In this section we'll talk a bit more about matches. I've chosen to narrow down the matches into five different subcategories. First of all we have the generic matches, which can be used in all rules. Then we have the TCP matches which can only be applied to TCP packets. We have UDP matches which can only be applied to UDP packets, and ICMP matches which can only be used on ICMP packets. Finally we have special matches, such as the state, owner and limit matches and so on. These final matches have in turn been narrowed down to even more subcategories, even though they might not necessarily be different matches at all. I hope this is a reasonable breakdown and that all people out there can understand it.
This section will deal with Generic matches. A generic match is a kind of match that is always available, whatever kind of protocol we are working on, or whatever match extensions we have loaded. No special parameters at all are needed to use these matches; in other words. I have also included the --protocol match here, even though it is more specific to protocol matches. For example, if we want to use a TCP match, we need to use the --protocol match and send TCP as an option to the match. However, --protocol is also a match in itself, since it can be used to match specific protocols. The following matches are always available.
Table 6-4. Generic matches
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -p tcp|
|Explanation||This match is used to check for certain protocols. Examples of protocols are TCP, UDP and ICMP. The protocol must either be one of the internally specified TCP, UDP or ICMP. It may also take a value specified in the /etc/protocols file, and if it can not find the protocol there it will reply with an error. The protocl may also be a integer value. For example, the ICMP protocol is integer value 1, TCP is 6 and UDP is 17. Finally, it may also take the value ALL. ALL means that it matches only TCP, UDP and ICMP. The command may also take a comma delimited list of protocols, such as udp,tcp which would match all UDP and TCP packets. If this match is given the integer value of zero (0), it means ALL protocols, which in turn is the default behavior, if the --protocol match is not used. This match can also be inversed with the ! sign, so --protocol ! tcp would mean to match UDP and ICMP.|
|Match||-s, --src, --source|
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.1.1|
|Explanation||This is the source match, which is used to match packets, based on their source IP address. The main form can be used to match single IP addresses, such as 192.168.1.1. It could also be used with a netmask in a CIDR "bit" form, by specifying the number of ones (1's) on the left side of the network mask. This means that we could for example add /24 to use a 255.255.255.0 netmask. We could then match whole IP ranges, such as our local networks or network segments behind the firewall. The line would then look something like 192.168.0.0/24. This would match all packets in the 192.168.0.x range. Another way is to do it with an regular netmask in the 255.255.255.255 form (i.e., 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0). We could also invert the match with an ! just as before. If we were in other words to use a match in the form of --source ! 192.168.0.0/24, we would match all packets with a source address not coming from within the 192.168.0.x range. The default is to match all IP addresses.|
|Match||-d, --dst, --destination|
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -d 192.168.1.1|
|Explanation||The --destination match is used for packets based on their destination address or addresses. It works pretty much the same as the --source match and has the same syntax, except that the match is based on where the packets are going to. To match an IP range, we can add a netmask either in the exact netmask form, or in the number of ones (1's) counted from the left side of the netmask bits. Examples are: 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0 and 192.168.0.0/24. Both of these are equivalent. We could also invert the whole match with an ! sign, just as before. --destination ! 192.168.0.1 would in other words match all packets except those not destined to the 192.168.0.1 IP address.|
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -i eth0|
|Explanation||This match is used for the interface the packet came in on. Note that this option is only legal in the INPUT, FORWARD and PREROUTING chains and will return an error message when used anywhere else. The default behavior of this match, if no particular interface is specified, is to assume a string value of +. The + value is used to match a string of letters and numbers. A single + would in other words tell the kernel to match all packets without considering which interface it came in on. The + string can also be appended to the type of interface, so eth+ would all Ethernet devices. We can also invert the meaning of this option with the help of the ! sign. The line would then have a syntax looking something like -i ! eth0, which would match all incoming interfaces, except eth0.|
