP and is unlikely to be ported.
3.12 Newsreader

   Newsreader Alexandra NewsGrazer NewsFlash RadicalNews
   There are currently four well known newsreaders for NEXTSTEP.
   First there is Alexandra, a public domain newsreader and second there
   is NewsGrazer (and unsupported NeXT product). You should test them to
   get your personal favorite. The only real difference is the support of
   NEXTSTEP 3.3J (Japanese) and flatfiles in NewsGrazer, while the
   interface in Alexandra seems to be better for many people.
   NewsFlash is a commercial product which adds several features. As
   RadicalNews it supports article threading, automated posting and
   extraction of multi-part files. Demos are available on the ftp sites.
   E-mail inquiries should go to Further info is
   available at:
   RadicalNews is a commercial newsreader. It supports true article
   threading, quoted text highlighting, japanese and Latin-1 support,
   URL-support, an interface to Digital Librarian, a sophisticated
   coloring scheme and much more. Info is available at:
   A note to both commercial versions: the community is very splitted
   about which version is to prefer. In general it seems as if there are
   no really 'killer features' so it prefers much to personal taste.
   Demos are available and don't forget to test the free versions, too!
                         4 MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
   Misc Various Unsorted
4.1 How do I get pictures of people from remote sites to appear in and

   Pictures, in Mail Pictures, in NewsGrazer Mail, remote Pictures
   Newsgrazer, remote Pictures
   You can do this in the following ways.
     * Mail In /LocalLibrary/Images/People put a tiff (64x64) in the form
       of (all lowercase). In
       /LocalLibrary/Images/People/passwd add an entry for the person:

       (person and sitename need to be all lowercase as well) In the
       future anytime you get mail from the person their picture should
       You can include an "aliases" file in /LocalLibrary/Images/People
       too. This allows you to use the same picture for somebody that
       might send you mail from accounts on many different sites, or for
       those people whose letters use several different routings.
       To do this, you include entries in this local aliases file like

       There should then be a .tiff file called
       There can be no CAPITAL LETTERS in this file. So even if the
       address in the From: field looks like!bkohler@uupsi2.UUCP, keep the letters lowercase in
       the aliases file. As always, you have to restart Mail before these
       changes take effect.
     * NewsGrazer
       In /LocalLibrary/NewsGrazer/People put a tiff (64x64) in the form
       of (all lowercase). This is a different
       naming convention from what Mail uses.
       There is a large archive of some 4000 or 5000 pictures prepared
       for this purpose. The name of this archive is Faces3.tar.Z and it
       is about 4.1 MBytes large. Currently it is available from several
       anonymous ftp sites (e.g. in:
       That image archive also contains a script which automatically
       creates proper alias and passwd files.
4.2 How to manipulate and examine default settings

     * A command line utility for examining defaults is available from:
     * A PD App,, is available on the NeXT ftp archives.
     * A more brute approach (done by
       Start the application under gdb, and then try the following
       sequence of commands:

        break  *0x500976a
        commands 1
        printf "%s: ", *$a2
        output {char *}(4+$a2)
        echo \n

   [Carl Edman ] adds: doesn't any longer work properly under 3.0. It still is
   able to manipulate defaults but can't any longer "investigate" apps to
   find out which defaults they use.
   [eps@toaster.SFSU.EDU (Eric P. Scott)] adds:
   Needs to be revised for 3.x systems. wmdefaults is only for 2.x; it's
   not needed for 3.0 and later.
4.3 How do I run NextApps remotely?

   Remote running
   On the local machine make sure you have public window server access,
   this is set from the Preferences application. On the foreign NeXT
   machine run the application from a terminal window with the -NXHost .
   Both machines should be running the same version of NeXTstep.
   [ (Steve Hayman)]
   NeXTSTEP 3.1 and higher includes a demo application called OpenSesame
   that simplifies this. You can select a program in Workspace and use >
   Service > Open Sesame > Open on Another Host launch a program on
   a remote machine. This is a way to run old, non-fat-binary software on
   new NeXTSTEP/Intel machines.
4.4 Why does UUCP hangs on outgoing connections after sending the password, but
other communications software do not have a problem with it?

   What is happening is that the remote machine is waiting for you to end
   your login or password by typing a "Return" (aka &Mcirc; or CR or
   CARRIAGE RETURN). UUCP ends a line by sending a LineFeed (aka Ĵ
   or LF). Since UUCP doesn't send the CR, the login sequence is never
   completed, and you will usually get one of two error messages:

        wanted "password:" (means that username needs to end with a CR)
        imsg waiting for SYNC< (means that password needs to end with CR)

   So how do you get UUCP to send CR, instead of LF?
   End the send string with the sequence
   c. For instance this line in L.sys will send a LF after login, but a
   CR after password.

        myfeed Any DIR 9600 cub "" ATTD19095551212 9600 \
        "" ogin:--ogin: Unext ssword: secret\n\c

4.5 How do I access the NeXT's Digital Webster Dictionary from a program?

   Get Jiro Nakamura's define program from the archiver servers:
   define.tar.Z. This will allow you to access the database from the
   command line. This program breaks under 3.x. For 3.x there are two
   other programs which might be useful: Webster.a5 and websterd.
4.6 How do I get the arrow keys to work in csh?

   csh, arrow keys
   This is for people who use a terminal app that does vt100 keyboard
   emulation - pasc
   First, add these lines to your .cshrc (preferably between the if and

        set editmode=emacs
        set macrofiles=.macros

   Then create a file called .bindings and put in it:

        bind-to-key ExecuteNamedMacro '\e['

   And, next, you need to make a file called ".macros". Using an editor
   like emacs (which can insert control characters using a &Qcirc;
   prefix), into this file put:


   where &@circ; means Control-@ and É means Control-A, etc. Also, don't
   put in the leading spaces. This will set up the left and right arrows
   to move back and forth on the line, and the up and down arrows will
   cycle through your history.
   On Intel machines these sequences are a little different:


   Then source .cshrc and the changes should take effect.
4.7 What default affects menu location?

   Menu, location Do the following.

        dwrite GLOBAL NXMenuX <value>
        dwrite GLOBAL NXMenuY <value>

4.8 How to get Gourmet to boot up the Mathematica 2.0 kernel?

   Login as root, or get root privileges running su, and execute the
   following five commands:

        mkdirs /NextApps/
        cd /NextApps/
        ln -s uuuuu/ Utilities
        cd NeXT
        ln -s vvvvv/math mathexe

   where uuuuu is the directory where Mathematica was placed (typically,
   /LocalApps) and vvvvv is the directory where the executable math was
   placed (typically, /usr/local/bin)
4.9 Manipulating the Loginwindow

   loginwindow dwrites
   There are some for loginwindow:
   [Jess Anderson writes:]
   Here, I hope, is the quasi-definitive story on dwrites that affect the
   loginwindow. I'm indebted to several people, notably Art Isbell,
   Kristian Koehntopp, Dan Danz, Louie Mamakos, John Kheit, Felix Lugo,
   and Paul Sears, for some of the information presented here.
   Remember that dwrites are not supported by NeXT; they may change with
   any subsequent system release. These I've checked out using 3.0; some
   or all may work with earlier releases, but I can't vouch for most of
   All these dwrites must be done as root. You can also run as root and
   use DefaultMgr to set them (which is a whole lot more convenient if
   you're intending to fiddle with some of them).
   After setting the things you want, restart the WindowServer by logging
   out of the current session and typing exit on the login panel.
   OK, here's what we know (or think we do :-):

        dwrite loginwindow DefaultUser <login-name>

   Most new machines have set to me. This dwrite logs in user
   automatically. User must not have a password set, hence don't use this
   in a networked environment!

        dwrite loginwindow HostName "<host_name>"
        dwrite loginwindow HostName localhost

   These cause your host name to appear on the login panel. You need
   quote marks only if there's a space in the name. The first form
   hard-codes the name into root's defaults database. The second form
   uses whatever name has been set as localhost in NetInfo, which is
   convenient for networked machines.
   The font, size, color, and position of the printed string are not
   accessible (drat!).

        dwrite loginwindow ImageFile <path/to/a/suitable.tiff>

   This uses the tiff image pointed to instead of the standard one (in
   /usr/lib/NextStep/, .lproj
   as appropriate for your main language) as the login panel. Be sure you
   get the pointer right, though, or you'll have to boot single-user to
   fix it. In practical terms, the image is constrained in various ways I
   won't detail here.

        dwrite loginwindow TimeToDim <integer_number>

   No relation to the dim time set by Preferences. The units are odd, I
   think. Felix reported them as 1/34 second. However, when I changed it
   to 1020, I got 15 seconds to dimming, and 680 gives 10 seconds, that
   I'm sure of. So I think the units are 1/68 second. Maybe Felix just
   thought it was too damn long! We all know it seems longer when you're
   not having fun waiting. :-) Whatever, the login screen dims to about
   half after this length of time.

        dwrite loginwindow MoveWhenIdle YES

   This causes the panel to move around approximately in Backspace
   bouncing-off-the-walls-tiff fashion. The point is to avoid burning the
   screen phosphors, as a static image would tend to do. The animation is
   controlled by the next couple dwrites.

        dwrite loginwindow MovementTimeout <real_number>

   The units are seconds. The panel starts moving (assuming the preceding
   is set to YES) after this time. If you set it to be less than the
   TimeToDim time, the movement starts before the dimming occurs. I did
   not try zero. I can't stand waiting around for things to happen, so I
   use 10 seconds for both times. The default appears to be 5 minutes.

        dwrite loginwindow MovementScale <integer_number>

   No movement occurs if this is set to 1. But it looks like the units
   might be approximately pixels for each change of position (the
   frequency of which is controlled by the next dwrite). If you put a big
   number here, say 200, the image moves in big jumps, but I don't know
   if the 200 is divided up somehow between change in x- and
   y-coordinates. I wouldn't worry about it much, just set it to
   something you like. Since my image contains readable text, I want it
   to scroll smoothly around, so I use the apparently minimum value, 2.
   The default appears to be 10.

        dwrite loginwindow MovementRate <real_number>

   The units are seconds. The image jumps by the amount above every this
   many seconds. The default is 0.0666 seconds. Bigger numbers mean
   slower motion. Since I don't like things being too jumpy or zooming
   around, I set this to 0.1 seconds. This makes my image ooze at a pace
   befitting an elderly person like me.

        dwrite loginwindow PowerOffDisabled YES

   This makes it a little harder to turn the machine off; you have to use
   the monitor or the minimonitor (- ) if it's set, rather than the key.

        dwrite loginwindow LoginHook <path/to/loginhook/executable>
        dwrite loginwindow LogoutHook <path/to/logouthook/executable>

   Pointers to the login and logout hooks, if used. It should be pointed
   out that some of these things (login/logout hooks, for example) are
   maybe more logically set where the loginwindow is invoked by the
   WindowServer, namely /etc/ttys.
   There are yet others. Here's the full list (thanks, Art):

        NXGetDefaultValue("loginwindow", "DebugHook") => 0x0
        NXGetDefaultValue("loginwindow", "DryRun") => 0x0
        NXGetDefaultValue("loginwindow", "WindowServerTimeout") => 0x0
        NXRegisterDefaults("loginwindow", 0x16024)
        KeyMapPath: 0x12d97
        Keymap: 0x12de1 "/NextLibrary/Keyboards/USA"
        SwappedKeymap: 0x12e0a "No"
        LoginHook: 0x0
        LogoutHook: 0x0
        HostName: 0x0
        ImageFile: 0x0
        DefaultUser: 0x12e41 "me"
        PowerOffDisabled: 0x0
        TimeToDim: 0x12e69 "2040"
        MoveWhenIdle: 0x12e0a "No"
        MovementTimeout: 0x12e8b "300.0"
        MovementRate: 0x12e9e "0.06666"
        MovementScale: 0x12eb4 "10"

   [Christopher J. Kane]
   Under NeXTSTEP 3.1, the login window has two buttons labeled "Reboot"
   and "Power" that allow a user to reboot and power down from the login
   window. In a public lab, this feature may be undesirable. The
   PowerOffDisabled default can be used to disable the buttons, but they
   are still shown in the window and push in when clicked (a bad user
   interface decision, IMHO).
   The program below patches loginwindow to eradicate the restart and
   power buttons. It makes the loginwindow's LoginButton class instance
   method initWithImage:altImage:andString: a no-op (just return nil).
   This patch has been applied to the machines in the NeXT lab at Purdue
   (like for instance), and no adverse effects have
   been noted.
   This program must be run as root, since it writes to the file
   An archive with a compiled executable has been submitted to

         * Patches the to eradicate the restart and power
         * buttons from the login window.
         * Christopher J. Kane (
         * Released into public domain; August 13, 1993.
        #include <libc.h>
        #include <errno.h>
        void main(int argc, char *argv[])
          unsigned char patch[8] = {0x0, 0x0, 0x42, 0x80, 0x4e, 0x5e, 0x4e,
        int file = open("/usr/lib/NextStep/",
          if (-1==file)
            goto error;
          if (-1==lseek(file, 21170, SEEK_SET))
            goto error;
          if (-1==write(file, patch, 8))
            goto error;
          if (-1==close(file))
            goto error;
          fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s\n", argv[0], strerror(errno));

   FAQ-Authors note: We strongly recommend to do a backup of the
   loginwindow application, because the patch alters the file directly
   and will most likely not work on different versions of the OS.
4.10 How does one set UNIX man pages to be viewed in nroff format with DL like
the standard manual pages in NS2.x?

   man pages, NS2.x
   Beyond looking in the man pages under ixBuild, etc., what you want to
   do is put a few files (contents listed below file name) the .index


        tbl %s | nroff -man

        -fman -Nwhatis -Ncat[1-8ln] -V

   Other options that people suggested for ixBuildOptions:

        -fman -Nwhatis -Ncat[1-8] -V /usr/local/man
        -fman -Nwhatis -V /usr/local/man/man*

   I don't think you need to explicitly name the directory in the first
   alternative, but you do in the second unless you want the cat*
   directories indexed as well.
   Note: Do NOT leave a trailing return after the line in ixBuildOptions;
   DL will barf. (I think someone said that, as shipped, the standard man
   .index/ixBuildOptions had this problem.)
   [From: Eric D. Engstrom ]
   Can anyone tell me what the command line for this might be under
   NEXTSTEP 3.0?
   Short answer: RTM on ixbuild(1) - specifically the parameter "-g".
   In addition, I'd like to inform the newsgroup of a simple hack I setup
   on my own machine to create a unified DL target for all UNIX Manual
   pages (including system, local, gnu, whatever). This was easier under
   2.x because IXBuild (pre IXKit) had more hacks in it...
   Basically, you need to setup a directory with sym-links to the various
   man-page directories; For example:

        (397)basilisk% pwd
        (398)basilisk% ls -alg
        total 728
        drwxrwxr-x  2 eric     wheel       1024 Mar 28 18:03 ./
        drwxrwxr-x 11 root     wheel       1024 Mar 27 00:41 ../
        -rw-r--r--  1 eric     wheel        370 Feb 27 22:01 .README
        -rw-rw-r--  1 eric     wheel        872 Feb 27 17:11 .dir.tiff
        -rw-rw-r--  1 eric     wheel         20 Feb 27 17:11 .displayCommand
        -rw-rw-r--  1 eric     wheel         47 Feb 27 17:10 .index.iname
        -rw-rw-r--  1 eric     wheel          6 Feb 27 17:10 .index.itype
        -rw-r--r--  1 eric     wheel     729088 Mar 28 18:44
        -rw-rw-r--  1 eric     wheel          5 Feb 27 17:11 .roffArgs
        lrwxrwxrwx  1 eric     wheel         18 Feb 27 17:53 gnu ->
        lrwxrwxrwx  1 eric     wheel         14 Feb 27 17:53 local ->
        lrwxrwxrwx  1 eric     wheel          9 Feb 27 17:53 news ->
        lrwxrwxrwx  1 eric     wheel         35 Feb 27 17:53 system ->

   Notice that I also copied all the .[a-z]* files from the /usr/man/
   directory as well.
   Then, use ixbuild -gl to (re)build the index. If your any of the links
   point to directories on other devices, add "d" to "-gl". "-v" will
   give you verbose output (like my writing style ;-). RTM under
   ixbuild(1) for more info.
   Unfortunately, once the index is built, I've never successfully gotten
   DL to update it correctly. Instead I have to do it by hand using
   ixbuild -ogldvc (actually, I setup a cron job to reindex weekly.)
   If you have troubles, try removing the file and
   rebuilding the entire database. I've had intermittent problems with
   ixbuild under 3.0.
4.11 Appending a signature and addition headers to your e-mail

   .signature signature Mail
   There is a bundle for Mail to which, beside other features, allows you
   to add a .signature file to outgoing e-mails: EnhancedMail.bundle.
   This software package is available by the FTP archive sites.
   Here are other solutions which might serve you as well:
   [Carl Edman ]
   First create a simple text file the following content:

        if test -r ${HOME}/.add-header; then cat ${HOME}/.add-header; fi
        cat -
        if test -r ${HOME}/.signature; then echo "--"; cat ${HOME}/.signature;
        }| /usr/lib/sendmail "$@"

   A good name for this file would be sendmail-addheader. If you want to
   and can install it for system-wide use put this file in e.g. /usr/lib.
   Otherwise your private /Unix/bin directory is also fine. Make certain
   that this file has execute permission. To set that, use e.g. chmod 755
   Next, open up the preferences panel in Mail. Switch to the expert
   options. Change the Mailer option from /usr/lib/sendmail (which it
   should originally be) to /usr/lib/sendmail-addheader (or whatever the
   name of the file you created is). OK this and you should be set.
   From now on your file /.signature file should always be appended to
   all mail sent out with In addition if you have a file called
   add-header in your home-directory it should automatically be prepended
   to your outgoing mail. To implement a reply-to line, you would simply
   give it the following content:

        Reply-to: My Real Human Name <name@my.real.address>

   IMPORTANT: Make certain that you have one and exactly one newline at
   the end of /.add-header. Anything might break outgoing mail. Beware!
   BUG: The /.signature file is not added properly for NeXT mail
   containing attachments. The headers will still be added properly. This
   could be fixed but probably is more of a hassle than it is worth.
   [From: (Jim Brownfield)]
   I have added a Terminal Service to terminal to add a signature file
   whenever I type "0" (command/zero), and I thought this might be of
   interest to people who read your FAQ. I have used this technique for
   over a year with no problems, and it has the advantage of working both
   with non-NeXT and NeXT Mail.
   First, you must create a file with your signature containing the
   characters "--" on the first line (there has been some discussion as
   to whether this should be "-- " ("--" followed by a blank), but my
   file only has the "--" as the first line. The rest of the file should
   contain your normal signature. If you place the file in your home
   directory, I recommend NOT using the filename ".signature" for this
   file since it may conflict with other programs (like NewsGrazer). I
   use the filename ".fullSignature". The file used for the signature
   should be ascii and not RTF to allow the file to be used for NeXT and
   non-NeXT mail.
   You can create a "Get signature" service by launching Terminal and
   accessing the "Terminal Services" window through the "Info/Terminal
   Services..." menu item. Then perform the following:
    1. Create a new service by clicking on the "New" button. Change the
       service name to "Get signature".
    2. Add the command "cat " and "0" (zero) to the "Command and Key
       Equivalent" entry. The "0" is obviously arbitrary, but I've found
       that it doesn't conflict with any of the commands I normally use.
    3. De-select any items checked within the "Accept" grouping. Select
       the "As Input" radio button under the "Use Selection" section.
    4. Change the "Execution" popup to "Run Service in the Background".
       Select the "Return Output" and "No Shell" radio buttons.
    5. Click the "Save" button.
   Now, when you type "0" (actually, from any application), your
   signature will be added wherever your cursor is located (be careful
   not to have text selected as it will replace the selected text with
   your signature). I have found this to be very convenient for adding my
   .sig to outgoing mail.
4.12 How can I quickly find a file if I don't know its directory?

   searching, files find
   The Unix find command on the NeXT has the capability of quickly
   searching a database of all the files. This database is located in
   /etc/ and has to be generated periodically. You can
   automatically generate this database, say twice a week at 3:15 a.m.,
   by adding this line to your file /etc/crontab.local (you might have to
   create this file).

