Created: 6/23/1960

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evening Igh schools en-year are toand beo will graduate

In blgh schools aod enrollment tnnd colleges, elementary schoo^ come eigbt-yeai attendance wl During thefeople from col"

this high. Soviet leaders hope than,nearly all1 be employed outside the hone. JUana call for mors klndergartens> nurseries, boarding schools, and public dining facllltlei to make this possible.

Educational Leva]

A fundamental drtfioulty In effectively utlLufing laborunban andis tbs low lei el/ot education lnB. ercent of the/population IS years old ano/over had graduated from5 psrcsat had not completed tho seven-year elementar/ school. (Chartevertheless, considerableprogress was achieved during the past decade, and even/greater progress4 be made during.

The school system Is being reorganized to place more on vocational education


Tbe continued rise ln the wel of education and skill of Soviet labor fores,rogress ln technology, should permit productivity to continue Its rapid increass. Labor will be ln somewhatsupply3ut ths steps already taken by the regime should assuralabor to meet plans for .the state labor fores.

Likewise, ths regime wouldnot hssltste toducational goalsor to postpone the currentSroductlon in theshould these be deemod necossaryX Women will betdV|oin tbe work force, and the regime will cootlnus to sncourage schemes to ralesproductivity la order toarVof the largo amount of manpoweVnow tied up on tbehs labor problems creased by World War II will be considerably eased. by ORB)


recent cabinet crisis in Italy, ths most ssvsre la tha republic's hlatory, haaaeaoriea of the asar-anarchy which preceded tbeof parliamentaryIn. Tbeviabilityanterhas intensified pressure on the ruling Christian Democrats

tolear-cut choice of allies from tbe right or left, and there has bsen talk ofefforts to sslzs power by force. Ambitious Premier Taa-bronl, wooes caretaker mandate runs out onctober, might be tempted to take extralegal measures to block replacement of bis government by ons relying



DQCVa&iT 'Irftj


on the Hennl Socialists mentor j- support.


ansky Democratic Base

A century of national unity has not sufficed to implant the democratic process In Italy, andyear-old Itallaa Republic has never had the choice ofdemocratic alternative to the party in poser. In the yeare when they vere nationally allied, tbe Communists and ths Nennl Socialists In effectthe alee of tbe Chamber of Deputleeemocratic body byhird, vlthout counting tbe further reduction effected by the parties of the far right, the mo-Faaclsts and the Even today. When the Rennl Socialists and Monarcblata bavs acquired at leaat quasi-respectablllty. Che Communists and theholduarter of the parliamentary ssats.

ernmonte have become InglY vulnerable to tlon of "immoblliBmo polltloal stalemate prlately eymbollsed

The Christian Democrataarliamentary majorityBut have slnoe been dependent on tbe small center partlesforIn governing. enter coalition has become progressive ly more difficult to malatala because of growing ideological dissension among tbe various center groups, and Italy'sgovernment's initial promise to confine itself to caretaker functiona and resign after el* months.

In the searchroader parliamentary baso, the faction-

ridden Christian Democratichaa been unable to decideleft and right. Taabronl's reliance on neo-rasolstsupportlimmajority ls opposed by left-wing Christian Democrats, who accepted it onlyummer Similarly, tbe psrty'a powerful rightist minority has bsso able to block formationovernment dependent oa Rennl Socialist abatentlons.

to the Italy of recent moatba, anarchy and authoritarianism have again become serious threats, andro -Democratic dally In Maples warned onpril that unless the Italian people rouse thsasslves from their contempt forInstitutions, there Is danger that tbe country any "in ths not-too-distant future" find ltaelf la the grasp of another totalitarian regime.



One specific danger todemocracy lo this situation Is that, as tbe cohesion andstrength of thacsntsr has declined, party leadera have tended to seekoutside parliament. This problem was stressed by Senate President Ceaare aerzagora la February, when Premier Segnlrather than rely solely on monarchist and neo-fascist votes. Herzagora argued that it was Improper for theto quit still* It had allasentary majority.


strsssed tbat only two postwar cabinets had been brought down by nonconfl-dsscs votes ia parliament, and bo denounced the "persistent and unhsaltby" practica ofla extraparllameatary crises in which cablneta were brought down as the result of pressures within the Christ 1an Democratic party, aeraagora included Id hla attack on Italy's multipart* syatea the charge that the Constitutional Court and President Groncbi, as chief of stats, wereon the legislative branch.

aerzagora'a epeech was widely commented on In the

Italian press. Of tbe two major lndepsndsnt papers, ons ,

considereddvlasd,felt it bsd "pinpointed tbs malaise sffllctlng Italian Ufa." The neo-Faeclst press sslzsd on it as iodlcstlng the crisis within the regime, and to push for aa authoritarian systsm. One center-left paper ssw msrnagora as tbs spokesman for "conservative and economic" interests wishing to exploit the aituatloD to establishregime like that ia Portugal.