|Example||iptables -A FORWARD -o eth0|
|Explanation||The --out-interface match is used for packets on the interface from which they are leaving. Note that this match is only available in the OUTPUT, FORWARD and POSTROUTING chains, the opposite in fact of the --in-interface match. Other than this, it works pretty much the same as the --in-interface match. The + extension is understood as matching all devices of similar type, so eth+ would match all eth devices and so on. To invert the meaning of the match, you can use the ! sign in exactly the same way as for the --in-interface match. If no --out-interface is specified, the default behavior for this match is to match all devices, regardless of where the packet is going.|
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -f|
|Explanation||This match is used to match the second and third part of a fragmented packet. The reason for this is that in the case of fragmented packets, there is no way to tell the source or destination ports of the fragments, nor ICMP types, among other things. Also, fragmented packets might in rather special cases be used to compound attacks against other computers. Packet fragments like this will not be matched by other rules, and hence this match was created. This option can also be used in conjunction with the ! sign; however, in this case the ! sign must precede the match, i.e. ! -f. When this match is inverted, we match all header fragments and/or unfragmented packets. What this means, is that we match all the first fragments of fragmented packets, and not the second, third, and so on. We also match all packets that have not been fragmented during transfer. Note also that there are really good defragmentation options within the kernel that you can use instead. As a secondary note, if you use connection tracking you will not see any fragmented packets, since they are dealt with before hitting any chain or table in iptables.|
This section will describe the matches that are loaded implicitly. Implicit matches are implied, taken for granted, automatic. For example when we match on --protocol tcp without any further criteria. There are currently three types of implicit matches for three different protocols. These are TCP matches, UDP matches and ICMP matches. The TCP based matches contain a set of unique criteria that are available only for TCP packets. UDP based matches contain another set of criteria that are available only for UDP packets. And the same thing for ICMP packets. On the other hand, there can be explicit matches that are loaded explicitly. Explicit matches are not implied or automatic, you have to specify them specifically. For these you use the -m or --match option, which we will discuss in the next section.
These matches are protocol specific and are only available when working with TCP packets and streams. To use these matches, you need to specify --protocol tcp on the command line before trying to use them. Note that the --protocol tcp match must be to the left of the protocol specific matches. These matches are loaded implicitly in a sense, just as the UDP and ICMP matches are loaded implicitly. The other matches will be looked over in the continuation of this section, after the TCP match section.
Table 6-5. TCP matches
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --sport 22|
|Explanation||The --source-port match is used to match packets based on their source port. Without it, we imply all source ports. This match can either take a service name or a port number. If you specify a service name, the service name must be in the /etc/services file, since iptables uses this file in which to find. If you specify the port by its number, the rule will load slightly faster, since iptables don't have to check up the service name. However, the match might be a little bit harder to read than if you use the service name. If you are writing a rule-set consisting of a 200 rules or more, you should definitely use port numbers, since the difference is really noticeable. (On a slow box, this could make as much as 10 seconds' difference, if you have configured a large rule-set containing 1000 rules or so). You can also use the --source-port match to match any range of ports, --source-port 22:80 for example. This example would match all source ports between 22 and 80. If you omit specifying the first port, port 0 is assumed (is implicit). --source-port :80 would then match port 0 through 80. And if the last port specification is omitted, port 65535 is assumed. If you were to write --source-port 22:, you would have specified a match for all ports from port 22 through port 65535. If you invert the port range, iptables automatically reverses your inversion. If you write --source-port 80:22, it is simply interpreted as --source-port 22:80. You can also invert a match by adding a ! sign. For example, --source-port ! 22 means that you want to match all ports but port 22. The inversion could also be used together with a port range and would then look like --source-port ! 22:80, which in turn would mean that you want to match all ports but port 22 through 80. Note that this match does not handle multiple separated ports and port ranges. For more information about those, look at the multiport match extension.|
