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[comp.unix.bsd] NetBSD, FreeBSD, and OpenBSD FAQ (Part 8 of 10)

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Posted-By: auto-faq 3.1.1.2
Archive-name: 386bsd-faq/part8

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Section 7.	(System Communication and Network Information)

7.0	Communications

7.1	SLIP/CSLIP

	Serial Line I/P is supported in all versions of BSD.

	Brian <brian@awfulhak.demon.co.uk> provides us with a rather
	good explanation of some of the hurdles that must be overcome
	for a working slip interface.

	The idea is (overview) that you make a serial line connection to 
	the host, set the line discipline, and tell your router to use 
	this interface as your gateway.  You also should set the gateway 
	up as a nameserver.

	You will need the information in 7.4.1 below to make sense to
	you before you proceed much further.  I suggest you read that
	now.

	Sounds easy ? - well it is if you've done it before.

	The _usual_ way of doing this is as follows:

	Both server and client must know each others inet addresses.  Set 
	these up in /etc/hosts with lines saying
	    11.22.33.44 host.my.domain.name host
	    11.22.33.55 client.my.domain.name client

	where 11.22.33.?? is your inet number, and the following name is 
	the full machine name (and is followed by any number of aliases).

	SERVER:
 	  Create a login - usually Sclientname - and run `sliplogin` as 
 	  its shell.  I've looked at the docs for sliplogin, and it seems
 	  fairly straightforward.  [Ed.Note - I have; it is.]
 	  A fairly common problem on the server is an error that is 
 	  caused by the lack of a 'sliplogin' entry in the /etc/shells
 	  file.  Be sure to add sliplogin to your shells file.

	CLIENT:
	  Set up /etc/resolv.conf to say the following (for the nameserver)
		domain client.my.domain.name
		nameserver 11.22.33.55

	  ** traditional method **
	  - Log on to the server.  This is usually done via kermit or
	    some such program.
	  - Exit the program (or background it if your line wants to
	    drop once the device is closed).
	  - Run `slattach /dev/comport` for whatever "comport" is.  On most
	    BSD derived systems, this may be either com0, or cua01, or
	    whatever the correct name is for your site.

	  If you run into an error that says 'not configured' in it, your 
	  kernel either does not recognize your port (dmesg will verify that)
	  or your kernel does not have the slip interface built in.  See 
	  below for the latter.  The former could be caused by any one of 
	  a dozen problems, including conflicting or incorrectly identified 
	  IRQs or port addresses.

	  - Run `ifconfig sl0 net clientname servername netmask 0xffffff00`
	  - Run `route add default servername`.
	  
	    "servername" is your server and "clientname" is your client.
	    
	  It should now be possible to `ping host`

	** my method **
	  Configure /etc/remote
	  Configure /etc/host.dial
	  Run `slip host`.

	/etc/remote contains an extended `tip` entry.  /etc/host.dial 
	contains a login script (and is named in /etc/remote).

	Oh yes, don't forget to have a line in your kernel config saying

	pseudo-device sl 2

	Without this line, you may get a 'device not configured' or 
	'TIO...' error because the slip driver is not built into the 
	kernel.

	Someone else mailed me their instructions for using a SLIP
	service.  Here they are, in all their glory.

	Hi, I thought I'd drop you this email outlining how I have 
	SLIP set up to dial and communicate, as I remember this being 
	an area in the FAQ which needed some expansion/clarification. 
	What I outline works for me dialing up under NetBSD 0.9. 
	Though I don't know the specific nuances of FreeBSD (e.g. the 
	boot-up configuration of the interfaces - /etc/hostname.sl<n> 
	for NetBSD) this'll be easy for someone to add to, hopefully 
	before you release it (I know there's nothing I hate more
	than having to convert one setup's info into another nearly,
	but not quite, the same setup :-)

	In the last quoted script file (slip-off) the unlock line should 
	read:

	/usr/local/etc/unlock LCK..$DEVICE

	1) Configuring the SLIP interface.

	Ensure that the sl device is present in your kernel (default with 
	the generic kernels). In NetBSD 0.9 they get assigned in turn 
	with each 'slattach'.

