A: The easiest way to update your kernel is to get the update directly from the distribution which you are running.
A: If you need or want to configure and compile your own kernel, the web page at http://www.kernel.org/ lists the current versions of the development and production kernels.
If you want to download the source code, FTP to ftp.xx.kernel.org, where ``xx'' is the two-letter Internet domain abbreviation of your country; e.g., ``us'' for United States, ``ca'' for Canada, or ``de'' for Germany. Kernel versions 2.2.x are archived in the directory [pub/linux/kernel/v2.2], as are patches for the prerelease versions. The kernel source code is archived as a .tar.gz file, and as a .tar.bz2 file.
Follow the instructions in any of the standard references to compile the kernel, as you would with any other custom kernel. The [Documentation] subdirectory contains information by the authors of various subsystems and drivers, and much of that information is not documented elsewhere.
If you want to participate in kernel development, make sure that you sign on to the linux-kernel mailing list to find out what people are working on. Refer to the answer: ``What Mailing Lists Are There?''
There is a story about the features of the 2.4 series kernels at http://features.linuxtoday.com/stories/8191.html.
A: Look in the following places, and the sites that mirror them.
The Linux Documentation Project at http://www.linuxdoc.org publishes hundreds of documents on using Linux.
For a list of Linux FTP sites, refer to the answer for: ``''
If you don't have access to FTP, try the FTP-by-mail servers:
A complete list of HOWTO's is available in the file HOWTO-INDEX at http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/howtos.html. The mini-HOWTO's are indexed at http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/mini.html.
In addition, translations are available from ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/translations/ and mirrors worldwide. The HOWTO's and other documentation have been translated into the following languages:
Additional documents are always in preparation. Please get in touch with the coordinators if you are interested in writing one. Contact and submission information is at http://www.linuxdoc.org/mailinfo.html.
There is also a LDP HOWTO page at http://howto.tucows.org/.
The Guide Series produced by the Linux Documentation Project is available from http://www.linuxdoc.org. Please read them if you are new to Unix and Linux.
And, of course, a number of people have written documentation independently of the LDP:
Linux Administrators Security Guide, by Kurt Seifried. http://www.freek.com/lasg/.
Newbie's Linux Manual. http://www.linuxdoc.org/nlm/.
One-Page Linux Manual. http://www.powerup.com.au/~squadron/.
Rute Users Tutorial and Exposition. http://rute.sourceforge.net
Short beginners' manual for Linux. Also available in Dutch. http://www.stuwww.kub.nl/people/b.vannunen/linux-man.php3.
Virtual Frame buffer HOWTO, by Alex Buell. http://www.tahallah.demon.co.uk/programming/prog.html
X11 & TrueType Fonts, by Peter Kleiweg. http://www.let.rug.nl/~kleiweg/.
Documentation for kernel developers is on-line: http://kernelbook.sourceforge.net.
To find out about Linux memory management, including performance tuning, see Rik van Riel's Web page at http://humbolt.geo.uu.nl/Linux-MM/.
The Linux Consultants-Guide has a directory of Linux consultants.
Gary's Encyclopedia lists over 4,000 Linux related links. Its URL is http://members.aa.net/~swear/pedia/index.html.
There is also a FAQ specifically for the Red Hat Linux distribution, at http://www.best.com/~aturner/RedHat-FAQ/faq_index.html.
A: In addition to the Linux Documentation Project Home Page: http://www.linuxdoc.org, there are many pages that provide beginning and advanced information about Linux.
Both of these pages provide links to other sites, information about general information, distributions, new software, documentation, and news.
Documentation for kernel developers is on-line: http://kernelbook.sourceforge.net.
The tutorial, Unix is a Four Letter Word..., is located at http://www.linuxbox.com/~taylor/4ltrwrd/. It is a general introduction to Unix operating systems and is not Linux specific.
Additionally, here is a certainly incomplete list of Web pages devoted to Linux:
Adventures in Linux Programming: http://members.tripod.com/rpragana/
Dave Central Linux Software Archive: http://linux.davecentral.com
Erlug Webzine (Italian): http://www.erlug.linux.it
Information on Linux in corporate environments: http://www.smartstocks.com/linux.html
Jeanette Russo's Linux Newbie Information: http://www.stormloader.com/jrusso2/index.html
Linux Cartoons: http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~conradp/linux/cartoons/
Linuxinfor.com - Online Linux Resources: http://www.linuxinfor.com
LinuxDevices.com: The Embedded Linux Portal: http://www.linuxdevices.com
Linux Educational Needs Posting Page: http://www.slip.net/~brk/linuxedpp.htm
Linux in Business: Case Studies: http://www.bynari.com/collateral/case_studies.html
Linux Hardware Database Laptop Superguide: http://lhd.zdnet.com/db/superguide.php3?catid=18
Linux Inside: http://linuxinside.org
Linux Links: http://www.linuxlinks.com
Linux Memory Management Home Page: http://humbolt.geo.uu.nl/Linux-MM/
Linux Newbie Project: http://kusma.hypermart.net/
Linux on the Thinkpad 760ED: http://www.e-oasis.com/linux-tp.html
Linux Parallel Port Home Page: http://www.torque.net/linux-pp.html
Linux MIDI & Sound Applications: http://sound.condorow.net
Linux Start: http://www.linuxstart.com
Linux Tips and Tricks Page: http://www.patoche.org/LTT/
Linux Today PR: http://www.linuxpr.com
My Linux Contributions by Richard Gooch: http://www.atnf.csiro.au/~rgooch/linux/
Micro Channel Linux Web Page: http://www.dgmicro.com/mca/
Parallel port scanners and SANE: http://www2.prestel.co.uk/hex/scanners.html
Pascal Central: http://www.pascal-central.com
PegaSoft Portal: http://www.vaxxine.com/pegasoft/portal/
Red Hat and ISDN4Linux: http://www.webideal.de
The Free Linux CD Project: http://www.freelinuxcd.org
The Site for People Learning Perl: http://learn.perl.org
USB Linux Home Page: http://peloncho.fis.ucm.es/~inaky/uusbd-www/
VLUG: The Virtual Linux Users Group: http://www.vlug.com
Searching for ``Linux'' on Web Search Engines will provide copious references to Linux Web sites. Try:
Google also has a Linux-specific section at http://www.google.com/linux/.