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22|
|Explanation||This match is used to match TCP packets, according to their destination port. It uses exactly the same syntax as the --source-port match. It understands port and port range specifications, as well as inversions. It also reverses high and low ports in port range specifications, as above. The match will also assume values of 0 and 65535 if the high or low port is left out in a port range specification. In other words, exactly the same as the --source-port syntax. Note that this match does not handle multiple separated ports and port ranges. For more information about those, look at the multiport match extension.|
|Example||iptables -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN,FIN,ACK SYN|
|Explanation||This match is used to match on the TCP flags in a packet. First of all, the match takes a list of flags to compare (a mask) and secondly it takes list of flags that should be set to 1, or turned on. Both lists should be comma-delimited. The match knows about the SYN, ACK, FIN, RST, URG, PSH flags, and it also recognizes the words ALL and NONE. ALL and NONE is pretty much self describing: ALL means to use all flags and NONE means to use no flags for the option. --tcp-flags ALL NONE would in other words mean to check all of the TCP flags and match if none of the flags are set. This option can also be inverted with the ! sign. For example, if we specify ! SYN,FIN,ACK SYN, we would get a match that would match packets that had the ACK and FIN bits set, but not the SYN bit. Also note that the comma delimitation should not include spaces. You can see the correct syntax in the example above.|
|Example||iptables -p tcp --syn|
|Explanation||The --syn match is more or less an old relic from the ipchains days and is still there for backward compatibility and for and to make transition one to the other easier. It is used to match packets if they have the SYN bit set and the ACK and RST bits unset. This command would in other words be exactly the same as the --tcp-flags SYN,RST,ACK SYN match. Such packets are mainly used to request new TCP connections from a server. If you block these packets, you should have effectively blocked all incoming connection attempts. However, you will not have blocked the outgoing connections, which a lot of exploits today use (for example, hacking a legitimate service and then installing a program or suchlike that enables initiating an existing connection to your host, instead of opening up a new port on it). This match can also be inverted with the ! sign in this, ! --syn, way. This would match all packets with the RST or the ACK bits set, in other words packets in an already established connection.|
|Example||iptables -p tcp --tcp-option 16|
|Explanation||This match is used to match packets depending on their TCP options. A TCP Option is a specific part of the header. This part consists of 3 different fields. The first one is 8 bits long and tells us which Options are used in this stream, the second one is also 8 bits long and tells us how long the options field is. The reason for this length field is that TCP options are, well, optional. To be compliant with the standards, we do not need to implement all options, but instead we can just look at what kind of option it is, and if we do not support it, we just look at the length field and can then jump over this data. This match is used to match different TCP options depending on their decimal values. It may also be inverted with the ! flag, so that the match matches all TCP options but the option given to the match. For a complete list of all options, take a closer look at the Internet Engineering Task Force who maintains a list of all the standard numbers used on the Internet.|
This section describes matches that will only work together with UDP packets. These matches are implicitly loaded when you specify the --protocol UDP match and will be available after this specification. Note that UDP packets are not connection oriented, and hence there is no such thing as different flags to set in the packet to give data on what the datagram is supposed to do, such as open or closing a connection, or if they are just simply supposed to send data. UDP packets do not require any kind of acknowledgment either. If they are lost, they are simply lost (Not taking ICMP error messaging etc into account). This means that there are quite a lot less matches to work with on a UDP packet than there is on TCP packets. Note that the state machine will work on all kinds of packets even though UDP or ICMP packets are counted as connectionless protocols. The state machine works pretty much the same on UDP packets as on TCP packets.
Table 6-6. UDP matches
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -p udp --sport 53|
|Explanation||This match works exactly the same as its TCP counterpart. It is used to perform matches on packets based on their source UDP ports. It has support for port ranges, single ports and port inversions with the same syntax. To specify a UDP port range, you could use 22:80 which would match UDP ports 22 through 80. If the first value is omitted, port 0 is assumed. If the last port is omitted, port 65535 is assumed. If the high port comes before the low port, the ports switch place with each other automatically. Single UDP port matches look as in the example above. To invert the port match, add a ! sign, --source-port ! 53. This would match all ports but port 53. The match can understand service names, as long as they are available in the /etc/services file. Note that this match does not handle multiple separated ports and port ranges. For more information about this, look at the multiport match extension.|
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -p udp --dport 53|
|Explanation||The same goes for this match as for --source-port above. It is exactly the same as for the equivalent TCP match, but here it applies to UDP packets. It matches packets based on their UDP destination port. The match handles port ranges, single ports and inversions. To match a single port you use, for example, --destination-port 53, to invert this you would use --destination-port ! 53. The first would match all UDP packets going to port 53 while the second would match packets but those going to the destination port 53. To specify a port range, you would, for example, use --destination-port 9:19. This example would match all packets destined for UDP port 9 through 19. If the first port is omitted, port 0 is assumed. If the second port is omitted, port 65535 is assumed. If the high port is placed before the low port, they automatically switch place, so the low port winds up before the high port. Note that this match does not handle multiple ports and port ranges. For more information about this, look at the multiport match extension.|
These are the ICMP matches. These packets are even more ephemeral, that is to say short lived, than UDP packets, in the sense that they are connectionless. The ICMP protocol is mainly used for error reporting and for connection controlling and suchlike. ICMP is not a protocol subordinated to the IP protocol, but more of a protocol that augments the IP protocol and helps in handling errors. The headers of ICMP packets are very similar to those of the IP headers, but differ in a number of ways. The main feature of this protocol is the type header, that tells us what the packet is for. One example is, if we try to access an unaccessible IP address, we would normally get an ICMP host unreachable in return. For a complete listing of ICMP types, see the ICMP types appendix. There is only one ICMP specific match available for ICMP packets, and hopefully this should suffice. This match is implicitly loaded when we use the --protocol ICMP match and we get access to it automatically. Note that all the generic matches can also be used, so that among other things we can match on the source and destination addresses.
Table 6-7. ICMP matches
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type 8|
|Explanation||This match is used to specify the ICMP type to match. ICMP types can be specified either by their numeric values or by their names. Numerical values are specified in RFC 792. To find a complete listing of the ICMP name values, do an iptables --protocol icmp --help, or check the ICMP types appendix. This match can also be inverted with the ! sign in this, --icmp-type ! 8, fashion. Note that some ICMP types are obsolete, and others again may be "dangerous" for an unprotected host since they may, among other things, redirect packets to the wrong places.|
Explicit matches are those that have to be specifically loaded with the -m or --match option. State matches, for example, demand the directive -m state prior to entering the actual match that you want to use. Some of these matches may be protocol specific . Some may be unconnected with any specific protocol - for example connection states. These might be NEW (the first packet of an as yet unestablished connection), ESTABLISHED (a connection that is already registered in the kernel), RELATED (a new connection that was created by an older, established one) etc. A few may just have been evolved for testing or experimental purposes, or just to illustrate what iptables is capable of. This in turn means that not all of these matches may at first sight be of any use. Nevertheless, it may well be that you personally will find a use for specific explicit matches. And there are new ones coming along all the time, with each new iptables release. Whether you find a use for them or not depends on your imagination and your needs. The difference between implicitly loaded matches and explicitly loaded ones, is that the implicitly loaded matches will automatically be loaded when, for example, you match on the properties of TCP packets, while explicitly loaded matches will never be loaded automatically - it is up to you to discover and activate explicit matches.
The limit match extension must be loaded explicitly with the -m limit option. This match can, for example, be used to advantage to give limited logging of specific rules etc. For example, you could use this to match all packets that does not exceed a given value, and after this value has been exceeded, limit logging of the event in question. Think of a time limit : You could limit how many times a certain rule may be matched in a certain time frame, for example to lessen the effects of DoS syn flood attacks. This is its main usage, but there are more usages, of course. The limit match may also be inverted by adding a ! flag in front of the limit match. It would then be expressed as -m limit ! --limit 5/s.This means that all packets will be matched after they have broken thelimit.
To further explain the limit match, it is basically a token bucket filter. Consider having a leaky bucket where the bucket leaks X packets per time-unit. X is defined depending on how many matching packets we get, so if we get 3 packets, the bucket leaks 3 packets per that time-unit. The --limit option tells us how many packets to refill the bucket with per time-unit, while the --limit-burst option tells us how big the bucket is in the first place. So, setting --limit 3/minute --limit-burst 5, and then receiving 5 matches will empty the bucket. After 20 seconds, the bucket is refilled with another token, and so on until the --limit-burst is reached again or until they get used.
Consider the example below for further explanation of how this may look.