	Put your own hostname and ip number, and that of your dial up 
	gateway, into your /etc/hosts. This is an example:-

	   127.0.0.1     localhost

	   158.152.1.65    gate gate.demon.co.uk
	   158.152.26.67   blodwen blodwen.demon.co.uk

	Ensure that your /etc/resolv.conf is set up appropriately, to 
	point to the nameserver of your dial-up provider/link.  This is 
	what I use:-

	   domain demon.co.uk
	   nameserver 158.152.1.65
	   nameserver 158.152.1.193

	(you can have up to three nameservers, they -must- be listed by
	number.  If you wish to look in several domains, you can use 
	'search demon.co.uk,foo.other.domain' etc. up to the limit (a 
	finite length specified in resolver(5).)  Also, for more
	flexibility, there is a nameserver switch package that allows
	you to change the resolver profiles on the fly; see below.

	Your sl interface needs to be configured using ifconfig(1) as a 
	link from your own hostname to that of your dial-up host.  Manually 
	this can be done by:-

	   /sbin/ifconfig sl0 <your-machine> <dial-up-machine>

	on NetBSD this can be done at boot-time, by having the following 
	in /etc/hostname.sl0:-

	   inet blodwen.demon.co.uk 255.255.255.0
	   dest gate.demon.co.uk

	(You can substitute sl0 for sl<n> if this will after another 
	slattach e.g. for a local machine on a fixed cable)

	The netmask value (255.255.255.0 in this case) is pretty 
	irrelevant to SLIP because you cannot have a subnet broadcast 
	(so I am informed).

	I use the chat(1) program (currently available in the 
	FreeBSD-current/ports/ directory) to dial up and enter 
	passwords, etc. My modem is setup for hardware handshaking 
	(a necessity really, for performance), and I use the following 
	sh scripts to do the work.  Calling 'demon' dials up and connects. 
	Calling 'demon-down' when on-line shuts it all off. Those who 
	use PPP should be able to work out the changes from the original 
	ppp-on and off scripts.

	[I call it 'demon' for simplicity]

	   #!/bin/sh
   	   #
	   # attach slip and route (calls slip-on script)
	   if /usr/local/etc/slip-on
	           then
	           # this adds the default route to 'gate' which is 
		   # my dial-up host
	           route add default gate

	           # put anything here to be run when you are connected
	           # slurp news
	           /usr/local/etc/slurp news.demon.co.uk &
	           # send outgoing news
	           /usr/local/news/bin/nntpsend
	
	           # kick outgoing email
	           sendmail -q0m
	
	   else
	           # slip-on failed
	
	   fi
	
	[ here's my /usr/local/etc/slip-on ]
	
	Note that you may need to adjust the chat command to deal with the
	prompts you have to answer or that your modem produces, and the final
	message (my provider sends HELLO to signify that they are ready. The
	 -v to chat makes it send syslog .info messages, which I then send to
	my /dev/console. You can remove this if you wish.
	
	The following is a modified version of the ppp-on script that comes
	with chat, altered to set the serial line correctly for the modem. I
	dial-up at 38400bps on a modem on tty03, you might want to change that
	too (and make sure that the stty line is all kept on one line).
	
	   #
	   #       slip-on
	   #
	   #       Set up a SLIP link
	   #
	
	   LOCKDIR=/var/spool/lock
	   DEVICE=tty03
	
	   PHONE=<phone number here>
	   USER=<your login>
	   PASSWORD=<your password>
	
	   if [ -f $LOCKDIR/LCK..$DEVICE ]
	   then
	       echo "SLIP device is locked"
	       exit 1
	   fi
	
	   /usr/local/etc/fix-cua $DEVICE
	   sleep 16000 < /dev/$DEVICE &
	   /bin/stty -f /dev/$DEVICE
	gfmt1:cflag=4b00:iflag=c00:lflag=3:oflag=6:discard=f:dsusp=19:eof=4:
	eol=ff:eol2=ff:erase=0:intr=3:kill=0:lnext=16:quit=1c:reprint=12:
	start=11:status=ff:stop=13:susp=1a:werase=17:ispeed=38400:ospeed=38400
	
