OPERATIONS OF THE INLAND WATER FLEET OF THE USSR (RR 60-17)

Created: 7/1/1960

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ECONOMIC INTELLIGENCE REPORT

OPERATIONS OF THE INLAND WATER FLEET OF THE USSR

CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE IN FULL

CIA/RR0

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND REPORTS

ECONOMIC INTELLIGENCE REPORT

OPERATIONS OF THE INLAND WATER FLEET OF THE USSR

CIA/RR

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND REPORTS

The purpose of this reporto record major developments since World War II that have affected the organizational apparatus, traffic operations, and fleet characteristics of river transport in tho USSR and thus toaae against which developments projected through the Seven YearJ be evaluated as they occur. The figures used ln most of the tables are based on river transport operationsbe latest year for which coerplete information Is available. No changes are believed to have occurred since that time tbat would influence significantly the Interpretation of theused, but significant data on activitiesater date have been Incorporated when available.

cores in?.

Summary and

I. Introduction

II. Performance

A. Distribution of Traffic

By

By Major River Basin and River

Distribution by Type of Cargo

III. Estimated Growth and Size of the Inland Water Fleet

War II

Five Year Plan

Five Year)

Sixth Five Year Plan

K. Seven Year Plan

IV. Financial Operations

Profits, Costs, and Revenue

Coots in Different Basins

Central

Northwestern and northern Basins

Eastern

D- Average Costs for Principal Commodities

Appendixes

Appendix A. Organization ofater Meet of the

Appendix C. Source References

genR

Tabica

Pane

Hauled by Inland Water Transport of the USSR,

by Type of Traffic, Selectednd

Hauled by All Types of Common Carriers in the USSR,

SelectedO-58

of Growth of Cargo Hauled by Inland Uater Transport

of the USSR, Selected5 Plan -

li-. Traffic Hauled by Inland Water Transport of the USSR,

by Union5

Hauled by Inland Water Transport of tbe USSR,

by River5

and Petroleum Products Hauled, by Selected

Types of Common Carriers in the USSH,5

Hauled by Inland Water Transport of the RSFSR,

by River85

B. Major Dry Cargoes Hauled by Inland Water Transport of

tbe5 Plun

9. Comparison of Total Cargo Hauled with Dry CargoInland water Transport of tbe USSR,5

10- Estimated Inventory of the Inland Water Fleet of the

USSH, Selec-.ed Years,

Profits, Costs, and Revenue of Inland Water

Transport of the USSR, Selected.

Operating Costs of Selected Steamship Agencies

ir. Inland Water Transport cf Use USSP,

IJ. Comparison of Average Operatingf Inland Water

Transport vita Average Operating Costs on the Volga and

Lena Rivers,

- viiOPTIOIAu iwiaf

1*. Major River Steamship Agencies In Inland Water

Transport of the

15. Principal Rivers and Canals of the USSR

Charts

following Page

Figure 1. USSR: Performance of Steamship Agencies

of the Central River5

Figure 2. USSR: Performance of Steanshlpthe Northwestern and

Figure 3. USSR: Performance of Steamship Agencies

of the Eastern River5

OPERATIONS OP THE INLAND WATER FLEET OF TILE USSR*

Sumr-ary und Conclusions

At the present time tee Inland water fleet of the USSR la esti-raated to consist of unitsillion horsepowerf whichllllon hp ls steam driven. The non-self-propelled fleet ls estimatedillion deadweight tonafillion DWT are of wooden construction. Formerly, most of the self-propelled ships were powered by steam, and most of the non-self-propelled fleet consisted of wooden barges. Beginninghe use of steam engines and wooden hulls in new construction was eliminated. arge Increase planned in self-propelled cargo ships shouldubstantial Improvement in service on tbe waterways The addition of orator ships is essential If the increasing volume of dry cargo available is to be handled efficiently and economically.

The volume of cargo hauled bywater fleet of the USSR

8ercent above

6 million tons hauledhis traffictoillion tons.

At the end of World War II, when rapid economic rehabilitation of the USSR was essential, the Inland water fleet, badly damaged andby war losses, was ln no condition to provide adequate Consequently, proportionately greater amounts of capital investaaent and applied technology were allocated to the other more efficient and reliable types of transportation.

An additional problemajor threat to the growth of river transport ln the USSR arose lns as the constructioneries of power dams began to convert the river systemshain of lakes and reservoirs. Although the alterations to the waterwaysdeal conditions for long, productive hauls, the Inland water transport systemleet suitable for dee? water operations.

* The ectinates and conclusions In this report represent the best Judgment of this Office asur.t .

** Deadweight tonnage ls the carrying capacityhip In metric ton-hat is, the difference between the displacement light and the displacement loaded.

Unless otherwise indicated, tonnages are jiver. in metric tons throughout this report.

