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Stretching FAQ Part 4

by Brad Appleton


                        STRETCHING AND FLEXIBILITY:

                    Everything you never wanted to know

                              (Part 4 of 4)


                             by Brad Appleton

                   Version: 1.27, Last Modified 95/05/19

          Copyright (C) 1993, 1994, 1995 by Bradford D. Appleton

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document provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
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Subject: Table of Contents for PART 4

All section titles in this document begin with the prefix "Subject: ".  If
you wish, you may scan ahead to a particular section by searching for the
regular expression /^Subject: SECTION-NAME/.  For example, to go to the
unnumbered section named "Introduction", you could scan for
/^Subject: Intro/; to go to section 1.1, you could scan for
/^Subject: 1\.1/; and to go to appendix A, you could scan for
/^Subject: Appendix A/.

     Appendix A - References on Stretching
          A.1 - Recommendations
          A.2 - Additional Comments

     Appendix B - Working Toward the Splits
          B.1 - lower back stretches
          B.2 - lying buttock stretch
          B.3 - groin and inner-thigh stretch
          B.4 - seated leg stretches
               B.4.1 - seated calf stretch
               B.4.2 - seated hamstring stretch
               B.4.3 - seated inner-thigh stretch
          B.5 - psoas stretch
          B.6 - quadricep stretch
          B.7 - lying `V' stretch

     Appendix C - Normal Ranges of Joint Motion
          C.1 - Neck
          C.2 - Lumbar Spine
          C.3 - Shoulder
          C.4 - Elbow
          C.5 - Wrist
          C.6 - Hip
          C.7 - Knee
          C.8 - Ankle



Subject: Appendix A - References on Stretching

I don't know if these are *all* good, but I am aware of the following books
and videotapes about stretching:

`Stretch and Strengthen', by Judy Alter
   Softcover, Houghton Mifflin Company (Publishers) 1986, 241 pages
   $12.95 (US), ISBN: 0-395-52808-9
      (also by Judy Alter: `Surviving Exercise',
       Softcover, Houghton Mifflin 1983, 127 pages, ISBN: 0-395-50073-7)

`Sport Stretch', by Michael J. Alter
   Softcover, Leisure Press (Publisher) 1990, 168 pages
   $15.95 (US), ISBN: 0-88011-381-2
      Leisure Press is a division of Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.
      in Champaign, IL and may be reached by phone at 1-800-747-4457

`Science of Stretching', by Michael J. Alter
   Clothcover, Leisure Press (Publisher) 1988, 256 pages
   $35.00 (US), ISBN: 0-97322-090-0

`Stretching', by Bob Anderson (Illustrated by Jean Anderson)
   Softcover, Random House (Publisher) $9.95 (US), ISBN: 0-394-73874-8

`Stretching For All Sports', by John E. Beaulieu
   Athletic Press 1980, Pasadena, CA

`Stretching Without Pain', by W. Paul Blakey
   Softcover, Bibliotek Books (Publishers) 1994, 78 pages
   $14.99 (US), ISBN: 1 896238 00 9

`The Muscle Book', by W. Paul Blakey
   Softcover, Bibliotek Books (Publishers) 1992, 48 pages
   $10.99 (US), ISBN: 1 873017 00 6

`Health & Fitness Excellence: The Scientific Action Plan',
   by Robert K. Cooper, Ph.D.
   Softcover, Houghton Mifflin Company (Publishers) 1989, 541 pages
   $12.95 (US), ISBN 0-395-54453-X

`Stretching for Athletics', by Pat Croce (2nd edition)
   Softcover, Leisure Press (Publisher) 1984, 128 pages
   $11.95 (US), ISBN: 0-88011-119-4

`ExTension: The 20-minutes-a-day, Yoga-Based Program to Relax, Release,
            and Rejuvenate the Average Stressed-Out over-35-year-old body',
   by Sam Dworkis with Peg Moline
   Softcover, Poseidon Press (Publisher) 1994, 192 pages
   $20 (US), ISBN: 0-671-86680-X

`Jean Frenette's Complete Guide to Stretching', by Jean Frenette
   Softcover, $10.95 (US), ISBN: 0-86568-145-7
      (also by Jean Frenette, `Beyond Kicking: A Complete Guide to
       Kicking and Stretching', $12.95 (US), ISBN: 0-86568-154-6)

`Mobility Training for the Martial Arts', by Tony Gummerson
   Softcover, A&C Black (Publishers) 1990, 96 pages
   $15.95 (US), ISBN: 0 7136 3264 X

`SynerStretch For Total Body Flexibility', from Health For Life
   Softcover, 1984, 29 pages, $11.95 (US), ISBN: 0-944831-05-2
      (A videotape which is an updated version of this same course
       is also available for $39.95 (US))
      HFL can be reached by phone at 1-800-874-5339

`Staying Supple: The Bountiful Pleasures of Stretching', by John Jerome
   Softcover, Bantam Books 1987, 151 pages
   ISBN: 0-553-34429-3

`Light on Yoga', by B. K. S. Iyengar
   NY Schocken Books 1979, 544 pages
   $18 (US), ISBN: 0-8052-1031-8

`Light on Pranayama', by B. K. S. Iyengar
   Crossroad Publishers 1985, 200 pages
   ISBN: 0-8245-0686-3

`Ultimate Fitness through Martial Arts', by Sang H. Kim
   [ chapter 8 (pages 147-192) is devoted to flexibility ]
   Softcover, Turtle Press (Publishers) 1993, 266 pages
   $16.95 (US), ISBN: 1-880336-02-2
   (This book and other items may be ordered from Turtle Press by calling
    1-800-77-TURTL in the United States)

