"It* It's Spies That You're Wondering About"
Published in US News and World Report, New York,une"iSSrJTTagos
This articlelimpse of Soviet spy activities in the United States as gleaned from an official report made to Congress on0 by the US Department of State.
The Soviet Union has built the largest of all intelligence machines and maintains an unparalleled network of agents throughout the world. The Soviet espionage system, with its various interlocking parts and functions at hone and abroad, has been clearly set forth in the findings of two Royal Commission reports, first in Canadaesult of the defectionS of Igoremberoviet espionage ring, and4 in Australia, after the defection of Vladimir PETROV, another Soviet agent. These Commissions established that at least three parallel Soviet intelligence networks operate in Soviet missions abroad; state security, the military, and the Party. To these may also be added naval and commercial information-gathering
intelligence networks. Sometimes these elements operate under the control and directionoviet embassy. On the other hand, many of their operatives, bearing nominal diplomatic titles and attached to an embassy, report directly to their respective headquarters in Moscow, and the embassy has no control over them. Those Soviot intelligence organizations operating under the cloak of diplomatic immunity throughout the world might be termed the "official" agencies and in turn also recruit local people and set up additional networks of agents.
One former Soviet-Bloc intelligence officer has estimated that the office of the Soviet Military Attache in the United States is' able to obtain legally ninety-five percent of the material for its intelligence objectives. The following facts illustrate this point:
Purchasing and subscriptions of open publications and the United States documents:
Onhe Soviet Government Purchasing Commission in. ordered copies of five thousand eight hundred and ten patents. On the same date the New York office of this Commission purchased two copies of eighteen thousand patents. 5 the Soviet Government Purchasing Commission in Washington again ordered copies of five thousand three hundred and forty-two different patents. OnS opies of forty-one thousand eight hundred and twelve-patents were ordered. The next order vas for forty-one thousand eight hundred and ten. The acquisition of copies of patents has been continued throughout the years, as illustrated by the fact that in9 Anatoliy G. VASILYEV, an employee of the office of the Soviet Military Attache, requested an American to instruct him in the use of the
so-called search room of the United States Patent Office so that he could locate patents in which he was interested.
On4 an assistant Soviet Air Attache purchased "The Pilot's Handbook" for the East and West Coast of the United States from the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey of the Department of Commerce. Onhauffeur of the Soviet Air Attache purchased "The Pilot's Handbook" for Canada and Alaska. Six days later an Assistant Soviet Attache ordered "The Pilot's Handbook" for the Far East and Europe. Those handbooks contained diagrams of all of the principal airfields and the approaches used in landing planes.
In4 Soviet officials stationed iii Washington obtained from the Map Information Office of the US Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, topographic maps covering North Carolina, Michigan, Illinois, Kentucky, and an areaifty mile radius of.
During9 the personnel of theNaval and Air Attaches' officesforty-four newspapers and fifty-eighta technical, scientific, military, andnature. The Soviet Embassyrogramto newspapers published at or inof vital United States
The Soviet Union is in corespondence with chambers of commerce and industrial facilities throughout the United States, and by this means obtain voluminous information regarding transportation systems, major industries, and so forth.
Attendance of the US organizations conventions by Soviet officials:
Two Soviet.officialsestern Electric convention held in Los Angeles duringt this convention, two Soviet officials collected about two hundred and fifty pounds ofhousands of similar documents and publications arc obtained in this country every year by Soviet Bloc officials stationed here and through Soviet Government-affiliated agencies such as the Four Continents Book Corporation and the Tass News Agency.
In addition to procurement activities, "reconnaissance" trips are widely used for intelligence gathering.
In October and3 Soviet officials travelled to Minnesota where they purchased fifteen aerial photographs of Minneapolis and St. Paul. In Missouri and Texas they obtained aerial maps of Dallas, Tulsa, Fort Worth, and surrounding areas adjacent to naval air stations, army airfields and air force bases.
In4 they purchased five aerial photograph of Long Island communities, three photographs of Boston and Newport, Rhode Island. In4 three Soviet officials placed an orderos Angele's photographic shop for aerial photographs covering the Los Angeles area.