We set a rule with -m limit --limit 5/second --limit-burst 10/second. The limit-burst token bucket is set to 10 initially. Each packet that matches the rule uses a token.
We get packet that matches, 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10, all within a 1/1000 of a second.
The token bucket is now empty. Once the token bucket is empty, the packets that qualify for the rule otherwise no longer match the rule and proceed to the next rule if any, or hit the chain policy.
For each 1/5 s without a matching packet, the token count goes up by 1, upto a maximum of 10. 1 second after receiving the 10 packets, we will once again have 5 tokens left.
And of course, the bucket will be emptied by 1 token for each packet it receives.
Table 6-8. Limit match options
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -m limit --limit 3/hour|
|Explanation||This sets the maximum average match rate for the limit match. You specify it with a number and an optional time unit. The following time units are currently recognized: /second /minute /hour /day. The default value here is 3 per hour, or 3/hour. This tells the limit match how many times to allow the match to occur per time unit (e.g. per minute).|
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -m limit --limit-burst 5|
|Explanation||This is the setting for the burst limit of the limit match. It tells iptables the maximum number of packets to match within the given time unit. This number gets decremented by one for every time unit (specified by the --limit option) in which the event does not occur, back down to the lowest possible value, 1. If the event is repeated, the counter is again incremented, until the count reaches the burst limit. And so on. The default --limit-burst value is 5. For a simple way of checking out how this works, you can use the example Limit-match.txt one-rule-script. Using this script, you can see for yourself how the limit rule works, by simply sending ping packets at different intervals and in different burst numbers. All echo replies will be blocked until the threshold for the burst limit has again been reached.|
The MAC (Ethernet Media Access Control) match can be used to match packets based on their MAC source address. As of writing this documentation, this match is a little bit limited, however, in the future this may be more evolved and may be more useful. This match can be used to match packets on the source MAC address only as previously said.
Do note that to use this module we explicitly load it with the -m mac option. The reason that I am saying this is that a lot of people wonder if it should not be -m mac-source, which it should not.
Table 6-9. MAC match options
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -m mac --mac-source 00:00:00:00:00:01|
|Explanation||This match is used to match packets based on their MAC source address. The MAC address specified must be in the form XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX, else it will not be legal. The match may be reversed with an ! sign and would look like --mac-source ! 00:00:00:00:00:01. This would in other words reverse the meaning of the match, so that all packets except packets from this MAC address would be matched. Note that since MAC addresses are only used on Ethernet type networks, this match will only be possible to use for Ethernet interfaces. The MAC match is only valid in the PREROUTING, FORWARD and INPUT chains and nowhere else.|
The mark match extension is used to match packets based on the marks they have set. A mark is a special field, only maintained within the kernel, that is associated with the packets as they travel through the computer. Marks may be used by different kernel routines for such tasks as traffic shaping and filtering. As of today, there is only one way of setting a mark in Linux, namely the MARK target in iptables. This was previously done with the FWMARK target in ipchains, and this is why people still refer to FWMARK in advanced routing areas. The mark field is currently set to an unsigned integer, or 4294967296 possible values on a 32 bit system. In other words, you are probably not going to run into this limit for quite some time.
Table 6-10. Mark match options
|Example||iptables -t mangle -A INPUT -m mark --mark 1|
|Explanation||This match is used to match packets that have previously been marked. Marks can be set with the MARK target which we will discuss in the next section. All packets traveling through Netfilter get a special mark field associated with them. Note that this mark field is not in any way propagated, within or outside the packet. It stays inside the computer that made it. If the mark field matches the mark, it is a match. The mark field is an unsigned integer, hence there can be a maximum of 4294967296 different marks. You may also use a mask with the mark. The mark specification would then look like, for example, --mark 1/1. If a mask is specified, it is logically AND ed with the mark specified before the actual comparison.|
The multiport match extension can be used to specify multiple destination ports and port ranges. Without the possibility this match gives, you would have to use multiple rules of the same type, just to match different ports.
You can not use both standard port matching and multiport matching at the same time, for example you can't write: --sport 1024:63353 -m multiport --dport 21,23,80. This will simply not work. What in fact happens, if you do, is that iptables honors the first element in the rule, and ignores the multiport instruction.
Table 6-11. Multiport match options
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m multiport --source-port 22,53,80,110|
|Explanation||This match matches multiple source ports. A maximum of 15 separate ports may be specified. The ports must be comma delimited, as in the above example. The match may only be used in conjunction with the -p tcp or -p udp matches. It is mainly an enhanced version of the normal --source-port match.|
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m multiport --destination-port 22,53,80,110|
|Explanation||This match is used to match multiple destination ports. It works exactly the same way as the above mentioned source port match, except that it matches destination ports. It too has a limit of 15 ports and may only be used in conjunction with -p tcp and -p udp.|
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m multiport --port 22,53,80,110|
|Explanation||This match extension can be used to match packets based both on their destination port and their source port. It works the same way as the --source-port and --destination-port matches above. It can take a maximum of 15 ports and can only be used in conjunction with -p tcp and -p udp. Note that the --port match will only match packets coming in from and going to the same port, for example, port 80 to port 80, port 110 to port 110 and so on.|
The owner match extension is used to match packets based on the identity of the process that created them. The owner can be specified as the process ID either of the user who issued the command in question, that of the group, the process, the session, or that of the command itself. This extension was originally written as an example of what iptables could be used for. The owner match only works within the OUTPUT chain, for obvious reasons: It is pretty much impossible to find out any information about the identity of the instance that sent a packet from the other end, or where there is an intermediate hop to the real destination. Even within the OUTPUT chain it is not very reliable, since certain packets may not have an owner. Notorious packets of that sort are (among other things) the different ICMP responses. ICMP responses will never match.
Table 6-12. Owner match options
|Example||iptables -A OUTPUT -m owner --uid-owner 500|
|Explanation||This packet match will match if the packet was created by the given User ID (UID). This could be used to match outgoing packets based on who created them. One possible use would be to block any other user than root from opening new connections outside your firewall. Another possible use could be to block everyone but the http user from sending packets from the HTTP port.|
|Example||iptables -A OUTPUT -m owner --gid-owner 0|
|Explanation||This match is used to match all packets based on their Group ID (GID). This means that we match all packets based on what group the user creating the packets are in. This could be used to block all but the users in the network group from getting out onto the Internet or, as described above, only to allow members of the http group to create packets going out from the HTTP port.|
|Example||iptables -A OUTPUT -m owner --pid-owner 78|
|Explanation||This match is used to match packets based on the Process ID (PID) that was responsible for them. This match is a bit harder to use, but one example would be only to allow PID 94 to send packets from the HTTP port (if the HTTP process is not threaded, of course). Alternatively we could write a small script that grabs the PID from a ps output for a specific daemon and then adds a rule for it. For an example, you could have a rule as shown in the Pid-owner.txt example.|
|Example||iptables -A OUTPUT -m owner --sid-owner 100|
|Explanation||This match is used to match packets based on the Session ID used by the program in question. The value of the SID, or Session ID of a process, is that of the process itself and all processes resulting from the originating process. These latter could be threads, or a child of the original process. So, for example, all of our HTTPD processes should have the same SID as their parent process (the originating HTTPD process), if our HTTPD is threaded (most HTTPDs are, Apache and Roxen for instance). To show this in example, we have created a small script called Sid-owner.txt. This script could possibly be run every hour or so together with some extra code to check if the HTTPD is actually running and start it again if necessary, then flush and re-enter our OUTPUT chain if needed.|
The state match extension is used in conjunction with the connection tracking code in the kernel. The state match accesses the connection tracking state of the packets from the conntracking machine. This allows us to know in what state the connection is, and works for pretty much all protocols, including stateless protocols such as ICMP and UDP. In all cases, there will be a default timeout for the connection and it will then be dropped from the connection tracking database. This match needs to be loaded explicitly by adding a -m state statement to the rule. You will then have access to one new match called state. The concept of state matching is covered more fully in the The state machine chapter, since it is such a large topic.