	   (
	     if chat -v -l LCK..$DEVICE ABORT "NO DIALTONE" \
	     ABORT "NO CARRIER" ABORT BUSY "" ATZ OK 
	     ATDT$PHONE "CONNECT 38400" "" "ogin:" "$USER" \
	         "word:" "\\q$PASSWORD" "HELLO"
	           then
	           /sbin/slattach -h -c -s 38400 $DEVICE
	           exit 0
	       else
	           echo "SLIP call failed" 1>&2
	           # remove the sleep holding serial line open
	           /bin/kill -KILL `/bin/ps -ax | /usr/bin/egrep " sleep 16000" \
	             | /usr/bin/egrep -v "egrep" | /usr/bin/sed 's/^\([ 0-9]*\)
	.*/\1'/`
	           exit 1
	       fi
	   ) < /dev/$DEVICE > /dev/$DEVICE
	
	
	When it comes to switching off the line, I use the following. Don't
	forget to adjust the sl0 as appropriate
	
	[ I call it demon-down for simplicity]
	
	   #!/bin/sh
	   #  stop script
	   #
	   /usr/local/etc/slip-off
	   /sbin/ifconfig sl0 down
	
	[ and /usr/local/etc/slip-off ]
	
	and adjust the DEVICE line as well.
	
	   #!/bin/sh
	
	   DEVICE=tty03
	
	   kill -KILL `ps -ax | egrep "slattach.*${DEVICE}" | egrep -v "egrep" \
	     | sed 's/^\([ 0- 9]*\) .*/\1'/`
	   kill -KILL `ps -ax | egrep " sleep 16000" | egrep -v "egrep" \
	     | sed 's/^\([ 0-9]* \) .*/\1'/`
	   # switch line back to normal (closes line)
	   /bin/stty -f /dev/$DEVICE -clocal
	   # unlock the device
	   /usr/local/etc/unlock LCK..$DEVICE
	
	   exit 0
	
	
	And that should do it. Happy SLIPping!


7.2	PPP

	Implementations of Point to Point Protocol are also available.  PPP
	has been available since the 0.9 release of NetBSD and is in the 
	current releases of FreeBSD, OpenBSD,  and NetBSD.

	It should also be noted that there is a newsgroup that covers the 
	PPP protocol exclusively.  It is comp.protocols.ppp.

	Here is some information for people desiring to set up PPP in
	there systems:


	A simple way to do this is to use the "chat" and a chat file.  I 
	use the following command to initiate a connection :

    	    root# pppd tty01 19200 connect 'chat -v -f chat.my-isp'

	And in the chat.my-isp file:

            ABORT BUSY
	    ABORT ERROR
	    ABORT 'NO DIALTONE'
	    ABORT 'NO CARRIER'
	    '' ATZ OK ATDT1234567 CONNECT \d
	    TIMEOUT 5
	    ogin:\s--ogin:\s mylogin ssword: mypasswd prompt:\s /usr/lib/ppp/ppp

	This dials, connects and negotiates the addresses from just one 
	line entered.

	To kill the connection:
	    root # kill `cat /var/run/ppp0.pid`
	which has the added advantage of hanging up the phone if the modem 
	is set up appropriately.

	The biggest problem that I ever had with this was working out the 
	chat script and that was debugged by adding the following line in 
	/etc/syslog.conf:

	    # Hand chat debug messages to root
	    local2.debug            root

	The PPP.FAQ was helpful, but I ignored quite a bit of it and depended 
	more on the online manuals.

	For setting up the PPP daemon, here is some more information:

	For NetBSD, it turned out that I needed to rebuild the kernel with
	the following line in my config file,

	    pseudo-device ppp 1

	This line adds a device driver to the kernel that does the ppp 
	protocol.  Once I had that built in, everything worked the first time.