Further information about about Web search engines is in the Web and Internet Search Engine Faq: http://www.infobasic.com/pagefaq.html.
Refer also to the answer for: ``What Other FAQ's and Documentation Are There for Linux?''
A: Comp.os.linux.announce is the moderated announcements group. You should read this if you intend to use Linux. It contains information about software updates, new ports, user group meetings, and commercial products. It is the only newsgroup that may carry commercial postings. Submissions for that group should be e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Comp.os.linux.announce is archived at: http://www.iki.fi/mjr/linux/cola.html, and ftp://src.doc.ic.ac.uk/usenet/comp.os.linux.announce/.
Also worth reading are the following other groups in the comp.os.linux.* and alt.uu.comp.os.linux.* hierarchies you may find many common problems too recent for the documentation but are answered in the newsgroups.
Remember that Linux is POSIX compatible, and most all of the material in the comp.unix.* and comp.windows.x.* groups will be relevant. Apart from
hardware considerations, and some obscure or very technical low-level issues, you'll find that these groups are good places to start.
Information about e-mail clients (MUA's), mail transfer agents (MTA's), and other related software are in the comp.mail.* groups, especially:
Questions and information about News reading software are in:
Please read ``If this Document Still Hasn't Answered Your Question....'' before posting. Cross posting between different comp.os.linux.* groups is rarely a good idea.
There may well be Linux groups local to your institution or areacheck there first.
See also ``How To Get Information without Usenet Access''
Other regional and local newsgroups also existyou may find the traffic more manageable there:
A search of http://groups.google.com/ can provide an up-to-date list of News groups.
[Axel Boldt, Robert Kiesling]
A: There are a number of special interest FAQ's on different subjects related to system administration and use, and also on miscellaneous topics like Flying Saucer Attacks (the music) and support for recovering sysadmins.
The official Usenet FAQ archives are: ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/.
The Internet FAQ Consortium provides a searchable archive at: sites, and some have material not available on the "source" sites.
A: The easiest thing is probably to find a friend with FTP access. If there is a Linux user's group near you, they may be able to help.
Linux is also available via traditional mail on CD-ROM. The file ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/Installation-HOWTO, and the file ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/Distribution-HOWTO contain information on these distributions.
A: A digest of comp.os.linux.announce is available by mailing the word "subscribe" (without the quotes) as the body of a message to linux-announce-REQUEST@news-digests.mit.edu. Subscribing to this list is a good idea, as it carries important information and documentation about Linux.
Please remember to use the *-request addresses for your subscribe and unsubscribe messages; mail to the other address is posted to the news group.
A: The Linux developers now mainly use the Majordomo server at email@example.com. Send a message with the word "lists" (without the quotes) in the body to get a list of lists there. Add a line with the word, "help," to get the standard Majordomo help file that lists instructions for subscribing and unsubscribing to the lists.
Currently, the kernel list is archived at: http://www.uwsg.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/, and http://www.lib.uaa.alaska.edu/linux-kernel/archive/
Please do not post off-topic material to the mailing lists. Most of them are used by Linux developers to talk about technical issues and future developments. They are not intended for new users' questions, advertisements, or public postings that are not directly related to the mailing list's subject matter. Comp.os.linux.announce is the place for all public announcements. This is a common Internet policy. If you don't observe this guideline, there's a good chance that you'll be flamed.
There is a linux-newbie list where, "no question is too stupid." Unfortunately, it seems that few experienced users read that list, and it has very low volume.
There are numerous Linux related mailing lists at http://www.onelist.com/. Go to the categories page and choose "Linux." There are also mailing list subscription links at: http://oslab.snu.ac.kr/~djshin/linux/mail-list/
The Mailing Lists Available in Usenet page is: http://paml.net/. The list information is also on: ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/, and is posted to the groups: news.announce.newgroups, news.lists, and news.groups, among others.
A: On the linux-legal mailing list, of course. You can subscribe to it, as with many of the other Linux related lists, by sending a message with the word "help" in the body of the message to firstname.lastname@example.org.
A: The Usenet Linux news groups are archived at http://groups.google.com/.
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/linux-announce.archive contains archives of comp.os.linux.announce. These are mirrored from ftp://src.doc.ic.ac.uk/usenet/, which also archives comp.os.linux, comp.os.linux.development.apps, and comp.os.linux.development.system.
A: There's a page of Linux related security information at: http://www.linuxsecurity.com/.
Another site is: http://www.rootshell.com/, which has information about Internet security and privacy issues.
For information about the Weekly Linux Security Digest email newsletter and numerous security related databases, look at http://securityportal.com/.