Leonid E. PIVNEV, Soviet Assistant Air Attache, travelled extensively throughout the United States and obtained commercially available aerial photographs of various areas of the country. He also. photographer to rent an airplane and took photographs of New York City because such
photographs were not commercially available. PIVNEV specified the scale to be used and the altitude from which these photographs were to be taken. He0 for these photographs which obviously would show vital port areas, industrial facilities and military Installations in the area. For this activity PIVNEV was declared persona non grata on4 and he left the
On5 the US Slate Department notified the Soviet Embassy that restrictions were being placed on the acquisition of certain types of data by Soviet officials in the United Stales. One month after the restrictions became effective Nikolay I.oviet official in Mexico, began negotiationsesident of the West Coast of the United States to obtain aerial photographs of forty-five major United States cities. Nineteen'of these cities are located near Strategic Air Command (SAC) bases. The remaining twenty-six are all strategically located in or near air bases, nava] bases, research or training stations, atomic energy installations or important industrial facilities. TROFIMOV was unsuccessful in these efforts.
Abuse of diplomatic privileges:
Soviet officials abroad very often abuse diplomatic privileges. 7 Hafisaturalized American employed by the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) in California, met Mikhail N. GORIN, Pacific* Coast manager of Inturisl, utual acquaintance. By advancing SALICH money, GORIN ultimately persuaded him to furnish ONI reports for which GORIN GORIN and SALICH were found guilty of espionage
1 Anatoliyoviet intelligence agent, arrived in the United States and, under cover
as clerk and later.as Vice Consul in New York, became the chief organizer of atomic espionage in the pastern United States until his departure in YAKOVLEV worked through Harry GOLD, an American, who "had long been engaged In industrial espionage for the Soviet Union'. GOLD served as courier for information provided by Klaus FUCHS, the British atomic scientist, who teas later convicted of espionageritish court, and subsequently for David GREENGLASS, an American machinist. 0 GOLD was sentenced to thirty years' imprisonment for conspiracy to commit espionage. Anatoliy YAKOVLEV and Semen SEMENOV, professional Soviet agents who left the country, were indicted along with Harry GOLD.
Julius ROSENBERG of Newember of the US Communist Party, engaged initially in industrial espionage and later progressed to political and atomic intelligence. Kith the help of his wife, Ethel, he recruited David GREENGLASS, his brother-in-law who was working at Los Alamos on highly confidential matters. GREENGLASS, shortly before the first atom bomb test explosion,ighly valuable report to the Soviets. It was not until the confession of FUCHS in England and Harry GOLD in the United States thatctivities were revealed and he in turn pointed to the ROSENBERGS. ROSENBERG and his wife were arrested in the summert the time of their arrest, Abraham BROTHMAN, Miriam MOSKOWITZ and Morton SOBELL were also uncovered, rrested, and tried. The ROSENBERGS were sentenced to death in SOBELL was sentencedhirty years' imprisonment, David GREENGLASS to fifteen, Abraham BROTHMAN to seven, and Miriamo two years' imprisonment.
Kurt PONGER and Otto VERBER, both naturalized Americans, were recruited by the Soviets to report
on US military installations in Europe. They were.-uncoveredS counterintelligence agent whom they had put in touch with Yuriy NOVIKOV, Second Secretary of the Soviet Embassy in Washington. PONGER and VERBER pleaded guilty to espionage charges and in3 were sentenced to fromto fifteen years' imprisonment and threealf to ten years, respectively. NOVIKOV was declared 'persona' nonnd departed for the Soviot Union in
Recruiting US citizens abroad:
Jack SOBLE and his wife Myra, both naturalized US citizens of Lithuanian origin, supervised activities of Soviet agents in the United States andOBLE assigned agents to recruit US Government employees stationed abroad lo obtain information on the following: military equipment and supplies, atomic bomb stockpiles in the United States, and Die rate of atomic bomb production as well as photographs of atomic blinkers in which the bombs were stored. The SOBLEs were arrested in Myra SOBLE was sentenced to four years' imprisonment and Jack SOBLE, to seven years. Associated with them in their espionage activity was Jacob ALBAM, who like the SOBLEsative of Lithuania. In7 he was sentenced to five and half years' imprisonment.
The Soviets continued their attempt to penetrate US Government agencies. After the prosecution of, Judith COPLON, an employee of the Department of Justice inhe Soviets in October of that year gave an assignment to Boris MORROS, an American motion picture producer vho was cooperating with the FBI, to revive his acquaintanceember [unnamed] of the US Atomic Energy Commission. MORROS was instructed to obtain compromising information concerning this person and particularly to explore the possibility ofecretary in his office who could furnish
information to the Soviets. Earlier,ORROS had been given an assignment to attempt to" obtain information to be used by the Soviets in an effort to compromise General Lucius CLAY (US Military Governor in Germany).
4 Soviet intelligence officers in Germany approached an Junnamed] American Army officer who was soon to be retired. They propositioned him to work for the Soviet Union after his return to the United States and setchedule for meetings in New York City. In accordance with the arrangements, Maksim G. MARTYNOV, Counselor of the Soviet delegation to the UN Military Staff Committee, carriederies of clandestine meetings in New Yorkerson whom he believed to be the Army officer" (ho further details given]. MARTYNOV wason
Igor A.oviet Assis'nnt Naval Attache, was declared persona non grata in4 for attempts to recruit American citizens to obtain information concerning radar and US naval vessels.
In6 Ivan A.oviet Assistant Military Attache, was declared persona non grata for attempting to obtain data regarding radar, guided missiles, jet fuels, and atomic submarines from an American businessman who during World War II had had extensive contacts with the Soviets on private and US Government business.
In6 Viktor I.oviet translator at the UN, was "separated" from his work for having recruited an employee of an American aviation company in order to obtain classified data regarding United States aircraft.
The Soviet espionage activities described above vere largely engaged in by Soviet so-called official or legal espionage networks.
The Soviets also have "unofficial" clandestine espionage networks controlled by agents sent directly from Moscow to the United States. ase was that of Colonel Rudolf Ivanovich ABEL, an officer of Soviethe GRU]. ABEL was convictedederal jury in New York onor conspiring to steal US defense secrets on behalf of the Soviet Union. On7 ABEL was sentenced to thirty years in prison andine ABEL had been txposed by former Lieutenant Colonel Reino HAYHANEN,onfessed ex-Soviet espionage agent who identified ABEL as the Soviet "resident officer for espionage" in the US and the person from whom he had received espionage assignmentsive-year period. eteran of the Soviet intelligence service, had entered the United States8 with false documents as AndrewS citizen. He also used the name Emil GOLDFUS, for which he also had false documents, and he also hid documents in the name oj Martin COLLINS. During his years in the US and before his exposure, ABELhotographer's studio on Fulton Street in Brooklynover for his operations.
The Soviet Union has large espionage networks in other Western countries. The Klaus FUCHS admission0 that he had betrayed the free worldember of the British atomic energy teamlear indication of the nature of Soviet designs on the information and classified data of the British Government. The flight behind the Iron Curtain of the British scientist Dr.TEC0RV00 and also of British diplomats Guy BURGESS and Donald MACLEAN0 further bear witness to this Soviet intention.
Most of the cases mentioned in the preceding paragraph, although based outside the US, had ramifications in the US. For example, the information furnished to the Soviets by Dr. Allan NUNN MAY, who was uncovered by Igor GUZENKO, had been obtained when MAYaboratory in Chicago. Klaus FUCHS had worked, on atomic energy projects in the US from4 throughnd had supplied information to the Soviets while in the country. British diplomats, BURGESS and MACLEAN, had been stationed in the US prior to their disappearance behind the Iron Curtain.
In recent years some three hundred and sixty individuals in eleven different countries of the free world have been convicted of espionage on behalf of the Soviet Union. During the last ten years, at least forty-seven Soviet officials havexposed and expelled from free world countries.Original document.