	This is the kind of sequence I go through to start ppp:

	1. Connect with kermit to my ppp account and login.  The account 
	tells me when it starts ppp.

	2. "Suspend" kermit (i. e. put it in the background). This gets me
	back to the shell prompt. (You can get kermit back using the "fg" 
	command)

	3. Start "pppd".  When the shell prompt returns, I then have 
	Internet access!

	That's it.  This procedure will get you access to machines by using 
	their IP address numbers.  You still have to configure a name server 
	in "resolv.conf" in order to get DNS functionality.  My resolv.conf 
	looks like this:

	domain umd.edu			# Maryland's domain name
	nameserver      128.8.5.2	# These are the IP addresses of three 
	nameserver      128.8.126.2	#  hosts that can act as name servers
	nameserver      128.8.126.3

	The name servers should be as "close" as possible.  Whatever machine 
	manages the modem pool your on would be the best but any machine on 
	your local loop will give you good performance.

	If your Internet Service Provider uses dynamic addressing,  You 
	don't even have to worry about this.  It's the point of PPP.  It's 
	actually a good thing from a security point of view.  Your IP address 
	changes w.r.t. to the rest of the net periodically.  By the way, 
	don't forget passwords on all your accounts!!  When your on PPP, 
	the rest of the net can see you too, you look like a full Internet 
	host.


	It is important to look into the following to see if any of them
	apply to you, if you still have questions:


	Here is a sample PPP config.

	1)  Make /etc/ppp directory, then populate as follows:

	2)  Include the following in '/etc/ppp/options':

	crtscts
	modem	/* This option opens the port with O_NONBLOCK if there
		   is a connect options specified, and resets CLOCAL when
		   the connection is closed */
	19200
	defaultroute
	netmask 255.255.255.0
	ipcp-accept-local
	ipcp-accept-remote
	noipdefault
	connect "/usr/sbin/chat -v -f /etc/ppp/sample.chat"
	
	3)  Make sure the modem line (in the '/etc/ttys' file) doesn't
	have the 'local' or 'softcar' options included.  With 'local;, CLOCAL
	will be set for that line and SIGHUP may or may not be sent,
	apparently based on the age of the software.  The "modem" option
	in the 'options' file (above) should clear that, but it may or
	may not ever work.  If you have "softcar" in /etc/ttys, then the
	SIGHUP (in fact, almost all of the signals)  will never work
	because the modem lines are effectively ignored, thereby leaving
	the modem in whatever mode it is in.

	4)  Include the following in '/etc/ppp/sample.chat':
	
	ABORT BUSY ABORT 'NO CARRIER'
	'' atdt5551212
	
	rname: {sample}
	sword: crack-me
	annex: {whatever}
	PPP.
	
	
	This setup uses LCP and IPCP (parts of PPP) to negotiate the
	dynamic IP addresses.  This setup assumes an ISP which uses an
	annex terminal server.  It prompts for "Annex username:" and 
	"Annex password:".  You then get to the command line prompt: 
	"annex:", at which point "PPP" starts the PPP session.  You 
	will have to edit this to suit.  If your ISP uses a system where
	you are automatically connected to PPP when you log in, your
	'/etc/ppp/sample.chat' file might look like this:

	ABORT BUSY ABORT 'NO CARRIER'
	'' atdt5551212
	
	rname: {sample}
	sword: crackme

	To implement a 'permanent PPP' dial-up connection, the following
	has been used (by me specifically!)  This works in NetBSD 1.1 or
	higher, OpenBSD, and perhaps recent versions of FreeBSD:


	The following line in /etc/ttys works wonders for making a 
	permanent link:

	tty01   "/usr/sbin/pppd"                unknown on rtcsts

	The file '/etc/ppp/options' looks like:

	/dev/tty01
	115200
	connect "/usr/sbin/chat '' 'atdt1' 'ogin:' 'x' 'sword:' 'x'"
	crtscts
	defaultroute
	lock
	netmask 255.255.255.0
	n.n.n.n:n.n.n.n
	-ip
	modem
	mtu 1500
	-detach

	You will, of course, have to make some changes if you have 
	multiple ppp connections.  The key here is the '-detach' to 
	make the pppd remain connected to the controlling terminal 
	(the modem).  The basic idea is if the link drops (i.e. loses 
	carrier), a hangup signal will be sent to pppd, causing it to 
	exit, and init will restart it.