`Stretching Scientifically : a Guide to Flexibility Training', by Tom Kurz
   3rd edition, completely revised
   Softcover, Stadion (Publisher) 1994, 147 pages
   $18.95 (US), ISBN: 0-940149-30-3
      (also by Tom Kurz: `Science of Sports Training',
       $26.95-Softcover, $39.95-Hardcover)
      (A Videotape entitled `Tom Kurz' Secrets of Stretching'
       is also available from Stadion for $49.95 (US)).
      Stadion can be reached by phone at 1-800-873-7117

`Beyond Splits (Volume I and Volume II)', by Marco Lala
   Videotapes available from Marco Lala Karate Academy,
   P.O. Box 979, Yonkers, NY USA 10704
   the tapes are $39.95 each (Vol.I and Vol.II are separate tapes)

`Facilitated Stretching: PNF Stretching Made Easy', by Robert E. McAtee
   Softcover, Human Kinetics Publishers 1993, 96 pages
   $16.00 (US), ISBN: 0-87322-420-5

`The Woman's Stretching Book', by Susan L. Peterson
   Softcover, Leisure Press (Publisher) 1983, 112 pages
   $11.95 (US), ISBN: 0-88011-095-3

`The Health For Life Training Advisor', edited by Andrew T. Shields
   Softcover, Health for Life 1990, 320 pages
   $29.95 (US), ISBN: 0-944831-22-2

`Yoga the Iyengar Way', by Silva, Mira and Shyam Mehta
   Knopf Publishers
   $20 (US), ISBN: 0-679-72287-4.

`Stretch!', by Ann Smith
   Acropolis Books 1979

`The Book About Stretching', by Dr. Sven-A Solveborn, M.D.
   Japan Publications, 1985

`Stretching the Quick and Easy Way', by Sternad & Bozdech
   Softcover, $9.95 (US), ISBN: 0-8069-8434-1

`Complete Stretching', by Maxine Tobias and John Patrick Sullivan
   Softcover, Knopf (Publisher), $17.95 (US), ISBN: 0-679-73831-2
      (also by Maxine Tobias: `Stretch and Relax')


Subject: A.1 - Recommendations

My best recommendations are for `Sport Stretch' and `Stretching
Scientifically', followed by `Health & Fitness Excellence', `SynerStretch',
or `Stretch and Strengthen'.  `Mobility Training for the Martial Arts' also
has quite a bit of valuable information and stretches.  `The Health for
Life Training Advisor' has a *lot* of information about stretching and
muscle physiology, but it is not strictly about stretching and contains a
*ton* of other information about all aspects of athletic training and
performance (which I find to be invaluable). If you don't want to get into
too much technical detail and are looking for a quick but informative read,
then I recommend `Stretching Without Pain'. If you really want to delve
into all the technical aspects of stretching, including physiology,
neurophysiology, and functional anatomy, then you must get `Science of
Stretching'. If you want to know more about PNF stretching, then
`Facilitated Stretching' is the book to get.  If you are looking for yoga
or active stretches you simply must take a look at `ExTension' (also your
local library probably has quite a few books and/or videotapes of yoga
exercises). If you want to know more about muscle anatomy and physiology
but don't have a lot of technical interest or background in those two
fields, `The Muscle Book' is highly recommended.

Many of the other books don't have as much detail about stretching and what
happens to your muscles during a particular stretch, they just present (and
illustrate) a variety of different exercises. Also, most of the stretches
presented in these books are to be performed alone.  `Sport Stretch',
`SynerStretch' (both the videotape and the book), and `Mobility Training
for the Martial Arts' present stretches that you can perform with the
assistance of a partner.

In general, `Health For Life' (also known as `HFL') and `Human Kinetics
Publishers' have a tremendously wide variety of technical, no-nonsense,
exercise related books and videotapes.  I would highly recommend contacting
both organizations and asking for their free catalogs:

     Human Kinetics Publishers
     1607 North Market Street
     P.O. Box 5076
     Champaign, IL USA 61825-5076
     1-800-747-4457 (US)
     1-800-465-7301 (Canada)
     Health For Life
     8033 Sunset Blvd., Suite 483
     Los Angeles, CA USA 90046


Subject: A.2 - Additional Comments

Here is a little more information about some of the references (I haven't
actually read or seen all of them so I can't comment on all of them):

`Sport Stretch'
     This book has a very thorough section on all the details about how
     stretching works and what different stretching methods to use. It also
     contains over 300 illustrated stretches as well as various stretching
     programs for 26 different sports and recreational activities. Each
     stretching program takes about 20 minutes and illustrates the 12 best
     stretches for that activity. In my humble opinion, this is the most
     complete book I was able to find on the subject of stretching (however,
     `Science of Stretching', by the same author, is even more
     comprehensive). Some of you may prefer Kurz' book to this one, however,
     since it is more devoted to increasing flexibility.

`Science of Stretching'
     This book explains the scientific basis of stretching and discusses
     physiology, neurophysiology, mechanics, and psychology as they all
     relate to stretching. The book makes thorough use of illustrations,
     charts, diagrams, and figures, and discusses each of its topics in
     great detail. It then presents guidelines for developing a flexibility
     program, including over 200 stretching exercises and warm-up drills.
     I suppose you could think of this book as a "graduate-level version"
     of `Sport Stretch'.

`Stretching Scientifically'
     This is an excellent book that goes into excruciating detail on just
     about everything you want to know about stretching. It also contains a
     variety of stretches and stretching programs and is geared towards
     achieving maximal flexibility in the shortest possible amount of time.
     The only problem I found in this book is that some of the discussion
     gets very technical without giving the reader (in my opinion)
     sufficient background to fully understand what is being said. I
     believe that `Sport Stretch' does a better job of explaining things in
     a more comprehensible (easily understood) fashion.