        15 03 * * 2,5 root      /usr/lib/find/updatedb > /usr/adm/updatedb.err

   After this has run, you can quickly find any file from a terminal by
   typing find where is a part of the file name you want (it is
   [Carl Edman ] adds:
   Find still works under 3.0, but now has to match the entire filename
   (including the path) for a match to be recognized i.e. where under 2.x
   you would have find foobar, under 3.0 you have find '*foobar*' (The '
   are necessary to prevent the shell from expanding the wildcards
   [From: Geert Jan van Oldenborgh ]
   I find the following script in /usr/local/bin very handy to bring back
   the behavior that God Intended find to have:

        if ( $#argv == 1 ) then
        /usr/bin/find \*$1\*
        set noglob
        /usr/bin/find $argv[1-]
        unset noglob

4.13 suddenly stopped working!

   Mail, doesn't start
   When I double-click the icon it loads and seems to start but
   then just terminates. How can I fix this ?
   Usually the problem is caused by being terminated with
   extreme prejudice such as by a power outage or kill -9. Under those
   circumstances may leave a lock file in your active mailbox.
   Due to a bug 3.0 doesn't ask for permission to override this
   lock when started up again but just dies. Open a shell and look in
   /Mailboxes/Active.mbox. If this directory contains a file called .lock
   you have found the culprit. You can safely remove this file.
4.14 Recycler doesn't work anymore?!

   For some reason, after moving my home directory, my recycler no longer
   [From: (Eric D. Engstrom)]
   Basically, when you dump a file in the recycler, the workspace manager
   (attempts) to move it to one of the following locations:
   (note: no order implied here, because I'm unsure of the actual order

        - $HOME/.NeXT/.NextTrash
                (Should always exist; unsure what happens if it doesn't)
        - /tmp/.NextTrash_$USER
                Automatically created if non-existent)

        - $MNT-POINT/.NextTrash/$USER
                (.NextTrash NOT automatically created if non-existent)

   Also, the workspace requires that the trash directory into which it
   puts the to-be-deleted file be on the same disk partition that the
   file originally came from (for speed, I assume).
   Also, an example of the permissions for the external disk .NextTrash
   directory (which is not automatically created) should be :

        ls -aldg  /private/mnt2/local/.NextTrash
        drwxrwxrwt [...] /private/mnt2/local/.NextTrash/

   Note: /private/mnt2/local is the mount point. Do chmod 1777 .NextTrash
   to get the permissions right.
   Thus, if you moved your home directory from one partition to another,
   the one you left may not have a "recycler-repository" to use.
4.15 How to hear sound from thought NEXTSTEP system?

   digital audio CDPlayer
   To hear sound, the following info is important.
   [Carl Edman ]
   Hearing the sound directly on the NeXT can be done with the play3401
   program from the archives if you have a Toshiba 3401 series drive.
   Theoretically this can also be done with NEC [78]4-1s and Apple CD
   300s, though I know of no NeXT program which supports them. Most other
   drives (including the NeXT CD-ROM) just don't have the hardware to do
   There is another player available: CD_evil, which is based on play3401
   but offers a GUI.
   FAQ-Authors note: On Intel system it's very easy: just connect the
   CD-Audio out (internal) to your CD-in of the soundcard (internal).
   Anyway there are problems with different drives. E.g. we know, that
   the Toshiba, Sony and Nec drives currently use the same instruction
   set to access audio data. So be aware that there are drives which
   simply can't be accessed through CDPlayer.
4.16 How do I decompress a file with the extension .compressed?

   .compressed compress uncompress gnutar tar gzip gunzip
   Do this with the following methods.
   .compressed files have been compressed in the Workspace Manager.
   Basically, they are just .tar.Z files. Even single files are tarred as
   well as compressed. There are several methods of decompressing these
    1. They can be decompressed by selecting them in the Workspace, and
       Selecting uncompress from the file menu.
    2. They can be decompressed by selecting them in the Workspace, and
       bringing up the Workspace Inspector. (You can double click to get
       there faster)
    3. You can rename them to be .tar.Z and handle them the way you do
   FAQ-Authors note: use uncompress to access the .Z files and/or gunzip
   to access .z/.gz files. Use tar to access .tar files. You might also
   you gnutar to access both together, e.g. to access a .tar.gz at once.
   Read the man pages for more information.
4.17 How do I change the Workspace compression app?

   compress gzip gunzip dwrites
   Change it with the given method.
   [Stephen Peters ]
   You can change the tools that the Workspace uses to create and read
   its .compressed files by issuing the following commands in a terminal

        dwrite Workspace compress /usr/bin/gzip
        dwrite Workspace uncompress /usr/bin/gunzip
        dwrite Workspace AlwaysTarForCompress YES

   [Reuven M. Lerner]
   This is generally a good thing, except that people might follow your
   advice and then try to send NeXTmail to someone who is still using
   compress/uncompress. Changing Workspace/uncompress to gunzip isn't a
   problem, since it uncompresses all sorts of files, but people should
   be very careful not to change Workspace/compress to gzip unless they
   will only be dealing with other gzip-equipped users.
4.18 console: loginwindow: netinfo problem - No such directory.

   netinfo problem, /keyboard directory is missing. It's benign... but

        niutil -create . /keyboard

   Fixed in 2.1 and up.
4.19 Root login not possible on client machine

   root login
   A number of people have complained about the situation where root can
   log onto the configuration server, but not its clients. Login proceeds
   normally, then a window with "Workspace error Internal error (signal
   10)" pops up. Other users are not affected.
   This scenario occurs with NetBooted clients that are not permitted
   root access to / via the server's /etc/exports file, either via an
   explicit root= option or (the most heinous) anon=0. For security
   reasons many sites will NOT want to permit such access.
   Note that what you're up against is only a Workspace Manager
   misfeature; there's no problem logging in as root on the real UNIX
   console, or logging in as a non-root user and then using "su" to
   obtain root privileges.
   Root access is needed to:
     * Log in a root Workspace.
     * Perform BuildDisk on a client.
     * Run the GuidedTour demo for the first time subsequent invocations
       will not autologin, but they will run just fine if you log in as
       NextTour (no password).
   It is not required to perform updates on the local NetInfo database,
   for any normal user operations, nor to run programs requiring root
   access on the server using -NXHost.
4.20 How to boot NEXTSTEP from the second (higher SCSI ID) HD?

   Boot, from higher SCSI ID Boot, from second drive
   Use the following command.

        bsd(1,0,0) -a

   which will then ask you for the drive to use as the root disk, or
   still easier,

        bsd(1,0,0)sdmach rootdev=sd1

   In the boot command the name of the bootfile can be replaced by '-'.
   This is very useful as the length of the bootcommand which can be
   stored in the permanent memory is very limited (on NeXT machines
   only). So the only way to eg. increase the number of buffers
   permanently to 128 in the boot command is to use the following boot
   command: sd- nbu=128 (sdmach nbu=128 would have been too long).
4.21 How to make swapfile shrink to the normal size?

   The swapfile is located in /private/vm. The only current way to make
   it shrink is to reboot the machine.
   See the man pages for swaptab for more information. Note, that putting
   a space after the comma in /etc/swaptab (lowat=,hiwat=) makes swapon
   ignore the hiwat entry.
   There is a short trick which seems to work for several people: type
   exit in the login panel. This will exit the window server and restart
   it immediatly. If you are lucky, this will reclaim some space.
4.22 Does netinfo work between machines running NEXTSTEP 2.x and 3.x?

4.23 Why does the console user "own" the external disk filesystem?

   filesystem, external
   You need an entry in /etc/fstab so the disk will be mounted at boot
   time, rather than being "automounted" when somebody logs in.
   Automounted disks are owned by whoever logged in, fstab-mounted disks
   are owned by root. Something like this:

        /dev/sd0a / 4.3 rw,noquota,noauto 0 1
        /dev/sd1a /Disk 4.3 rw,noquota 0 2

   (assuming the external disk is to be mounted as /Disk)
   fstab should be niloaded into the Netinfo database if it contains any
   NFS mounts.
4.24 How to limit coredump sizes?

   coredump, size limit
   Limit it by the following command.
   This will work for apps running from a shell.

        limit coredumpsize 0

   If your dock or workspace apps are dumping core, there's also:

        dwrite Workspace CoreLimit <bytesize>

4.25 What is the maximum value of nbuf that I can specify on bootup?

   buffers, ROM
   I know the ROM monitor only allows twelve characters, but I use
   something like this:

        bsd sdmach nbuf=xxx

   (NeXT machines only) Enter the hardware monitor. Hit 'p' to adjust the
   configuration parameters. It will respond: Boot command: ? Enter sd-
   nbu=xxx, where xxx is a number less than 256.
4.26 How can I change the mouse pointer shape and color?

   Maybe this could point you into the right direction. Pipe it to pft
   and see what happens....

        %!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-2.0
        %%BoundingBox: 0 0 16 16
        0 0 16 16 Retained window
        dup windowdeviceround
        16 16 scale
        16 16 4
        [16 0 0 -16 0 16]
        >} false 3 alphaimage
        nextdict /_NXSharedGrayAlpha get
        NX_TwelveBitRGB 1 index setwindowdepthlimit
        0 0 16 16 5 4 roll 0 32 Copy composite

   Maybe somebody wants to write some kind of "pointer editor"?
   There is also a commercial application named 'MouseMagic' which
   handles this and custom acceleration modes.
4.27 How do I customize BuildDisk to create a bootable disk of my own

   BuildDisk, customization The BuildDisk application is extremely
   limited in terms of the types of disks configuration it knows how to
   build. Essentially it "knows" about swapdisks, optical disks, 330 and
   660 MB SCSI disks. If you wish to do custom configurations you should
   look at existing BLD script files in /etc/BLD.* There is a script
   which you can use to specify which BLD script you are using, which
   disktab entry, and other useful parameters in /usr/etc/builddisk
   Some things to note:
     * the fstab installed on the target disk is specified in the
       newclient command in the BLD script. standard fstabs are extracted
       from /usr/template/client/fstab.*
     * the BLD scripts do not put down a new boot block on the scsi disk,
       you may want to install one by hand using the /usr/etc/disk
     * some disks boot fine but NeXTstep comes up with a blank window and
       no login window. This is due sometimes to forgetting to install an
       accessible /NextLibrary/{Fonts,Sounds}. In general you need quite
       a lot of things to make a bootable disk.
   You can build a minimally usable bootable floppy (for crash recovery
   purposes). There is a modified version of builddisk (to make it
   support building floppies, a minimal change) and a BLD script to build
   the boot floppy available at in
   next/sources/Bootfloppy.tar.Z. (I put this together in response to
   several requests.) A newer version of Bootfloppy for 2.1 is on the
   archives as next/sources/util/Bootfloppy2.1.tar.Z. Also available from
   the archives is BootFloopy 3.x (for --- you guessed it --- NEXTSTEP
   3.x). I might also add that one can improve on disk usage while
   enhancing functionality. BuildDisk (which is used by the various
   BootFloppy scripts) just copies the standard binaries for ls, mv, cp
   aso. from /bin. These binaries are statically linked as shipped by
   NeXT which makes them huge. (e.g. /bin/ls is 106496 bytes large.
   /usr/local/bin/gls with more features is just 16268 bytes). If you
   replace these binaries by the BSD or GNU equivalents you can save
   several hundred kBytes on your boot floppy. This extra diskspace can
   be used for tar, dump and more tools which makes the boot floppy
   actually usable. Tested.
4.28 Are there any more dwrites useful for the workspace, ...?

   dwrite, misc
   There a lot of dwrite useful for you. (self explanatory)

        dwrite Workspace compress   /usr/bin/gzip
        dwrite Workspace uncompress /usr/bin/gunzip
        dwrite Workspace AlwaysTarForCompress Yes
        dwrite Workspace DockOrginX (some number)
        dwrite Workspace DockOrginY (some number)
        dwrite Workspace DockOffsetX -1057 (leftmost)
        dwrite Workspace DockOnTop (0 or 1 for true or false)
        dwrite appname NXCMYKAdjust YES
        dwrite Preferences 24HourClock yes

4.29 What is the @LongLink message from gnutar all about?

   @LongLink gnutar
   Because gnutar tries to be somewhat compatible to the old tar format,
   it can't store pathnames longer than 100 chars. In order to store
   files with longer names, it generates a special file entry containing
   just the longer filename. These are the long links you see. Nothing to
   worry about.
4.30 What stands the file .place3_0.wmd for?

   The Workspace uses it to record the window attributes (sort order,
   view type, icon positions and so on)
   Switching the 'UNIX Expert' flag in UNIX Preferences panel off hides
   all files which start by '.'.
4.31 How to create transparent icons with IconBuilder

   IconBuilder icon, transparent
   If you are repainting an icon on the filesystem e.g. .dir.tiff make a
   copy and remove it first. Then reload the directory (the default icon
   gets shown). This is needed because the system caches icons.
   Now here comes how to create transparent backgrounds using
     * Select Format->Document Layout (or New document layout)
     * 'Has alpha' must be checkedus
     * Open the color inspector
     * UNcheck 'paint in overlay mode'
     * Choose any color (I took white)
     * Set Opacity to 0
     * Use Paintbucket to fill the whole icon
     * Now set Opacity back to 100
     * Draw the icon
   What 'Paint in overlay modeÖ does, is that when checked, it will use
   both the alpha (opacity) of the existing pixel and the alpha selected
   in the color inspector and combine both into a new color. When
   unchecked the existing pixel will just be replaced with one using
   color and alpha as selected in the inspector.
4.32 How to access the MAC format of a mixed DOS/MAC CD-ROM

   Some CD-ROMs are using multiple fileformats to adress more people.
   This is done by putting two filesystems on the disk. With NEXTSTEP you
   are able to acess both. But what to do if the Workspace only shows you
   the DOS side of a disk, while the Mac side is often more convenient
   (due to e.g. long filenames).
   The solution is to change the priority the system is searching for a
   usable filesystem. You need to rearange the filesystems in
   /usr/filesystems to fit your needs. Here is how:
     * ls -lR /usr/filesystems shows the actual searching queue.
     * mv /usr/filesystems /tmp/filesystems to backup things
     * mkdir /usr/filesystems recreate the directory.
     * cp -p -r /tmp/filesystems/xx /usr/filesystems copy the filesystems
       in order of searching back to the default location.
     * chmod 4755 /usr/filesystems/xx.fs/xx.util reset SUID mode
     * reset the links in /usr/filesystems/DOS.fs/.
4.33 Is there a PPP for NEXTSTEP

   There is a commercial PPP and a public domain PPP implementation.
   For the public domain PPP there is an additional FAQ available at:
   The public domain PPP is based on the PPP-2.2 distribution. This
   distribution offers several enhancements over ppp-2.1.2. Especially
   noteworty is that it implements BSD packet compression. Using packet
   compression can lead to higher throughput than you get using
   compressing modems.
   The port works on Motorola, Intel (both Mux and NeXT supplied serial
   drivers), and HP systems running OS 3.2 and 3.3. It also works in
   conjunction with Black and White's NXFAX software.
   You may also want to join the mailing list for PPP. This will keep you
   informed of new releases and will provide an arena for discussing
   problems with the NeXT specific PPP port. To add yourself to the list
   (or for any other administrative requests), send an email message to: requesting you be placed on the
   list. Make sure to include your proper return email address. To send
   mail to all the participants on the list, address your messages to:
4.34 NIS and OpenStep

   NIX lookupd
   There's a new lookupd in OpenStep for Mach 4.0, which works a bit
   differently than the old lookupd. The new lookupd has a number of
   "agents" that do lookups from various information systems (NetInfo,
   DNS, NIS, the Flat Files, and the internal cache). You can specify
   which information sources should be consulted, and in what order. You
   can also specify which information sources should be consulted for
   different categories. There is documentation for all this in the file
   One change in NIS lookups is that a "+" in the /etc/passwd file does
   not trigger a NIS lookup. If you want user lookups to consult both
   /etc/passwd and the NIS passwd maps, you need to tell lookupd to use
   both Flat File and NIS agents. For example, if you configure all this
   in your root domain, you could set user lookups to use
   Cache+NetInfo+Flat Files+NIS like this:

        niutil -create / /locations/lookupd
        niutil -create / /locations/lookupd/users
        niutil -createprop / /locations/lookupd/users LookupOrder \
        CacheAgent NIAgent FFAgent NISAgent

4.35 System overloaded due to swapping

   Swapping CPU overload load
   Several people discovered the problem, that their system get's
   unusable due to swapping. This is extremely bad, because if this
   swapping occurs, you can't even break the CPU load causing process,
   because you can't even open a terminal window. There exists a
   programmed solution to this problem.
   Here it is! I should warn you that this will just kill the app --- it
   will not give you a chance to save files, nor will it bring up a nice
   panel asking if you really meant to do that. There is no warranty for
   anything by using this code.
   To use it, simple hold down alternate and right click on any window
   owned by the application or its icon on the dock. This will not kill
   some apps like Terminal because they run as root.
   In order to install it, you will have to edit
   /usr/lib/NextStep/ Make sure that you make a backup
   of this file before editing it! It is owned by root, so not just
   anyone can do this.
   To apply the patch, search for a line stating: rmdownEvProc (the
   procedure for processing right mouse button down events), and replace
   it with the code named examples/windowpackage.patch in the FAQ
   archive. For NS3.3 this code is located at line 1319.
   Disclaimer: you should not attempt this if you do not know what you
   are doing. You may be unable to log in (you will have to boot single
   user to restore the if you mess it up. You can kill
   apps that you did not mean to kill. I cannot be responsible for what
   Thanks to David Koski for supplying this code.
4.36 Swapfile issues

   swapfile swap, speed swap, size
    1. use 'mkfile' to generate the lowat file size of you swapfile. This
       decreases the number of inodes used and keeps the permanent lowat
       size defragmented.
    2. on fast machines, compress the swapfile (only possible on the
       primary file), on slow machines, disable compressing.
    3. place the swapfile on the fastest hard disk drive you have. Use
       'man swaptab' to learn more about configuring swap files.
    4. to learn more about the never shrinking swapfile question, read
       the NeXTanswers about it.
    5. if your swaptab ignores some options: be aware that options must
       not contain spaces!
4.37 Garbage collection and Objective-C

   garbage collection memory allocation
   Note that Boehm's conservative garbage collector from works great with Objective-C, so you
   can use GC also with the other compilers.
   That GC could be enhanced a little by taking advantage of the
   Objective-C runtime type information; the hooks are there for it.
4.38 Setting up an anonymous FTP server

   ftp server
   Many people suggested just to read the online manual to ftpd. Probably
   a good idea. Anyway I included a not tested script in the FAQ
   distribution package which might be convinient for most people.
                           5 BLACK (NEXT) HARDWARE
5.1 What disk drives will work with the NeXT?

   disk drives
   There are some situations in which there are problems. Here is a short
   list which might help you in your disk drive quest:
     * These drives don't work with NeXT hardware: FUJITSU 2684SAU,
       SEAGATE ST51080N, IBM IB06H8891
     * The SCSI driver for NeXT hardware only accepts asynchronous data
       transfer. Although every new SCSI-2 drive should support this
       mode, this isn't true for certain drives. Also sometimes there is
       a hardware switch (a little jumper on the drive) which switches
       between synchronous and asynchronous mode. You definitly can only
       use asynchronous disks!
     * There are also problems with sync negotiation on NeXT hardware. In
       general there should be another jumper to toggle this are you
       might change this with an SCSI utility. There are also problems
       with the tagged command queuing option. Anyway all these problem
       can be solved. Often these problems arise with IBM drives. We
       recommand to look in the technical documentation of the drive,
       which is available only from IBM's WWW site directly.
   Most SCSI disk drives will work without modifying /etc/disktab.
   There are problems with the installation of boot blocks and badly
   formed fstab generated by BuildDisk of NEXTSTEP 2.0. A disk connected
   to the NeXT will need to have a NeXT specific label written to it
   before it can be properly recognized by the system. If you get an
   error message "Invalid Label..." this indicates that the drive was
   successfully seen by the NeXT machine but it does not have the proper
   label, to install a label use the /usr/etc/disk program on the raw
   disk device that the system assigned to the device and use the label
   command to write the label onto the disk. [how the NeXT assigns disk
   devices is explained in the N&SA manual]
   NEXTSTEP releases 2.0 and up provide a low level disk formatter,
   sdform, which does not offer much flexibility, but gets the job done.
   Most drives are already formatted at the factory. You might look for
   the utility sdformat on the FTP sites as well, which overcomes some
   problems of sdform supplied by NeXT.
5.2 Will a 68030 NeXT Computer run NEXTSTEP 3.3?

   NS3.3 and 68030
   Yes, but note that NeXTstep 3.3 is be optimized for the 68040 CPUs.
   NeXTstep 1.0 and 2.x were optimized for the 68030 CPU, 68882 FPU
5.3 Does a FUJITSU MO (256 MB) works with NeXT original Hardware?

   Yes, they do
5.4 Can I run my SCSI-2 disks in synchronous mode?

   SCSI-2, synchronous synchronous mode
   Quick answer is: No. The reason is that the NeXT does not support
   synchronous transfers from the SCSI bus. It does support SCSI-2 disks
   running in asynchronous mode, which all SCSI-2 disks must do.
5.5 How do I configure my HP 660 to boot properly?

   HP 660, boot boot, HP 660
   It has been reported that HP drives fail to autoboot on power on or
   while other devices are on the scsi bus. The problem seems to be with
   drives configured to spin-up automatically on power on do not get
   recognized at boot time. To remedy this problem reliably with HP 660Mb
   (HP97548) and 1Gbyte (HP 97549) drives remove the auto spinup jumper
   on the back of the drive. Looking at the disk from the back with the
   power connector on the lower left, it is the sixth jumper.
   The official fix was an EPROM change to the HP drive from HP. The HP
   drives took too long to wait up, so the system wasn't happy with the
   other drives coming ready first especially when the HP was suppose to
   be the boot device. (The EPROM is no longer available from NeXT).
5.6 What is the procedure for installing a Fujitsu M2263SA/SB SCSI Disk as the
NeXT Boot Disk?

   Fujitsu M2263SA/SB
   See Izumi Ohzawa's note in /pub/next/docs/fujitsu.recipe available via
   anonymous ftp from
5.7 How to mount a corrupted OD that won't automount?

   OD, corrupt OD, mount
   If you can't automount an OD, and you can't fix it, you can still
   manually mount it. Log in as root. Type /usr/etc/mount /dev/od0a /FoO.
   It will ask you to insert the disk. Insert it. It is mounted.
   This method WILL mount a corrupted OD so you can read its contents.
   Since it is corrupted, it is not recommended to write to it. You
   should copy the important files to something else, then reformat it.
5.8 What non-NeXT CD Players that work with a NeXT?

   A USENET survey summary:

        Apple CD-150
        PLI 1035N for NeXT
        SUN CD-ROM drive (Sony CDU-8012, Rev. 3.1a)
        NEC 73M and 74 (transfer rates > of 300 KB/sec.)
        NEC 84 S
        NEC 4xi
        NEC 6x speed
        Apple CD-SC (Sony 541-22 mechanism)
        Apple CD-300
        Apple CD-300+
        Chinon CDS-431 (with new drivers)
        Eclipse CD-ROM from Microtech
        Toshiba 3201
        Toshiba 3301
        Toshiba 3401
        Toshiba 3501
        Toshiba TXM3301E1
        Toshiba XM-2200A external
        Toshiba XM3601
        Plextor Quadspeed
        Plextor PX-63CS (6xspeed)
        DENON DRD-253 external (data only, no music)
        HP's LaserROM drive (Toshiba XM-3301TA drive in HP's box)
        Texel 3024 (required a firmware upgrade to version was 1.11)

   As with all SCSI devices, they just work. Some drives only get
   problems with their audio support with CD-Player (due to not
   standardized SCSI audio commands, but this isn't a NeXT specific
   In contrary the question should be: are there SCSI CD-ROMs which don't
   work together with NEXTSTEP?
5.9 What are some other sources of toner cartridges and trays for the NeXT
laser printer?

   toner, NeXT printer
   The toner cartridge is a standard EP-S cartridge, the same that fits
   the HP LaserJet III and some other printers.
   Any HP LaserJet II or III will fit. HPLJ4mSI cartridges do NOT fit.
   Any HP LJII or LJIII paper tray will fit. IIISI and 4 trays will not.
   Confused? Read again :-)
5.10 What printers (laser or otherwise) may be used with a NeXT?

   printers, on NeXT
   If you plan to connect an HP LaserJet (II, IIP, III, etc.) you need to
   make a special cable in order for the NeXT 040 and HP to get the
   hardware handshaking correct. This is true for whatever version of the
   OS you are running.
   NeXT 68040 to HP LaserJet III Cable (not a Null-modem cable):

        Mini-Din       HP DB-25

        1   (DTR)      nc
        2   (DCD)      4  (RTS)
        3   (TXD)      3  (RXD)
        4   (GND)      7  (GND)
        5   (RXD)      2  (TXD)
        6   (RTS)      5  (CTS)
        7   (RTXC)          nc
        8   (CTS)      20 (DTR)

   You may want to use hardware flow control for reliability (ie
   If you have problems with other printers, check the cable pinouts in
   the printer's manual against the one recommended in the zs man-page!
   Refer to Chapter 13 in Network and System Administration.
5.11 What can I do to prevent my NeXT printer from running all the time?

   printer, turning off
   The NeXT 400dpi printer powers up every time you boot up when the
   print daemon is started (/usr/lib/NextPrinter/npd in /etc/rc). Apart
   from not running the daemon at boot time (commenting it out and having
   to run it by hand later), you can add the following lines to

        if [ -f /usr/etc/nppower ]; then
                sleep 3
                /usr/etc/nppower off
                (echo 'powering off NeXTprinter')       >/dev/console

   Once you queue a print job the printer daemon will automatically power
   up the NeXT printer for you. The printer daemon will not automatically
   power off the machine after a print job, you will need to turn off the
   printer by typing /usr/etc/nppower off.
5.12 What type of microphones will work with the NeXT?

   microphone, NeXT
   Some NeXT owners use the RadioShack (Realistic) Tie Clip Microphone
   ($19.95) cat 33-1052. NeXT Computer, Inc. uses the "Sony Electret
   Condenser Microphone ECM-K7" in-house (available for $60). Some use
   Sony Tie-Clip microphone, #ECM-144, which costs around $40. Others
   have successfully used a WalMart brand microphone (available for $6).
5.13 How do I connect a modem to the NeXT?

   modem, on NeXT
   Previously, we suggested that people use Mac modem cables; however, it
   has come to our attention that there is no one standard Mac modem
   Since correct modem operation on a NeXT depends upon a correctly wired
   modem cable, buying a Mac cable is not a good idea. Some Mac cables do
   not allow dial-in and no Mac cable allows the use of hardware flow
   control. For these reasons, we are recommending that only cables that
   meet NeXT specifications be used. [however, if you have a Mac modem
   cable lying around and don't care about dial-in or hardware flow
   control, then by all means....]
   These cables are available commercially from any store, how still
   sells NeXT stuff, and from Computer Cables and Devices, or can be
   custom built. Note that no off- the-shelf Mac cable will allow
   hardware flow control. It is however possible to make a such a cable
   from an Imagewriter II cable by replacing one of the mini-8 ends with
   a DB-25 connector.
   Hardware flow control is absolutely essential for all serial port
   connections with speeds of 9600 bps and above. Make certain that you
   cable supports it, your modem is configured to use it and you are
   using the hardware flowcontrol devices /dev/cuf[ab], /dev/ttydf[ab]
   and /dev/ttyf[ab], respectively.
   Most people use tip or kermit to control the modem. SLIP and/or UUCP
   may also be used (but are more complicated to set up and require the
   remote machine to also have SLIP and/or UUCP (respectively)).
   A version of the DOS-program pcomm can be found on
   The 2.0 Network and System Administration Manual, which is available
   in hard-copy (shipped with each machine) contains an extensive
   description of how to use modems with the NeXT machine. Additionally
   NeXT in their TechSupportNotes series called SerialPortDoc.wn and UUCP
   for 1.0/1.0a systems . This document is available from most FTP sites
   that carry NextAnswers. Also, try to obtain the about.modem.Z file by
   Mark Adler in the pub/next/lore directory on
5.14 Are there any alternative sources for the SCSI-II to SCSI-I cable required
to attach external SCSI devices to the 040 NeXTs?

   SCSI cable to NeXT
   Yes. This cable is the same as the one used by Sun SparcStations and
   DecStation 5000's (but not DecStation 3100's which use 68-pin micro
   rather than the 50pin micro connector used on NeXT 040, Suns and
   DecStation 5000).
   The implication that a Sun SparcStation cable can be used with NeXT
   peripherals is generally false. NeXT themselves, and DEC, and nearly
   everyone else who makes SCSI peripherals, puts Telco-50 (centronics)
   connectors on their devices. Sun in their infinite wisdom uses DD50
   which are quite different. Telco-50 is an approved connector type in
   the SCSI spec.
   Probably the original point was that the 50-pin microSCSI on the NeXT
   and Sun and some DecStations was different from the 68-pin microSCSI
   on the DecStation 5000. But this does not address the other end of the
5.15 What fax modems will work with the NeXT?

   fax modem, on NeXT
   Most available modems of today, don't work for with the general fax
   driver available with NEXTSTEP. In this case you need to perchuse a
   commercial solution: 'NXFax'. There are demos available. The following
   information is pretty much old, and might probably be obsolete now:
   The following fax modems are currently available for the NeXT

    Manufacturer,           Model Supplier,    Type

    DoveFax for NeXT,       Dove Computer,     Class 1
    HSD FaxMaster,          HSD Microcomputer, Class 2*
    mix fax,                i∑link GmbH,       Class 2**
    SupraFAXModem V.32bis, Supra Corp.,        Class 2
      (requires DFax driver or NXFax driver)
    ZyXEL U-1496E/E+/S/S+,  ZyXEL USA,         Class 2
      (requires NXFax driver)
    Telebit T3000 with fax option
    Telebit WorldBlazer with fax option
      (requires NXFax driver)
    Neuron 1414/1414+ with ZyXEL ROM upgrade
      (requires NXFax driver)

   (Neuron 1414 and Neuron 1414+ modems are relabelled ZyXEL modems.
   Contact ZyXEL USA for ROM upgrades. Neuron modems with 512K ROMs
   should upgrade their ROMs and ROM sockets to 1 Mb ROMs. People with
   1Mb ROMs should just order the new ROMs.)
   (*) Note that the Class 2 is not yet approved; it is still out for
   ballot, after having failed in an October 1990 round. The Abaton
   InterFax 24/96 NX driver supports Class 2 as it was in that draft;
   there are expected to be very few changes prior to approval.
   (**) Note that mix fax works with both the October 1990 and October
   1991 draft versions of Class 2, especially with the NeXT supplied
   Class 2 modem driver. Upgrading to an approved version of Class 2
   would be a matter of just a software update (holds true for any
   forthcoming (class 3?) standard, for that matter).
   In order to use a fax modem with the NeXT Computer, a NeXT compatible
   fax driver must be available to operate the modem. Modem control
   procedures may be proprietary or conform to one of the following
   EIA/TIA standards:
   Class 1: CCITT T.30 session management and CCITT T.4 image data
   handling are controlled by the driver.
   Class 2*: CCITT T.30 session management and image data transport are
   handled by the modem. CCITT T.4 image data preparation and
   interpretation are controlled by the driver.
   Release 2.0 of the NeXT system software includes a Class 2 modem
   driver which will work with any fax modem which meets the EIA/TIA
   Asynchronous Facsimile Control standard. Other fax modems must supply
   a NeXT compatible driver.
   Note that there's a small bug in 2.0 (fixed in 2.1): a symbolic link
   is missing for the file Class2_Fax_Modem_Driver in
   /usr/lib/NextPrinter. The simple fix: create the link; it should
   reference Interfax_Fax_Modem_Driver, also in the /usr/lib/NextPrinter
   An alternative workaround for Class 2, especially useful for novices:
   just use InterFax as the modem type in PrintManager, rather than Class
   After installing a fax modem using PrintManager one must repeat
   setting things in the Fax Options panel in order for them to be stored
   correctly. In particular, these include the Rings to Answer and Number
   of Times to Retry. This affects all fax modems being installed.
   If one uses illegal characters in the Modems Number field in the Fax
   Options when configuring an InterFax modem then the modem will not
   answer the phone. Legal characters are digits, spaces, and plus signs.
   This does not affect the Dove modem.
   Modems from the german vendor Dr. Neuhaus also work with the internal
   Fax-Driver. But only the FURY-series does.
5.16 How may I attach more than two serial ports to the NeXT?

   serial port, >2 on NeXT
   TTYDSP From Yrrid converts the DSP port into an additional serial

                Yrrid Incorporated
                507 Monroe St.
                Chapel Hill, NC 27516
                Voice: 919-968-7858
                Fax: 919-968-7856

   Unitnet has a device, the SLAT, that will connect to the scsi bus.

                Uninet Peripherals, Inc.
                Voice: 714-263-4222
                Fax: 714-263-4299

   Central Data Corporation made the scsiTerminal Server family of
   products. However they stopped supporting NeXT hardwer. We are told
   that Central Data may consider the solling or giving of the driver
   source to an interested party.

                Phone:          217/359-8010
                Toll-free:      800/482-0315
                FAX:            217-359-6904

   Also, one can use an IP terminal server. In a non-Internet
   environment, inexpensive terminal servers, which don't control access
   to the network securely, can be used. If your network is an Internet
   subnet, you must use a terminal server that controls either: (1) who
   can log into the terminal server, or (2) which machines the terminal
   server will access. These tend to be more expensive (around $250/port,
   but in 8-port increments), but it may be quite economical means of
   sharing ports among many NeXTs (or other computers) on the network.
   Particularly if one has a NeXT network, an Ethernet terminal server
   may be the way to go. One that supports Linemode Telnet (such as the
   Xylogics Annex III) will offer the best performance.
5.17 What is the best and/or cheapest way to connect a NeXT to a thick

   Ethernet, thick There are many possible solutions. For example, here
   are three:
     * The University of Waterloo (Audio Research Group) uses an old
       door-stop PC XT clone with two Western Digital cards (WD8003E
       Ethercard Plus, $250 CDN each; you should be able to get them for
       under $200 (US$)) running Vance Morrison's PCRoute (available from You will also need a thickwire transceiver and a
       drop cable (about $300). In addition, you will need Internet
       addresses for the NeXT and both PC Ethernet cards (and a subnet
       address). The documentation for PCRoute contains quite a bit of
       information on the performance of this setup. This solution
       requires two subnets. There is another program called PCbridge
       that allows the machines on the thin and thick wires to be part of
       the same subnet. This product also does packet filtering, so that
       packets destined to machines on the same side of the net do not
       cross over.
     * Cabletron sells a MR-2000C Singleport Repeater for $695 that does
       exactly what you need minus drop cable and transceiver. Their
       number is (408) 441-9900.
     * The march 1992 INMAC networking and connectivity products catalog
       lists thicknet to thinnet converters. Product number Z903071 price
       $445. Claims full ieee 802.3 compatibility and diagnostic LED's.
     * NuData (908)-842-5757 (USA) sells AUI10 base-T boxes for about
5.18 How can I connect my NeXT to the telephone line and use it like an
answering Machine?

   answering machine A company that is selling both hardware and software
   to allow you to do this:

                SES Computing
                13206 Jenner Lane
                Austin, Texas 78729
                Voice: (512) 219-9468 (Demo system number), a european company, has a combined data/fax modem and
   telephone answering machine. It uses the DSP port and is implemented
   mainly in software on the DSP with a little bit of hardware to
   interface to the phone line.

                Nollendorfstrasse 11-12
                D-1000 Berlin 30
                Tel: +49 30 216 20 48
                Fax: +49 30 215 82 74

5.19 What color monitors can I use with the Color NeXT machines?

   monitor, color
   The important specs for the color monitor are:

        Horz Scan Rate:         61 KHz
        Vertical Scan Rate:     68 Hz
        Resolution:             1280x1024 (NeXT uses 1120x832)

   Displays may require alignment to adjust for the scan rate of NeXT
   The Nanao T560i 17" color display has been used with NeXTstation Color
   machines, and seems to work well.
   Some larger NEC displays have also worked.
5.20 Where can I get 13W3 to BNC adapters to connect third party color

   13W3 to BNC BNC to 13W3
   You can get them from:NeXT/Bell Atlantic: part number S4025.
   NuData in New Jersey carries 13W3 female to 4 BNC male connectors. The
   price is about $100.

                Voice: 908-842-5757

   DISCLAIMER: I take no responsibility for the following. If you can
   source the bits yourself here's how it's built.

        1 female 13W3 connector
        3 Male BNC connectors
        3 mini coax

        ie. the pins to the coaxial are male and the regular pins are female.

        Looks like this.

            .   o o o o o .     .        13W3 FEMALE
            A1 o o o o o A2     A3
            |             |     |
            |             |     |
            |             |     |
            Red           Green Blue     3 BNC's

   That's the coax part. The outer shielding of the coax's are grounded
   on both pin 10 and the case.
5.21 How may I attach Centronics or 16 bit wide parallel ports to the NeXT?

   centronics, NeXT parallel port, NeXT
   Uninet has devices, the SLAT-2 and the SLAT-DRV11, that will connect
   to the scsi bus.

                Uninet Peripherals, Inc.
                Voice: 714-263-4222
                Fax: 714-263-4299
                zardoz! or uunet!ucivax!zardoz!sales

5.22 Why does an unused serial port consume cpu?

   serial port, cpu power usage
   Perhaps you've got a (probably fairly long) unshielded serial cable
   attached to it, with either nothing at the other end or a powered-off
   device at the other end. EE's call this an antenna. It's probably
   picking up most of the radio stations in your area, which the serial
   chip is interpreting as a continuous stream of garbage bytes, which it
   feeds to getty, which tries to interpret them as login attempts.
   How do you avoid this problem?
     * leave the device at the other end switched on (even when it's not
       transmitting, it will assert a voltage that overrides the noise)
     * unplug the cable from the next when you're not using it
     * use 'kill -STOP' & 'kill -CONT' to stop and resume the getty
       process as needed
     * buy an adequately shielded serial cable
5.23 How to adjust MegaPixel Display brightness and focus?

   brightness, MegaPixel focus, MegaPixel
   Adjust it using the following information.
   From: Charles William Swiger
   I have adjusted several monitors with no problems, but make sure you
   know what you are doing before opening anything. I expressly disclaim
   responsibility for any ill results that may occur.
   In order to adjust NeXT's MegaPixel display (called 'the monitor'
   hereafter), you'll need (a) the NeXTtool (or a 3mm Allen wrench), (b)
   a plastic adjustment tool (preferred) or a thin bladed screwdriver,
   and possibly (c) a Phillips-head screwdriver.
   (NB: A similar procedure will work for color monitors, but you should
   either know what you're doing or you'll probably be better off letting
   a pro deal with it.)
   Turn off the computer. Disconnect all cables to the monitor. Look at
   the back of the monitor. There will be 4 screws there; use the
   NeXTtool (or Allen wrench) to remove them. Remove the plastic back of
   the monitor and put it out of your way.
   Reconnect the cables and turn the computer back on. As the machine
   powers up, examine the back of the monitor. You'll see a metallic box
   (usually silver, though some are black) surrounding the monitor's
   vitals. This protects you against the dangerous voltages inside, and
   also insulates the monitor from electromagnetic noise. On the back of
   this box are several holes for performing adjustments. There are two
   focus controls (labeled 'focus' and 'dynamic focus'), a brightness
   control (labeled 'brightness' or possibly 'black level') and several
   others that adjust various things like screen size and position.
   Depending on the exact placement of the controls on the circuit board
   of your specific monitor, some of these controls may be difficult (or
   impossible) to adjust from the back. If this is the case, I will
   describe what's necessary below. Otherwise, adjust the appropriate
   controls using either an adjustment tool or a screwdriver. Be warned
   that a screwdriver probably will cause some interesting video effects
   when it enters the case. Ignore this the best you can, or find a
   plastic adjustment tool, which is what you *really* should be using
   anyway. Using a flashlight will help you see into the hole so that you
   can align the business end of the tool correctly.
   Focus and position controls are fairly obvious. Adjust them slowly
   until you're happy with the results. Don't muck with anything you
   don't need to; the factory settings are usually pretty decent.
   To correctly adjust the brightness, follow this procedure: Turn the
   brightness of the monitor all the way down using the keyboard. Adjust
   the brightness control on the back of the monitor until a barely
   noticeable picture forms. Then turn the brightness down a little so
   this picture disappears completely. Check that you can get adequate
   brightness by using the keyboard to brighten the screen. If the
   display isn't bright enough, adjust the brightness control on the rear
   of the monitor high enough so that the monitor display is adequate.
   Note that you won't be able to dim the screen completely from the
   Once you're finished, shut down the computer, take off the cables,
   reattach the back of the monitor, and reconnect the cables. You're
   If the control you need to adjust proves to be difficult, you may need
   to enter the metal case. This happened on one monitor's focus control
   and another's brightness.
   KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DOING. You'll have to power off the computer again,
   and disconnect the cables.
   Looking at the monitor from the back, notice a section of metallic
   shielding on the right side of the metal box that extends to the
   picture tube. This is where the flyback transformer is connected. It
   shields a wire that is charged to about 25,000 V.
   Being very careful of this, remove the metal case by unscrewing the
   Philip's head screws that hold the case on. Don't touch the screws
   that hold the picture tube into the front of the monitor's case.
   Once you've gotten the metal box off, reconnect the cables. Figure out
   what control you're going to adjust, and make sure that you can do so
   without touching anything else inside. Again, *watch out* for the wire
   that connects to the picture tube on the right side.
   Power up the computer. I recommend that you use only one hand to make
   the adjustment, and that your other hand be placed in your pocket (or
   similar equivalent, if you're wearing clothes lacking pockets). This
   precaution reduces the chances that you'll make a short circuit
   between one hand, your heart, and the other hand --- a good idea.
   Perform the necessary adjustment(s), being very careful not to touch
   anything inside. Then shut down and reassemble the monitor, following
   the directions given above.
   Hopefully, these instructions will prove useful. Once again, please be
   very careful...I don't want your death and/or injury on my conscience
   (or a lawsuit, for that matter, either :-)
5.24 I want to emulate a macintosh, how?

   MacIntosh, emulation emulation, MacIntosh
   There is a nice way to run macintosh-software on your original black
   It works fine with dual-headed cubes and is optimized for the Apple OS
   - Version 7.5. To get further information about daydream, please

                QUIX Computerware AG
                9 hour differential
                6030 Ebikon
                Next software - 011-41-41-34-86-80

   There is another solution, completely in software: 'Executor' from
   Ardi does the job, too. (
5.25 My NeXT laser printer fails to fully eject the sheet - how to fix?

   printer, eject, NeXT laser NeXT laser, eject paper Fix it as follows.
   If you continually get messages like, "sorry, the printer is jammed"
   and you have to pull each page out the last inch, you probably need to
   replace the 14 tooth gear in the output stage(fuse ass'y).
   You can see this gear before you disassemble the printer, so that is a
   good first step. Then read these instructions all the way through and
   see if you want to attempt it. Next recommends replacing the entire
   fuse ass'y ( big bucks) if the gear is damaged, but Chenesko, Inc., of
   Ronkonkoma, NY sells the gears for $2.31. The part number is RS1-0132.
   They recommended I also replace the 20 tooth gear, number RS1-0116,
   but I don't know if it is really necessary. Their phone number is
   PartsNow is also selling laserprint replacement parts. Their part
   number for the a replacement roller part is RA1-84489-000 000. You
   might contact them for further details.
   To examine your gear, open the rear (delivery ) door and undo the
   screw attaching the strap that keeps the door from opening down all
   the way. The gear is on the side nearest the power input to the
   There are two gears on the part of the delivery ass'y that swings
   down. The suspect gear engages the top one, but is mounted on the
   fixed portion of the fuse. Ours had several teeth missing and/or
   damaged. To get the gear off you have to remove the fuse ass'y. To
   remove the fuse you must open the printer lid fully, so it is straight
   up. To open the lid fully you must remove the case. To remove the case
   you must remove the plastic cover on the lid.
   Are you getting the idea now? This will be a lot of fun, and take most
   of the afternoon. I hope you have a spacious, well-lit area, because
   there are a lot of screws, and a lot of them are painted black, so
   they are hard to see when you drop them, unless you drop them inside
   of the printer, where you might NEVER see them again.
   Fortunately, as with all computer equipment, they seem to put lots of
   extras in, so just make sure there aren't any where they might do
   damage, like short out the mega KILOVOLT corona power supply, or grind
   into the REGISTRATION rollers. You do want your printouts to be
   straight, don't you?
   So, if you're ready, here we go.
     * PREPARATION Most mere mortals will want to power down everything
       and disconnect the cables, etc. Remove the cartridge and paper
       trays, etc.
     * REMOVE THE LID COVER open the lid and remove 3 screws. They DO NOT
       have any red paint on them.
     * REMOVE THE BACK DOOR there is one screw that holds the strap. When
       you can swing it clear down, you can squeeze the hinges together
       and remove the door.
     * REMOVE THE CASE There are maybe seven screws that hold the case
       on. Four are right on top. Two are just inside the rear door area.
       Two are down inside where you store that green cleaning tool. 4 +
       2 + 2 = 7, right? Say, who was the last guy that worked on this
       printer anyway?
       The case has to be convinced that you really need to remove it,
       even when it is loose and all the screws are out.
     * REMOVE THE FUSE ASS'Y You will need a PHILLIPS screwdriver for
       this, as with the previous steps. But you will need a LONG one
       this time. Three of the screws are pretty easy to find. Just study
       the lower part of the fuse, as it is screwed onto the bottom case.
       Two of the screws are inside. One is under the lid next to the
       gears, the other near the green cleaning tool. On the outside, in
       back, there is one on each side. One is under the white wires that
       connect the fuse to the 10 AMP circuit breaker, which is pretty
       near that gear, and close to the power input. Unplug that cable.
       Then remove the small black crew that holds the black plastic gear
       cover so you will have better access to the last screw. Then you
       will have to wrestle the fuse out the back of the printer. Be
       careful with it.
     * DISASSEMBLE THE FUSE There are several screws and a spring. It's
       not too hard to take apart. You can see the gear, so you just have
       to take off the covers on that end of the ass'y to get to it. I
       should caution you that I had trouble putting them back on,
       because they have funny shapes and don't make a lot of sense. Plus
       I was tired, so I went home, ate dinner, played with the dog, went
       to bed, got up and ate breakfast before I put it back together.
       You might want to label some parts, make some drawings, etc. to
       reassure yourself that you can put the parts back just like they
     * REMOVE THE GEAR You can remove the gear pretty easily with a small
       screwdriver by unspringing the "E"-ring that holds it on the
       shaft. Try not to bend the e-ring.
     * PUT EVERYTHING BACK TOGETHER Sorry, I can't help you with this
       part (HA HA!) I told you you should read the instructions first.
       Maybe you should buy a new printer, or try to attach some third
       party printer via the serial port!
   Well, if you got this far I hope you dropped little crumbs of bread so
   you can find your way back. I try to save all the little screws by
   putting them back in the holes they came from, or putting them in some
   small container. You might clean some of the gears or the paper path
   while you have it open. You can also install a new OZONE filter.
   Remember OZONE is hazardous to your health, so you don't want to
   inhale it.
   Yet another update to reflect that Jacob Gore received gears for an
   Apple Laserwriter from Chenesko, which are similar enough to work, but
   with some modification.Also, if the original gear is in fair
   condition, it can be reversed on the shaft until a replacement is
5.26 What are the NeXT mouse connections?

   mouse, connector Read the following instruction.
   Thanks to Alvin Austin (austin@cs.USask.Ca) I have the information I
   need on the NeXT mouse connections.

        Pin     Function
         1      +5v
         2      X Encoder Phase A
         3      X Encoder Phase B
         4      Y Encoder Phase A
         5      Y Encoder Phase B
         6      Right Button
         7      Left Button
         8      Ground

5.27 What type of memory may be installed in a NeXT?

   References: NeXTanswers' hardware.620, 92_spring_bulletin "Announcing
   NeXTstation Turbo and NeXTcube Turbo"

        NeXT Computer (68030-25MHz/68040-25MHz),
        NeXTcube (68040-25MHz):

                Number SIMM slots: 16
                SIMM group size: 4
                SIMM type: 30-pin low profile>
                SIMM access rating: 100 ns
                SIMM capacity: 1, 4 MB (1x8/1x9, 4x8/4x9)
                Maximum RAM: 64 MB

   The low-profile vertically mounted 4 MB SIMMs are easier to install in
   the NeXTcube than the horizontally mounted 4 MB SIMMs because of the
   small height clearance above the SIMM slots. It is possible to install
   the horizontally mounted 4 MB SIMMs, but you will be required to slide
   the CPU board and the center tower in simultaneously.
   Parity (9-bit) SIMMs can be used in both 68030 and 68040 NeXT
   machines, but should not be mixed with non-parity SIMMs. Only 68040
   boards with ROM levels of 2.2 (v63) and higher can use the parity
   memory to detect parity errors.
   It is OK to mix parity and non-parity memory, but the system will not
   boot unattended. Cubes with early boot ROMs will not work with 4 Mb
   parity ram, unless at least 3 banks are used. The system gives an
   exception error on power up. The fix is to get a new boot rom from
   You can pay $30, or you may be able to squawk and get one for free. I
   have found Next to be pretty responsive, once I find the right person.
   The correct version is v66 which was the last or final rev for this
   series of 040 boards. This version also fixed the problem in the
   second paragraph.

        NeXTdimension boards (i860):

                Number SIMM slots: 8
                SIMM group size: 4
                SIMM type: 72-pin
                SIMM access rating: 80 ns
                SIMM capacity: 1, 4, 8 MB (256Kx32, 1Mx32, 2Mx32)
                Maximum RAM: 64 MB (32 MB official NeXT)

   NeXT didn't officially bless the use of 8 MB SIMMs, but they seem to
   fit and work.

        NeXTstations (68040-25MHz) serial numbers below ABB 002 6300:

                Number SIMM slots: 8
                SIMM group size: 4
                SIMM type: 30-pin
                SIMM access rating: 100 ns
                SIMM capacity: 1, 4 MB (1x8/1x9, 4x8/4x9)
                Maximum RAM: 32 MB

   Faster SIMMS (70/80 ns) don't make the memory system work any faster
   than the 100 ns units.

        NeXTstation Color (68040-25MHz):

                Number SIMM slots: 8
                SIMM group size: 2
                SIMM type: 72-pin
                SIMM access rating: 80 ns5
                SIMM capacity: 1, 4 MB (256Kx32/256Kx36, 1Mx32/1Mx36)
                Maximum RAM: 32 MB

        NeXTcube Turbo (68040-33MHz),
        NeXTstation Turbo (68040-33MHz),
        NeXTstation Color Turbo (68040-33MHz),
        NeXTstations (68040-25MHz) serial numbers above ABB 002 6300:

                Number SIMM slots: 4
                SIMM group size: 2
                SIMM type: 72-pin
                SIMM access rating: 70/100 ns
                SIMM capacity: 1, 4 ,8, 16, 32 MB (256Kx32/256Kx36,
                Maximum RAM: 128 MB

   For maximum performance use 70 ns SIMMs: SIMMs rated at 80 or 100 ns
   will be detected upon powerup and the memory system clock slowed to
   100 ns. Faster RAM than 70 ns won't give you a speed increase anymore.
   In fact it could slow things down again, because some hardware drives
   60 ns RAM as 100 ns RAM.
   NeXT manufacturing introduced the new 25 MHz NeXTstation CPU board
   into production in late June '92. To verify which SIMM type your
   machine uses, check the system's memory configuration. You can do this
   by using the ROM monitor©s print memory configuration command m. Start
   with your machine powered down. Press the Power key to power on. As
   soon as the message ™Testing system...ļ disappears, press
   command-command-tilde ( on the numeric keyboard). Under these
   circumstances, this will access the ROM monitor. In the ROM monitor,
   type m and press return. Turbo-designed boards–including new 25 MHz
   NeXTstations and all Turbo systems–will return messages reporting the
   memory configuration contained in four sockets (sockets 0 -3); old 25
   MHz boards will return messages for more than four sockets (usually
   8). You can tell a Turbo-designed board, and the accompanying 72 pin,
   70 nanosecond SIMMs, by the fact it only reports information for only
   four sockets.
   The memory system has programmable memory timing such that the number
   of processor clocks needed to access a given amount of data can be
   tailored to the speed of the memory installed. 70 ns memory is just
   enough faster than 80 ns memory to allow the cpu to access the data
   with fewer clock cycles. This improves memory system performance.
   "70 ns" memory is faster than "80 ns" memory in many parameters other
   than just RAS access time. The faster CAS access time in particular
   allows the memory system to respond quicker to burst (16 bytes) bus
5.28 What is the NeXT SIMM tool?

   SIMM Tool The tool came with 68040 upgrade kits for NeXTcubes.
   It really makes removing SIMMs easy. It looks like a dental tool:
   about six inches long with a 1/2" long head offset at 90 degrees. To
   remove SIMMs, you slip the head into the hole on one side of the SIMM,
   rest the head on the SIMM socket next to the SIMM you are pulling, and
   pivot the tool back, using the simple fulcrum to gently pry the SIMM
   up about 1/8" from the socket on that side. Repeat on the other side,
   and the SIMM can be then removed by hand.
5.29 Where can I purchase a NeXT machine?

   Purchase, NeXT NeXT, purchase
   NeXT discontinued manufacturing hardware in Feb, 1993. Used systems
   are often advertised in
5.30 Where to obtain hardware service?

   service, hardware hardware, service
   Hardware service can be obtained through the following firms:
   USA hardware service has been purchased by Bell Atlantic. They will be
   supporting the Authorized Service Centers and are selling extended
   warranty contracts.

                Decision One
                Voice:  800 499 6398, or 800 848 NeXT
                Fax:    510 732 3078

   For Europe, please contact:

                40549 Duesseldorf
                Willstaetter Strasze 13

5.31 What types of NeXT machines were manufactured?

   NeXT, types of cube section
   There are two packages: a cube, and a station.
     * NeXTcube systems:
          + 68030-25 2-bit grayscale (NeXT Computer)
          + 68040-25 2-bit grayscale (NeXTcube)
          + 68040-33 2-bit grayscale (NeXTcube Turbo)
          + NeXTdimension board adds 32-bit color (i860) to any of above
       Cube systems can use any of the boards. With hacks, multiple
       independent CPU boards can run in one cube.
       NeXT Computer systems have room for 2 full-height 5.25" internal
       devices with a wide slot for an Optical Disk drive(s) in either
       NeXTcube systems also have room for 2 full-height 5.25" internal
       devices with a wide slot for an Optical Disk drive in the lower
       position, but have additional mounting holes for 1/2-height
       devices, and have a floppy slot at the top position.
     * NeXTstation systems:
          + 68040-25 2-bit grayscale (NeXTstation)
          + 68040-33 2-bit grayscale (NeXTstation Turbo)
          + 68040-25 16-bit color (NeXTstation Color)
          + 68040-33 16-bit color (NeXTstation Color Turbo)
   NeXTstation systems have room for two 1/2-height 3.5" devices, with a
       floppy slot at the side.
5.32 What can be done about older 030 NeXT cubes that have a fan that turns in
the "wrong" direction?

   fan, running wrong
   The fan on older 030 NeXTs cubes sucks air out of the back of the cube
   which means that it draws unfiltered air in through the optical disk
   on the front of the cube. This causes optical disks to succumb to dust
   must sooner than cubes with the new-style fan which turns in the
   opposite direction.
   NeXT has apparently reversed their decision regarding fan reversal in
   the case of machines that have been upgraded to 040 processor boards.
   It is now considered okay to reverse the direction of fans in these
   machines. If you have many third-party cards installed in your cube or
   an older processor board, you may wish to consider not reversing fan
   direction (overheating could become a problem). In any case, do not
   reverse the fan's polarity, only reverse the fan assembly itself.
   Perhaps the best solution is obtain the cleaning kit and OD filter
   from NeXT.
5.33 Can I connect SONY MPX-111N to my 68030 NeXT Computer?

   SONY MPX-111N
   The SONY MPX-111N internal 2.88 MB floppy drive which was shipped with
   all the 68040 NeXT machines is not a SCSI device, therefore there is
   no way of connecting that particular drive internally on a 68030
5.34 Why does the OD continually spin up and spin down?

   OD, spinning
   A big problem with the Canon optical drives is that air flows through
   the drive to cool it. Dust accumulates inside the drive causing it to
   fail with the continuous spin-up spin-down syndrome. NeXT as part of
   it's 040 upgrades provided a dust filter to prevent this. If your
   drive has this problem it usually can be fixed simply by cleaning out
   dust from the drive. NeXT sold a cleaning kit for both the drives and
   the optical disks.
5.35 How many colors can NeXT machines display?

   NeXT, colors
   The monochrome machines can display 4 gray levels. You can use color
   apps on a monochrome machine, they will converted into monochrome
   images and dithered accordingly.
   Color NeXTstations can combine 4 bits of red, green and blue primaries
   for a total of 4096 pure colors. The imaging functions dither the
   image to produce intermediate colors.
   NeXTdimension can combine 8 bits of red, green and blue for
   16,777,216. There are not 16 million points on the display so all can
   not be displayed at once. Further display technology limits the usable
   color space.
   None of the NeXT products support color look up tables where the user
   can define their own color palette on a per window basis. This feature
   is useful for displaying images which have adaptive lookup tables, and
   display pure grayscale images on the color NeXTstation. On the
   NeXTdimension images can be converted to full 24 bit representation.
5.36 Why is my machine so slow when I run the monochrome and NeXTdimension

   speed, display display, speed drops
   There is a bug with the window system in which if you select the
   monochrome display as your primary display the server will be much
   much slower. The solution for those wishing to use both displays is to
   select the color (NeXTdimension) display as the primary display. The
   most optimal configuration at present with the NeXTdimension is to run
   only the color display.
5.37 Where to obtain replacement mouse parts?

   mouse, parts
   For those who have need of a new button in their mouse, and don't want
   to pay for the whole mouse when it is only the button that has gone
   bad, we have recently discovered a satisfactory replacement for the
   Omron switch. It is in the Digikey catalog, # 931, Jan-Feb 1993, page
   141, under Cherry switches D4, DG, and DH series. Digikey part #
   CH164-ND, Cherry part # DG1C-B1AA. We ordered one of these, and just
   received it today. Tried it out, and it seems to be working flawlessly
   so far.
   It is also possible to replace mouse buttons from a two button mouse
   with mouse buttons of the three button mice.
5.38 Where to obtain extra batteries?

   battery, purchase purchase, battery
   Battery part number: BR 2/3A 3V Lithium Battery (Panasonic)
   Source: Engineered Assemblies & Components Corporation

                5204 Green's Dairy Road
                Raleigh, NC 27604
                Phone: 919-790-9700  (ask for Debra)

5.39 How to convert a Turbo system to use ADB?

   ADB, turbo system
   If ADB equipment are used with older NeXT systems they won't work
   properly. Here are the ADB requirements:
     * A Turbo computer.
     * CPU eprom version 74.
     * New revision computer to soundbox/monitor cable.
       The part number is molded at both ends of the connector:

        Cable                   NEW             OLD (Non ADB)
        NeXTcube                4534            150
        NeXTstation             4535            1532
        NeXTstation color       4536            2286

     * New revision monitor which uses a vertical scan rate of 72hz
       instead of 68hz, except on NeXTdimension systems color monitor
       stays 68hz.

        Monitor         NEW (72hz)      OLD (68hz)
        17" mono        ACX (N4000b)    AAA (N4000a \& N4000)
        17" color       ADF (N4006)     ABG (N4001)
        21" color       ADB (N4005a)    ABH (N4005)

     * ADB soundbox for color systems. S/N prefix ADD instead of ABN.
5.40 68030 board in the same NeXTcube as a 68040 board?

   Here we go! I'll first provide a description of the hardware I was
   using and comment on what I accomplished and how I got the information
   on how to do it!
   The hardware included a NeXT cube with 660 MB drive, OD, etc., a 68040
   upgrade board, and a 68030 motherboard. I successfully installed both
   the 68040 and 68030 boards on a SINGLE NeXT cube and linked them
   together through their ethernet ports. The 68040 was configured as a
   boot server and the 68030 was used as its client (booting off the
   network for lack of an additional hard drive).
   The procedure reconfigures slot #2 on the cube's back-plane as slot
   #0. This provides two slots configured as #0, required for booting the
   two motherboards. Once I determined what the slot pin-outs were
   (thanks to my good friend John Chmielewski), it was a matter of time
   before the two boards happily co-existed.
   The procedure:
    1. First, follow the procedure on the NeXT User's Reference manual
       for removing the system board (Appendix C: Opening the Cube, page
       291 of the 2.0 manual).
    2. Using the NeXT supplied screwdriver, remove the two screws that
       attach the power-supply housing to the cube (the screws are
       located on the lower part of the housing) and gently pull the
       housing out. Set it aside in a safe place (away from kids and
       nosey friends!)
    3. Remove the two plastic grooved plates (used to slide the system
       boards in) at each side of the inside bottom of the cube. (For
       each plate, lift the side closest to the rear opening and gently
       pull them out). Set them aside.
    4. Using the NeXT tool, remove three screws holding the back-plane to
       the cube and then take the back-plane out of the cube. Let the
       cube rest for a while.
       Inspect the back-plane. You will see five bus slots (four vertical
       and one horizontal). The horizontal slot connects the back-plane
       to the power supply housing. We're only interested in the four
       vertical slots. From the factory these slots are configured as 6,
       2, 0, and 4 (starting from the left and going right with the
       horizontal slot at the bottom).
       The system board connects to slot #0 (which you've probably
       noticed). Each slot contains three columns of 32 pins. Following
       is an ASCII representation of one of the slots:

                        x y z    C B A
                        o-o o 32 . . .
                        o-o o 31 . . .
                        o-o o 30 . . .
                        o-o o 29 . . .
                              28 . . .
                               3 . . .
                               2 . . .
                               1 . . .

       ...where x, y, and z are labeled GND, SID, and VCC, respectively.
       The GND, SID, and VCC "holes" are used to configure the slot
       number using simple binary encoding, where GND is logical zero,
       VCC is logical one, and SID (for Slot-ID I guess) determines the
       current bit state (one or zero).
       Notice the four rows of GND, SID, VCC triads; each row is
       equivalent to one bit position in the slot number, the bottom row
       bit position 0, the top row bit position 3. This gives a total of
       four bit positions, or 16 possible slot numbers. To encode a slot
       number, you need to connect an SID row to its corresponding GND or
       VCC row. For example, the diagram below shows the configuration of
       the slots in my cube's back-plane (you'll have to look very
       closely to see the actual connections):

                        SLOT 6          SLOT 2          SLOT 0          SLOT 4
                BIT 3:  o-o o           o-o o           o-o o           o-o o
                BIT 2:  o o-o           o-o o           o-o o           o o-o
                BIT 1:  o o-o         * o o-o *         o-o o           o-o o
                BIT 0:  o-o o           o-o o           o-o o           o-o o

    5. To reconfigure slot 2 as slot 0, cut the trace between SID and VCC
       for bit position 1 (see * o o-o * above) and connect SID to GND on
       the same row. I used the SIMM removal tool supplied by NeXT in the
       040 upgrade (talk about multi-purpose) to cut the trace! Very
       gently, scrape the solder off between the two holes. Take a
       paperclip, shape it to fit between the holes in SID and GND, and
       trim it down to an even 1/4 inch (perfect fit)!
       That's all there is to it. If for some reason you ever want to
       revert to slot 2, just remove the paperclip from GND-SID and
       reconnect it to SID-VCC.
    6. Now put the cube back together. First, re-install the back-plane
       using its three connecting screws, then snap on the plastic
       plates, and finally insert the power-supply housing and secure
       with its two screws.
       At this point the cube is ready to take on the two system boards
       (it is up to you to determine where/how you want to use the two
       boards; I'll explain how I used mine) ...
    7. I installed the 68040 in the original slot 0 and the 68030 in the
       reconfigured slot 0 (previously slot 2). The 68040 was used as the
       main processor board. I connected the 660 MB drive, the OD, and
       the monitor to it.
       NOTE: Before beginning the procedure, I went into the NeXT Monitor
       on the 68030 and disabled the Sound out, SCSI tests and verbose
       test mode and enabled serial port A as a console terminal. I also
       made "en" the default boot device. I setup the 68040 as a boot
       server and taught it about the 68030 (which took some time in
       getting it setup properly).
    8. I connected the 68040 to the 68030 using a thin-ethernet cable and
       I booted. First thing I noticed was that the 030 timed-out a
       couple of times waiting for the 040 to tell it to boot. But after
       the 040 was up, the 030 booted nicely.
   That's all folks. Hope all this made some sense and people find it
     * To power off the cube, I have to first shutdown the 030 (I run
       "halt -p" as root from a telnet connection and wait for the 030 to
       go down), and I then power-down the 040. If you shut down the 040
       before the 030, you'll have to pull the power plug to turn the
       machine off. The cube will not power off if either of the two
       boards is providing a load to the power-supply.
     * Remember, I've only performed this procedure on one system. I do
       not know what will happen on your system. So make sure you plan
       ahead what your going to do and that you understand the procedure.
     * I don't know what problems may arise when you add a board that
       uses the NeXTbus, such as the NeXTdimension, or how it will
       behave. If someone is courageous enough to perform the procedure
       and installs another board, please post your results to the net.
   To clear up some misunderstandings with the settings in the "p"
   command of the NeXT monitor (these settings are only required for the
   system board that doesn't have the NeXT display monitor connected):
    1. Sound out test must be "no"; the boot process will not proceed if
       the monitor isn't connected to the board and this is set to "yes"
       (the sound out tests will fail, aborting the boot procedure).
    2. SCSI tests should be "no" if you don't have SCSI devices attached
       to the board (SCSI tests will fail otherwise, aborting the boot
    3. Verbose test mode must be "no" for booting from the network. If
       set to "yes", the boot process will timeout waiting for a BOOTP
       and you'll be left in the monitor with no means of restarting the
       board (except pulling the power plug)!
       This is probably true also for booting from an OD that hasn't been
       inserted (assuming the OD was attached to the board).
    4. Allow serial port A as alternate console if you want to view the
       boot process (for problems and peace-of-mind).
    5. Other settings were not modified from their factory defaults or
       had no effect on the procedure.
   There is also a way in using 2 boards plus NeXTDimension board in one
   I've run my "screw with the backplane trick" cube with :

        | <empty> | 32MB-ND | | 64MB-040 | 40MB-030 |

   without any problems. Using the od got the system warm, but never had
   a problem. The cool part was having the printer on the 030. One day I
   tried to dump an 040 into the 030 position, but I couldn't get it to
   boot. I played for a couple minutes, but put the 030 back in and went
   on with life...
5.41 How to expand DSP memory?

   memory, DSP DSP, memory
   The Speech Recognition Lab at San Francisco State University has
   developed a DSP memory expansion board for the NeXT computer that
   provides the maximum memory supported by the DSP56001 processor. We
   are now offering this board to those whose are interested in
   high-performance custom DSP development.
     * The board is a 576KB DSP expansion memory board organized as three
       non-overlapping 192KB banks: X-data, Y-data and Program. The board
       uses relatively fast (
     * The board is a high-quality, 4-layer board, open-circuit tested
       prior to assembly. It fits into the DSP memory daughterboard slot
       on all NeXT machines.
     * The price will be $600. Please let us know if you are interested.
       Delivery will be in about 3-4 weeks.
     * Contact Tom Holton ( E-mail is preferred. The
       address is:

                        Tom Holton
                        Division of Engineering
                        San Francisco State University
                        1600 Holloway Avenue
                        San Francisco, CA 94132
                        415 338 1529 (phone)
                        415 338 0525 (fax)

   NOTE: Because we've organized our memory as three separate
       (non-overlapping) banks (X, Y and P) of 192KB apiece, none of the
       DSP memory image functionality provided by NeXT with its existing
       8K base configuration, or its 96KB DSP expansion module is
       supported. While we cannot guarantee that every existing DSP
       application ever written will be plug-and-play compatible with our
       DSP expansion memory, we are not aware of any existing
       applications that use the image functionality. The MusicKit, and
       demo programs that use the DSP, such as Mandlebrot and
       ScorePlayer, work fine with our memory module.
5.42 How to boot a NeXT without a monitor?

    The procedure is to just touch pins 6 and GND on the DB-19 NeXT
   monitor out with a 470 Ohm resistor (450 is the actual resistance, but
   470 ohms is more commonly found in resistors). Pin 6 is the power
   sense, and pins 13-19 (and the DB shell) are the GND. Just say "pin
   19", it may be easier.
   There's a pinout diagram of the DB-19 in the NeXT Users Reference
   If you have an old Cube, the power supply needs to have more power
   drawn from it than an 030 (and 040?) board uses to stay on. So: On the
   DB-19, attach a Power Resistor (20 Ohm, at least 20 Watt) between pins
   12 and GND. (Pin 12 is -12V, pin 13 works well for GND). Then just
   "touch" the 470 ohm resistor as described above, and you're set. The
   20 Ohm resistor draws an old 030 running without monitor in an old
   CUBE), but it isn't necessary - just don't touch it (*HOT!* ;-)
   To power off, type "halt -p" as root on the machine (either through a
   terminal connected to port A, or over the ethernet connection).
   Also, you have to have the Rom Monitor settings done correctly. The
   important ones are:

                Wait until keypress? N
                Sound out tests? N
                Port A as alternate Console? Y (if you have one, it's nice)
                Verbose mode? N (I think this may need to be N to work, don't r

5.43 Where can I get black spray paint for my NeXT?

   Black, spray paint paint, black spray You can get black spray from the
   following address.

                Sprayon Paint
                4Next-Black (icon black)

   Call 1-800-777-2966 for the name of a dealer near you.
5.44 What makes aged NeXT monitors dim?

   monitor, dim
   The cause of the dimming monitors is the CRT cathode wearing out. The
   most common type of CRT (and the type used in most NeXT monochrome
   monitors and all of the NeXT color monitors) uses what is called an
   oxide cathode. A thin coating of oxide is deposited on the cathode to
   allow the electronics which form the picture to get off the cathode
   easily. The oxide gradually boils off the cathode itself, and when the
   oxide is gone, the CRT goes dim.
   Typically, the oxide will last from 10,000 to 20,000 power on hours
   (screen savers don't help the cathode, they only prevent phosphor
   aging). Unfortunately, the black monochrome monitors fall into the
   short end of the life range thanks to Toshiba who made the CRT's. The
   aging is more noticeable in Unix machines because they tend to be left
   on. Note that there are about 8,000 hours in a year. If you leave your
   monitor on all the time, all oxide type CRTs will be dim in three
   The other type of CRT cathode is the I-cathode or dispenser type. This
   type of cathode is porous and continually brings new activation
   material to the surface. Its lifetime is 40,000 hours or more. The
   last of the NeXT monochrome monitors (N4000B) used this type of CRT
   and they don't go dim. There aren't many of that type around because
   NeXT quit the hardware business after producing only a few thousand.
   If you can get an N4000B monitor, you won't ever have to worry about a
   dim monitor.
   Many manufacturers are going to dispenser cathode type CRTs in their
   monitors with Panasonic leading the way. The best advice is to turn
   off the monitor when not in use. If that is impractical, try to
   purchase one with the long life cathode.
   Spherical Solutions ( has a supply of new N4000B long life
   monitors for sale in either ADB or non-ADB configurations. If you need
   to repair or replace a monochrome monitor, that is by far the best
   type to use.
   If you read this far, you probably know more than you ever wanted to
   about CRT aging, but I hope this helps.
5.45 How to use two internal hard drives

   drives, two internal
   It is possible to fit a second internal hard drive in a NeXT slab, in
   addition to the floppy drive and the first hard drive. The second
   drive must be third height, or 1 inch high. There is no room for a
   half height device. Buy a bracket or make one out
   of sheet metal for the 1 inch high drive. On 25 MHz mono stations the
   SIMMs are smaller and the drive doesn't have to go all the way against
   the back wall. In this case, glue the bracket to the underside of the
   NextStation cover, centered from side t
   o side and as far to the back as possible. This is sufficient. On 25
   MHz colorstations, however, one must file away a bit of the interior
   metal on the cover in order to glue the bracket fully to the rear of
   the cover. Once this modification is done, th
   e drive will clear the RAM when the cover is closed. Screw the drive
   into the bracket, with the power and SCSI plugs toward the right hand
   side of the NextStation so that the cables will reach. Go to your
   favorite computer store and get both a "dual int
   ernal SCSI bus cable" and a "dual internal SCSI power cable." Plug in
   the cables to both internal hard drives and close the cover.
   This was verified on both a 25 MHz mono and a 25 MHz color
   NextStation. No power or heating problems occurred.
                          6 WHITE (INTEL) HARDWARE
6.1 What about support for NeXT Computer specific hardware features such as the

   support, specific DSP, support support, DSP NeXT computers offer
   additional hardware support not commonly available for Intel systems.
   This includes the DSP. The DSP in a NeXT Computer is used for a
   variety of functions including ISDN support and real-time audio
   compression/de-compression. ISDN support for NEXTSTEP/Intel will be
   provided via an add-on PC card and ISDN adapter.
   Although the DSP programming feature is missing for NS3.3 on Intel, it
   is not necessary. The important SoundKit functions are rewritten to
   emulate an DSP on Intel, but this costs a lot of CPU time.
6.2 Do Multi-Architecture Binaries take a lot of extra disk space?

   MAB, disk space multi application binary, MAB
   The concept of NEXTSTEP binaries is different to other platforms. On
   NEXTSTEP only the real program is compiled and linked in a hardware
   specific manner. E.g. the GUI and the multilanguage support are usable
   on any platform running NEXTSTEP and will do so under OPENSTEP.
   Therefore the real binary part is sometimes really small.
   Anyway it might be a good choice to thin such a fat binary. NeXT ships
   tools for this purpose. Look at the manpages for lipo.
   If an application wasn't installed using the standard NeXT tool
   Installer, it might also be a good choice to look into the application
   drawer and delete other languages supported but not used by the
   application. This additional data is found in the different *.lproj
   subdirectories in the application's folder. To get there, activate the
   application's icon and select Open as directory from the Workspace's
   File menu item.
6.3 How difficult is it to recompile existing NeXT applications over to

   compile, re
   Very easy. Most programs will simply recompile and run, or require few
   changes. We believe that any application that uses the standard
   development environment and Object kits provided by NeXT should simply
   compile and run. Only applications that use architecture specific
   features or data formats, will require additional time to port.
   Several developers have already ported applications to NEXTSTEP/Intel.
   Appsoft Draw simply recompiled and ran, Lighthouse Concurrence took 3
   hours, other programs took 1/2 a day to 2 days, and this was all on a
   very early release of NEXTSTEP/Intel 3.1!
   Some applications just will refuse to compile, because they are still
   based on the old 2.0 headers etc. These applications are really rare
   now and may get ported very easily too, by changing the include path
   in your developer package.
   Other applications require additional header files and libraries to
   properly compile and link. These applications are mostly based on the
   MiscKit or MusicKit and other PD-Kits. You need to install these Kits
   first to compile these programs.
   With the shipping of OpenStep this might change, because it will be
   possible to produce shared libraries with the NeXT Developer package.
   This will enable you to not install the complete Kit, but only the
   shared library and will also reduce your binary noticeable.
6.4 When developing programs, are there any portability issues I should be
aware of?

   portability Yes. As stated above, any applications that use the
   standard tools provided by the NEXTSTEP development environment,
   should just recompile and work. To make sure developers are aware of
   portability issues, NeXT is producing a guide to address source code
   portability between different architectures running NEXTSTEP. This
   guide is available in the online documentation to the NeXT Developer
6.5 What is the difference between the NEXTSTEP/Intel User Environment and
Developer Environment?

   user vs. developer developer vs. user The NEXTSTEP/Intel User
   Environment consists of the entire NEXTSTEP 3.3 environment, minus the
   developer tools. The Developer Environment includes the developer
   tools such Interface builder, Project Builder, C compilers, Object
   Kits, example source code and developer documentation.
   Although it is possible to just get the latest GNU C compiler as a
   binary, you can not use it! This is because you won't get the standard
   libraries needed to produce NeXT applications neither the header
   files. Also it there is currently no third party compiler shipping. If
   you want to compile, you are forced to use the NeXT Developer package.
   The status of compiling a standard UNIX utility without NeXT's headers
   and just based on the supplied shared libraries is unknown.
6.6 If a specific I/O card is not supported by NeXT, can 3rd parties write
drivers for NEXTSTEP/Intel?

   I/O driver Yes. NEXTSTEP/Intel uses a newly developed object-oriented
   driver architecture that brings the benefits of object-orientation all
   the way down to the I/O card driver level.
6.7 How is NEXTSTEP/Intel installed?

   installation, Intel
   NEXTSTEP/Intel will come with a boot floppy and a CDROM. To install
   NEXTSTEP/Intel, the system boots from the floppy, and then installs
   the minimum NEXTSTEP environment from the CDROM (SCSI CDROM drive).
   The user may then chose from several optional packages depending on
   the available disk space and user requirements.
6.8 Will NEXTSTEP/Intel run on 386 machines?

   386 Intel 386 No. NEXTSTEP/Intel uses several 486 specific features
   that enhance the performance of NEXTSTEP. NEXTSTEP/Intel will support
   any 486 with Coprocessor and up.
6.9 Will NEXTSTEP/Intel run on the Cyrix 486SLC?

   486SLC, Cyrix Cyrix, 486SLC
   NeXT states: No. The Cyrix chip not a true 486.
   several other users state: Yes. Slow performance, though.
6.10 Will NEXTSTEP/Intel run on the future Intel Microprocessors in the x86

   x86 Intel, x86 Yes. NEXTSTEP/Intel will not only support them, but
   will take advantage of any performance enhancements available with
   future Intel CPU's, just as NeXT has taken advantage of the 486.
6.11 Will NEXTSTEP/Intel run on portable computers?

   portable computers
   Yes. Many portables and notebooks with 486 CPU's and sufficient system
   resources (>=8MB RAM and >=120MB hard disk space) are available. Since
   NEXTSTEP/Intel will support 640x480 VGA displays in grayscale,
   NEXTSTEP 486 can run on these systems. Do be aware that NEXTSTEP's
   user interface and applications were not designed for low-resolution
   screens, and consequently will impose limitations on the use of some
6.12 Will NEXTSTEP/Intel be able to run MS-DOS and Windows programs?

   MS-DOS Windows MS-Windows
   Yes. NEXTSTEP/Intel will support a DOS and Windows compatibility
   package. This software will allow DOS 5.0 and Windows 3.1 programs to
   run within a NEXTSTEP window. Support will include DOS "Protected"
   mode and Windows 3.1.
   This package is called SoftPC and comes with every NEXTSTEP system.
   The software is not free with NEXTSTEP, you have to pay extra. Anyway
   you are not limited in a 30 day test phase when installing it.
   Windows 95 and Windows NT are not supported by the emulation software.
6.13 How will my DOS and Windows applications perform under NEXTSTEP/Intel?

   MS-DOS, performance Windows, performance MS-Windows, performance
   Very well. The DOS/Windows compatibility package for NEXTSTEP/Intel
   takes full advantage of the 486 microprocessor. Depending on system
   hardware configuration and type of DOS/Windows application,
   performance should vary between 386 and 486 native DOS/Windows
   performance on Pentium systems. In addition, to enhance the
   performance of Windows applications, a MS Windows specific Graphics
   Device Interface (GDI) driver which maps Microsoft Windows calls
   directly to the NEXTSTEP window server is part of the system.
6.14 Is the window I use to run Microsoft Windows applications resizable?

   Windows, size MS-Windwos, size
   Yes. You can set the Windows session to any size you wish up to the
   maximum screen size available to the NEXTSTEP/Intel system you are
6.15 Will this DOS/Windows compatibility system allow me to run several DOS
programs at once?

   MS-DOS, multitasking
   Yes. Since NEXTSTEP/Intel is a multi-tasking, virtual memory operating
   environment, several DOS/Windows sessions can be run at once.
   Hey, did I say Windows? Yes you can do real Windows multitasking with
6.16 Can I cut and paste between DOS/Windows sessions and NEXTSTEP

   cut&paste, Windows cut&paste, MS-DOS cut&paste, MS-Windows
   Yes. You can cut and paste text and graphics between DOS/Windows and
   NEXTSTEP applications.
6.17 Can I use both DOS and NEXTSTEP/Intel partitions on the same hard disk?

   partitions, NeXT and DOS multi OS setup OS, more than one
   Yes. NEXTSTEP/Intel will support multiple operating systems on the
   same local hard disk. When the system boots, the user can chose to
   boot another operating system (such as DOS) or NEXTSTEP. If the local
   partition contains DOS, NEXTSTEP/Intel will be able to access the
   local DOS partition and read/write files to it, with the restriction
   on primary partitions only.
   Executive Summary: It is possible to install DOS, Windows NT with
   NTFS, and NEXTSTEP/Intel on the same disk, and select which partition
   is booted at boot time.
   I spent some time experimenting with a 200MB SCSI disk. I wanted to
   see if the following configuration would be possible:

        Partition 1     Primary DOS
        Partition 2     Extended DOS
        Partition 3     Windows NT NTFS
        Partition 4     NS/Intel 3.2

   Since Windows NT requires at least 70MB for installation, and NS/Intel
   requires at least 120MB, there wasn't much room for DOS! Ultimately, I
   only tested a three partition system (DOS, NTFS, NS/Intel), but I have
   no reason to believe that the extended DOS wouldn't also work.
   The recipe is as follows:
     * Preparation. You need a bootable DOS floppy that has FORMAT.COM on
       it. You need another (blank) floppy for installing NT.
     * Start with the NS/Intel installation. When it asks you how you
       want to configure your disk, it gives you three choices, which are
         1. erase the whole disk and use it all for NS/Intel,
         2. save some room for DOS,
         3. advanced. Choose the advanced option, which places you in
            NS/Intel fdisk (not to be confused with DOS FDISK.EXE).
     * Create three partitions in this order:
         1. Primary DOS (if more than 32MB desired, use the "large" FAT
         2. HPFS (this is a placeholder for NT, and can be any non-DOS
         3. NEXTSTEP
     * Proceed with the rest of the NEXTSTEP installation.
     * When NEXTSTEP is safely installed and tested out, boot DOS from
       your bootable DOS floppy.
     * FORMAT the DOS partition (which should be Drive C if you made it
       the first partition). You want to FORMAT C:/S, to install the boot
       code to make the DOS partition bootable.
     * Once DOS is safely formatted and tested out, insert the NT
       installation floppy and reboot.
     * Proceed with the NT installation. Tell Setup to install NT in the
       second partition (which shows up as "Unformatted"). You can select
       NTFS for FAT format.
     * Insert the blank floppy when asked. Don't bother to format it, NT
       unconditionally formats it.
     * If you select NTFS, there is a scary part of the installation that
       makes it seem like NT can't reboot. In fact, it is converting the
       installed files from FAT to NTFS in place. Just let it keep
       rebooting until it finishes, don't interrupt it like I did.
     * Finish setting up NT and test it out. It should be able to see the
       DOS partition in FileManager.
     * Likewise, there should be a DOS filesystem in / on NS/Intel. If
       you configured NT for FAT instead of NTFS, there should be two DOS
       filesystems in /.
   That's it. When you boot, you see the familiar NS/Intel boot manager.
   If you select DOS, it boots NT, which in turn offers you a chance to
   boot DOS or NT (not NS/Intel, of course). Kind of weird that you have
   this two tiered boot, but it's probably because the bootsector has
   been modified by NT. I haven't tried setting the active partition to
   DOS -- that might avoid the two tiers.
6.18 Can NEXTSTEP/Intel read, write, and format DOS and Mac floppies?

   MacIntosh, r/w floppy MS-DOS, r/w floppy Yes.
6.19 NEXTSTEP/Intel 3.1, DOS, Linux/NT multi-boot system?

   multi OS boot Linux MS-DOS OS/2 boot manager dual boot
   The OS/2 boot manager does this nicely.
     * Boot OS/2 from diskette and press Escape to get to the [A:]
       command prompt
     * Run the OS/2 FDISK program and create the following partitions:
          + 1 MB Boot Manager
          + 20MB DOS Primary partition (drive C:)
          + 64MB OS/2 Extended partition (logical drive D:)
          + 120MB Data Extended partition (logical drive E:) (or 200MB or
            whatever size)
     * Re-boot the machine and boot DOS from diskette.
     * Format drive C: and install DOS on drive C: with the following
       command: format c: /s /u
     * Now Re-boot the machine with the OS/2 Installation diskette.
     * Install OS/2 on Drive D: (the 64 MB logical partition) You will be
       prompted to install OS/2 on the default drive C: You will need to
       select the option to change the drive which will throw you into
       FDISK. Just make drive D: installable and proceed.
     * After OS/2 has been installed shutdown the system. Do a cold power
       off boot.
     * Cold boot the machine with the NEXTSTEP boot diskette.
     * Proceed with normal NEXTSTEP install and you should get the
       following disk installation option screen:

        Type 1 to erase the entire disk and use all 667 MB ...
        Type 2 to set aside some space for DOS and use the rest ...
        Type 3 to keep existing partitions and use the 462 MB free space ...
        Type 4 to use the 184 MB DOS extended partition for NEXTSTEP.
        Type 5 for advanced options (in English only).

       Choose option number 3 and proceed with the NEXTSTEP install
     * After NEXTSTEP has been installed, re-boot the machine and select
       'd' from the NEXTSTEP boot manager menu to boot DOS.
     * When DOS has booted, run the FDISK program to set the active
       partition to the first partition, the BOOT Manager partition. Then
       exit fdisk.
     * Now run the DOS FDISK program again but with the following
       parameter: fdisk /mbr This command removes the NEXTSTEP boot
       manager from the DOS partition.
     * Now re-boot the machine and the boot manager should come up.
       Select OS/2
     * Once OS/2 has booted, run the OS/2 FDISK program and name the
       NEXTSTEP partition and add it to the boot manager menu.
     * You should now have a machine with DOS, NEXTSTEP, OS/2 listed in
       the boot manager menu when the machine starts up. The boot manager
       defaults to the OS that was last booted.

   keyboard error, Intel
   We installed NeXTSTEP for Intel on a P5-Board using an Adaptec A1540
   SCSI-Controller. The System boots correctly. After running the kernel
   the keyboard is without any function. We can't use it anymore.
   Rebooting doesn't eliminate the error (advise from I-Guide).
   Well, it seems that the PS/2 Mouse driver interferes with the keyboard
   driver when installing on some motherboards. You have to remove the
   PS/2 mouse driver, then reboot, and it will work fine. I destroy the
   driver on our machines, so that config=Default will work properly as
   well. You should be able to remove the driver without reinstalling.
6.21 NS 3.2 Tseng ET4000 Video Driver doesn't work.

   ET4000, NS3.2
   TSENG Cards often have different DACs and BIOS-Versions. It is
   important, that the graphics card do have the original BIOS from TSENG
   Laps. Otherwise, it is not possible to run NS with the 1024 x 768
6.22 Accessing ROM monitor on Intel-System, how?

   ROM-Monitor, Intel On Intel you just type -s at the boot: prompt. Also
   try CTRL-C at the point where it hangs it might continue. This gives
   you single user mode. There simply is no ROM-Monitor on Intel as it is
   on NeXT. You do have the choice to enter a simple ROM-Debugger by
   choosing the appropriate option when the system hangs.
6.23 Adaptec 2940 Fast and Sync. SCSI explanation...

    This message is to clear up the confusion on the issue of whether or
   not the NEXTSTEP driver for the Adaptec 2940 PCI SCSI Host Adapter
   supports Fast SCSI (i.e., 10 MB/s data transfers).
   The Adaptec 2940 SCSI Host Adapter Driver supports Synchronous Data
   Transfer as well as Fast SCSI transfers. In order to enable
   Synchronous Data Transfer, this feature must be enabled in both the
   2940's AutoSCSI program and in the NEXTSTEP Configure application,
   when configuring the Adaptec 2940 driver. In the AutoSCSI program,
   this feature is enabled in the SCSI Device Configuration menu, via the
   "Initiate Sync Negotiation" field. This can be enabled or disabled on
   a per-target basis. In the Configure application, the "Synchronous"
   button, if disabled, disables Synchronous Transfers for ALL targets.
   If enabled, the values selected in the AutoSCSI program are used to
   determine whether or not Synchronous Transfers occur on a per-target
   The Synchronous Transfer data rate is determined in the 2940's
   AutoSCSI program, via the "Maximum Sync Transfer Rate" field in the
   SCSI Device Configuration menu. "Fast SCSI" Transfers are enabled by
   selecting a value of 10 (i.e., 10 Megabytes/seconds) for this field.
   Note that if Synchronous Transfers are disabled, the "Maximum Sync
   Transfer Rate" field is meaningless. Also note that it is not
   recommended to select a value higher than 5 for a device which is in
   an external enclosure and connected to the 2940 via an external SCSI
6.24 Do EIDE-Drives work with NEXTSTEP?

   Yes, a driver is included in NEXTSTEP 3.3
6.25 Anyone have a driver yet that does 8 bit color on an ET4000/w32p card?
(Hercules Dynamite Pro VLB)

   ET4000/w32p, 8 Bit color
   Here's a trick that will work with 3.3 if the driver works with your
   adapter. You need the latest driver though.
   Simply select one of the 8-bit gray resolutions in Configure. Save the
   configuration and quit Configure. Open Instance0.table inside the
   driver bundle and search for BW:8 and replace it by RGB:256/8. Save
   the file. Restart your machine and you've got 8-bit color!!!
6.26 Does a Glidepoint pointing device work with NEXTSTEP?

   It will work nicely under NS as you don't need any driver to make it
   work and use the nice features that GlidePoint have, like 'double-tap'
   to replace left-button click and 'double-tap and slide on the pad' to
   replace the hold the button and move for dragging an object.
6.27 AppleTalk under NEXTSTEP/Intel?

   AppleTalk, Intel IPT has a product called Partner, which works fine
   under 3.3 and mounts AppleShare Volumes, supports AT printing etc.
   (This is true, although IPT states that Partner only runs under 3.3
   Black and 3.2 Intel.)
6.28 Booting hangs with black screen

   Triton Bootoptions
   On some Triton based boards there seems to be a graphic problem while
   booting. The solution is to switch off graphic display and always boot
   with the '-v' option turned on (enter this at the 'boot:' prompt).
   If you don't get a 'boot:' prompt, or if you just want to fix things
   forever, you need to enter Default.table and Instance0.table in
   /usr/Devices/System.config and set 'BootGraphics="No"'. This has the
   same effect as typing '-v' at the 'boot:' prompt every time.
   Setting BootGraphics=NO can also be done from the Expert panel in
6.29 Why are the features of my graphic card useless?

   graphic card
   For the purposes of this discussion, I will limit my response to the
   manner in which DPS operates as part of the NEXTSTEP window server.
   DPS sometimes draws directly to the screen and sometimes to offscreen
   memory (buffered windows). The latter is the most common case. The
   former occurs only in nonretained windows and visible portions of
   retained windows.
   DPS is split into two sections: a device independent kernel and a
   device dependent driver layer. The driver layer is free to use
   graphics hardware to do its job; however there are complications.
   First, most graphics cards only allow you to use the hardware to draw
   into the framebuffer, not into system memory. This renders the
   hardware unusable for buffered windows. Second, the hardware must draw
   the same pixels that the software would draw. Often this is hard to
   achieve with satisfactory performance results. The DPS device
   primitives rely on precise pixel layout that often cannot be
   guaranteed using the hardware in the most straightforward manner.
   So, while it is theoretically possible to use graphics hardware with
   DPS in NEXTSTEP, it is not very practical. This should not lead you to
   the conclusion that all graphics cards are the same when it comes to
   NEXTSTEP. The speed of the system bus (ISA, EISA, PCI, VLB) is a big
   determinant of performance, but the internal architecture of the card
   itself also has a huge impact on the framebuffer memory bandwidth. I
   won't go into details, but some of the determinants include DRAM vs.
   VRAM, memory interleaving, and burst access.
   Other factors also influence the quality of a display card. These
   include the speed and stability of the RAMDAC and the supported
   display modes to name jsut two.
6.30 How to use MIDI without the MusicKit?

   MIDI MusicKit
     * Be sure you have an MPU-401 compatible MIDI card for the PC.
     * Get the Music Kit and install it. It's on the ftp servers.
     * Install the MIDI driver by double clicking on
       /LocalLibrary/Devices/Mididriver, which will add it to the system.
       Set the IRQ and IO port in the Then reboot.
     * If your program does not use the -ObjC flag on its link line, link
       against /usr/local/lib/libmusickit.a. However, if your program
       does use the -ObjC flag, extract the following files from
       libmusickit.a and link against them


     * Add this line as the first line in the C file that accesses the
       MIDI driver:

        #import <musickit/midi_driver_compatability.h>

       Be sure that you do not explicitly import . This file is
       (conditionally) imported by .
       The reason for needing a separate API for Intel is that there's a
       structure size disparity between the 68k and Intel versions of
       NeXT's libsys_s. So we defined a new set of MIDI functions for the
       Intel driver. The header file above defines the old names to be
       the new names.
     * Change the mididriver port name from mididriver to Mididriver.