	You can also try 'demand dialed PPP' by getting the iij-ppp
	package from the following:

	ftp://ftp.iij.ad.jp/pub/network/iij-ppp0.94beta2.tar.gz) 

	It supports BSDI's BSD/386 1.1, FreeBSD-2.0, and NetBSD-1.0, but 
	it should be really easy to make it work with NetBSD-1.1 (it 
	comes with a patched NetBSD-1.0 tun driver... to get it working
	with 1.1 or -current you will need to make the same patches to 
	NetBSD-1.1's tun driver).  You can also try 'dp' at:

	ftp://phoenix.acn.purdue.edu/dp/dp-4.0.tar.gz


7.2.1	I have a problem with my PPP connection.  From time to time, the
	connection will just 'pause'.  If I do something in another
	window which polls some other external machine, the connection
	will 'unpause' for a while.

	There are two possibilities.  One is that the Van-Jacobsen
	compression is messing up one of the computers on the link.
	Test this by disabling VJ compression on the PPP link (change
	the options file to use '-vjccomp').  

	The other possibility is one of the machine in the circuit is
	not processing handshaking correctly.  Check the &k setting (for
	hardware handshaking) and makre sure it is set correctly.  Also
	check your cables (if appropriate).  

	Usually, this problem is caused by a handshaking error; either
	the computer can't get the modem to stop sending data, or vice
	versa.


7.3	TCP/IP

	TCP/IP is an integral part of BSD 4.4 Lite.  There are at least 
	five different network card drivers.  TCP/IP is fully supported 
	and is available to all users of all derived BSD systems.  In 
	fact, many people believe that this area is one of the primary 
	advantages that BSD has over Linux.  After all, TCP/IP was
	invented in BSD.

7.3.1	Where can I obtain *BSD source code to add IP Security
	per the IETF RFCs (RFC-1825 through RFC-1829) to my system ?

	People in the US can get source code for this from
	http://web.mit.edu/network/isakmp/ by following the instructions
	on the web download form.  The NRL IPsec+IPv6 distribution
	there includes IPsec for IPv4 and IPsec for IPv6 and the
	PF_KEY Key Management Socket API extension.  Needless to
	say, folks inexperienced in building kernels ought not
	be trying this.

	People outside the US can get the NRL source code
	from ftp://ftp.ripe.net/ipv6/nrl/

	The NRL code comes pre-ported to BSDI and NetBSD.
	A FreeBSD port is possible but would take a little work.

	(thanks to rja@inet.org)


7.4	UUCP

	There is an excellent document included in the UUCP directory
	that describes in detail, what needs to be done to get a
	working UUCP for derived BSD systems.  Look in the 
	/usr/src/gnu/libexec/uucp directory for more information.  You 
	can also look in the /usr/share/doc/smm/09.uucpimpl and 
	/usr/share/doc/smm/21.uucpnet if yours are populated.

	
7.4.1	TIP/CU

	First thing you need to do is...

		vi /etc/remote

	Then remove the two lines at the bottom of the file that mention 
	com1, and com2.  Now add the following lines:

		tty00:dv=/dev/tty00:br#9600:
		tty01:dv=/dev/tty01:br#9600:

	That tells tip/cu where to find your com ports.  Next you need 
	to be logged in as root and do a:

		chown uucp.dialer /dev/tty00
		chown uucp.dialer /dev/tty01
		touch /var/log/aculog
		chown uucp.dialer /var/log/aculog

	Make sure that, if you are running newsyslog, you change the 
	owner.group entry in the newsyslog.conf file so that the file
	ownership is maintained correctly.

	Then you should be all set, remember "DOS Com1" = tty00, and 
	"DOS Com2" = tty01.  So, if your modem is at 0x2F8/IRQ=3 and 
	you access it as the COM2: port from DOS, you would do..

		tip tty01

	To exit, type <RETURN>~.<RETURN>

	Many people have other problems with cu.  The lock open: 
	procedure is one of them.   If you receive the error:

	lock open: no such file or directory
	all ports busy

	You need to create a directory: /var/spool/lock, owned by uucp.  If
	this file already exists and is owned correctly, make sure that the
	lock file in the directory is deleted.

	If you receive the error "cu: write: Input/output error"

	You may be able to fix this by creating an /etc/uucp/ports file 
	(see Taylor UUCP docs).