Table 6-13. State matches
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED|
|Explanation||This match option tells the state match what states the packets must be in to be matched. There are currently 4 states that can be used. INVALID, ESTABLISHED, NEW and RELATED. INVALID means that the packet is associated with no known stream or connection and that it may contain faulty data or headers. ESTABLISHED means that the packet is part of an already established connection that has seen packets in both directions and is fully valid. NEW means that the packet has or will start a new connection, or that it is associated with a connection that has not seen packets in both directions. Finally, RELATED means that the packet is starting a new connection and is associated with an already established connection. This could for example mean an FTP data transfer, or an ICMP error associated with an TCP or UDP connection. Note that the NEW state does not look for SYN bits in TCP packets trying to start a new connection and should, hence, not be used unmodified in cases where we have only one firewall and no load balancing between different firewalls. However, there may be times where this could be useful. For more information on how this could be used, read the The state machine chapter.|
The TOS match can be used to match packets based on their TOS field. TOS stands for Type Of Service, consists of 8 bits, and is located in the IP header. This match is loaded explicitly by adding -m tos to the rule. TOS is normally used to inform intermediate hosts of the precedence of the stream and its content (it doesn't really, but it informs of any specific requirements for the stream, such as it having to be sent as fast as possible, or it needing to be able to send as much payload as possible). How different routers and administrators deal with these values depends. Most do not care at all, while others try their best to do something good with the packets in question and the data they provide.
Table 6-14. TOS matches
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tos --tos 0x16|
|Explanation||This match is used as described above. It can match packets based on their TOS field and their value. This could be used, among other things together with the iproute2 and advanced routing functions in Linux, to mark packets for later usage. The match takes an hex or numeric value as an option, or possibly one of the names resulting from 'iptables -m tos -h'. At the time of writing it contained the following named values: Minimize-Delay 16 (0x10), Maximize-Throughput 8 (0x08), Maximize-Reliability 4 (0x04), Minimize-Cost 2 (0x02), and Normal-Service 0 (0x00). Minimize-Delay means to minimize the delay in putting the packets through - example of standard services that would require this include telnet, SSH and FTP-control. Maximize-Throughput means to find a path that allows as big a throughput as possible - a standard protocol would be FTP-data. Maximize-Reliability means to maximize the reliability of the connection and to use lines that are as reliable as possible - a couple of typical examples are BOOTP and TFTP. Minimize-Cost means minimizing the cost of packets getting through each link to the client or server; for example finding the route that costs the least to travel along. Examples of normal protocols that would use this would be RTSP (Real Time Stream Control Protocol) and other streaming video/radio protocols. Finally, Normal-Service would mean any normal protocol that has no special needs.|
The TTL match is used to match packets based on their TTL (Time To Live) field residing in the IP headers. The TTL field contains 8 bits of data and is decremented once every time it is processed by an intermediate host between the client and recipient host. If the TTL reaches 0, an ICMP type 11 code 0 (TTL equals 0 during transit) or code 1 (TTL equals 0 during reassembly) is transmitted to the party sending the packet and informing it of the problem. This match is only used to match packets based on their TTL, and not to change anything. The latter, incidentally, applies to all kinds of matches. To load this match, you need to add an -m ttl to the rule.
Table 6-15. TTL matches
|Example||iptables -A OUTPUT -m ttl --ttl 60|
|Explanation||This match option is used to specify the TTL value to match. It takes a numeric value and matches this value within the packet. There is no inversion and there are no other specifics to match. It could, for example, be used for debugging your local network - e.g. LAN hosts that seem to have problems connecting to hosts on the Internet - or to find possible ingress by Trojans etc. The usage is relatively limited, however; its usefulness really depends on your imagination. One example would be to find hosts with bad default TTL values (could be due to a badly implemented TCP/IP stack, or simply to misconfiguration).|
The unclean match takes no options and requires no more than explicitly loading it when you want to use it. Note that this option is regarded as experimental and may not work at all times, nor will it take care of all unclean packages or problems. The unclean match tries to match packets that seem malformed or unusual, such as packets with bad headers or checksums and so on. This could be used to DROP connections and to check for bad streams, for example; however you should be aware that it could possibly break legal connections.