Deeplte serzagora'eindictment, the Christian Democratic party haa continued to Ignore the spirit of tbe constitution la carrying out its dec1sloan. Premier Tambronlote of confidence in the lover housepril, but bla party disregarded theapprovaleluctant Tanbronl to withdraw rather than depend on tha neo-Fasclsta. The Cbrletlan Demoorntlc directorate then called on Amintore Fanfani to

enter-left government, but the party's parliamentary group defied this ordor and forcsd Fanfani to retire.

to thi

Tambronl was reatored to office by ths Sonata's vote of confidence onpril, but no effort was made to comply with the constitutional provisionremier must bswithin ten days of


concern among political and economic right-wingers and some members of the clergy over the poesiblllty of an "opening" to tho Nennl Socialists mlgbt be sufficient to encourage amove to prevent it.

The Communists hava reportedly ordsrsd resumption of claadss-tlns activities, and three arms caches have been discovered is the Bologna area. olicehas called the pressat climate tbe worat he haa assn8 whan an attempted assassination of Communist leader Togliattl led toCommunist disturbance*.

For wanttrong tbs most likely development If the Christina Democrats fall to workiable democratic government would seem to be some form of eatrslegaladventure by Tambroni when hla mandate sxplrea. Tambronl's peraonallty would lend ltsslf to such an effort. He has been described as "an unscrupulous opportunist of ths claselc IStb century type, without tbs brainsh century adventurers but perfectly willing to make agree-,ts with left and right."

In early April, beforecomplied with bis party's order to resign, rumors were rife that he had met with police leaders and bis defenssChristianaake plans to ensure his continuation ln offlcs. There was talkoo-Fasclat show of strengtb lo his support, sod ths Coaarunlst-doalnated General Laborwas rumored alertedrotest stria*.

cbi from thsscsne "by assas-

Former Defense Minister Pacclardl baa stated thntovernment opening to tbs loft will never be created laa far back8 Pacclardl had begun to threaten privately to oallat military aldr-includ-lng paratroopa ln kidnaping Presidentho favors such an "opening." Viae enStefano, the present chief of the special aecurlty forces detailed to tbs presldsntlal palacs, is also reported to have said he considers it tbsduty" of whoever laoaltloo to do so to remove Gron- |

if necea-

sination sary."

:tj* iwn,oouW on*ltr tw to trlnfjanfM,


withovertones occurred at Pisa aad Leghorn during March; thsae involvedparatroops singing fascist songs. Disturbances wars fomented by neo-Fascists and llooarchlata ln Boas duringune celebrstloa of th*h anniversary


Some of this concern seems to be shared by President Groa-chl, whose attitude toward Taa-bronl has been ambivalent. Groncbl Is reported to have said that Tambroni, when he was premier-designate ln April,to believe heission


tho backlog of popularwhatever parliament or tbo parties night have thought. Nov that hoemporary lease on poaor, ha nay try to prolong it on ona pretext or another.

although local election* have been called for thia fall, he la probably capable of la-terpreting the reeulta to ault hie ovn plana at that time. Be alght seek to postpone national electloos lndsflnltsly--awith some appeal to ths Christian Democrats, who expect losses for themselves aad gains for the leftist parties Invoting. Strikes oragainst such anof power would give Tam-bronl an excuse to snllat ths aid of tbs Military.

If lsft-wlng Christian Democrats make anotbsr attempt this fall toentsr-left government based on Socialist

abstentions, Tambronl will be tempted to accept the support of ths Group for Defsnss of the Bepublic, which was recently formed to prevent such an "opening." This group,onay, lncludss former faaclst activist Pino Boanialdl, right-wing Christian Democrat and former Premier Glussppe Pella, Civic Committees chief Lulgl Gedda, Catholic Action president Agoetlno Maltarella, Pacctardl, and Gugllelmo Gian-Dlnl, former leader of the now defunct Common man party,haven for ex-Pasclsta.

Gedda, who seem* to be the lesdsr, haa announced: "Today we aro unltsd In thought,In action." Taabronl'a espousal of such an extreme right-let national front could drive Socialists, Social Democrats, Republicans, and left-wingDemocrataopular front with tbe Communists.

iflpTBir Bnrnim

Original document.

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