	In addition, those of you using cu version 1.04 may need to add the
	following to their susyem:

	create an /etc/uucp/ports file that looked like this:

	port mymodem
		type modem
		device /dev/tty01
		speed 19200

	Now cu knows that the line is connected to a modem it does the 
	right thing regarding setting CLOCAL on the line.  You don't 
	even have to have either of local or softcar set in /etc/ttys.

	Since cu's behavior seems to be correct, I'm happy now.  All I 
	need to really make my day though is to have John or Martin to 
	tell me that cu 1.04 still works for them even though they don't 
	have an /etc/uucp/ports (or equivalent HDB or V2 uucp config) 
	file ... :-)


7.4.2	What is the magic incantation that allows the modem to dial?

	Try 'stty -f /dev/tty0? clocal'.  Change the '?' for whatever 
	character is appropriate for your tty port.  Remember, DOS COM1 = 
	/dev/tty00 and DOS COM2 = /dev/tty01...

	Some other things that might cause some problems are the entries
	in the /etc/remotes file.  Try 'com?:dv=/dev/tty0?:br#19200:pa=none'
	and see if that helps.  Remember to replace the '?' with '[01234]'
	as appropriate.

	NetBSD-current has implemented the 'ttyflags' program.  This
	will set your com ports according to the options specified in
	the /dev/ttys files.  This is an even better solution than the
	'stty ... clocal' fix from above!

	FreeBSD sets this up a little bit differently by having separate
	dial in and dial out devices available.  The /dev/cua?? devices
	all have clocal set by default to allow the system to dial out
	without having a carrier present.  If you are using FreeBSD and
	don't have any cua devices in the /dev/ directory, you need to
	run the ./MAKEDEV script.  See the man page for more information.


7.4.3	My modem on DOS COM3 or DOS COM4 works with DOS, but not with
	*BSD.  It is set up using IRQ 4 (or 3) respectively.

	One of the MAJOR differences between DOS and *BSD is that *BSD
	actually USES the IRQ lines (*gasp*)...  That means that every 
	device on the ISA bus has to have it's own IRQ.  Since COM1 and
	COM2 (/dev/tty00 and /dev/tty01) are already defined using IRQs
	4 and 3 respectively, that means that COM3 and COM4 (/dev/tty02 
	and /dev/tty03) need to be put onto different IRQs.  The default
	GENERICAHA kernel defines the third com port (COM3 or /dev/tty02)
	to be on IRQ5.  You need to reconfigure your com port (for 
	external modems) or modem (for internal modems) to use IRQ5.  
	The GENERICBBT kernel defines the COM4 port to be on IRQ9 (or 2).
	If you have to put your devices on other ports, you will need to
	recompile the kernel.

7.5	How do I configure my nameserver?

	There are several systems that implement /etc/nsswitch.conf
	instead of the /etc/resolver.conf database.  Each has advantages
	and disadvantages, and both have been implemented for NetBSD.
	If you want to use nsswitch, you can get it at 'ftp://?/?'.

7.6	Terminals

	Since the target machine for most BSD machines is a 386 with 
	no more than a couple of serial ports, most people do not bother 
	with serial terminals.  For most problems, a quick perusal of the 
	man pages for the ttys file and getty are enough to get them 
	started.  Other than that, most terminal problems are limited to
	peculiarities of particular terminals.

	One common problem that appears to crop up from time to time is
	which wires need to be connected at each end of the cable.  Most
	cables do not, in fact, pass through all lines.  If your terminal 
	uses XON/XOFF (DC1/DC3) protocol, a cable of the appropriate 
	twist, either straight through or null modem, can have as few as
	three lines connecting the two devices.  Assuming DB-25 connections
	at each end, the lines need to go from 2 to 3, 3 to 2, and 7 to 7.
	These lines are Rx, Tx, and gnd.  Other lines that may or may not
	be required include 4 and 5; and 6, 8, and 20.  Normally, these 
	lines would be connected within the 'hood' of the cable (4 to 5 
	and 6 and 8 to 20) to simulate the functionality of the full 
	blown cable.  While full support for CTS/RTS is not available 
	(yet), other support for the remainder of these lines is available 
	or is being worked on in all BSD derived systems.  Without this
	handshaking (particularly pins 6, 8, and 20) your ports may appear
	to be dead.  This is because most of the tty driver for *BSD 
	systems require a Data Carrier Detect to be active before the
	port will work.