`Facilitated Stretching'
     Most of the reading material that is devoted to PNF stretching is
     highly technical. This book attempts to break that trend. It tries to
     explain the history and principles of PNF without getting too
     technical, and shows how to perform PNF techniques that are
     appropriate for healthy people (complete with illustrations and
     easy-to-follow instructions). This book also contains a chapter which
     discusses the role of PNF techniques during injury rehabilitation.
     According to the publisher:

          The stretches in `Facilitated Stretching' are known as CRAC
          (contract-relax, antagonist-contract) stretches. CRAC stretches
          are the safest PNF stretches because there is no passive movement
          - the athlete performs all of the stretching. `Facilitated
          Stretching' contains 29 CRAC stretches, which address most of the
          major muscle groups: 18 are single-muscle stretches, and 11 use
          the spiral-diagonal patterns that are the heart of PNF
          stretching. Once readers have learned these stretching
          techniques, they will be able to design additional stretches for
          almost any muscle or muscle group. The book also features many
          self-stretching techniques that athletes can use to maintain their
          gains in range of motion.

     This is a "course" from HFL which claims that you can achieve "total
     body flexibility in just 8 minutes a day." It explains and presents two
     excellent stretching routines: one for increasing flexibility and one
     for maintaining flexibility. It was the only work that I found which
     discusses the importance of performing certain stretches in a
     particular order. It is important to note that there is a significant
     difference between the printed and videotape versions of this course
     (aside from price): The printed version has a much more thorough
     discussion of theory, exercise selection, and exercise order; whereas
     the stretching routines presented in the videotape are better
     explained, and more "up to date".

`Stretch and Strengthen'
     This is very good, but the author makes a few mistakes in some places
     (in particular, she seems to equate the stretch reflex, reciprocal
     inhibition, and PNF with one another). The book is devoted to static
     stretching and to performing strengthening exercises of the muscles
     stretched. Each exercise explains what to do, what not to do, and why.
     There is also a separate section for diagnosing and correcting some
     problems that you may encounter during a particular stretch.

`Health & Fitness Excellence'
     Simply put, this is one of the best books available on overall health
     and fitness. It has two chapters devoted to flexibility training that
     explain and provide several static and PNF stretches (although it
     refers to the PNF stretches as "tighten-relax" stretches). This is
     *not* a "fad" book! It uses sound, proven, scientific principles and
     research (explained in simple terms) to present programs for: reducing
     stress, strength and flexibility training, nutritional wellness, body
     fat control, postural vitality, rejuvenation and living environments
     design, and mind and life unity. I highly recommend this book.

     This is a fantastic book of yoga exercises. Each exercise is very well
     explained along with instructions on what to do if you don't seem to
     feel the stretch, or think you are feeling it in the wrong place. It is
     chock-full of useful information and is very well written.

`Stretching Without Pain'
     The author, W. Paul Blakey, is a practicing Osteopath, and former
     international ballet dancer. The book is very similar in format and
     content to this document, only it has well over a hundred
     illustrations, and also covers some additional material not found in
     this document (such as mental and emotional aspects to stretching and
     "stretching warzones").  It is one of the best quick, easy, and
     up-to-date stretching introductions that you will find. I can't think
     of any other book that is under a hundred pages that covers as much as
     this book does (including isometric and PNF stretches).  For more
     information about this book, contact Twin Eagles Educational and
     Healing Institute at (604) 885-7503.  You can also reach the author by
     e-mail at `TEEHI@sunshine.net' or via fax at `(604) 885-6064'.

`The Muscle Book'
     The author, Paul Blakey, is a practicing Osteopath, and former
     international ballet dancer. He has written and illustrated this book
     to help everyone who needs to know more about their own muscles, and
     how to look after them.  The book clearly identifies the major surface
     muscles of the human body, and shows how they work.  For each muscle
     there is straightforward information about first aid by massage, and an
     indication of particular dangers to watch for.  All students of
     physique, and in particular dancers and gymnasts should find this book
     useful.  For more information about this book, contact Twin Eagles
     Educational and Healing Institute at (604) 885-7503.  You can also
     reach the author by e-mail at `TEEHI@sunshine.net' or via fax at
     `(604) 885-6064'.

`Mobility Training for the Martial Arts'
     This book is also quite good and quite comprehensive, but not as good
     (in my personal opinion) as `Sport Stretch' or `Stretching

`Staying Supple'
     This book is a little old but is wonderfully written (although it could
     be organized a bit better). It contains information at just about every
     level of detail about stretching, increasing and maintaining
     suppleness, and preventing the loss of suppleness. There is also a
     glossary of terms and concepts near the end of the book.

     A lot of people like this one. It presents a wide variety of stretches
     and stretching routines and does a good job of explaining each one. It
     does not go into too much detail about stretching other than just to
     present the various stretches and routines.


Subject: Appendix B - Working Toward the Splits

The following stretching routine is tailored specifically to the purpose of
achieving the ability to perform both front splits and side splits. It
consists of the following exercises:

  1. lower back stretches

  2. lying buttock stretch

  3. groin & inner-thigh stretch

  4. seated calf stretch

  5. seated hamstring stretch

  6. seated inner-thigh stretch

  7. psoas stretch

  8. quadricep stretch

  9. lying `V' stretch

(See "4.1.1 - General Warm-Up").

The details on how to perform each of the stretches are discussed in the
following sections. Each section describes how to perform a passive
stretch, and an isometric stretch, for a particular muscle group.  On a
given day, you should either perform only the passive stretches, or perform
only the PNF stretches, in the order given (See "3 - Types of Stretching").
If you perform the PNF stretches, don't forget to rest 20 seconds after
each PNF stretch, and don't perform the same PNF stretch more than once per
day (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching").  The isometric stretches described do not
require the assistance of a partner, but you may certainly use a partner if
you so desire.  The order in which these exercises are performed is
important because the entire routine attempts to employ the principle of
synergism by stretching a muscle fully before using that muscle as a
"supporting muscle" in another stretch (See "4.8 - Exercise Order").

(See "Disclaimer").

As with all stretches, you should *not* stretch to the point of intense
pain! A tolerable amount of discomfort should be more than sufficient.  You
do *not* want to pull (or tear) your muscles, or be very sore the next day.


Subject: B.1 - lower back stretches

These stretches work mostly the lower back, but also make some demands on
your abdominals, and your external obliques (sides).

Lying down with your back on the floor, straighten one leg, while bending
the knee of the other leg, and try to bring the thigh of your bent leg as
close as possible to your chest. Hold it there for 10-15 seconds. Then
cross your bent leg over your straight leg and try to touch your knee to
the floor (while trying to keep both shoulders on the ground).  Repeat this
same procedure with the other leg.  Then, bend both knees and bring both
thighs up against your chest (keeping your back on the floor).  Hold that
for 10-15 seconds.  Then, put both feet on the ground but keep the knees
bent.  While trying to keep both shoulders on the ground, roll your legs
over to one side and try to get your knees to touch the floor beside you.
Hold for about 10-15 seconds and then do the same thing on the other side.
Now repeat the same stretch, but this time begin with your feet off the
floor so that your leg is bent at the knee at about a 90 degree angle.

As for isometric stretches for the back, I don't recommend them.


Subject: B.2 - lying buttock stretch

This mainly stretches your buttocks (gluteal muscles) but also makes some
demands on your groin and upper inner-thigh area. You must be very careful
*not* to apply any stress to the knee joint when performing this stretch.
Otherwise, serious injury (such as the tearing of cartilage) may occur.

Lie on your back again with both knees bent and in the air and with your
feet on the floor. Take your right foot in your left hand (with your hand
wrapping under your foot so that the fingertips are on its outside edge)
and hold your leg (with your knee bent) in the air about 1-3 feet above
your left breast (relax, we haven't started to stretch the buttocks just
yet). The leg you are holding should be in much the same position as it is
when you start your groin stretch in the next exercise, only now it is in
the air because you are on your back (See "B.3 - groin and inner-thigh
stretch").  Exhale and slowly pull your foot over to the side and up (toward
your head) as if you were trying to touch your outstretched leg about 12
inches to the outside of your left shoulder. You should feel a good stretch
in your buttocks about now. If you feel any stress at all on your knee then
stop at once. You are probably pulling "up" too much and not enough to the
side. You may wish to use your free hand to support your knee in some way.
Hold this stretch for about 20 seconds (and stop if you feel any stress in
the knee joint).  Now repeat this same stretch with the other leg (using
the other hand).  Remember that the leg you are *not* holding should have
the sole of its foot on the floor with the knee bent and in the air.

To make an isometric stretch out of this, when you are performing the
passive stretch (above) and feel the stretch in your buttocks, continue
trying to pull your foot to the outside of your shoulder while at the same
time resisting with your leg so that it pushes agains your hand. No actual
leg motion should take place, just the resistance. Stop immediately if you
feel any undue stress to your knee.


Subject: B.3 - groin and inner-thigh stretch

This mainly stretches your groin and upper inner-thigh area, but also makes
some demands on your lower back. It is often called the "butterfly stretch"
or "frog stretch" because of the shape that your legs make when you perform

Sit down with your back straight up (don't slouch, you may want to put your
back against a wall) and bend your legs, putting the soles of your feet
together. Try to get your heels as close to your groin as is *comfortably*
possible. Now that you are in the proper position, you are ready to
stretch. For the passive stretch, push your knees to the floor as far as
you can (you may use your hands to assist but do *not* resist with the
knees) and then hold them there. Once you have attained this position, keep
your knees where they are, and then exhale as you bend over, trying to get
your chest as close to the floor as possible.  Hold this stretch for about
20 seconds.

The isometric stretch is almost identical to the passive stretch, but
before you bend over, place your hands on your ankles and your elbows in
the crooks of your knees. As you bend over, use your elbows to "force" your
knees closer to the floor while at the same time pushing "up" (away from
the floor) with your thighs to resist against your arms.


Subject: B.4 - seated leg stretches

These include three different stretches performed for the calves,
hamstrings, and inner-thighs, but they are all performed in very similar
positions and I do all three stretches (in the order given) for one leg
before performing them for the other leg.  You will need an apparatus for
this stretch: a bench, or a firm bed or couch (or you could use two chairs
with your butt on one chair and the heel of your foot on the other) that is
at least 12 inches off the ground (but not so high that you can't sit on it
with out your knees bent and the sole of your foot solidly on the floor).
The bench should be long enough to accommodate the full length of your leg.
Sit on the bench and have your leg comfortably extended out in front of you
(your heel should still be on the bench) and the other leg hanging out to
the side with the leg bent and the foot flat on the ground.


Subject: B.4.1 - seated calf stretch

With your leg extended directly in front of you, face your leg and bend it
slightly. Place your hands around the ball of your foot and gently pull
back so that you force yourself to flex your foot as much as possible.
Hold this stretch for about 20 seconds (don't forget to breathe).

Now for the isometric stretch: in this same position, use your hands to try
and force the ball (and toes) of your foot even further back toward you
while at the same time using your calf muscles to try and straighten your
foot and leg. You should be resisting enough with your hands so that no
actual foot (or leg) motion takes place.


Subject: B.4.2 - seated hamstring stretch

Now that our calf is stretched, we can get a more effective hamstring
stretch (since inflexibility in the calf can be a limiting factor in this
hamstring stretch). Still sitting on the bench in the same position,
straighten your leg out while trying to hold onto your outstretched leg
with both hands on either side as close as possible to your heel.  Starting
up with your back straight, slowly exhale and try to bring your chest to
the knee of your outstretched leg.  You should feel a "hefty" stretch in
your hamstring and even a considerable stretch in your calf (even though
you just stretched it). Hold this stretch for about 20 seconds.

Now for the isometric stretch: when you have gotten your chest as close as
you can to your knee, try and put both hands under the bench by your heel
(or both hands on opposite sides of your heel).  Now grab on tight with
your hands and try to physically push your heel (keeping your leg straight)
downward "through" the bench, the bench will provide the necessary
resistance, and should prevent any leg motion from occurring.


Subject: B.4.3 - seated inner-thigh stretch

You should still be sitting on the bench with your outstretched leg in
front of you. Now turn on the bench so that your leg is outstretched to
your side, and you are facing the leg that is bent.  You may perform this
next stretch with either your toe pointing up toward the ceiling or with
the inside edge of your foot flat on the bench with your toe pointing
forward (but flexed), or you may try this stretch both ways since you will
stretch some slightly different (but many of the same) muscles either way.
I prefer to keep my toe pointed towards the ceiling because I personally
feel that the other way applies to much stress to my knee, but you can do
whatever feels comfortable to you.

*Note:* If you are using two chairs instead of a bench, the first thing you
need to do is to make sure that one of the chairs supports your
outstretched leg somewhere between the knee and the hip. If the support is
being provided below the knee and you try to perform this stretch, there is
a good chance that you will injure ligaments and/or cartilage.

Place your hands underneath the bench directly under you (or you may keep
one hand under the portion of the bench that is below the knee of your
outstretched leg) and pull yourself down and forward (keeping your back
straight) as if you were trying to touch your chest to the floor.  You
should be able to feel the stretch in your inner-thigh.  Hold this for
about 20 seconds.

For the isometric stretch, do the same thing you did with the hamstring
stretch: keep both hands underneath you as before and try to force your
foot downward "through" the bench.


Subject: B.5 - psoas stretch

This stretch is sometimes called the "runner's start" because the position
you are in resembles that of a sprinter at the starting block. It mainly
stretches the psoas muscle located just above the top of the thigh.

Crouch down on the floor with both hands and knees on the ground.  Put one
leg forward with your foot on the floor so that your front leg is bent at
the knee at about a 90 degree angle.  Now extend your rear leg in back of
you so that it is almost completely straight (with just an ever so slight
bend) and so that the weight of your rear leg is on the ball of your rear
foot with the foot in a forced arch position. Now we are in the position to
stretch (notice that your rear leg should be in pretty much the same
position that it would assume if you were performing a front split).

Keeping your back straight and in line with your rear thigh, exhale and
slowly try to bring your chest down to the floor (you shouldn't need to
bend much further than the line your front knee is on).  You should feel
the stretch primarily in the upper thigh of your rear leg but you should
also feel some stretch in your front hamstring as well.  Hold this position
for at least 15 seconds. If you wish to also stretch your rear quadricep
from this position, you can shift your weight back so that your rear leg
makes a right angle with your knee pointing toward the floor (but don't let
it touch the floor). Now, without bending your rear leg any further, try to
force your rear knee straight down to the floor.

Now repeat the same stretch(es) with your other leg in front.

For an isometric stretch, you can do this same stretch in front of a wall
and instead of putting your hands on the floor, put them in front of you
against the wall and then push against the wall with the ball of your foot
(without decreasing the "stretch" in your psoas).


Subject: B.6 - quadricep stretch

For this stretch you will need one (or two) pillows or soft cushions to
place between your knee and the floor. You must be very careful when
performing this stretch because it can be hard on the knees.  Please be
advised to take it easy (and not overdo) while performing this exercise.

Put the pillow under your rear knee and let your knee rest on the floor.
Lift up your rear foot and grab onto your foot with the opposite hand (grab
the instep if possible, but if you can only reach the heel, that is okay).
If you have trouble grabbing your foot, then you may need to sit (or shift)
back onto your rear leg so that you can grab it, and then shift forward
into the starting position (with your hand now holding your foot).  Now,
exhale and very gently, but steadily, pull your foot toward its buttock
(butt-cheek) and lean toward your front foot (you may also wish to twist
your waist and trunk towards the foot you are holding).  You should feel a
tremendous stretch in the quadricep (top right thigh) of the foot that you
are pulling.  If you begin to feel stress in your knee, then discontinue
the exercise (but let your foot down slowly - not all at once). Hold this
stretch for about 15 seconds.  When you are finished, shift your weight
slowly back onto your rear leg and let your foot down while you are still
holding onto it. Do not just let go and let your foot snap back to the
ground - this is bad for your knee.

Now for the isometric stretch: Get into the same position as for the
passive quadricep stretch, but as you lean forward and pull on your foot,
resist with the leg you are holding by trying to push your instep back down
to the ground and out of the grip of your hand (but no actual movement
should take place).

Now do the same stretch with your other leg in front.

Stop the stretch immediately if you feel pain or discomfort in your knee.


Subject: B.7 - lying `V' stretch

This stretch is very good for working toward a side (chinese) split (See
"4.13.3 - The Side Split"). This exercise should be performed *after* you
have stretched each of these areas individually with prior stretches (like
the ones mentioned above).

Start by lying down with your back flat on the ground and your legs
straight together in the air at a 90 degree angle. Try to have your legs
turned out so that your knees are facing the side walls more than they are
facing your head. Slowly bring your legs down to the sides, keeping your
legs straight and turned out. When you reach the point where you cannot
bring them down any further into this "lying" side split position, leave
them there.

Now for the stretch: With your feet both flexed or both pointed (your
choice) use your arms to reach in and grab your legs. Each arm should grab
the leg on the same side. Try to get a hold of the leg between the ankle
and the knee (right at the beginning portion of the calf that is closest to
the ankle is almost perfect). Now, exhale and use your arms to gently but
steadily force your legs down further and wider (keeping the legs straight)
getting closer to the lying side-split position (where, ideally, your
kneecaps would be "kissing" the floor). Hold this position and keep applying
steady pressure with your arms for about 20 seconds.

For the isometric stretch, you do the same thing as the passive stretch
except that, as you use your arms to force your legs wider, use your inner
and outer thigh muscles to try and force your legs back up together and
straight (like a scissors closing), but apply enough resistance with your
arms so that no motion takes place (this can be tough since your legs are
usually stronger than your arms). You may find that you get a much better
stretch if you use a partner (rather than your own arms) to apply the
necessary resistance.


Subject: Appendix C - Normal Ranges of Joint Motion

According to Kurz, the following tables indicates the normal ranges of
joint motion for various parts of the body:


Subject: C.1 - Neck

Flexion: 70-90 degrees
     Touch sternum with chin.

Extension: 55 degrees
     Try to point up with chin.

Lateral bending: 35 degrees
     Bring ear close to shoulder.

Rotation: 70 degrees left & right
     Turn head to the left, then right.


Subject: C.2 - Lumbar Spine

Flexion: 75 degrees
     Bend forward at the waist.

Extension: 30 degrees
     Bend backward.

Lateral bending: 35 degrees
     Bend to the side.


Subject: C.3 - Shoulder

Abduction: 180 degrees
     Bring arm up sideways.

Adduction: 45 degrees
     Bring arm toward the midline of the body.

Horizontal extension: 45 degrees
     Swing arm horizontally backward.

Horizontal flexion: 130 degrees
     Swing arm horizontally forward.

Vertical extension: 60 degrees
     Raise arm straight backward.

Vertical flexion: 180 degrees
     Raise arm straight forward.


Subject: C.4 - Elbow

Flexion: 150 degrees
     Bring lower arm to the biceps

Extension: 180 degrees
     Straighten out lower arm.

Supination: 90 degrees
     Turn lower arm so palm of hand faces up.

Pronation: 90 degrees
     Turn lower arm so palm faces down.


Subject: C.5 - Wrist

Flexion: 80-90 degrees
     Bend wrist so palm nears lower arm.

Extension: 70 degrees
     Bend wrist in opposite direction.

Radial deviation: 20 degrees
     Bend wrist so thumb nears radius.

Ulnar deviation: 30-50 degrees
     Bend wrist so pinky finger nears ulna.


Subject: C.6 - Hip

Flexion: 110-130 degrees
     Flex knee and bring thigh close to abdomen.

Extension: 30 degrees
     Move thigh backward without moving the pelvis.

Abduction: 45-50 degrees
     Swing thigh away from midline.

Adduction: 20-30 degrees
     Bring thigh toward and across midline.

Internal rotation: 40 degrees
     Flex knee and swing lower leg away from midline.

External rotation: 45 degrees
     Flex knee and swing lower leg toward midline.


Subject: C.7 - Knee

Flexion: 130 degrees
     Touch calf to hamstring.

Extension: 15 degrees
     Straighten out knee as much as possible.

Internal rotation: 10 degrees
     Twist lower leg toward midline.


Subject: C.8 - Ankle

Flexion: 45 degrees
     Bend ankle so toes point up.

Extension: 20 degrees
     Bend ankle so toes point down.

Pronation: 30 degrees
     Turn foot so the sole faces in.

Supination: 20 degrees
     Turn foot so the sole faces out.


Subject: Index

* actin:                           (See "1.2 - Muscle Composition")
* active flexibility:              (See "2.1 - Types of Flexibility")
* active stretching:               (See "3.3 - Active Stretching")
* aerobic activity:                (See " - Aerobic Activity")
* agonists:                        (See "1.4 - Cooperating Muscle Groups")
* Alter, Judy:                     (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* Alter, Michael J.:               (See "Acknowledgements")
* Alter, Michael J.:               (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* Anderson, Bob:                   (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* ankle, range of motion of:       (See "C.8 - Ankle")
* antagonists:                     (See "1.4 - Cooperating Muscle Groups")
* autogenic inhibition:            (See "1.6.3 - The Lengthening Reaction")
* ballistic PNF stretching:        (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* ballistic stretching:            (See "3.1 - Ballistic Stretching")
* Beaulieu, John E.:               (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* benefits of stretching:          (See "4 - How to Stretch")
* Blakey, W. Paul:                 (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* Blakey, W. Paul:                 (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* books on stretching:             (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* butterfly stretch:               (See "B.3 - groin and inner-thigh stretch")
* chinese split:                   (See "4.13.1 - Common Problems When Performing Splits")
* circadian rhythms:               (See "4.9 - When to Stretch")
* clasped-knife reflex:            (See "1.6.3 - The Lengthening Reaction")
* collagen:                        (See "1.3 - Connective Tissue")
* collagenous connective tissue:   (See "1.3 - Connective Tissue")
* common stretching mistakes:      (See "4 - How to Stretch")
* concentric contraction:          (See "1.5 - Types of Muscle Contractions")
* connective tissue:               (See "1.3 - Connective Tissue")
* contract-relax, PNF stretching technique: (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* contract-relax-antagonist-contract, PNF stretching technique: (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* contract-relax-bounce, PNF stretching technique: (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* contract-relax-contract, PNF stretching technique: (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* contract-relax-swing, PNF stretching technique: (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* contractile proteins:            (See "1.2 - Muscle Composition")
* cooling down:                    (See "4.2 - Cooling Down")
* Cooper, Robert K.:               (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* counting during stretching:      (See "4.6 - Duration, Counting, and Repetition")
* CRAC, PNF stretching technique:  (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* Croce, Pat:                      (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* different types of flexibility:  (See "2.1 - Types of Flexibility")
* different types of stretching:   (See "3 - Types of Stretching")
* duration of a stretch:           (See "4.6 - Duration, Counting, and Repetition")
* Dworkis, Sam:                    (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* dynamic flexibility:             (See "2.1 - Types of Flexibility")
* dynamic PNF stretching:          (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* dynamic stretching:              (See "3.2 - Dynamic Stretching")
* dynamic warm-up stretching:      (See " - Dynamic Warm-Up Stretching")
* early-morning stretching:        (See "4.9.1 - Early-Morning Stretching")
* eccentric contraction:           (See "1.5 - Types of Muscle Contractions")
* elastic connective tissue:       (See "1.3 - Connective Tissue")
* elastin:                         (See "1.3 - Connective Tissue")
* elbow, range of motion of:       (See "C.4 - Elbow")
* endomysium:                      (See "1.3 - Connective Tissue")
* epimysium:                       (See "1.3 - Connective Tissue")
* extrafusal muscle fibers:        (See "1.6.1 - Proprioceptors")
* fascia:                          (See "1.3 - Connective Tissue")
* fascial sheaths of muscle:       (See "1.3 - Connective Tissue")
* fascicles:                       (See "1.2 - Muscle Composition")
* fasciculi:                       (See "1.2 - Muscle Composition")
* fast-twitch fibers:              (See "1.2.2 - Fast and Slow Muscle Fibers")
* fixators:                        (See "1.4 - Cooperating Muscle Groups")
* flexibility:                     (See "2 - Flexibility")
* flexibility, factors affecting:  (See "2.2 - Factors Limiting Flexibility")
* flexibility, limiting factors:   (See "2.2 - Factors Limiting Flexibility")
* Frenette, Jean:                  (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* frog stretch:                    (See "B.3 - groin and inner-thigh stretch")
* front split:                     (See "4.13.1 - Common Problems When Performing Splits")
* general warm-up:                 (See "4.1.1 - General Warm-Up")
* golgi tendon organ:              (See "1.6.1 - Proprioceptors")
* groin and inner-thigh stretch:   (See "B.3 - groin and inner-thigh stretch")
* Gummerson, Tony:                 (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* Gummerson, Tony:                 (See "Acknowledgements")
* Health for Life:                 (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* Health for Life:                 (See "Acknowledgements")
* HFL:                             (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* HFL:                             (See "Acknowledgements")
* hip, range of motion of:         (See "C.6 - Hip")
* hold-relax, PNF stretching technique: (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* hold-relax-bounce, PNF stretching technique: (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* hold-relax-contract, PNF stretching technique: (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* hold-relax-swing, PNF stretching technique: (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* innervate:                       (See "1.6.4 - Reciprocal Inhibition")
* interdependency of muscle groups: (See "4.8 - Exercise Order")
* intrafusal muscle fibers:        (See "1.6.1 - Proprioceptors")
* inverse myotatic reflex:         (See "1.6.3 - The Lengthening Reaction")
* isolation offered by a stretch:  (See "4.4.1 - Isolation")
* isometric agonist contraction/relaxation: (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* isometric antagonist contraction: (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* isometric contraction:           (See "1.5 - Types of Muscle Contractions")
* isometric stretching:            (See "3.6 - Isometric Stretching")
* isotonic contraction:            (See "1.5 - Types of Muscle Contractions")
* Iyengar, B. K. S.:               (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* Jerome, John:                    (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* joint rotations:                 (See " - Joint Rotations")
* joints:                          (See "1.1 - The Musculoskeletal System")
* Kim, Sang H.:                    (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* kinetic flexibility:             (See "2.1 - Types of Flexibility")
* knee, range of motion of:        (See "C.7 - Knee")
* Kurz, Tom:                       (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* Kurz, Tom:                       (See "Acknowledgements")
* Lala, Marco:                     (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* lengthening reaction:            (See "1.6.3 - The Lengthening Reaction")
* leverage offered by a stretch:   (See "4.4.2 - Leverage")
* ligaments:                       (See "1.1 - The Musculoskeletal System")
* limiting factors of flexibility: (See "2.2 - Factors Limiting Flexibility")
* lower back stretches:            (See "B.1 - lower back stretches")
* lumbar spine, range of motion of: (See "C.2 - Lumbar Spine")
* lying V stretch:                 (See "B.7 - lying `V' stretch")
* lying buttock stretch:           (See "B.2 - lying buttock stretch")
* McAtee, Robert E.:               (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* mechanoreceptors:                (See "1.6.1 - Proprioceptors")
* Mehta, Shyam:                    (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* metabolic accumulation:          (See "4.12.1 - Common Causes of Muscular Soreness")
* Mira:                            (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* mitochondria:                    (See "1.2.2 - Fast and Slow Muscle Fibers")
* mobility:                        (See "2.2 - Factors Limiting Flexibility")
* mobility, factors affecting:     (See "2.2 - Factors Limiting Flexibility")
* mucopolysaccharide:              (See "1.3 - Connective Tissue")
* muscle fibers:                   (See "1.2 - Muscle Composition")
* muscle spasms:                   (See "4.12.1 - Common Causes of Muscular Soreness")
* muscle spindle:                  (See "1.6.1 - Proprioceptors")
* musculoskeletal system:          (See "1.1 - The Musculoskeletal System")
* myofilaments:                    (See "1.2 - Muscle Composition")
* myofybrils:                      (See "1.2 - Muscle Composition")
* myosin:                          (See "1.2 - Muscle Composition")
* myotatic reflex:                 (See "1.6.2 - The Stretch Reflex")
* neck, range of motion of:        (See "C.1 - Neck")
* neuromuscular junction:          (See "1.2.1 - How Muscles Contract")
* neutralizers:                    (See "1.4 - Cooperating Muscle Groups")
* nuclear bag fibers:              (See " - Components of the Stretch Reflex")
* nuclear chain fibers:            (See " - Components of the Stretch Reflex")
* pacinian corpuscles:             (See "1.6.1 - Proprioceptors")
* passive flexibility:             (See "2.1 - Types of Flexibility")
* passive stretching:              (See "3.4 - Passive Stretching")
* perimysium:                      (See "1.3 - Connective Tissue")
* Peterson, Susan L.:              (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* plyometrics:                     (See "1.6.2 - The Stretch Reflex")
* PNF stretching:                  (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* post-isometric relaxation techniques: (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* prime movers:                    (See "1.4 - Cooperating Muscle Groups")
* proprioception:                  (See "1.6.1 - Proprioceptors")
* proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation: (See "3.7 - PNF Stretching")
* proprioceptors:                  (See "1.6.1 - Proprioceptors")
* psoas stretch:                   (See "B.5 - psoas stretch")
* quadricep stretch:               (See "B.6 - quadricep stretch")
* ranges of joint motion:          (See "Appendix C - Normal Ranges of Joint Motion")
* reciprocal inhibition:           (See "1.6.4 - Reciprocal Inhibition")
* reciprocal innervation:          (See "1.6.4 - Reciprocal Inhibition")
* references on stretching:        (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* relaxed stretching:              (See "3.4 - Passive Stretching")
* relaxed warm-up stretching:      (See " - Static Warm-Up Stretching")
* repetitions of a stretch:        (See "4.6 - Duration, Counting, and Repetition")
* respiratory pump:                (See "4.7 - Breathing During Stretching")
* risk of injury from a stretch:   (See "4.4.3 - Risk")
* runner's start:                  (See "B.5 - psoas stretch")
* sarcomeres:                      (See "1.2 - Muscle Composition")
* seated calf stretch:             (See "B.4.1 - seated calf stretch")
* seated hamstring stretch:        (See "B.4.2 - seated hamstring stretch")
* seated inner-thigh stretch:      (See "B.4.3 - seated inner-thigh stretch")
* seated leg stretches:            (See "B.4 - seated leg stretches")
* Shields, Andrew T.:              (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* shoulder, range of motion of:    (See "C.3 - Shoulder")
* side split:                      (See "4.13.1 - Common Problems When Performing Splits")
* Silva:                           (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* slow-twitch fibers:              (See "1.2.2 - Fast and Slow Muscle Fibers")
* Smith, Ann:                      (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* Solveborn, Sven-A:               (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* split-stretching machines:       (See "4.13.4 - Split-Stretching Machines")
* sport-specific activity:         (See "4.1.3 - Sport-Specific Activity")
* stabilizers:                     (See "1.4 - Cooperating Muscle Groups")
* static stretching:               (See "3.5 - Static Stretching")
* static warm-up stretching:       (See " - Static Warm-Up Stretching")
* static-active flexibility:       (See "2.1 - Types of Flexibility")
* static-active stretching:        (See "3.3 - Active Stretching")
* static-passive flexibility:      (See "2.1 - Types of Flexibility")
* static-passive stretching:       (See "3.4 - Passive Stretching")
* Sternad & Bozdech:               (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* stretch receptors:               (See "1.6.1 - Proprioceptors")
* stretch reflex:                  (See "1.6.2 - The Stretch Reflex")
* stretch reflex, dynamic component: (See " - Components of the Stretch Reflex")
* stretch reflex, static component: (See " - Components of the Stretch Reflex")
* Sullivan, John Patrick:          (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* synergism:                       (See "4.8 - Exercise Order")
* synergists:                      (See "1.4 - Cooperating Muscle Groups")
* tendons:                         (See "1.1 - The Musculoskeletal System")
* Tobias, Maxine:                  (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* torn tissue:                     (See "4.12.1 - Common Causes of Muscular Soreness")
* Type 1 muscle fibers:            (See "1.2.2 - Fast and Slow Muscle Fibers")
* Type 2A muscle fibers:           (See "1.2.2 - Fast and Slow Muscle Fibers")
* Type 2B muscle fibers:           (See "1.2.2 - Fast and Slow Muscle Fibers")
* types of flexibility:            (See "2.1 - Types of Flexibility")
* types of stretching:             (See "3 - Types of Stretching")
* videotapes on stretching:        (See "Appendix A - References on Stretching")
* warm-up stretching:              (See "4.1.2 - Warm-Up Stretching")
* warming down:                    (See "4.2 - Cooling Down")
* warming up:                      (See "4.1 - Warming Up")
* wrist, range of motion of:       (See "C.5 - Wrist")

 Brad_Appleton@ivhs.mot.com           Motorola PNSB, Northbrook, IL USA
 "And miles to go before I sleep."    DISCLAIMER: I said it, not my employer!