Tbe long trains Of non-self-propelled wooden barges and timber rafts, which bad been adequate conveyors of cargo on the inland waterways, became unsatisfactory or Impossible to use on the lakes and reservoirs. Reduced currents not only slowed the downstream movement of the non-self -propelled traffic but also Increased demands for power, consumption of fuel, and operating costs of the low-powered, low-speed tug fleet. Earlier freezing and later thawing of tbe reservoirs also shortened the navigation periods andequirement for river icebreakers. Thus tbe net effect of tbe construction of dams has been economically adverse to the inland water transport system and its equipment.

he unprofitable operations in the eastern regions of the USSR were heavily subsidized by the profitable shipment of petroleum and petroleum products on tbe Volga River and by theof timber in the western regions. Moreover, there has been an increase In the volume of unprofitable dry cargo shipped on all rivers throughout the USSR. These trends are expected to continuexcept that an increased supply of self-propelled ships may help to reduce high operating costs. Because of tbe high operating costs and the low rates necessary to attract freight, inland water transport must be subsidized by the central and republic budgets. 06 the average cost of inland water transport decreased3 kopecks*5 kopecks per traffic-kilometer, but the operatinguring the same period probably never dropped below 9A. To meet additional nonoperating expenses, the operating ratio ousttond to make inland water transport financiallyurther decrease toould be necessary. If tariffs remain the same and operating costs continue to decline, it may be possible to achieve an operating ratio of

* All values in this report are given in Current0 kopecks per ruble) and may bc converted to dollars at the official rate of exchangeubles to This conversion rate should be used with caution, however, inasmuch as it is arbitrarily established and probably bears little relation to the actual dollar value ofServices.

** The operating ratio is an index used touick, although crude, indication of the financial positionransportationatio higherndicates that the current operating expenses are higher than earned operating revenue.

t'ftFt "H' iY

I - Introdu.Ti.lon

Tbo Inland waterways of the USSR are distributed among fourbasins; the Central, tbe Northwestern, the Northern, and the Eastern." These basins are distinguished from each other principally by climatic and topographic differences that determine the duration of the navigation season and the controlling depths of the waterways. Certain sections of individual river systems and the operations of their respective steamship agencies overlap into other basins.

5 the length of the river and canal system ln the USSR wasilometersfm were navigablem were equipped with aids to navigation.The rivers ln the eastern regions, the longest la the USSR, handleaall volume of traffic. Tbe most Important river, tbe Volga, handles more than one-half of the total inland water freight. Canal systems Id the European USSR constitute vital links between major waterways. The combined length of the most important of these canals Ism.

II. Performatuv-

Inland water transport ln the USSR generaLly ia characterised by low charges to the shipper, but it is slower and less reliable than the other types of transport and is used primarily for the delivery of low-priority bulk commodities.

Inadequate port facilitiesucX of appropriate ships have held down the efficiency of inland water transport. Moreover, the inland water carrier networkhole is not endowed with natural conditions conducive to high freight density. The navigation seasons vary among the system from as littleonths to almost never longeronths. Except on the Volga, tbe riverbeds are seldom suitable for long hauls in deep-draft ships. 5 the average freight density of all inland water transportillion ton-kilometers (tksa) per kilometer of route. Only on the Volga,ensityillion tkx per kilometer of route, does the density of traffic compare favorably with ihe average achieved on the toe freight density on the Volga Railroad System, which has branch lines parollellng tbe river between Voi'sk ond Astrakhan,illion ttun per kilometer of route/

The designations of river basins used in this report were chosen because their delineation conforms best to the Individual problems and considerations peculiar to river transport. Ir. some Sovietthe river basins are classified according to the ocean or sea into which the rivers flow.

For serially numbered source references, see Appendix C.

in the eastern regions of the USSR, where increasing industrial, development requires north-south movement of freight and where there arc no parallel rail lines, the traffic density of the Ob' and Lena Rivers5 wasillion ttaa per kilometer of route and on the Yenlsey River was lessillion tka per kilometer of route.

The limitations to inland water transport outlined above have lededuction in the share of such transport in the total cargoof the USSRercent0ercentLikewisc the share of inland waterways ln the total tonnage hauled has declinedercent0ercent Theof inland water transport and the total cargo hauled by all types of transport are shown inndespectively.*

erformance of inland water transport in the USSR had increased toercent ln ton-kilometers and toercent in tons-hauled above that 8 these increases had grownercentercent, respectively. The growth of inland water transportas impressive in spite of recently developed hindrances to inland water transport in the areas where power dams are being constructedthe average annual increase in ton-kilometersercent and ofercent. During the Seven Yearhe scheduled increases indicate an average annual growth or less than that achieved, as shown in*

The rate of growth ln the performance of inland water transport in the USSReflects the more efficient use of the growing fleet of self-propelled ships, which increused its share of totalwater trafficercent5 to about l8 percent The declining rate of growth planned for inland water traffic5 Is the result of the expected absolute decrease ln rafted timber and the relative decrease ln petroleum traffic In the Volga arcu that will not be offset by the absolute Increases in traffic planned for the eastern regions. Another factor tending to inhibit the rate of growth of inland water traffic Is the reconversion of the fleet that is being forced by the extensive program for construction of hydroelectric dams now underway In the

* ollow onnd n, respectively. '* ollows on p. 7.

iscussion of the organization of the river fleet of the USSR, sec- Appendix A.

- J* -UPr"! ON!.':

Table 2

Cargo Hauled by AH Types of Common Curriers ln the UGSKelected Years,

/

y

y

b/

3

9

CargoMetric Metric Torts)

0

of Transport O V

Total

Inland

Motor vehicle d/

aT Totals are derived from unrounded data and may not agree with the sum of their rounded components.

b. 8/

d. Including nor.comron carriers.efinition of noncommon carrier, see the first footnote onelow.

pen vmcwi uofrunn

Table I

Rate of Growth of Cargo Hauled by Inland Water Transport of the USSR Selected5 Plan

Turnover

Metric

Increase

Increase

a/

Tone &/

U

Traffic

By Republic

Approximatelyercent of the ton-kilometersf the tons hauled by inland water transport in the USSR are carried by the steamship agencies in the RSFSR. In tbe remainder of the USSH, only the Ukrainian and Belorussian SSR's handle Significant amounts Of traffic, principally on the Dnepr' River, as shown in

2. By Major River Basin and River System

The distribution of inland water traffic in the four major river basins of the USSR5 is shown in* The pattern of traffic in each of these basins varies greatly. Dependence onwater shipping, with the exception of rafted timber, usually is inversely related to the accessibility of other carriers. Urgency of receipt rather than competitively favorable rates appears to dictate

rb;:ow5 or. p. 6.

ollows on p. 9.

pen cjppiobuj ucd mhjv

Table '.