	For those folks that have hardware flow control working, you need
	to look in the man page for 'stty' and look around for the 
	-clocal and -ctrcrts options.

	Once the cable is set up, you will need to make sure that your
	system is ready.  The first thing you will need to do is make all
	of the devices in the /dev/ directory.  A program, called MAKEDEV,
	is available in the /dev directory.  Running this program with 
	the argument 'tty' will make all of the physical tty devices.

	With that done, arranging for a 'getty' on the port is the next 
	order of business.  You will need to edit the '/etc/ttys' file
	and make one of the tty devices available.  If you have 
	connected your terminal to DOS COM1, you will be enabling 
	/dev/tty00.  Similarly, if you are connected to COM2:, you will
	be enabling /dev/tty01 (see the pattern?).  There are other
	names for those ports as well, but when you are talking about 
	terminals, be sure to use the '/dev/tty*' names.  If not, you 
	will be completely ignored and treated as an outcast because 
	you obviously have not done any of your homework.

	One of the other common problems with the SIO driver is that 
	people will often disable all handshaking, and then complain
	that they cannot get a reliable connection above 9600 baud.  
	Handshaking is the solution to most of these problems.


7.7	My network manager (or UUCP feed site admin) just informed me 
	that the way I have installed sendmail through my UUCP connection 
	and has caused a sendmail loop.  Can you help me get sendmail 
	installed correctly?

	(1) Go into sendmail's source directory tree

	    cd /usr/src/usr.sbin/sendmail/cf/cf

	(2) Make the missing obj directory first, you need it later...

	    mkdir obj

	(3) Create a sendmail master configuration file (.mc file). Name 
	it yourname.mc

	    vi yourname.mc

	(4) Contents of the yourname.mc file:

	#---------------------------------------------------------------
	divert(-1)
	#
	#  This is the prototype for a site with only a uucp connection
	#  to the world, where smarthost and uucp relay are the same ...
	#  Replace "yourname" with your machines nodename without domain
	#  Replace "smarthost" with your uucp neighbours nodename without 
	#  domain i.e. here is myname "knobel" and my smarthost is "gomel", 
	#  to which I'm connected with uucp via dialup modem.

	divert(-1)
	VERSIONID(`yourname.mc 1.0')

	include(`../m4/cf.m4')

	OSTYPE(bsd4.4)

	FEATURE(nodns)dnl

	MAILER(local)dnl
	MAILER(smtp)dnl
	MAILER(uucp)dnl
	
	define(`UUCP_MAX_SIZE', 2000000)dnl
	define(`SMART_HOST', `uucp-dom:smarthost')dnl
	define(`UUCP_RELAY', `uucp-dom:smarthost')dnl
	#--------------------------------------------------------------
	
	In the siteconfig directory (.../sendmail/cf/siteconfig)
	create a file uucp.yourname

	Put a list of machines into this file to which you have active
	uucp/mail connection. Generally only the name of your smarthost 
	....  Unknown addresses are routed to your smarthost ....

	siteconfig/uucp.yourname:
	#----------------------------------------------------------------------
	SITE(nodename_of_your_smarthost)
	#----------------------------------------------------------------------

	(5) create the new sendmail configuration file, which will be 
	stored under obj/yourname.cf, by typing
	
	    make yourname.cf
	
	(6) After that copy obj/yourname.cf to /etc/sendmail.cf
	
	(7) It's up to you to browse through the systems global aliases
 	file ((etc/aliases), where important mail aliases are stored.
	After editing this file you should invoke the command newaliases 
	to update the corresponding database file

	newaliases

	(8) Then create/edit the file "/etc/sendmail.cw".   This file 
	contains alias names of your system (a list of additional names 
	under that your system might receive e-mail):

	yourname
	yourname.uucp
	yourname.domain

	(9) Then create a file /etc/mailertable:
	Here you have to say what else (uucp addresses, too)
	has to be sent to your smarthost ...

	.uucp		uucp-uudom:name_of_your_uucp_smarthost
	
	(10) Create the hash table the following way:

	makemap hash /etc/mailertable.db < /etc/mailertable

 	Remember, if you make any changes you have to rebuild the
 	aliases database by typing:
	
	    newaliases

	(11) BTW: You do not need to create a frozen config file,
	since sendmail on FreeBSD 1.X and NetBSD aren't compiled with 
	that option turned on.

	(12) ``Hot files'' with more information (see sendmail src tree):
    	FAQ KNOWNBUGS RELEASE_NOTES cf/README


7.8	Can network attached assets be used by/from NetBSD? FreeBSD?
	OpenBSD?

	Yes, they can, assuming the machine at the other end of the 
	connections is reasonably cooperative.  The specifics are up to
	the remote machine, but a couple of things that you can start 
	looking for that will help are provided below:

		-  Ask the system administrator of the machine in
		   question if it is OK for you to use whatever it is 
		   you need.  This is more a matter of manners than a 
		   technical issue. 

		-  For NFS mounted disk drives, make sure that you are 
		   not prevented from using the assets by the 
		   /etc/exports (or equivalent) file.  This goes for 
		   CD-ROMs as well as regular mounted disks.

		-  There are a completely different set of concerns for
		   tapes and printers.  Each system implements these in
		   slightly different ways.  Check with your system 
		   manager or documentation for more information.

		-  Diskless booting is possible for all three systems,
		   for a little more detail, see below.

	Note that not all network clients are created equal.  There may
	be semantic differences between what you EXPECT to happen and
	what actually happens.  Your best bet at that point is to get
	with the local system manager and talk to him or her about what
	you should be expecting on the system and what is actually
	happening.  An excellent example is the semantics of file group
	accounts when a new file is created on an NFS machine.  The
	semantics of the create will be based on the OS on the SERVER,
	so it will be whatever SysV or Sun thinks is correct, not what
	we expect from the BSD side.

	There is a package available which can also be used by *BSD
	which will allow your machine to be visible to LanManager or
	Windows NT clients.  The package is called 'SAMBA' and includes
	information about how to configure the package to work with
	NetBSD, OpenBSD, and FreeBSD.  Works good for me.


7.8.1	Is it possible to Network boot a NetBSD machine from a network
	on a diskless Sparc?

	Yes, it's even more than possible, it actually works!  Since
	OpenBSD tracks NetBSD closely, it is also possible to do this
	with OpenBSD.

	Anders Magnusson (ragge@ludd.luth.se) has run it on diskless
	SLCs, and the only problem they had was when the machine got
	heavily loaded it ran out of mbufs (also sometimes a problem for
	regular systems).  It is reportedly faster than SunOS4 as long
	there was lots of free memory in the machine.

	For the most part, setting up a diskless client is fairly
	straightforward.  The FreeBSD diskless FAQ gives step by step
	instructions for setting up bootp and the other programs that
	need to be configured.


7.8.2	I have been working with FreeBSD 1.5.1 with some machines 
	configured as diskless.  How can I do the same for 2.0R (i.e., 
	Which are the magic words to put in the  Kernel configuration 
	file?)

	In FreeBSD, there is a file called Diskless.FAQ in the
	usr/share/FAQ directory.  It describes the procedures for
	diskless booting of an i386 on FreeBSD.

	Please note that netboot.[cr]om programs from FreeBSD 1.1.5.1 
	do not work with 2.0 and vice versa.

	Note that this is just a pointer to the Diskless FAQ.  You can
	get the file from ftp.freebsd.org.


7.8.3	How can I get ISDN to work?

	It depends.  There are several levels of ISDN, all of which seem
	to be incomaptible.  One of the highly regarded packages for
	adding most ISDN connectivity is the bisdn package available
	from muc.ditec.de.

-- 
Dave Burgess                   Network Engineer - Nebraska On-Ramp, Inc.
*bsd FAQ Maintainer / SysAdmin for the NetBSD system in my spare bedroom
"Just because something is stupid doesn't mean there isn't someone that 
doesn't want to do it...."

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM