The United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was a subsidiary of the Department of Justice. Immigration services are now part of the new Department of Homeland Security.
Headquartered at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, the United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) plans and conducts intelligence, security, and information operations for the U.S. Army and its military commanders, as well for the president and other national decisionmakers.
INSPASS (Immigration and Naturalization Service Passenger Accelerated Service System) is a component of the Port Passenger Accelerated Service System (PORTPASS) in use at selected airports to facilitate passage through entry checkpoints. INSPASS and other expedited U.S.
The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) is part of the United States Department of State and serves as a reviewer of department operations. The office also handles claims of government fraud, waste, and abuse, whether reported by department personnel or outside sources.
Intelligence is information concerning a foreign entity, usually (although not always) an adversary, as well as agencies concerned with collection of such information. It is intimately tied with the intelligence cycle, a process whereby raw information is acquired, converted into intelligence, and disseminated to the appropriate consumers.
In general terms, an agent is one authorized to act in place of, or on behalf of, another. An intelligence agent, however, is not simply an agent of or for an intelligence agency.
There is no single template for a career in intelligence and espionage. Three of the nation's leading intelligence organizations—the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and National Security Agency (NSA)—hold a wide array of opportunities in areas ranging from science, engineering, and mathematics, to linguistics, cartography, and foreign analysis.
There have always been conflicts between individual rights and national security interests in democracies. Limits on civil liberties during wartime, including restrictions on free speech, public assembly, and mass detentions, have been the most serious threats to individual freedom.
The principal statutes of international law guiding intelligence operations are the laws of war established by the conferences at The Hague in The Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, and by a series of conventions in Geneva, Switzerland, between 1864 and 1975. Particularly significant are the 1907 Hague Land Warfare Regulations and the third and fourth Geneva Conventions of 1949, which address treatment of prisoners of war (POWs), spies, and mercenaries.
Despite the obvious relationship between intelligence and law enforcement, historically a number of barriers have separated the two. One of the most important of those barriers in the American experience has been the law itself, which has sought to prevent the development of an internal security apparatus more suited to an authoritarian or totalitarian nation than a liberal democracy.
The Bureau of Intelligence & Research (INR) is a unit of the U.S. State Department tasked with providing intelligence to department policymakers.
Intelligence authorization acts are annual legislative Acts of Congress whereby current intelligence issues are addressed and appropriations made for intelligence activities in the coming year. These date to 1979, although the first true intelligence authorization act was signed by President Ronald Reagan in 1981.
The United States Intelligence Community (IC) is a group of 14 agencies and organizations responsible for conducting intelligence activities necessary to the national security of the United States and the success of its foreign relations. Headed by the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), its members include the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), a number of Department of Defense (DOD) agencies and organizations, and intelligence-gathering agencies within the departments of State, Energy, Justice, the Treasury, and Homeland Security.
The emergence of the "spy thriller" in the twentieth century reflects the modern era's technological advancements, and the institutionalization of intelligence services that works to monitor these advancements and their attendant risks on the global stage. Political conflicts between nations are the staple feature of the literature of espionage or intelligence, which also usually figures a heroic spy at the center of the international crisis.
An intelligence officer is a professional employed by an intelligence service. Members of the intelligence community make sharp distinctions between intelligence officers and intelligence agents, who are outsiders employed by the intelligence agency.
The Office of Intelligence Policy and Review (OIPR) advises the United States attorney general regarding matters relating to U.S. national security activities.
The Office of Intelligence Support (OIS) is the sole United States Treasury Department office that also belongs to the national Intelligence Community. Established in 1977 to replace the Office of National Security, it assists the Secretary of the Treasury, who serves as the president's chief economic and financial adviser as well as the head of the second largest federal law-enforcement department.
Although the United States Congress served as facilitator to the establishment of the U.S. intelligence community by passing the National Security Act of 1947, during the next quarter-century it exerted little oversight in matters of intelligence.
The United States Interagency Security Committee was created on October 19, 1995, by executive order of President Bill Clinton. The order provided for increased security measures for non-military federal buildings.
Among the most visible arms of the U.S. federal government is the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).
Established in 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an independent intergovernmental organization tasked by the United Nations to monitor nuclear technology related matters. In 1979 the U.N.
The Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) is an office of the U.S. State Department that advises the president, the secretary of state and other bureaus within the State Department, and other departments and agencies of the federal government on U.S.
The Internet is a vast worldwide conglomeration of linked computer networks. Its roots lie in the mid-twentieth century, with a number of projects by the United States government and the private sector, most notable of which was the computer network created by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defense (DOD) in 1969.
Every computer operating on the Internet has a unique IP, or Internet protocol, address. Because the Internet's original design did not take into account the vast size it would assume from the mid-1990s onward, as more and more people went online, the architecture did not account for an infinite number of IP addresses.
An increasingly costly and vexing economic security issue involves the high traffic in unsolicited commercial email (termed "spam") and the use of internet communication to commit fraud.
An Internet spider is a program designed to "crawl" over the World Wide Web, the portion of the Internet most familiar to general users, and retrieve locations of Web pages. It is sometimes referred to as a webcrawler.
Internet surveillance is the monitoring of Internet data traffic for information useful to government authorities.
Electronic passage through the Internet leaves a trail that can be traced. Tracing is a process that follows the Internet activity backwards, from the recipient to the user.
As the United States branch of Interpol, an international police organization, the National Central Bureau (NCB) in Washington, D.C., serves as a communications clearing-house for police seeking assistance in criminal investigations that cross international boundaries. Directed by the U.S.