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Lessons In Electric Circuits

A free series of textbooks on the subjects of electricity and electronics

Copyright © 2000-2003, Tony R. Kuphaldt

These books and all related files are published under the terms and conditions of the Design Science License. These terms and conditions allow for free copying, distribution, and/or modification of this document by the general public.

A copy of the Design Science License is included at the end of each book volume. For more information about the License, visit

As an open and collaboratively developed text, this book is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the Design Science License for more details.

Access individual volumes, I through VI:

Book Volume: Volume I - DC Volume II - AC Volume III - Semiconductors
Edition: 5th 5th 4th
Last revised: January 24, 2003 March 8, 2003 February 17, 2003

Book Volume: Volume IV - Digital Volume V - Reference Volume VI - Experiments
Edition: 4th 4th 1st
Last revised: May 18, 2003 April 4, 2003 July 21, 2002

Edition numbers reflect major structural changes to a book volume such as the addition of new chapters, the substantial expansion of existing chapters, or a change in markup language (source code formatting). I may also increment the edition number of a volume due to the accumulation of many smaller changes. For a volume under active revision, one edition per year is normal.

"Last revised" dates reflect non-trivial changes only. Minor changes I make such as typographical error correction and stylistic changes to the text do not warrant increments to this date. New topics added to the text, as well as any outside contributions, are the minimum change level warranting a new revision date.

The source code for each chapter file contains a change-log consisting of commented lines, which is normally hidden when viewed by a web browser. You may peruse the beginning of each chapter file (using the "view page source" option on your browser) for a detailed history of all changes to that chapter.