Traffic Hauled by Inland Water Transport of the USSR by Union Republic5

Cargo

Metric

Tons)

USSR

SSR

SSR

SSR

SSR

SSR

SSR

SSR

SSR

SSR

SSR

Uj. Figures have been rounded to the first nonzero digit after the decimal.

b. Totals do not include data for the Central Asian Steamship Agency and therefore do not agree with similar totals in other tables.

the shipper's choice of transport service in the USSR. In large ports Of the eastern regions, however, inland water shipping ls the onlyof bulk haulage available, and all types of cargoes are shipped by river without regard to their suitability to water carriage.

a. Central Basin

The Central Basin is the most Important in trie USSB and encompasses the areas served by the Volga, Kama, Belaya, Moscow, anS Oka Rivers and the Moscow-Volga and Volga-Don Canals, as shown ir.raffic in this basin5 accounted for abouttons} of the total inland water traffic in the USSR, including

5 Following p. d.

USSR: PERFORMANCE OF STEAMSHIP AGENCIES OF THE CENTRAL RIVER5

/ - 1

*i

Wonlonicohsoudkko*

VOIG*It WP"I'JI)I I'

KMMWWWWt ;

COHSOuOTIO ISnRVMnWOTRf*^' "

WOlHfl

vOif* don

OSCOW Zf

LENGTH Of

imt

aw

Ii"

Table 5

Cargo Hauled by Inland Water Transport of tne USSR by River5

lU.a

>-2

River lias inype of Cargo Total

Petroleum nnd petroleum products Rafted timber Dry cargo

Bg.Q

Central Basin b/

Total

Petroleum end petroleum products Rarted timber Dry cargo

/

Northvestern Total

negligible

Petrolcun and petroleum products Rafted timber Dry cargo

Northern Basin b/

Total

Petroleum and petroleum products Parted Umber Dry cargo

Sasterr.in by

)

Petroleum and

Rarted

Dry

able ir.nd applied to ofMcial totals.

ercent of all petroleum traffic,ercent of the rafted timber, andercent or all dry cargoes.* Before thes,conditions on the Volga and Kama Rivers were relatively uncompli-coted, and shipping was possible in some areas foronths (April through November) of the year. Construction of major dams at Molotov, Votkinsk, Gor'kiy, Stalingrad, Kuybyshev, Saratov, and Cheboksary has converted the once free-flowing riverseries of deep lakes that freeze up early, thaw late, and have little or no current. Thus the major problem confronting this basin at present ls that of maintaining large-scale traffic with obsolete ships andtechniques until more modern ships are added to the river fleet.

These limitations are reflected in the increases in traffic scheduled for the Central Basin during the Seven Year Plan. With the exception of dry cargo traffic, increases planned5 are less than planned national increases, us shown in the following indexes

CO

Central Basin

'otal15/

'etroleuin and petroleum products

tnftcdr

18/

b. Northwestern Basin

Rivers and canals of tht' White Sea System, the Baltic Sea System, and the Muriinskiy Canal System comprise the Northwestern Bauinincluding the Neva, Svir', and ShekStia Rivers; the Ladoga Canal (paralleling Lake Ladoga between tlie Svir' and Nevahe Mariinskiy Canal (Rybinsk Reservoir to Lakend the Stalir. Canal (White Sea to Lakes shown in Snipping in this basin is possible from May to November, except on vaiervaysto -heea where navigation ls shortened by atonth.

Because adequate rail and maritime facilities provide to assess the significance of the inlandraffic of this basin.

* See Table.bove. Following

-

FlgufP 2

USSR: PERFORMANCE OF STEAMSHIP AGENCIES OF THE NORTHWESTERN AND NORTHERN RIVER5

. si

5 *#

CARGOfco" lorn

WHITE SEA4AKE ONEGA CAMAl*

NORTHWESTERS; 'HIKE UN MU"<Ma?.'-

j NORTH-

"

BASIN

WESTERN

BASIN

CARGOBillion ton-WoWfi

WHITE SEA-LAKE ONEGA

?]

li

ams

ICO Ml IWIWii

lENGIH OF HAUl-Kito-natan wniltNfGAf31

NORTH 6

NOI'KIIW1

pechora uawwcr-"if IWO

Bill"lltl'.

n no!

Bmir In*m 1

Tbe baeinompoued almost entirely of lakes and canolti withlock structures, resulting ln high transport costs to Tbe volume of inland water traffic is notillion tons, or aboutercent of the total for the USSR. Nevertheless, an impressive traffic density of at least tkm per kilometer of route indicates that the system is being used rather intensively ln spite of the high costs. The route ls of Importance because ltecure means for the deployment of naval units between the Baltic and White Seas.

Present reconstruction of the Karllnskly Canal System between Lake Onega and the Rybinsk Reservoir will replacemall wooden locksarge metal ones. Scheduled for completion lnthis system when finished will accommodate ships of upWT compared with the present limitWT. This enlarged capacity should precipitate an Increased volume of long-haul inland shipping ln this basin.

Basin

Included in the Northern Basin are the Sevcrnaya Dvina and Pechora Rivers, both of which are open to navigation from June to October (oco. The Severnaya Dvinaink between Kotlas and Arkhangelsk and also curries traffic that originates on the Sukbona and Vychegda Rivers. Shipping is complicated by drifting ice, sandbars, and many ahallows ond rapids. Traffic ln the Northern Basin5 represented aboutillion tons) of all inland water traffic in the USSR."* Because of restrictive navigation conditions the rivers In this basin are used primarily for the rafting of timber, although the Pechora River also is used for hauling Large volumes of coal froa Vorkuta for transshipment to sea-going ships at Nar'yan Mar. The large voluae of rafted timber hauled in thla basin is responsible for tap lov operating costs and tariff rates.

Basic

All rivers east of the Urals are Included in tbe Eastern Basinincluding the Ob', Irtysh, ienlsey, Angara, Lena, and Amur Rivers, as shown in Most of these rivers are among the longest in the USSH and have the shortest navigation oeasons. Depths vary from lesseet to oore thaneet in different sectors of the same river. Shoals, shifting sandbars, rapldu, and fog ure additionalo shipping.

* Followingbove. ** See Table p. Following

Except for the Amur, all of the rivers in the Eastern Basin empty into the Arctic Ocean, hut only the Lena and Yenisey ^r^ used extensively for supplying Arctic locations. North of the Trans-Siberian Railroad there are no rail connections with these rivers, except the Seyda-Labytnangi branch of the Pechora Railroad, the localbetween Dudinka and Noril'sk, and the Tayshet-Lena and Dezhnevka-Kcasomol'nk branches of the Trans-Siberian mainline." Consequently, river shipments are essential to the supply of the area.

Traffic In the Eastern Basin5 represented aboutillion tons) of total inland water traffic in the USSR, and more than one-half of this traffic moved on the Ob' and Irtysh Rivers.** The average hauls in this basin, which are among tbe longest in the USSR, frequently are broken by transshipmentshallow-draft and deep-draft ships. Because of theseand because much of the traffic is slated for long-termarge volume of the cargo is packaged as dry cargo. onsequence, operating costs in this basin are the highest in river transport ln the USSR.

3> Distribution by Type of Cargo

a. Petroleum and Petroleum Products

Less thanercent of all petroleum and petroleum products transported in the USSR is hauled by river carriers, as shown ln The largest percentage of these shipments takes place In the western USSR on the Volga River, where the costs ofare considerably less than those for rail and compare favorably with those for oil pipelines. Nevertheless, tbe share of petroleum and petroleum products carried on the inland waterways of the USSR has declined each year in relation to the amounts hauled by other types of transport.

Inland water transport has not been able to offset the competition of tbe growing network of oil pipelines, althoughit should offer some advantages ln variety and flexibility in comparison with its chief competitors in low-cost haulage. Much of

* Scheduled for completion0ail line that will connect Abalakovo on the Yenisey River with Achinsk northwest of Krasnoyarsk of the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Another line from Osetrovo on the Lena northward along the river to Vitim has often been considered, but no definite Construction is known to be underway. Northward extensions to Abalakovo and vitim would provide direct rail-river connections for long hauls by deep-draft ships sn both the Yenisey and Lena Rivers.

Se^ Table. ollows on

Table 6

Petroleum and Petroleum Products Hauled by Selected Types of Common Carriers in the5

Cargo Turnover

Totol

Rail a/ Maritime b/ Inland water c/ Pipeline d/

b.

c-

d.

Billion Metric

Total

Tons

Total

4

continuing decline of inland water traffic in the total shipment of petroleum and petroleum products probably con be attributed to Inadequate transshipment facilities and to the unsuitable inland water craft that arc not adapted with beating systems for the transporting of high-viscosity petroleum product*.

In the past,oercent of all petroleum and petroleum products transported by river wos hauled on the Volga River. These products originated at Baku and were transshipped at Astrakhan for further movement upriver. With an increase ln the supply ofand the development of refineries In Bashkirakaya ASSR, Tatar-skaya ASSR, and Kuybyshevskaya Oblast since World War II, the direction of movement has changed. Petroleum and petroleum products slated far river transport from these area3 now include moreillion tons hauled annually through Kuybynhev Petroleum andproducts from Baku are still carried on the Volga, but anvolume of traffic from the Ural-Volga fields and refineries haa changed the movement of such products. Movements of petroleum and petrole-jo products northward to Beloaorsk and westward toore both dependent on completion of the Marlinskiy Canal System

mn erriouujun"r

Very limited amounts of petroleum and petroleum products axe transported on inland waterways in the Northern and Northwestern Basins, the supply function being carried out principally by maritime and rail facilities.

In the eastern regions, except for Sakhalin, there are no developed petroleum resources, and products are shipped via the Trans-Siberian rail network or In maritime ships to connecting river ports for further transshipment inland. Petroleum and petroleumhauled on these rivers representercent of tbe total of such shipments ln the USSR. Becauseequirement for long-term reserveseneral lack of storage facilities, petroleum and petroleum products also are packaged ln barrels and shipped as dry cargo, but the total amounts are not known.

Industrial developments in the eastern regions have subsisted primarily on the extensive local coal resources as sources of fuel and pover. Increasing industrialization is occurringapid rate, however, and will require relatively larger increases in deliveries of both packaged and bulk petroleum.

Total shipments of bulk petroleum and petroleua products by inland waterways5 are expected to increase aboutercent above those,oillion tons. Of this amount,ercent will be hauled in self-propelled ships compared withercent if this Increase in traffic moved by self-propelled ships is carriedubstantial change in theof the tanker fleet will have to be made, as may be sera lo the following tabulation:

I965

Inland

Total (million

Of which:

Petroleum and petroleum pi,,5

Of which;

In self-propelled snips

5 Plan elationships that existed

-

b. Rafted Timber

Timber ls one of tbe most valuable agriculturalof the USSR, and the capabilities of the different riverfor moving this commodity for Internal consumption and for export lo of primary concern, both to the development of the timber Industry and to the expansion of Inland water transport. Timber and firewood account for almost one-half of all cargoes shipped on inland waterways in the USSR, and, until recently,oercent was moved in bound raftB and the remainder in barges and self-propelled cargonder normal conditions, rafted timber coots leas to move than any other type of cargo on Inland waterways. Moreover, when timber can be effectively pushed or towel in raftB, the requirement for railcan be reduced substantially, and the over-all operating costs of the individual river systems also ore lowered.**

In recent years the construction of hydroelectric power dams has reduced or eliminated currents and has brought about lake navigation conditions in the reservoir*. This development haseduction in the profitable rafted timber traffic, particularly on the Volga River. The volume of timber traffic for Individual river systems is not available for earlier years, but planned shipments85 Indicate the changes that will take place during thio period. The increase ofercent planned for total inland water traffic indicated that the shipment or timber, formerly the mostcommodity, will increaseercent but that rafting will increase onlyercent, as shown in

Shipments of timber in the Central Basin will increase from aboutillion tons to aboutillion tons. This smallis the resultoss ofillion tons of loftedwhich must now be hauled In ships. On the Volga Riverpercent decrease ln rafted timberqual tottonsust be picked up and hauled in ships. imber traffic on the Volga River will have increasedons.

Shipments of timber in the Eastern Basin, particularly on tbe Angara and Yenisey Rivera, are scheduled for the greatest growth

The movement of timber ln rarts or in shipsransport requirement over unl above the logs that are rree-floated downstream by the logging combines. When Tree-floated timber is received at the transshipment points, lt is further consigned either to local recipient or for further transshipment by rail or water. The latter is reflected only in totals for river transport. ** See IV, A,elow, udelow. ollows on

Table 7

Timber Hauled by Inland Water Transport of the RSFSR, by River Basin85 Plan

Million Metric Tons

As Dry Cargo

TotalShips

Plan

Plan

Plan

?SFSR

Basin

Northern I

Sea -

Onega

Basin

rivers

3ata& are5 Plan and percentage increases. All data were ad-justcd Internally so as to be additive, national increases58 areercent for total timber, SO percent in ships, andercent in rafts.

The total Dovcncnt of timber vill increaseercent toons, with increases toillion tons in rafted timber and tollllon tons in timber carried in ships. The Eastern Basin vlll then account for aboutercent of total shipments of timber by river in the USSR5 ccorpared with about l8 percent

c. Dry Cargo

The major dry cargoes hauled on inland waterways in the USSRimber, coal, grain, and mineral construction materialsre shown In Table 8. Aboutercent of these shipments take place in the Central Basin where, as low-priority bulk shipments, they can be handled at lower operating costs than if shipped by rail transport. Steamship agencies In the Eastern Basin have requirements to haul proportionately larger amounts of dry cargo because of the absence of competitive carriersack of local resources that must be brought ln from larger industrial centers. Consequently, dry cargoes hauled in the eastern regions are equal to approximatelyercent of all cargoes ln tbe Eastern Basin, vhereas the proportion of dry cargoes hauled ln the other basins is approximatelyercent or less of their respective totals.

Table 8

Major Dry Cargoes Hauled by Inland Water Transport of the? Plan

Million Metric Tons

Cargo

y

, Plan t,

construction materials

ata8 are based or. percentage increasesata5 are based on percentage increases above the estimates

Concurrent with the necessity for inland waterto move increased amounts of dry commodities, the economy of hauling these cargoes in towed craft has been reduced because roost of the wooden barges cannot operate efficiently under reservoir conditions. At the same time the number of self-propelled freighters, although increasing, Is not sufficient to offset the poor productivity of the wooden barges.

Where the expense of constructing self-propelled ships can be justified economically, as for operations on the reservoirs in the Central Basin and for long hauls in the eastern regions, theof their performance in comparison with non-self-propelled craft is sharply evident. Shipping costs are reducedercent, and delivery timeimes as 3 million tons of dry freight were hauled in seaf-propelled ships in the USSR,8 the amount was tripled, and5 it is scheduled to reach more than one-half of the total drys shown ln Table 9.

Table 9

Comparison of Total Cargo Hauled with Dry Cargo Hauled by Inland Water Transport of the USSR Selected,5 Plan

Ialaiwi Uctora/ 5 a/ 05 a/ f '

ToLai (Billion mctri: gi.j Jrlliica

metric 8 2 5 7

7 2 5 5

Of which:

r-prr.pcllcil Bhlps

Voluap jnixiion

metric . 3 9

Jt.A. . C 0 0

6 Jj/ c.

-

III. Estimated Growth and Size of the Inland Water Fleet

As of8 the inland water fleet of the USSH isto have been composed of self-propelled shipshp and non-self-propelled craftillion DWT, as shown ln

Table 10

Estimated Inventory of the Inland Water Fleet of the USSR Selected

(Million Horsepower)

(Million Deadweight Tone)

of Year

a/

b/

b/

a/

c/

d/

e/

f/

g/

y

tf

y

i/

fl/

y

1/

s/

Estimated from percentages in.

c- W. based5 percentage increases

d. Including only wooden ships added Because

of shortages of metal, no allowance is made for the udditioo of any

metal barges.

c /

f. B/

B- Residual.

. Based on percentage increasesillion deadweight tons.

1. . Based an the percentage fulfillment of the original Sixth Five Year.

Information available on plans for obipbulldingndlcutes that capital Investment will be focused primarily on the construction of self-propelled cargo ships and on the conversion of all post-World War II steamships to diesel propulsion. The emphasis during the period will be on the attainmentore modern and efficient fleet rather than on an increase in tbe number of fleet units.

Except for references to ships that were not delivered from repair yards ln time for the navigation seasons, the size of the inland water fleet of the USSR is indicated to have been more than adequate for the volume of traffic handled in past years. The relatively small cargo turnover projected5 also indicates that no sizable expansion of either total tonnage or horsepower win be required during this period.

War II

During World War II the USSR lostelf-propelled shipsotalp andon-self-propelled bargesotalillion DWT. At tbe end5 the self-propelled fleet had an estimated aggregate totalp and the non-self-propelledotalillion DWT. Forty percent of the total fleet was inoperable orperateimited or local capacity

Five Year

The program for construction and acquisition of ships under the Soviet Fourth Five Yearalledpercent increase in self-propelled shipspercent increase ln non-self-propelled craft. 4t/ This plan, if achieved, would have increased the fleet toercent above its prewar Lnventory, or an aggregate totalpillion DWT. Stateoents rcude ln the ensuing years indicate that these specific goals were not achieved. Shipyards were badly damaged, building materials were scarce,arge part of the existing fleet required rnaOor repairs. The size of the fleet by the end of the Fourth Five Year Plan Is estimated to havepillion DWT.

Five Year

No specific figures on tonnafe or horsepower were announced for ships constructed during the Soviet Fifth Five Year. Reportsby the Ministry of the River Fleet at tho end5 can be Interpreted to indicate tnat plans were fulfilled, that the horsepower of the self-propelled fleet increasedercent above thatnd tnat the deadweight tonnage of the non-self-propelled fleet

-

Increasedercent. UQ/ Imports of ships fron Finland, Communist China, and the European Satellitesade possible a

faster rote of growth than was possible in tbe years following World War II.

Up5 the maximum additions planned5 would have totaledp andillion DWT. Actual additions are estimatedp in self-propelled shipsillion DWT la non-self-propelled craft. Retirements, which areto be Included inpercent Increase, totaledillion

By the endnland waterways were expected toraffic load of more thanillion tka greater than The existing fleetomposed largely of obsolete woodennd inefficient steam-propelled units, was not equipped to handle the projected increase in traffic.

A continuing shortage of steelimited capacity fordiesel engines hampered both additions to aggregate capacity of barges and the oCQulsltion of modern means of propulsion. At the end of the Fifth Five Year Plan, motor ships still represented less thanercent of total horsepower in the self-propelled fleet and steel barges less thanercent of all deadweight tonnage of the non-self-propelled Moreover, the planned level of traffic wasunder fulfilled.

Sixth Five Year

Progress ln increasing the capacity of the inland water fleet of the USSB, compared with progress under previous plans, was excellent. Allocation of substantial capital and materialwaa finally realized, and significant numbers of new tugs, motor ships, and steel barges were acquired.

At tbe endS, when the original Sixth Five Year Plan was replaced by tbe current Seven Year. river transport had received aboutercent in teres of horsepower of the tugs and other self-propelled ships and aboutercent In terms of deadweight tonnage of the non-self-propelled croft scheduled under the original

Year

Construction of all steamships and wooden barges is planned to be completely discontinued before the close of the Soviet Seven Year. Steamships built after World War II arcradual conversion to diesel or gas propulsion. The horsepower of the tug fleet In to increasepercent and the deadweight tonnage of

-

the 8eir-propeUed motor cargo Ho precise data have been announced for non-self-propelled craft.

[luring all ofear plans, motor propulsion, metaland large increases in tbe self-propelled cargo fleet vere planned. Nevertheless, because of the higher cost of constructing these types of ships and because of tbe insufficient capabilities of the shipbuilding industries for producing diesel engines, the emphasis was placed on low-lnitlal-cost, low-speed steamships und on wooden barges. ubstantial increase in the number of self-propelled cargo ships was not apparentut tbe relative growth and performance of these ships since that time has been impressive. elf-propelled cargo shipsercent of the total deadweight tonnage of tankersercent of the total deadweight tonnage of dry cargo ships. hese types of shipsercent0 percent, respectively, and5 are expected to reachercent andercent, respectively."

The planned overhaul in the types of Inland water craft is not expected to be reflected throughout the entire fleet but rather in the network connecting the Volga River System with tbe Baltic aod White Seas aod on some of the Siberian rivers, where requirements for downstream shipment of supplies is particularly critical. On other river systems, where navigation is neither so extensive nor so critical, relocation of existing steamships and wooden barges can copewith the traffic turnover.

IV. Financial Operations

A. Operating Profits, Costs, ana Revenue

Attempts to reduce unit operating costs of inland waterin the USSR ln recent years have been less successful than for other types of transport, "hanging navigation conditions, Inadequate facilities und equipment, and serious underfulfillment of investment plans have been largely responsible. 0fl( costs per traffic-kllooeter for Inland water transport decreased percent,j kopecks5 kopecks per traffic-kilometer. During tbe same period. Costs for rail transport decreasedercent,opecksopecks per traffic-kilometer. 5V nit operating costs for inland water transport amountedercent of those for railroads, a* shown in

* omparison of theelf-propelled cargo ships with total tonnage hauled, see II, A, .bove, and lablebove.

" lableollows on

-

Table 11

Operating Profits, Costs, and Revenue of Inland Water Transport of the USSR a/ Selected,5 Plan

Inland Water

Ratio

Bnvprun

Coat

Coa

Operacini'.

Kopecks

Kopec* t

a Percent

Pit or Deflclc

.

Revenue

Coat Of

3allroao

Current Hubles!

Current Rubles)

Current Rubirs)

Cos:

kJ

: . . -.

i.

of 6}

J.J

, r. '

y

y

cj

V

e.j

.A.

tf

o;

fV

j/

y

i/

b

1/

n/

ri/

0/

-

yf

y

m

7T. carrier only,

D. Operntlng =ost per tra:flc-Kllcrceter iiultiplied by lotal trarriC-KIloncters. arfletters equalslometerB plus pesseneer-klIcnetors. c. Datare from; Hatsere Cimputed fron operating cost per traffic-kilometer for railroad transport. DataV- are from; rom sourcend forrom Table.bove.

naRtiltuile of the deficits fo: these years io unknown.

cost per traffic-Riloneterailroad Operating coat nultlplled fcy railroad operatingi Operation; revemellonetrr multiplied ty total trefflc-kiloneters.

'

X. Prol'1 Iv" pluso.it.

1, Gro'i. Off nit Inr: revt-nui- divided by Lolfd IriiCl'ie-kilOnelcrs.

...

n. Cost8ercent fron Cata? were interpolated. O- . Efctlnateti fron data for tneontns of operations, p. yG>. Plan, q.

- 23 -

Operating ratios for inland water transport arc very highesult of relatively low rates and high operating costs. The ratio is helieved to have3 and7 was esult, operating losses were Incurred throughout tbe postwar period Since that year, there have been small operating profits, but these have not been sufficient to offset other nonoperational expenses as defined in tbe system of accounts.* It has been estimated that tbe operating ratio would have to be lowered to aboutn order to cover these additional expenses. In order to make the inland water fleet financially self-sufficientthat is, to cover capitalwhich are now completely subsidized, as well as operating and nonopcratlng expensesit would be necessary to lower the ratio to

3. Rates

In order to make rates and operating costs moreariff containing nev rates was introduced ln7 {the first major revisionhat resultedeneral reduction in rates ofo SO percenc. Special reductions as high asercent were put into effecttimulus to encourage more combined rail-water shipments and simultaneously to reduce unit operating costs by Increasing traffic density. Rates far shipments of petroleua by tbe Volga Tanker Steamship Agency were reducedercent, and rates for tbe towing of raftB by tho Volga Consolidated nnd Kama Steamshipwere reducedercent. Rates for shipment of dry cargo wen: reduced for steamship agencies of the Eastern Basin but were unchanged ln other

Although officials in inland water transport continue totbat commodities, particularly petroleua products, are not being diverted to water carriers from the higher-cost rail lines, tbe nev tariff apparently has aet with scee success. Duringycar. combined rail-water haulsercent. 8 alone, combined hauls increasedercent and accountedons, more thanercent of all inland water freight

" Nonoperating expenses Include training, research, administration, and maintenance of the waterways.

nlike rates for rail transport, which apply to tbe whole network, anotuer and,aried froo one river Lo another.

C- Average Costs in Different Basins*

1. Central Basin

In general, transportation on rivers of the Central Basin, particularly on the Volga River, is the least costly in the USSRof the longer navigation seasons, more favorable operatingand the availabilityreater percentage of the larger, more modern ships and mechanized shore facilities, as shown in Table IS. Consequently, the cargo turnover, representing more than one-half of total river shipping and consisting of proportionately large amounts of low-cost petroleum and rafted timber, has been profitable and affords substantial subsidies to other areas of operation.

Table 12

Average Operating Costs of Selected Steamship Agencies in Inland Water Transoort of the USSR6

Current KopeCkK

Agency Metric Ion-Kilometer National Average

Volga Consolidated

Volga Tanker

Northwestern 3

Irtysh

:

Amur

National average

ata include only cargo operating costs.

2. Northwestern and Northern aaiiinit

Costs in the Northwestern 3asin are high, primarilyol the extensive lock structures of thehite Sea Canal

Absolute data on revenue and profitability in inland waterseldom are published in detail.

- 25

System. The short navigation seasons and the conditions of theln the Northern Basin are not conducive to extensive shipping. The proportionately large amounts of rafted timber in the Nortnern Basin account for relatively low average operating costs, but,equirement arise for increased movement of dry cargo, operating costs would increase sharply.

3. Easterr. Basin

The costs of transportation ln the Eastern Basin arehigh but must be sustained becauseack of any alternative type of transport adequate to serve the economic development of the area. Relatively short navigation seasons and the fluctuation of the riverbeds restrict the movement of various types of ships to different sectors of the rivers and resultigh percentage of transshipments and the usereater number of ships in proportion to the volume of cargo carried.

Tbe most informative data on the cost of shipping ln this basin are those for the Lena River, but conditions tbat cause tbe high costs on this river are typical of those of other rivers ln the Easternnd tbe scale may be considered to be applicable to all, as shown in

D. Average Costs for Principal Commodities

Of the major commodities transported on -he inland waterways of the USSB, timber rafts incur tho lowest operating coats and dry cargoes the highest. The average cost of transportation in terms of botb total cargoes and of cargoes in the individual basins usually is Influenced by the proportional turnover cf rafted timber ana dry cargoes and the conditions under which they arc hauled. Tbe very large percentage of bulk, petroleum shipped or. Lhe Volga Slver explains tbe unusually low operating costs on that river. Tbe cost of hauling rafted timber is lowest on riversavorable current proeiotcs the movement of the rafts and reduces the requirement for fuel and power.

The changing character of inland water transport in ths USSB, however, ia necessitating the hauling of increasing amounts cf timber as dry cargo. Thlo change is not of significant economic advantage

* perating Costs on the Ob'lly are not so high as on the more easterly rivers of this basin, becauseoncentration of traffic in the upper, less complex I'i'c-r'j^ds, whereas or. the other rivers, longer hauls through more difficultare necessary. ** Tableollows on

Table 13

Comparison of Average Operating Costs of inland Water Transport with Averase Operating Costs on the Volga and Lena Rivers

Current KopecKs per Metric Ton-Kilometer

Inland Water Cargo

*/

b/

and petroleum products

timber

cargo

self-propelled ships

sJ

non-self-propelled ships

ndividual categories for the USSB have been interpolated on the basis of percentage variations of national averages. The national figure is estimated on the basis6 data.

he dry cargo fleet on the Lena River was composedor non-self-propelled

unless the ships ore self-propelled." At the present time the average cost of shipping dry cargo is unusually high because ofock of suitable shipsequirement for disproportionately large amounts of haulage on Siberian rivers where navigation conditions are

The Seven Year Plan specifies that operating costs are to be5 eduction may be possible If the plan for Investment lfl strictly adhered to andignificantly Increased number of self-propelled cargo oblpa are made available.

During the Seven Year Plan, annual investments in inland water transport are to increase toillion rubles per year, orercent more than the average during theeary comparison, investments In roil transport arc to increase by nearlyercent. At the same time, freight traffic by inland wateris scheduled to increase by aboutercent, whereas freight traffic by rail is scheduled to increase by only Lo toercent.

Comparative costs of shipping timberts and as dry cargo are shown ir.

-

APPENDIX A

ORGANIZATION OF THE INLAND WATER FLEET OF THE USSR

In following World War II, the peoples Commissariat of the River Fleet (Narodnyy Komissariat Rechnogo FlotaKRF) became the Ministry (All-Union) of the River Fleet (Minlsterstvo Rechnogo FlotaMRF). In in the reorganization following the death of Stalin, the Ministry of the River Fleet was unitedingle ministry together with the Ministry of the Maritime Fleet {Ministerstvo Msrskogo FlotaMF). Reorganization in^ again placed the inland fleeteparate ministry. In6 the All-Union Ministry of the River Fleet was abolished, and itsand establishments were transferred to the control of the individual republics. All river fleets, other than those in the RSFSR, are administrations directly subordinate to the Council of Ministers of their respective republic. The only organization with ministry status is that of the RSFSR the chief of which, Zosima Alekseyevich Shashkov, ls the former head of the All-Union Ministry-

At the present time the common carrier fleet consists ofajor steamship agencies subordinate to the RSFSR and of smaller lines that operate within thether republics.* Ninety percent of the traffic turnover in the USSR is carried Out oy the steamship agencies in the RSFSR. **

Shipping by noncommon carrier is conducted by private and state organizations. The amount of cargo carried by noncommon carriers usually exceeds that carried by the co-imon carrier steamship lines but is hauled for short distances only, information on the operations of the noncommon carriers is United, and, unless specifically stated, all figures in this report refer to the activities of common carriers. ist of the l6 najorgencies of the RSFSR, their adminisT.ra-ivc headquarters, and their ares of operations, see, which follows on p.elow,ist of the principal riverS' and canals of the USSR, sechich follows onelow.

-

Table

Major River Steamship Agencies in Inland Water Transport of the USSR

Burin

Agencies

of Operations

Consolidated

Tanker

a/

Oka,olga Canal

aya

- Don Canal

Ladoga Canal, Svir',

Marllnskiy Canal

SeaLake Onega

altic Canal

Dvlna

rasnoyarsk

Siberian

Lake Baykal

n9 the administration of the Volga Tanker Steamship Agency was trans-ferred from Astrakhan to Kuybyshev.

-

I'M.

Table 15

Principal Rivers and Canals of the USSR

Total length

Of which;

Rivers

Volga

Lena

Ob'

Irtysh

Yenisey

Aaur

Length ^Kilometers)

Stalin (Lakehite Sea) Ladoga Side Canal (Wcvavir' River) Karllnakly (Lakeybinsk Reservoir) Moscow-Volga (ivan'kovo-Hoscow)

Volga-Don (Stalingrad-Kalach)

Dnepr'-Bug Canal System a/

Total navigable rivers (including canals)

TfiiO systemonnection between the BluCK Sea and the Baltic Sea but is limited to small crafts of little traffic significance. The systemirdyeries of linking rivers froir. the confluence of tile VlMpyat' and Dnepr' Rivers and continuesinsk, Kobrin, Brett, and Kodlin via the Pripyat', Pir-a, Vistula, and Bug Rivers.

APPENDIX. B

KUl'KOIXM/JC:

The estimated growthf the capacity of the self-propelled fleet of the USSR in terms of horsepower and of the non-self-propelled fleet in terms of deadweight tonnage is based on recently published but incomplete data, on tne estimated degree of plan fulfillment in che shipbuilding industry, and on Increases in the acquisition of ships that were projected for each ofear plans, minus minimum retirements for ships.

Attempts to estimate the size and composition of the Inland water fleet of tbe USSR in more detail are frustrated by the absence ofdata. It has not been possible, for example, to separate the horsepower represented by tugs from that represented by cargo ships. Percentage figures relating to trends or changes in the characteristics of the fleet have been incorporated when significant.

Estimates of traffic have been derived from announced data on Adjusted data for the RSFSR, which representsf the total traffic turnover of the USSR, were used where national totals were not available. Where information is completely lacking, figures are based on increment increases observed in past years.

-

APPENDIX C

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Original document.

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