#if i386
#define MIDIDRIVER_NAME "Mididriver"
#define MIDIDRIVER_NAME "mididriver"

    r = netname_look_up(name_server_port, "",MIDIDRIVER_NAME,

       This is another change to prevent conflict with the NeXT hardware
6.31 Installation problems with EIDE and ATAPI drives

   EIDE installation ATAPI
   Load the SCSI driver and then load the EIDE driver. Don't follow the
   directions they give you (which are to load the CD's driver and then
   load the hard drive's driver). Do it backwards, so that the hard drive
   you are installing to gets assigned sd0. By swapping drivers like
   this, the CDROM gets sd1 which is what the installation procedure
   I guess that what happened is that the EIDE driver makes the CDROM
   drive masquerade as a SCSI device. And SCSI ids will be assigned to
   devices in the order that you load the drivers. Since the OS wants to
   load to sd0, that means that you have to load the hard drive's driver
   before the CDROM's driver, especially in this case where the CD is on
   one bus and the HD is on another. By doing this, the CD doesn't steal
   sd0 away before the SCSI driver is loaded. My guess is that if you had
   the CD and the hard drive on the same bus (EIDE or SCSI) you'd never
   have this trouble. It's just the fact that there are two busses that
   confuse the installation. Anyway, this worked for me (Don Yacktman
6.32 Error message during boot time

   error, during boot message, bootstrap
   The following is a common error message you might encounter during the
   boot process just before the workspace starts up: bootstrap_register
   failed -- 102. You may ignore it savely. It will only occur if you
   didn't installed a sound driver.
6.33 Does NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP run with ...

   Although there are problems running NEXSTEP/OPENSTEP in conjunction
   with certain hardware, these problems are rare and most people got it
   working somehow. It's best to buy supported add-on cards listed in the
   Intel-Configuration section of NeXTanswers However most mainboards do work.
   Yes, this includes Pentium-Pro processors.
   NO, this excludes MP support (if you don't know what it is, never
   mind) (Okay, MP: Multi-Processing. Some boards are capable to keep
   more than one processor. However NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP doesn't take
   advantage of more than one processor).
   Also most multiprocessing boards do work with a single or more
   processors (even if a second or further processors aren't utilized)
   there are reports which indicate that there are problems with these
6.34 RAM greater 64MB, now I get a black screen!

   screen, black black screen
   Many users discouver a nice effect: They add RAM to their computer so
   they have more than 64MB of RAM installed. After rebooting
   NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP only a black screen appears and the system is
   This is a common problem. Reboot using the default configuration or
   with the VGA driver installed. Run Configure and select your graphic
   driver. Enter a value greater 64MB (in hexadecimal numbering,
   eg.0xA000000) and save. That's it. Previously your drivers memory did
   collide with your computers memory.
6.35 Lost root password

   root, password password, root
   The following is a method on how to change the root password on an
   Intel based computer. However if the system is booted over a network
   this won't help.
   Boot in single user mode supplying '-s' to the boot prompt. Once the
   system is halted. Start NetInfo by running 'sh /etc/rc'. Now use 'nu
   -m' to change the password and reboot (enterying 'reboot' of course.
   Not pressing the power button! I didn't had to tell this, did I?)
                                  7 STORAGE
7.1 Disktab help needed: ST15230N

   disktab ST15230N Seagate, ST15230
   This is the /etc/disktab entry for the SEAGATE ST15230N.

        ST15230N_1024|SEAGATE ST15230N_1024:\
                :ic:tc=4.3BSD: \
                :id:td=4.3BSD: \

7.2 Formatting DEC DSP3105 with 1024-byte blocks.

   DEC, DSP3105 DPS3105, 1024 block size disktab
   A DEC DSP3160S was reformatted with 1024-byte blocks using the
   following entry in /etc/disktab (two partitions)

        # DEC DSP3160S
        DSP3160S|DEC DSP3160S|DEC DSP3160S w/1024 b/sec as 2 partition:\

7.3 My formatted disk has much less space then advertised!

   filesystem, overhead disk space space, disk filesystem, space
   Let's assume you bought a disk drive advertised with 400 MB
   unformatted capacity. Vendors are not consistent with the MB
   definition. You may have much less space less than you think you have.
   Which of the following did you buy?

        400 * 1000 * 1000 = 400,000,000 bytes
        400 * 1024 * 1000 = 409,600,000 bytes
        400 * 1024 * 1024 = 419,430,400 bytes

   (for Quantum drives the following is true: Quantum defines 1MB to be
   exactly 1000000 Bytes).
   The disk must be formatted. This is often done by the vendor, but
   occasionally by the user. Formatting maps the disk into sectors. Space
   is reserved for the disk geometry and bad sectors. Formatting can take
   10-20% of the capacity depending on the sector size. Common sector
   sizes are 512 and 1024. Generally, bigger sectors mean less waste.
   Once formatted, the UNIX file system must be created. On the NeXT,
   this is one of the steps performed by the BuildDisk application. It
   invokes the mkfs command to make a file system. This reserves space
   for the UNIX file system (e.g., superblocks, inode tables). This
   overhead can take another 2-3% of the available disk space.
   If you issue the df command, you may be surprised to see another 10
   the available disk space has disappeared. The df command shows the
   total, used, and available disk space. The df units are in kbytes
   (1024 bytes). The sum of the used and available numbers will generally
   be about 10 allow the UNIX file system to be efficient in its storage
   allocation. If your disk fills up, only the superuser can store files
   in the remaining 10%.
   To complete the picture, here's a snapshot of what may occur:

         Capacity       Lost/Used/Reserved      Reason
        (in bytes)      (in bytes)
        419,430,000     19,430,000              Marketing hype (~5\%)
        400,000,000     60,000,000              Formatting (~15\%)
        340,000,000      6,800,000              UNIX file system (~2\%)
        333,200,000     33,320,000              Efficiency & superuser (~10\%)

   For more information, refer to the df and mkfs man pages.
7.4 Can't initialise my disk within the Workspace

   Sometimes there are problem initializing disks. This only occurs if
   the disk is already formatted, but in a different format, e.g. the
   sector size was changed etc.
   Mostly you can overcome this problem by using the sdformat utility
   available on the FTP sites. (Not sdform by NeXT, which is incapable to
   do this). After using sdformat, you should be abel to further format
   the media within Workspace.
7.5 Initialing Opticals for NeXT

   OD, NeXT optical disk, OD OD, initializing
   Do the following:

        /etc/mkfs /dev/rsd1a 288339 1803 2 8192 1024 12 10 60 4096 t

7.6 How to use a tape drive ?

   tape drive
   Using add the SCSITape driver to support any SCSI tape
   drives in the "Others" config.
7.7 How to recover from an partially formatted disk?

   recover, disk
   Often people (mostly on Intel) complain about a formatted disk
   (sometimes partially) due to an installation process error of some
   other OS. There is a chance to recover most of the data. The following
   assumes you are on Intel, other hardware user have to handle things
   much less complicated, but the way is similar:
     * Prepare a new hard drive for booting
     * Don't try to repair the broken drive!
     * On Intel run fdisk to repartition the drive as it was before. If
       you are not able to do this, you are lost. Delete all evtl. new
       created partitions. By repartitioning, you won't loose data on the
     * Run disk on the broken drive e.g. type disk -rsd1h.
     * Now scan the disk for superblocks by entereing the scan command at
       the interactive disk command prompt.
     * If your disk was partially formatted, use a higher superblock
       number to supply fsck with an new superblock. E.g. if a superblock
       was found at 3145 use fsck -b3145 -y /dev/sd1a (assuming the first
       partition is the broken one).
     * After this run, it is most important to reboot without syncing the
       drives! E.g. just turn off the computer without shutting down, or
       use the reboot -n command.
     * After rebooting the run fsck again, if it isn't done by the system
     * You should be able to access the drive again now. Recovered files
       are placed in the /lost+found directory.
7.8 What about the ZIP drive?

   IOmega, ZIP ZIP drive
   There are frequently asked questions about the IOmega ZIP drive. One
   question will be answered here: 'Yes, it works with NEXTSTEP'.
   For other question I'd like to point you to the ZIP-drive FAQ:
7.9 How to partition a 4GB drive

   4GB drive 2GB partition limit Quantum sizes
   If you are going to use large drives (greater 2GB) you need to
   partition this drive (true at least for OS versions up to 4.0). These
   are the common ways to go without too much trouble and it provides an
   very easy way for 4GB drives under NS3.3.
    1. Solution: disktab
          + If you need more than 3 partitions, you have to write a
            disktab entry! Using fdisk (Intel systems only) has no
          + On how to write a disktab entry, read the NeXTanswers (search
            for partition)
          + other pointers are: 'scsimodes' and 'man disktab'.
    2. Solution: installation on drive to partition
          + for Quantum drives the following is true: Quantum defines 1MB
            to be exactly 1.000.000 bytes. So if you are suited best by
            using 2 partitions on a Quantum Atlas 34300 (4.3GB
            drive-Quantum size, 4GB+5MB real size)
          + 2 partitions are automatically handled on all NS3.3 platforms
          + To easily install the drive by not writing a disktab entry do
            the following:
               o disconnect all other drives and connect the 4GB drive
                 with ID 0
               o start a plain NS3.3 installation via disks and the
               o when the installation of files starts (text based
                 output) you may break the procedure (the disk will get
                 fsck'ed later) or wait until the system reboots and
                 hangs :-) (no fsck needed then)
               o you should previously have read some line telling you:
                 initializing sd0b
               o now reconnect your old boot drives and restart NEXTSTEP
                 with the old boot drives. Switch the 4GB drive to a
                 different ID.
               o Only the first partition of the 4GB drive will get
                 mounted automatically, this is due to a documented bug
                 in the automounter.
               o to permanently mount both partitions, add your drive
                 partitions to the /etc/fstab file. Test mounting and
                 umounting by hand first.
               o everything should work fine now after a second reboot,
                 and if you set up your fstab file correctly, both
                 partitions will get mounted.
          + To switch the boot partition to the new 4GB drive continue
               o only the first partition is bootable (you'll notice that
                 by doing a ls -l on the mount entry --- there is the 't'
                 file mode)
               o (cd / ; gnutar -clf -)|(cd ; gnutar -xvpf -) This
                 transfers your root partition to the new partition.
               o now try a boot from the new drive, by entering in the
                 boot prompt: sd(x)mach_kernel (bsd for NeXT)
7.10 How to mount/ignore a disk during boot

   fstab mount, during boot disk, protection protection, disk disk,
   ignore foreign filesystems filesystem, ignore
   If you just format a new disk attached to your computer, it will get
   automounted by the Workspacemanager and unmounted when you log out. To
   utilize the disk during the boot process or to have fixed pathes and
   protections you need to create an entry in /etc/fstab for the drive.
   See the Unix manual pages for more details.
   This is also the solution for ignoring disks or partitions of a disk
   with a foreign filesystem, which the Workspacemanager otherwises would
   prompt you for formatting.
   A common mistake for /etc/fstab is to inlcude the noauto keyword in
   subsequent mounts. Don't include this keyword for further mount
7.11 Can't read multisession CD-ROMs!

   CD-ROM, multisession multisession
   Argh. Yes it's true. The original NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP drivers can't read
   multisession CD-ROMs. Only the first session can be used. If it is
   audio, CDPlayer is started if it's data it is just automounted to
   become accessable though Worksapce manager.
   Luckily there is a commercial driver out there, which enables
   NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP to take advantage of multisession CD-ROMs.

CDXA Driver
Price DM 48,- (about $US 30)
Uwe Tilemann
Tools GmbH
Adolfstr. 5
D-53111 Bonn

Phone: +49 0228 98580-0
Fax:   +49 0228 98580-17
Email: ut@Tools.DE (NeXTmail/MIME)
WWW:   http://www.Tools.DE/

                                 8 PRINTING
8.1 What printers (laser or otherwise) may be used with NEXTSTEP?

   printer, NeXT
   Adding supported postscript printers is rather simple:
     * Get a serial cable (e.g., Macintosh to LaserWriter Plus), but
       check whether that works with your printer
     * Configure using Print Manager
     * Configure printer communication according to manufacturer's
       recommendations. (9600 baud software flow control).
   A sample printcap entry needs to be loaded into the netinfo database.
   You can use either niload printcap . , or use NetInfoManager to change
   the br and lp properties of your LaserJet. Using the default baud rate
   and /dev/ttya will also work, for most print jobs (if the printer is
   connected to this port).

        LaserJet_III: \
        :note=LaserJet_III:ty=HP LaserJet III PostScript: \
        :sd=/usr/spool/NeXT/LaserJet_III:lp=/dev/ttyfa: \
        :lf=/usr/adm/lpd-errs:af=/usr/adm/lp.acct:br=19200:rw:fc\#0000374: \
        :of=/usr/lib/transcript/psof:gf=/usr/lib/transcript/psgf: \
        :nf=/usr/lib/transcript/psnf:tf=/usr/lib/transcript/pstf: \
        :rf=/usr/lib/transcript/psrf:vf=/usr/lib/transcript/psvf: \

   HP printer configuration:

                auto cont = off         (doesn't matter)
                I/O = serial
                serial=rs-232           (for LJ III only)
                baud rate = 19200       (or whatever baud rate you have
                                        in ni database/printcap)
                robust xon = on         (doesn't matter)
                dtr polarity = hi
                startpage = off         (doesn't matter)
                ret = med               (you choose for LJ III only)

   Note that if you modify the printcap this way you cannot reconfigure
   this particular printer entry with PrintManager.
   If you are using NEXTSTEP 2.0 and you use remote non-next printers,
   there is a bug that can be simply corrected by doing "dwrite system
   PrinterResolution 1" for each user trying to access non-next printers
   on the network. This not a problem in later NEXTSTEP versions.
8.2 What fonts can I use with NEXTSTEP?

   Properly packaged Type 1 or 3 PostScript fonts will work with
   NEXTSTEP, but certain conversions may be necessary to get them to
   work. Freeware and shareware fonts are available on various ftp
   archives. There are utilities with NEXTSTEP to download fonts into
   postscript printers.
   Freeware and shareware Type 1 and 3 fonts in files
   Fonts-1.0-free.tar.Z and Fonts-2.0-sw.tar.Z. Each file unpacks into
   it's own directory. Within each directory is a ReadMe.rtf and a
   Makefile. See the ReadMe.rtf for more font descriptions and
   installation instructions. (You may also find comments in the Makefile
   of interest.) These packages were prepared by Doug Brenner .
   The same directory contains fonts Shalom (Hebrew and Yiddish in Old
   Style, Stick and Script typefaces, by Jonathan Brecher, shareware) and
   CyrillicGothic (san serif, by Jay Sekora). These were packaged by
   Jacob Gore to work with the Installer application.

        WSI-Fonts for NEXTSTEP \#1
                Abstract Software
                POB 25045
                Seattle, WA 98125-1945
                Voice: 206 361 5080

   Some fonts in Type 1 format for NEXTSTEP are also available from Y&Y:

                Y\&Y, 106 Indian Hill, Carlisle MA 01741  USA
                Voice: 800 742 4059
                Voice: 508 371 3286
                Fax: 508 371 2004
                71172,524 on CompuServe
       from InterNet

   There is a font converter available in the MetroTools package by
   MetroSoft (
8.3 How can I save my printable documents to a postscript file?

   PS to file
   Select PRINT from the main menu, then select SAVE from the resulting
   print panel.
8.4 How can I print only the even or odd pages of a document?

   odd and even pages even and odd pages duplex printing double sided
   I wish print on both sides by feeding the paper through twice.
   We must recommend against re-using laser printed paper in your
   printers. The reason is that the toner which is used is not very
   robust, in that when heated again (which happens when you print) it
   can come off the other side of the paper. This causes a mess to
   accumulate in your printer, and probably some pretty rude things to
   psutils from comp.sources.misc is a much better solution, and includes
   a lot more capabilities, plus it is being updated constantly.
8.5 How do I get banner pages on my printer output?

   There is a sample banner prologue file in /usr/lib/NextPrinter that is
   sent to the printer before or after the print job depending on what
   printer attributes are set in NetInfo. Sounds gross, but it isn't.
   Start up NetInfo on your printer machine. Go to the printer directory,
   and open up your local printer by double clicking it. Select the
   append property from Directory menu. Replace the name with BannerAfter
   (or BannerBefore if you want the banner page printed first). The
   select the New Value option, and put in the name of the banner
   prologue file. If you do not wish to do fancy customization of the
   file, simply put the path to the NeXT sample banner file:


   Save out the netinfo modifications.
8.6 How do I get [la]TeX files to print correctly on non-NeXT printers?

   Latex TeX
   If you are printing to a non-NeXT printer from NeXT TeX using dvips,
   make sure you specify the correct resolution (300 dpi, usually),
   either on the command line with -D300, or in the
   /usr/lib/tex/ file with a line that looks like : D 300
   If you are printing from within TeXView, you will have to choose
   CustomResolution and enter the correct number (300, usually) because
   of the way DefaultResolution defaults to 0.
8.7 What if I have a PostScript font has not been ported to NEXTSTEP?

   PS-Font to NeXT
   Many PostScript fonts port to NEXTSTEP with little effort.
   The easiest case is a font generated by Fontographer version 3.2 or
   above (a comment near the top of the file should say which program
   generated the font). This version of Fontographer can generate fonts
   "for NEXTSTEP". This means that no hacking of the font is needed, but
   you may need to make some adjustments to make it appear in your font
   Suppose you were porting the font family Shalom, which consists of
   three faces: Old Style, Stick and Script. Here is the procedure to
     * In a working folder of yours, create folders called:


       Note that the font family name is to the left of the hyphen ("-"),
       and the typeface name is to the right and with no spaces in it.
     * Copy the outline font file for each typeface from wherever it is
       into its folder, and give it the name of the folder minus the
       ".font". For example, if you are doing this in a Terminal window:

        cp /Floppy/ShalomOldStyle.NeXT Shalom-OldStyle.font/Shalom-OldStyle
        cp /Floppy/ShalomScript.NeXT   Shalom-Script.font/Shalom-Script
        cp /Floppy/ShalomStick.NeXT    Shalom-Stick.font/Shalom-Stick

       If you are working in Workspace Manager's File Viewer,
       double-click on the big fat F icon to open the font directory as a
       folder, then you'll be able to rename files in it.
     * Do the same thing with the font metric files, but make the suffix

        cp /Floppy/ShalomOldStyle.AFM Shalom-OldStyle.font/Shalom-OldStyle.afm
        cp /Floppy/ShalomScript.AFM   Shalom-Script.font/Shalom-Script.afm
        cp /Floppy/ShalomStick.AFM    Shalom-Stick.font/Shalom-Stick.afm

     * If there is a "read me" file with the font, or any other
       documentation, copy it into the .font folder too. For example,
       each of the Shalom font folders contains files ReadMe,
       CheatSheet.wn and Sample.wn specific to the typeface.
     * Edit the outline and font metric files to make them fit the NeXT
       AppKit's Font Panel, which is what most NextStep applications use
       to let you choose your font.
          + Editing the outline file, e.g.,
            The original used "ShalomOldStyle" as the font's name, full
            name, and family name. We want the name to be
            "Shalom-OldStyle", the full name "Shalom Old Style", and
            family name just "Shalom".
            First, find the lines:

                        /FullName (ShalomOldStyle) readonly def
                        /FamilyName (ShalomOldStyle) readonly def

        and change them to:

                        /FullName (Shalom Old Style) readonly def
                        /FamilyName (Shalom) readonly def

            Then, replace all remaining occurrences of the string
            "ShalomOldStyle" with "Shalom-OldStyle".
          + Editing the AFM file, e.g.,
            Find the lines:

                        FullName ShalomOldStyle
                        FamilyName ShalomOldStyle

        and change them to:

                        FullName Shalom Old Style
                        FamilyName Shalom

        Replace all remaining occurrences of the string "ShalomOldStyle"
            with "Shalom-OldStyle".
            Repeat this procedure for the remaining typefaces.
     * You now have a font family ready to be installed. If the font
       family is to be used by your account only, place it in
       /Library/Fonts (creating it if necessary):

                mkdirs ~/Library/Fonts
                mv Shalom-*.font ~/Library/Fonts
                buildafmdir ~/Library/Fonts

       If everybody on your system should have access to this font
       family, place it (as superuser) in /LocalLibary/Fonts:

                mkdirs /LocalLibrary/Fonts
                mv Shalom-*.font /LocalLibrary/Fonts
                buildafmdir /LocalLibrary/Fonts

   That's all you need to do for fonts generated by Fontographer version
   3.2 or above. This will work with all applications that use AppKit's
   FontPanel. FrameMaker does not, so other changes may need to be done
   to keep FrameMaker happy [does anybody have something to add here?].
   Fonts generated by Fontographer version 3.1 or below don't work in
   Display PostScript as they are, because they use a memory management
   trick that screws everything up in a multitasking environment like
   DPS. However, there is a simple, though kludgy, way to make them work.
   The problematic trick uses a dictionary with a name like "Fog3.1"
   ("Casa1" in Casady & Green's fonts) in which most of the font resides.
   The problem is that Fontographer puts that whole dictionary into
   dictionary 'userdict' and expects it to stay there. DPS, however,
   clears out 'userdict' between tasks, including the task that loads the
   font and the task that uses it. This makes the font useless on the
   screen, and printable only by prepending the outline font file to the
   file you want to print and sending the result to print in one task.
   The fix is to move the troublesome dictionary from 'userdict' into the
   font dictionary itself (unlike 'userdict', the font dictionary does
   stick around between tasks).
   Perform the following changes in the outline font file (the font
   CyrillicGothic is used as the example):
     * Find the line "%%EndProlog". It will be followed by the line like

                        /\$CyrillicGothic 23 dict def \$CyrillicGothic begin

       Write down the number before 'dict' (in this case, 23). You will
       need it in the following step. Delete the dict definition, making
       the line look like this:

                        \$CyrillicGothic begin

     * Go back to the beginning of the file. near the top of the font
       program, find the following lines:

                        userdict/Fog3.1 known\{\{currentfile(   )readstring
                                \{(\%\%\%)eq\{exit\}if\}{pop exit\}ifelse\}loop
                        userdict begin/Fog3.1 45 dict def Fog3.1 begin

       and replace them with these:

                        /\$CyrillicGothic 24 dict def
                        \$CyrillicGothic begin/Fog3.1 45 dict def Fog3.1 begin

       The number before 'dict' (in this case, 24) is one greater than
       the number you wrote down in the previous step.
     * Find the line that defines procedure BuildChar:

                /BuildChar{Fog3.1/BuildChar get exec}def

   and change it as follows:

                /BuildChar{1 index begin Fog3.1/BuildChar get exec end}def

     * Go to the end of the file. The last line looks like this:

                /CyrillicGothic findfont/EFN get Fog3.1 begin\{RF\}forall end

   Delete it (or comment it out by placing one or more " beginning of
       The AFM file requires one adjustment. Change the line

        EncodingScheme AppleStandard


        EncodingScheme AdobeStandardEncoding

   This concludes conversion of a font generated by Fontographer version
   3.1 or lower to work with NEXTSTEP. You may still need to make the
   changes described for version 3.2 and above, to make the font fit the
   NEXTSTEP font panel.
   Short note: under NEXTSTEP 3.3 there is no need to call buildafmdir by
   hand. It's triggered automatically by the Font panel.
8.8 What color printers (laser or otherwise) may be used with NEXTSTEP?

   printer, color
   The (no longer sold) NeXT/Canon SCSI color printer, of course!
   With Dots Color, the HP DeskJet 500C can print in color today, under
   NEXTSTEP 2.1, and it costs significantly less than $1000 (in Germany
   at least).
   In Germany you can get more information from:

                d'ART Software GmbH
                Virchowstr. 17-19
                W-2000 Hamburg 50
                Voice:  +49 40 380 23 0
                Fax:    +49 40 380 23 290

   JetPilot from Interpersonal Computer does this jobs also very well.
   You can get more information from:

                interpersonal computing GmbH
                Oettingenstrasse 2
                W-80538 Muenchen
                Voice:  +49 89 22 28 63
                Fax:    +49 89 22 33 76

8.9 How can I make the Page Layout default to A4 in all applications?

   A4 default size
   Add "NXPaperType A4" in the "GLOBAL" preferences.
8.10 /usr/lib/NextPrinter/Server/pstf: syntax error at line 31: `end of file'

   Using lpr -t, or lpr -d causes this problem. eg:

        cat /usr/lib/NextPrinter/Server/pstf

   Christopher Lane has pointed out 3 (three!) errors in the distributed
   NEXTSTEP 3.0 lpd.comm file
   The last change is my own. It worked for the 1 (one!) dvi file I

        tilley\% diff lpd.comm.DIST lpd.comm

        < while "x\$1" != x do
        <     case "\$1" in
        > while test \$\# != 0
        > do  case "\$1" in
        <       -h) HOST=\$"; shift;;
        >       -h) HOST=\$2; shift;;
        >     esac
        < PRSERVER="/usr/lib/NextPrinter/Server/prserver -p \$PRINTER -n \$USER
 -h HOST -f -"
        > PRSERVER="/usr/lib/NextPrinter/Server/prserver -p \$PRINTER -n \$USER
 -h \$HOST -f -"
        <     psdf) psbad \$FILTER \$PRINTER \$USER \$HOST | \$PRSERVER;;
        >     psdf) dvips -f -D 400 -r  | \$PRSERVER ;;

8.11 How to get TeX with NEXTSTEP to make proper fonts for a 600 dpi

   600dpi TeX fonts TeX, 600dpi
   If you upgrade to a 600 dpi laserwriter then the version of TeX that
   ships with NEXTSTEP (either 2.X or 3.0) does not know about 600 dpi
   fonts, i.e. does not know how to make them and will instead use scaled
   400 dpi ones (which look significantly worse at 600 dpi than they do
   at 400 dpi). Some simple modifications to a few Metafont files and
   rebuilding the metafont bases are all that is needed. What to do to
   get the 600 dpi stuff working is as follows:
     * Edit /usr/lib/mf/inputs/ and add a laserjetIV mode. Simply
       copy the entire imagen mode, change the name to laserjetIV, and
       change the pixels_per_inch to 600. Save the changed file.
     * Build a new mf.base file by executing the following commands:

                inimf "plain; input next; dump"
                (as superuser):  cp plain.base /usr/lib/mf/bases/mf.base

     * Edit /usr/lib/tex/ps/ and change the `D 400' line to `D
       600' (you may have `D 300' or something else if you've set up a
       different printer.)
     * Edit /usr/bin/MakeTeXPK (as superuser), adding the lines

                elif test $BDPI = 600

   right before the second `else' in the file.
   That should do it! You might have to (depending on how you configure
   NEXTSTEP for the LaserJet IV) select `custom resolution' and set the
   gadget to 600 in the TeXview print panel, and save Preferences. These
   instructions are written for an HP Laserjet IV, but they should also
   work for a QMS printer just fine.
   Finally, if you have one of these printers and work in a "mixed"
   environment with perhaps 400 dpi and/or 300 dpi printers that you also
   print to on a regular basis then you might want to consider getting
   Type 1 PS version of the Computer Modern fonts instead. They obviate
   the need for the instructions above, and the savings in disc space
   will be considerable since having printer fonts for several printers
   takes lots of room, and the file sizes for 600 dpi are quite large
   (the files grow roughly as D logD, where D is the resolution). These
   fonts are made by Blue Sky Research, and work beautifully. Y&Y
   software is a reseller for BSR and sells a "NEXTSTEP specific" version
   of them which comes with appropriate instructions and installation
8.12 How to get printer description files (PPD)?

   PPD, where? printer description files, PPD
   Adobe has a mail server and ftp site where you can get .PPD files.
   They are:

       (put "send help" in the mail body)

8.13 What are the Canon part numbers for ink cartridges equivalent to those
NeXT's Color Printer uses?

   ink cartridge, Canon Canon, ink cartridge
   Part Numbers are:

                Red:    BJI-643 M
                Yellow: BJI-643 Y
                Blue:   BJI-643 C
                Black:  BJI-643 Bk

8.14 JetPilot does not work with my JetDirect box, why?

   JetPilot, JetDirect JetDirect, JetPilot eXTRAPRINT
   It seems, that there is a bug in the /etc/rc-script. The bootpd is
   given with to arguments -a -f, which are not available for the bootpd
   under 3.3.
   Make an entry in /etc/bootptab like this:

        \# host  htype   haddr                   iaddr             bootfile
        printer 1       XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX       XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX

     * host: your given hostname for the printer (eg. picasso)
     * haddr: The Ethernet hardware address (Can be seen, if you press
       the TEST-Key on your JetDirect box.
     * iaddr: Is the hostaddress for the printer (eg.
   Entries have to be done also in the Netinfo-database. It's like adding
   a new host.
   Insert the following line to your etc/rc.local script:

        \# Starting JetDirect-Printer configuration
        fbshow -B -I "Starting Printer initialization" -z 92
        /usr/etc/bootpd -d /etc/bootptab                >/dev/console 2>\&1

   There is an additional FAQ available at:
8.15 powering down NeXTprinter during bootup, printer still works

   power down, printer printer, printer down
   Type the following to your rc.local.

        \#turn off NeXT laser printer.
        fbshow -B -I "Powering off NeXTprinter" -z 95
        if [ -f /usr/etc/nppower ]; then
                sleep 3
                /usr/etc/nppower off
                (echo 'powering off NeXTprinter')               >/dev/console

   This works fine... the printer powers down immediately, and is
   available for any app which wants it.
8.16 How to set up the HP LaserJet 4M?

   HP Laserjet 4M
   I solved the problem by building a serial cable based upon the pinouts
   supplied by HP in their manual. Please note that the LJIII cable does
   not work. In particular, pin 1 from the DIN plug must be connected to
   pin 6 of the DB25. I used 38500 bps on both sides, and the 600 dpi
   Emulex offers the NETJet network interface which speaks lpd protocol,
   unlike the HP unit.
8.17 Laserwriter NTX & NEXTSTEP

   Laserwriter NTX
   This are the pin assignments.

        Eight-pin mini DIN-8 RS-422 Port
        Pin    Signal    Description

        1,3     SG        Signal Ground
        4       TxD+      Transmit Data +
        5       TxD-      Transmit Data -
        8       RxD+      Receive Data +
        9       RxD-      Receive Data -

        IBM-compatible DB-25 Plug     LaserWriter DB-25 Plug
        Signal         Pin            Pin           Signal

        Shield          1 ............ 1            Shield
        TxD             2 ............ 3            RxD
        RxD             3 ............ 2            TxD
        RTS             4 ............ 4            RTS
        CTS             5 ............ 5            CTS
        DSR             6 ............ 8            DCD
        GND             7 ............ 7            GND
                          ............ 20           DTR

   The other aspect is to set the DIP switch on the printer. Here are the
   DIP switch settings:

        Switch 1   Switch 2    Meaning

        UP         UP          LocalTalk---RS-232 port disabled
        DOWN       UP          Serial ports at 1200 Baud
        UP         DOWN        Serial ports at 9600 Baud
        DOWN       DOWN        RS-232 at 9600 Baud; RS-422 at 0 Baud

   Switches 3 and 4 can probably be ignored---they're for strange stuff
   like Diablo 630 and HP LaserJet emulation modes.

        Switch 5        Switch 6        Meaning

        DOWN            DOWN            XON/XOFF
        UP              UP              XON/XOFF
        DOWN            UP              ETX/ACK
        UP              DOWN            DSR

8.18 Problems with gray levels in printout

   gray levels color space PS Level2
   If you have problems with your shades of gray (e.g. light gray is
   indistinguishable from white) this might be well a problem in the
   Level2 Color Space calibration of your printer.
   To ensure, it's a problem of your printer (and not a problem of the
   printer driver or PPD file) try the following:
     * Save a printout to a file
     * Edit the following line in your printout file:

        /\_NXLevel2 systemdict/languagelevel known {languagelevel 2 ge}{false}i
felse \_\_NXdef


        /\_NXLevel2 false \_\_NXdef

     * Send the modified file directly to the printer using the
       commandline command lpr.
   If you still have problem with the shades of gray, the printer
   driver/PPD file is probably broken, otherwise your printer is broken,
   which means he has problems with the Level2 color space calibration
   (The given correction turns PS Level2 off).
8.19 Can't print using additional fonts

   printer, fonts
   In rare circumstances some printers refuse to print, if they don't
   recognize a font. In these cases add the _nxfinal form property to the
   printer's property list with NetInfo.
                      9 OBSOLETE BUT STILL INTERESTING?
   This chapter contains information covered in the early days of the
   FAQs. It is not updated anymore. Note that with new releases of
   NEXTSTEP and OpenStep some information might still be useful to those,
   who e.g. didn't update.
9.1 Where can I get NeXT paraphernalia?

   Paraphernalia NeXT paraphernalia are no longer available. Let's stop
   reading 1 minute and remember the times ..... Thanks!
9.2 Is there any way to change the text in the title bar of a terminal window?

   There is no way of changing the title bar of a window in
   2.x; in 3.x there is. Check Preferences (Title Bar): set CustomTitle,
   type in the title, and hit CR (or Set Window) and voila!
   [From: (Andre Roberge)]
   Actually, there is a way to change the title bar of a Terminal window
   in 2.x (at least in 2.1 which is what I am using). It is somewhat
   limited but it might be useful to some.
   The trick is to make a symbolic link between /bin/csh (or whichever
   shell one wishes to use) and a file in / named
   "Whatever_you_want_to_appear_in_the_title_bar". Then select this new
   "shell" in the terminal preference and, voila!, you'll have your
   terminal window with /Whatever_you..... in the title bar.
   You can edit Stuart's titlebar interactively from the "Window..."
   Inspector (Command-3).
   Stuart provides emulation of certain Operating System Command (OSC)
   sequences which can be used to modify the titlebar under subprocess
   Stuart can change the title of the current window from the command
   line. In Stuart is possible to get more descriptive titles by linking
   /usr/ucb/rsh to /usr/hosts/. Then by adding /usr/hosts to your Stuart
   ShellPath you can then get the hostname into the title bar:

        $ dwrite StuartShellPaths <various dirs>:/usr/hosts

   You should then type in the hostname as the shell to invoke (disable
   the "Shell reads .login file" for this. You can also add hosts to your
   .Stuartrc file:

   For the localhost, link /bin/csh to /usr/hosts/, or even better
   /usr/local/bin/tcsh instead of using rsh.
   [From: Garance A Drosehn ]
   For what it's worth, I do this with a script called "telnet_to" and a
   (bash) function called "telnet_window". The function simply does a

        local soil_pars="-Lines 32 -Keypad YES -Reverse \
        YES -Strict YES -TestExit YES";
        soil -Shell "telnet_to $1" $soil_pars

   and the script is just:

        /usr/ucb/telnet $*
        echo ' '
        echo '  -->   telnet exited, press enter to close window.'
        read -r Waste_Var
        exit 0

   This has a number of advantages, not the least of which being that I
   can pop up a "telnet_window" to anywhere. I don't have to create links
   for each host (though I do create aliases for the most common hosts),
   and I can type "telnet_window" (or, e.g., "tel_aix") as a unix
   Also, if I lose the connection suddenly then the window stays around
   until I get a chance to see what happened. I use telnet instead of rsh
   because I generally connect to hosts which won't accept rsh's.
9.3 I can't get my pictures in OmniWeb 

   OmniWeb You have to install the OmniImage.service in your
   /Library/Services or /LocalLibrary/Services (This is also a nice way
   to get pictures converted in other applications as well.
   You can ftp this from
9.4 How do I remap the and | keys on my keyboard?

   NeXT introduced a new keyboard configuration with the 040 products.
   | keys which had been located on the main keyboard was moved to the
   numeric keypad. Many users have since complained about it, and a work
   around is to remap these keys using the demo application Keyboard
   (/NextDeveloper/Demos/Keyboard), Mike Carlton's keyboardfix program:
   ...which lets you put these keys on shift-return or shift-delete. One
   can hope that there will be a choice of keyboards in the future.
9.5 How do I stop NeXTMail/Sendmail adding &Mcirc;s onto the end of lines?

   In /etc/ make this change:

        [old code]

        #####           UUCP Mailer specification
        Muucp,  P=/usr/bin/uux, F=msDFMhuU, S=13, R=23,

        [new code]

        #####           UUCP Mailer specification
        Muucp,  P=/usr/bin/uux, F=msDFMhuU, S=13, R=23, E=\n,

   This has been fixed in 3.1, and the default mailhost sendmail is UUCP
9.6 Why does NEXTSTEP 1.0 hang a few seconds after attempting to boot?

   Boot hang, NS1.0
   Release 1.0 contains a bug that can corrupt the kernel /odmach if a
   user attempts to launch /odmach from the browser. The solution is to
   copy a clean /odmach from another NeXT system. Be sure to change the
   permissions of the newly installed /odmach to remove execute
   permissions to prevent future occurrences of the same problem. Release
   1.0a and beyond do not have this problem.
   It is possible for the sdmach to get corrupted in the same way. Boot
   from the OD, copy an uncorrupted version of the kernel to the hard
   disk, and remove the execute bits from sdmach.
9.7 Modem hangs under NS2.0 by incoming calls

   modem calls, incoming
   There is a bug in the serial driver which causes getty to get stuck.
   The situation arises after a successful uucico connection, subsequent
   connections via modem will get a connection with the modem, but no
   login prompt.
   This is caused by getty hanging. A simple work around is to have a
   process run in cron to reset the getty every 15 minutes:

        #! /bin/sh -u
        PIDS=`ps -ax | bm getty | grep -v bm | awk '{print $1}'`
        kill -TERM $PIDS

   Of course trying to connect when the script is running will not allow
   you to connect, try again a minute later. This fix will not affect
   on-going UUCP or interactive connections. This will probably be fixed
   in the next kernel release.
   This bug is corrected in NEXTSTEP 2.1 and later releases.
9.8 NS2.0 doesn't recognize /LocalApps path

   /LocalApps, NS2.0
   Workspace has its own internal application path. In 2.0 /LocalApps was
   omitted. Improv needs to have /LocalApps in the Workspace path if you
   have Improve installed in /LocalApps. The work around in 2.0 only is:

        dwrite Workspace ApplicationPaths "~/Apps:/LocalApps:/NextApps: \

   This bug is corrected in NEXTSTEP 2.1 and later releases.
   This document was converted from LaTeX using Karl Ewald's latex2html.
Bernhard Scholz (IRC: Boerny)       

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM