AN ASSESSMENT OF THE TAURAGE AREA OF THE LITHUANIAN SSR AS A LAUNCHING SITE FOR

Created: 2/1/1961

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

HBlOKCAL REVIEW

AS SANITIZED

' AN ASSESSMENT OF THE TAURAGE AREA OF THE! LITHUANIAN SSRAUNCHING SITE . FOR GUIDED8 THROUGH,

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Research and Reports Office of Scientific Intelligence Office of Current IntelUgenee

SEC/KT

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE TAURAGE AREA OF THE LITHUANIAN SSRAUNCHING SITE KOR GUIDED8 THROUGH0

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Research nnd Reports

Office of Scientific Intelligence Office of Current Intel licence

FOREWORD

This report is the firsteries that examines in detail and assesses all evidence on particular locations auspected of beingareas for long-range ballistic missiles in the USSR. umber oi Baltic locations, includinghaapsaluNaplakaN -EJ. and KaliningradN -EJ. have been reported aa possible launching aitea. This report attempts to locate, identify, and assess the missile activity in the Tauragc area of the Lithuanian SSR.

The analysis is based almost entirely on interrogations

Although moat ofbeen inexperienced observers and

some perhaps are unreliable reporters, Ihc volume of reporting isto permit cross-checking for consistency. In viewack of other types of reporting, however, the conclusions of this report must be considered tentative.

Sum run ry and

I. Introduction

II. Characteristics of the Tauragc

III. Construction

A. Specific

Area A

Area B

Area C

Area D

. - .

Construction Units

Modernization

Transportation

V. Missile Sightings

VI. Site Configuration

lb

AjjpcnciixL-s

A. Summary of Evidence on the Taurage Area of the Lithuanian SSRaunching Site for Guided8 Through0

Appendix B. Source Reference:

7

Tabic

Pap.c

Description and Locations of Alleged Missiles Sighted in the Taurage Area of the Lithuanian

SSR.8 Through0

Illustrations

Following Page

Figure 1. Target Coverage of Guided Missiles with Estimated Rangesautical Miles Launched from Taurage in the Lithuanian SSR (Map) .

Figure 2- onstruction Site for Guidedof Taurage in the0 (Sketch)

Figure 3. Areas of Possible Activity in Guided .Missiles in the Taurage Area of the Lithuanian8 Through0 (Map) inside back cover

- vi -

r

T

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE TAURAGE AREA OF THE LITHUANIAN SSR AS A LAUNCHING SITE FOR GUIDED 8 THROUGH JUNE 0

Sumrr.ary arid Ccir.clusion^

9acilities for guided missiles may have been constructed, and missiles may have been deployed, in the vicinity of Taurage in the Lithuanian SSR. Sightings of missiles, the nature of the construction activity, and the types of military personnel in the area indicate that more than one type of missile system may be involved.

The most significant missile activity in the area is related to the deployment of the medium-range ballistic missile,autical-miie (nm) Shyster The Taurage missile complex appears to be an integrated operational missile facility. There is evidence ofsupport, and warhead-storage facilitiesidely dispersedcomplex connectedood road network. The launching sites appear to be dispersedriangular-shaped area ofquare kilometers (sqnd it is possible that additionalwill show that the site area may be generally rectangular and approximately double the present size if the activity in the ErzvilkasN -E) and VadzgirysN -E)roves to be related.

The establishment of rigid security measures, clearing of land, shipments of construction materials, and preparatory construction began in certain parts of the site area in the summer and fallvailable evidence, however, suggests that full-scale construction did not get underway until early During9pproximatelyhyster missiles were transported to the unidentified facility north of Taurage. This type of activity normally

* The estimates and conclusions in this report represent the best judgment of the contributing Offices as* See HI. A,.elow.

FE-T

would signify Ihe completion of construction, installation, and checkout of ground support equipment and the beginning of missile unit occupancy. As ofowever, construction work was still in progress at least in some areas. In the US the construction of the individual,that makeaunching site is staggered, and missilesmay appear at the site before construction work is completed for the entire site. It appears that, to obtain operationally ready launching sites at the earliest date, the USSR also delivers missiles to missile complexes before completion of all construction work.

The duration of the construction period of the Taurage complex is generally considered to be compatible with construction periods for similar US sites. On the assumption that the missiles sighted during9 or0 arrived for installation and checkout, it is estimated that some part of the missile complex would have an operational capability probably no later than by

In addition to the Shyster missile, other missile activity has been evident in the Taurage area The description of missiles and associated equipment observed90 indicates lhat short-range ballistic missiles and unguided rockets are based in the vicinity.* There also have been indications of the presence of artillery troops in the area6 and that the area north of Taurage ha* been used in the past for training artillery troops.

The presence of missiles other than the Shyster lends someto the hypothesis that the Taurage complexentral support facility for units equipped with missiles of varying ranges. These units would have the capability of deploying to launching positions both in the immediate vicinity of Taurage and in other areas in the Baltic Region.

Allhough there have been one sightingissile thewhich closely resembles the Guidelinen antiaircraft unit stationed atno evidence of SAM-associatcd

* etailed description of missiles observed in the Taurage area, see the table,elow. Seen the table, p.elow.

Spoon Rest Or Fruit Set radars in the vicinity of Taurage. * Even though SAM activity cannot bc completely ruled out. the lack of any additional evidence that would indicate the existence of Such activity in the Taurage complex makes it appear unlikely that the complex is concerned with the deployment of SAM missiles.

There arc certain features of the Taurage area that make it well suited for the deployment of intercontinental ballistic missilesn ICBMominal rangem would be capable of striking better thanercent of the nuclear retaliatory force bases in the continental US. Considered in conjunction with the adequate transportation facilities in the area and the advantage of climate in relation to locations in more northern sites, Tauragc wouldavorable location for an ICBM launching site. There is, however, no evidence available at this time which indicates that the Taurage area will be used for this purpose. Thereotential for growth to this capability, and the area should bc kept under surveillance for any new developments.

*iscussion of other radar in lhe vicinity, see Appendixndp.espectively, below.

I. Introduction

Taurage. which is located approximatelyautical miles (nm) east of the Baltic Sea and approximatelym north of the RSFSR border in the Lithuanian SSR, is the focal point for activity relatedmissiles in the area bounded by SilaleN -EJ, SkaudvileNurbarkasNnd SovetskN

Taurage is favorably situated for the deployment of medium-range ballistic missiles. It is locatedm from the West German border andm from the coast of Great Britain. Them missile based in the Taurage area would have within its range all major targets in Western Europe except Spain (see the map..

II. Characteristics of the Taurage Area

The town of Taurage in the Lithuanian SSRopulation, according to the9 estimate, andayon center situated in an almost entirely agricultural area. Production of grain crops (wheat, oats, and barley) and meat and dairy farming constitute the main activities. Industry in the town itself consistseatachine tractorrickyard, and adrying*

Mineral resources in the area appear to be very limited. orld War II German study mentions only peat, clay, construction loam {rammednd iron {turf iron earths). Sand, gravel, and rough timber are readily available for construction. Brick and sawed lumber also arc available locally.

The topography of the Taurage area is characterizedearly-level-to-gently-rolling surface with average slopes of less than 5 Elevations in the area range fromoeters (m) above sea level.

Levels of ground water are at or near the surface in many places throughout the area. Ground water probably will beo

Following p. 6.

For aerially numbered source references, sec Appendix B.

below the surface and, on the assumptionise selectionite, it should not be tooroblom in heavy construction.

HI. Construction Activity

Construction activity that may be related to guided missiles has been reported in what can be considered four general locations in the Taurage area of the Lithuanian SSR. (For these locations see the map.. Very little is known of the activities within these areas inasmuch as only peripheral observations and indirect information are generally available on the highly secure restricted areas. There have been reports of recent construction of underground concretelarge, deep pits; concrete bunkers; concrete pilesong; and concretehick, for which considerable tonnages of sand, gravel, cement, steel structurals, and precast concretehave been trucked into the several areas since the fallvailable evidence suggests, however, that construction probably did not get underway in all areas until the spring

A. Specific Locations

1. Area A

s most often referred to asom south or southeast of Taurage. It is bounded on the northwest by DunokaiNn the northeast byE) on the southwest by ZukaiNnd on the cast by the Viasvile RiverN Specific areas of activity withinre the Dunokai area (Subareahe area of PameeiaiN -E) and Sakaline. the vicinity ofN, and the elevated area in the vicinity ofN.

* inside back cover. For convenience, arbitrary letter designators

hrough D) have been assigned to each general area of activity, and

these areas with their letter designators are shown on the map.

Figure 3. Some informants have been more specific than others In

identifying locations, and to show exact location whenever possible.

some subareas arc delineatedubscriptor example.

At leantnformant* have identifiede an area of military construction activity, and allew informants have associated the activity with guided missiles. Although much of the area appears to be unsuitable for the construction of underground installations because of poor drainage and unstable soils, specific identified areas of construction appear to bc on the higher, more suitable elevations in Area A. Within Area A, there have been reports of the following: (a) concrete installations that are partly underground, concrete bunkers for storing military equipment, pilesong that are driven into the ground, runnels, and permanent buildings;oviet soldiersa road in the area: (e) electric powor being installed; and (d( new rail spurs.

One detailed descriptiononstruction site is available (sec the sketch.. The site in Subarea A| was described as beingq km and as being surrounded by two barbed wire fenceslowedide between the fences (see No.n Guard towersigh were erectedpart on top of the fences (secnooded stripideevel concrete area (secn Figure. On the west side of thearea, two concrete buildings (seen Figureere being constructed. unnel (seen Figure Z)ideeep was being built from under the concrete area towards the north. The incomplete portion of this tunnel, being dug by two ditching machines, extended out of the wooded area for approximatelym. Ths tunneloncrete floor, and the walls were being built from half-elliptical concrete formside. Construction troops were billeted in approximatelyents (seenew gravel road (secnide leads into the area, and another gravel roadidem long was built to bypass the installation. oviet soldiers were reported to be working in the area. No weapons orronic equipment were observed. 2/

2. Area B

The location ofas been given on different occasions as follows; m north of BudvicciaiNn the "Tyrele

Following p. 8.

Les" (Tyruliai Woods) between the villages ofndn the heavily wooded terrain northwest of Trukiskehalfway between Trukiske and BalskaiNnd in the wooded area northeast of ZygaiciaiNoor drainage and unstable soils make this area generally unsuitable for the construction of underground installations even though there may be certain locations that are suitable.

Thirteen different informants have identified this area with military construction activity, and rumors of airfield construction in this area seemed to be prevalent owever,construction activity was reported in the area. One local rumor identifiesith missile storage. In9 orarge numbers of missiles were observed being transported in the direction of Area B. In March and5 toracked prime movers of the0 were observed towing eight-wheel trailersong in this direction. Each trailereavy load of irregularly shaped pieces. Another rumor associates the area with ammunition storage. ail spur may have been built from the area of Pozeruonai stationN -E) lo*

The area bounded by Taurage, Silale,nd Skaudvile has been describedraining area for artillery units stationed at Taurage and in the Kaliningrad Oblast. Some activity that appears to bc associated withctually may bewith training activities. 3/

3. Area C

s located north of Pa-gulbiniaiNouth of the road between PagcgiaiN -E) and ViesvileN -E) andm northwest of Viesvile.

Eleven people have reported construction activity in this area. Of these people, three associated the site with nuclear weapons (bunkers and concretehick have been reported in the

* Possibly Dabrupine. ** iscussionuel pipeline that was reported to serve Area B, see Appendix A,elow.

litltdttco Cuteti Lad (OKiittanrilip

ithhdmint -r,

- c

.,y

^

I

0

bU ,_

ew road was constructed betweennd Area Alinkingoad from Area B. 4/

4. Area D

as five smaller sites that do not appear lo be contiguous and about which little information is available. Only aboutersons have reported military construction activity in the entire

The first site} is described as being locatedense forest just east of Vie8vile and immediately south of the road to Jurbarkas. The site was neither fenced nor otherwise marked as restricted. Numerous gravel roads approximatelyidefrom the highway into the site were constructed by military personnel in the summer Bricks, gravel, sand, and cement often were observed being trucked into the site. Although the site was Said to have been completed in the fallilitary trucks loaded with cement and cement-gravel mix were observed driving over an unpaved road into the forested site as late as

A second sites locatedm northwest of Smalininkaim east of Viesvilceavily forested area. ravelide was Constructed to the site in the fall It was rumored inea that constructionuclearad started there in the fall

A third site (Subarea Dj) ism northwest of Smalininkai, at' E. In the summerxcavation work and construction of piles was being carried oneavily guarded but unfenced site.

A fourth siles located on both sides of the road between Smalininkai and Jurbarkas, about midway between the two towns. The restricted pari south of the road extends tohorl distance ot the Neman River. The part north of the road was reported Iom iong. Both parts were fenced and patrolled. Construction was still in progress innd il was rumored locally that large bunkers as wellissile base were under construction there,

A fifth sites locatedm west-northwest of Jurbarkas in the Sinalininkai Forest on both sides of the Jurbarkas-Taurage road. The project on the east side of the road begannd the project on the west side of the road began in about9 Inon* trucks were continually hauling gravel and sand from pits in Jurbarkas to the construction site. 5/

5. Others

Two informants report constructionissile siteooded area between Pozcruonai and the Taurage-Sovetsk highway. Neither informant was able to see inside the site. Railroad and road construction have been reported in this vicinity. Evidence available at this time is not sufficient to determine whether or not the rumored missile construction activity is related to or the same as the railroad and road construction in the area. The location is well suitedtorage function, for it is bounded on two sides by an existing rail lineard-surface road. 6/

Constructioningle-track broad gauge rail line from Taurage to Vadzgirys was reported to have begun in the spring9 at Taurage, the originating point. By9 the rail line had been constructed beyond Erzvllkas. Only one other report, possibly of the same activity, is available on railroad construction in thisail spur was reported to have been constructed from the Taurage railroad stationooded area north of StraguteNEJ. 7/ With only two reports of this activity, it is difficult to make an evaluation, but other activity in the Erzvilkas and Vadzgirys areas suggests association with the Tauragc missile site-

A construction site was observedm north of Erzvilkas on the right side of the road to Skaudvile in the vicinityorld War II sod landing strip. Two bulldozers were Clearing anong on the west side fthe outlines of ihe other sides were not observed). etachment of approximatelyoviet soldiers with aboutrucks was located on the site, and the soldiers reportedly were overheard to say that they were anonstruction unit which was toery modern airfieldocket launching site close by. This activity probably was the

* Tonnages are given in metric tons throughout this report.

source of Che rumor reported by another person At this time an airfield was rumored to be under constructionm north of Erzvilkas. 8/

In tho vicinity of Vadzgirys. five timber trestle towers and one steel and timber tower have been reported in an area thatm. The towers were constructed during the period Each timber tower was round, was approximatelyigh, andmall square wooden hut on its top. * The steel tower wasas beingigh,ts bottom half was of steel or iron tubing, and its top half was of timber. The tower was topped by aplaced cross of St. Andrewiameter of. These towers may be intended for use in maneuvers, for it is known that the area is sometimes used for this purpose. The significance of the towers in relation to missile activity cannot be determined. The existence of the towers is noted here with the anticipation that later information may determine their significance. 9/

B. Military Construction Units

It is nol possible to determine the number of construction workers involved in the construction activity, but the magnitude of the effort is suggested by the number of military construction workersin the area. Estimated contingents ofenen (Subareaenenenr D) have been reported by different informants, but thismay involve some double reporting. Moreover, no reports have been received On the number of laborers in Area B. At least one and possibly two construction units arrived in the area from the interior of the USSB, and one of the construction units allegedly was an artillery unit originally stationed at SverdlovskN Thewore blacknd the members of the otherunit, which arrived inore khaki uniforms with no shoulderboards.

* escription of similar towers in the vicinity of Taurage, see Appendix A,elow. ** The height, given by the source, is believed to behigh.

*** All artillery troops wear black shoulderboards.

C. Airfield Modernization

Bumora of airfield construction have persisted, but it isthat the turf-surfaced airfield north of Taurage can be modernized to satisfy the requirementsissile deployment site and that this modernization has been the basis for the rumors of airfield construction.

Surveying and grading work began on the airfield in the spring Whereas only an occasional small single-engine aircraft was observed on the airfield untilt that time twin-engineof an unidentified type began to be observed. Grading activity may still have been in progress as late as

The areas northwest and south of Taurage also have been rumored to be sitesew airfield. These areas, although theybc completely ruled out, are predominantly identified with missile activity.

IV. Transportation

It is expected that any missile systems deployed in the Taurage area of the Lithuanian SSR will be road mobile with railroad facilities at the primary support bases. Both railroad and road transportation facilities are adequate for the deployment of missiles in the area.

The area is served by one rail linehe main line from Sovetsk to the SiauliaiN -E) area. Inail spur isto have been constructed, but this report has not been confirmed. (Rail spurs have been reported at five locations in the area by ninepeople. )

Two hard-surfaced two-lane highways serve the Taurage areane from Tauragc to the Sovetsk and Pagegiai area, the other from Pagegiai to Jurbarkas through Viesvile and Smalimnk.ii. 3elween those highways, there appears to have been under construction or repair sinceetwork of roads and bridges that may link all of the areas of activity in the Tauragc vicinity. ew hard-surfaced roadew bridge across the Jura River and another bridge possibly across the Sesuvis River) has been constructed along pari of the way betweennd Area B. This road connects with an existing road that was hard surfaced for at least part of the remaining distance between the two areas. If the

-

remaining distance has been hardirect hard-surfaced road links tho two areas.

A new north-south road appears to have been constructed betweennd A. This road, ifhort distance beyond thatwould connect with the improved road from Area B, thus linking Areas A, B, and C. Adequate road, and possibly railroad, connections exist betweennd the other areas for the transport of missiles, missile fuels, and warheads.

An existing hard-surfaced two-lane road connectsnd D, whereas improvementsew parallel hard-surfaced road have been reported in progress on the Taurage-Jurbarkas road that linksnd D. These roads provide, if all reported and suspectedareircular road network through all areas of activity in the complex that would bo completely adequate for the deployment of road mobile missiles in the area.

Sightings

guided missiles have been observed in the Taurage area of the Lithuanian SSRnformants,otal ofo 32 (For the site and description of these missiles, see thehero werenformants who reported the observation of possible surface-to-surface missiles and one sightingossible SAM** The sighting of three possible types of surface-to-surface missilesthat is, the Shyster, ther the- and short-range unguided rockets lends some support to the hypothesis that the Taurage complexentral support facility for units equipped with missiles of varying ranges.

The possible Shyster missiles were observed by four informants during the period0 and once inwo different informants each reported observing approximatelyissiles being transported in the direction ofn9 andespectively. On approximately seven occasions during one informant observed convoys consisting of approximatelyrime movers towing missileso

3 The table follows on Seen the tabic,elow.

long on trailers. The other informant reported that during9 he observed an average of foureek, each withracked prime movers towing Shyster missiles on trailers moving in the same direction on the same road. On the basis of the number of alleged missiles reported, the proximity of dates of observation, and locales, it would appear possible that both individuals observed the same convoys. This double observation also strengthens the probability that the convoys wore missile convoys even though an unusually large number of missiles was reported. The number of missiles, the alleged construction activity in the suspected area in the fallhe fact that one informantthat the prime movers were observed traveling south without the trailers several hours later, and local hearsay concerning the storage of missiles in the area all tend to highlightossible storage site for missiles.

There were two or three observations of possiblerissiles. The missiles were observed innd possibly again in It is possible, however, that the latterwashyster. There were four sightings of short-range guided missiles or unguided rockets that occurred inune ornd

In addition to the missile sightings contained in thether objects, possibly missiles, have been reported, but insufficienton them precludes positive identification. Duringrequent night shipments of unidentified "machineo the Taurage station were reported. These shipments were transloaded in security onto three-axle military trucks and taken to Area A. Inour special canvas-covered gondolas were observed at the railroad yard in Taurage. The cars had been normal metal four-axle gondolasong, but both ends had been extended by additional metal structuresong at the lop, so that thelength was. The cars were unloaded at nightilitary unit under strict security, and the contents were immediately carried/ inhree wooden cratesyumored to contain rockets were transported on sledges from the Taurage railroad station toward Area A. One crate was mounted on two sledges, ill imilar shipment was observed inhen four heavy wooden boxesoere observed on the

* P.elow.

-

Taurage-Jurbarkas road. The boxes were transloadcd onto six-axle trailers at the Taurage railroad During0 and the first week inhree convoys were observed moving in the direction of Zygaiciai The convoys traveled at night and returned the next morning. Each convoy consisted ofo0 tracked prime movers with their large cargo space covered with a Each prime mover lowed an eight-wheel trailerongeavy load consisting of irregularly shaped

VI. Site Configuration

It is possible only to conjecture about the over-all siteon the basis of unevaluated, incomplete information. For example, rumors of activity in nuclear weapons, although few in number, are numerically weighted in favor of the southern areas of the sitehat is,nd D. Hearsay information suggests thatstorage location for missiles. This point of view issomewhat by the number of alleged Shysterransported in the direction ofn9 or The prime movers lhat towed the missile trailer returned, heading in the opposite direction several hours later without the missiles and trailers.

If any credence could be given to these rumors, it would betoery tenuous description of the configuration of the site to include launching sites (Area A) flanked by missile storage-assembly (Area B) and warhead storager D)oad network andail line between thestorage and launching site complexes, ew fuel pipeline is reported to have been constructed from the Sovctsk-Pagegiai area in the direction of Area B. * If the purpose of the pipeline were lo supply fuel to Area B, the existence of the pipeline would indicate lhat fuel is stored in the same general area as the missiles. Theissile site, however, generally is not considered great enough loeparate pipeline.

A second possible Site configuration would have the missiles, missile fuel, and warheads being stored in one general support area and lhe other specific areas of activity actually being launching sites. The orientation of Areas A, C,ine perpendicular to the southwest launching azimuth for targets in West Germany suggests that these areas may be launching positions.

" iscussion of this pipeline, see Appendix A,.elow.

-

Table

Description and Locations of Alleged Missiles Sighted in the Taurage Area of tho Lithuanian8 Through0

et*ra Ir.

o JO S

EeceOMrto it

Jan.*ryg/

"Toi the taBle faiiov on p. 19

overl tovina inlli

Paacrlptlr

Each ofor oU trvcfc* of the US-1J1 carried cw tarpaulin-covered object believed toi till*- ae objacte taa

cjllcdricallr iMped boSlaa vith

polated eulftU* boh eonee. ft* object* bM Mao place! aa Icotujt platform la ellghtlr oBlifM

pelntel

cant*ittle forvard over the eabe.

Ibe alattl* wud coo-

voye of twa to three tractor-trailer uitomnl cor frontr. Ihe olaalle vaa carried oa tvo flat bed trailer*.

earn ulth fourfront ana

rear, an] uaa coveredarpeulla auiportel by brace*.

The "abject" eoreared tohlcney, cobIojolct at one

It aaa coveredar-

jaulln and tnta hesleaa loni. low trailer "Ita aereral oxlee.

II uaa Ballad by Mm traotora Of tha- Tha object

extended beyond the rear of tie

trail'r.

InfrpraUtlcm

Toe object vaa ainllar lo cor> figuration to tha

SWOai* but ahcrter

Bie olaallaa aay nave been tie finyatar vjthoit maa cooes,r ES-J- differed

froa tbe knati EByiter

traUar and froarailer*.

The object -ain

lenfth Bad dlaBtter with tha

Styateri but tare* tractor*

ara rot raqulral totha

Jhyater eaB It* trailer.

ceapatiaia

th" SSjrat

and t ;i

poaaiblllty that tela aaa the oen alfhtiu {item i) nar* tta aaaa type of aJa-

alle If not toetsi^.a.

Table

Description end Location* of Alleged Missiles Sighted in the Taurage Area of the Lithuanian SSR a/8 Through0 (Continued)

run

vaa*' -

vtUl

i'.'tc.'ly.U,

daatlulton KMUi vii* tronapart

j BfMr

iim

mtnt.

tack BlHU*oad- aof fl" oirlart. n* nnUn aaif* ajltai*

iruWf* 4Maat aa weMmI iracH

to* i' wml w: j:

an Ula rai uln. a oMcrvedlMU fc, cmpof nlmlh*ocraplaa Wo (iffluaraolflltra InunlforM *ltn blacR atojlrferboudi.

unknov* motor ofad

ruck! fillo-M. Son* ottitturlM

bei-anapadMIU had roo flop as Uw reef

of U*

Description and Locations cf Alleged Missiles Sighted ln the Taurage Area of the Lithuanian SSR a/8 Through MayContinued 1

1Bl Ta.ra**,

ih. Sovlat

artillery armc'i.

/udiUaMl >

(fcjxi* mn ob*iiil slaainekt- eater

miaw*m* reported te hav* tele tie

i-that1 nere

rocketa. Sea* of IB. idrii leftlev, Zmb Object t* euppoaal to have leeaadara* as-U

aa* aad la

peaed IO hate bees Tilted alts

fin* ai tne rear en*.

1 ware observed luriftl

KMlin. Thei- -ere al* alii.

tary truck*ce-aaU trailer*.

sbjeete.

to tbe aketr* aupslied by. th* object had two

fin* about ow.third ef tha vayIhe rear end. The atoeetby a

palled tlaatly ao that the Ce".

temld be aad*- Halt

aaaa are! tc be at Brand

vaataleally.

aravaal* trailer of lattice sirdar coa* kmc lion.

The object -aa eoeered. Ik*aahltttfy

*tabllls*re, if lie re -are eay. The object -aa traaaportedycledet truck

Table

Description and Locations of Alleged Missiles Sighted in the Taurage Area of the Lithuanian SSR a/8 Through0 (Continued)

ronut of iiumi (potolblr Pilau]}

<Mscv -

Thewr*

port or lorgo mnmn

tlcUtiki

ola SUriiooMr inU Vthlclco US'tiHn far threo dilwri. I

corvon open icoalrj ploifora. on*

irro-Bue:;Irtlr* a* tiw*MUM 1M< im1Iiootv orat Atoll laat

U00TU

r.pn ooiio toe. sour.

lioHOUr* of imii:orfollow

;tiko toi.it

for

1aoi ofiln

(TOO0 no!

'5 no) (Scua)

OorienOUtoHm!

1.1

ittfsnkuiirMtuli akotii Uio lonfth.

APPENDIX A

SUMMARY QF EVIDENCE ON THE TAURAGE AREA OF THE LITHUANIAN SSR AS A LAUNCHING SITE FOR GUIDED 8 THROUGH 0

1. General

umors began to circulate in the Taurage area of the Lithuanian SSR that an airfield, guided missile launching site, or nuclear weapons site would be constructed south of Taurage in the forested area bounded by Jurbarkas and Viesvile on the southeast and southwest, respectively; the Neman (Memel) River on the south, and Taurage on the north. Late8 and early9 an additional site locatedooded aream northwest of Taurage (Area B) was reported under construction.

As early as the springosters appeared in villages in the Taurage area recruiting workersilitary construction project in the forest between Siltne and Jurbarkas. Surveying activities began8 and probably were completed by Clearing the land, shipments of construction materials, and preparatory construction began in certain areas in the summer and fall Available evidence, however, suggests that full-scale construction in all areas did not get underway until the spring

During9 andt least two helicopters were rumored to be active in the area. The exact significance of this activity is

Construction machinery; excavators; pile drivers and prime movers; and considerable tonnages of construction materials such as cement, sand, gravel, bricks, timber, steel rods,hapedong and having numerous holes or apertures large enoughan to poke his headattice types of steel girdersoong; window and door frames; and precast concrete struc-turals began to arrive in the area. The concrete Structurals weredescribed as follows:

-,

C

concreteyyith three slabs

onon ZIS type of truck.

concrete blocksy.

concretey.

reinforced concretey.

precast concrete parts approximatelyy.

pilesong.

polesyentimeters (cm) by.

or reinforced concrete cubes approximatelyy

m.

triangular beamsym by.

j. Concrete slabsom thick and of varying lengths, k. Concrete slabsm thick. 1. Concrete pipesong, m. Concrete pipesyym. n. Concrete sections with horseshoeo

high,ongall thickness ofom. o. Concreteide,om thick, and curved to formuadrant.

The cubes and triangular beams reportedly were used for theof

Observations of the restricted areas have been made peripherally, with two notable exceptions. Inne informant observed an alleged missile site on the south side of the Pagegiai-Viesvile road, west of Viesvile (see. The aream long, and its width was unknown. Approximatelyounkers in various stages ofwere observed. The bunkers were spaced atpart and were arrangedigzag line. Each bunker was of reinforcedconstructionideong, with curvedbove the ground level. On the west sides the bunkers had openings (slots} through which protruded canvas-coveredoong. The objects were elevatedoegrees and pointed west. Three radio trucks wereew meters north of the bunkers. Antennas were not observed. Several Soviet officers, some of them in Air Force uniforms and the others in uniforms of various troop branches, were noted within the site. ilitary laborers were engaged in the construction of the bunkers. The excavating work was

* III, A,.bove.

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done by three power shovels. Anotheresident of the area untileported hearsay information that the construction of "nuclear weapons bunkers" in the same area was in progress.

Another site in Subarea Aj {seeas described as beingq km and as being surrounded by two barbed wire fenceslowedide between the fences (see No.n Guard towersigh were erectedpart on top of the fences (see No.nooded stripevel concrete area. On the west side of the concrete area, two concrete buildings were being constructed. unnel (seen Figure Z)ide was being built from under the concrete area toward the north. The incomplete portion of this tunnel, being dug by two ditching machines, extended out of the wooded aream. The tunneloncrete floor, and the walls were being built from half elliptical concrete formside.oviet soldiers were reported to be working in the area.

Other structures allegedly being constructed in the restricted areas arcomb storage and missile launchingconcretehick, underground installations for an airfield or installations in connection with unknown atomic devices, excavations with concrete foundation walls, concrete building, very large and deep pits, concrete bunkers to bc used as storage bunkers for military equipment,uge concrete installation partly 3Ji/ As ofonstruction work was still in progress in the area, although there had been reports that construction was completed as early as the fall

2. Airfield Construction

The construction sites have been variously referred to asmissile launching sites, and nuclear weapons storage areas.8 and early9 the activity was frequently referred to as airfield construction. According to hearsay, the site (Area A) was to become an airfield with underground installations. One person

* Following p.bove.

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also said that the site might bc an installation connected with unknown atomic devices. Other reports have stated thatissile base and an airfield were being

Thereurf-surfaced landing strip immediately north of the outskirts of Taurage, between the) road and the Jura River. The entire area of the airfield was reported to be approximatelyorth-southast-west. The landing strip reportedly. Mosthave stated that the field was used almost exclusivelyuleype of aircraft that landed with the mail severaleek. One Fagotircraft was reported to have been sighted landing on the strip in the summer In the springircraft stationed on the airfield were reported for the first time. Tenwin-engine conventional aircraft were observed on the field in March

aircraft also were observed landing on Several three-engine conventional aircraft wereon the field during the same time. These aircraft,not fit the description of any known aircraft in use in the USSR. believed that these aircraft were the same as the

Electronic devices have bocn observed at the field on many occasions. The most recent observations were made in April and May

a Knife Rest "A" (earlynife Restobile Fire Can (fire control) radar wereradar antennas similar to the Cross Fork (early(earlyoken ground control interceptatiy warning) antennas and antennas not readilybeen reported at various times in the vicinity of the

Surveying and grading work began on the airfield in the spring In the summeraurage newspaper reportedly stated that the airfield was to be taken over by the Soviet Air Force andoncrete runway was to be constructed. Inoviet soldiers were engaged in soil moving operations. One person who left the area in0 reports that several graders were always observed leveling ground on the

There have been several reports stating that an airfield would be constructed northwest of Tauragc For the most part the

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reports are based on the observation of surveyors in the area north of the Taurage-Sovetsk road and west of the Jura River. Possible(or the presence of military surveyors in this particular area are (a) geodetic surveying for the launching sites,umored rail spur from the area of the Pozeruonai railroad station to Area B, and/orossible new road or improvement of the existing one between the Pozeruonai station area and Area

It would appear that rumors concerning airfield construction have some basis in fact but that the airfield concerned is actually the civilian turf-surfaced airfield north of Taurage which is beingfor use by the military. The areas south and northwest of Taurage, although they cannot be completely ruled out as sites for airfields, are predominantly identified with missile activity.

Activities Associated with Nuclear Weapons

Nine informants have reported rumors in the area aboutactivity associated with nuclear weapons. Of the nine references, oneeneral reference to an atomic missile site being constructed between Taurage and Pagegiai. Five of the remaining eight references locate the nuclear weapons activity in the Vicsvilc-Smalininkai-Jurbarkas area (see. The other three references are to construction activity associated with "atomic rockets" andissile launching site with storage facilitiesombs andeads" in Area A. It must be kept in mind, however, that thelo nuclear weapons activity in the Viesvile-Smalininkai-Jurbarkas area constitute less than one-third of the total number of references concerning these specific areas. (The other references refer to missile and/or airfield

Construction Units

The size of the labor force in the Taurage area cannot bedetermined. Only seven informants have provided estimates of the number of personnel involved at construction sites. From these informants it is possible only to get an idea of the siae of theeffort underway in the area. In the springosters appeared in local villages statingorkers were needed for a

* III, A,ndndespectively, above.

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military construction project in the forest between Siline It is estimated that since the springoviet construction troops were quartered in knockdown woodenin an enclosed area behind the Taurage railroadt has been reported that during8 and9 an estimate ofoviet soldiers worked on the repairoad within the construction site located southeast of Taurage between KangailaiN -E) andSakalineoviet^soldiers were reported to be working at the site in

Inilitary laoorcrs were

observed constructing bunkers west of Viesvile, south of the Pagegiai-Viesvile oviel soldiers were engaged in extensive construction activities in the area betweennd Area

A construction unit arrived from the interior of thend was placed in barracks southwest of Taurage. end of9 it was reported that the greatest part ofunit was transferred into the foresthat is, to thesite. The soldiers of the construction unit wore khakibut had nooviet constructionbilleted in tentsonstruction site in Area Aconstruction workers in the

Viesvile area as having no insignia. SZ/ In0 antwo Soviet soldiersus trip from Kaunas to hisE). Both soldiers wereArmy uniforms with black shoulderboards and allegedlyan artillery unittationed at SverdlovskNbilleted in the forest area

north of Viesvile wnerengaged in excavation workarge construction site. The soldiers left the bus at Viesvile. where they were picked upililary truck.

5. Military Personnel

Artillery troops have been reported in the Taurage areaeavy artillery unit was transferred thereromand East Berlin and garrisoned northwest and southwest of Taurage. The garrison northwest of Taurage, called "Voyen

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, allegedly was the largest,roops. (This garrison also has been reported to house both infantry and antiaircraft troops.) The garrison southwest of the town, called "Voyenadroops in Equipment of this unit was reported to include aboutatyusha rocket launchers (range

Equipment of the unit garrisoned northwest of Taurage wasto include approximatelyocket launchers mounted on four-wheel trailers towed by0 prime Missiles have been associated with the troops northwest of Taurage as the result of four other observations. On three occasions in9 an informanthree-axle flat trailer of lattice girder construction being towed by an armored fighting vehicleully tracked prime mover from Taurage in the direction of the artillery barracks. The outline of an objectong was discerniblearpaulin. According to the sketch supplied by the informant, the object, an alleged rocket, had two fins about one-third of the distance from the rearThe object described is similar to the Guidelineissile.) Innother informantwo-axle trailer being towedeavy Soviet Array truck from the barracks in the direction of the Taurage railroad station. ylindrical objectoong and5 ton diameter raised slightly at an angle on one end was on the trailer. Stabilisers, if there were any, were not identified, becausearpaulin

There is some evidence either that the artillery unit was reequipped or that at least part of the artillery troops were transferred from Taurage early9 and replaced by other artillery troops soon One new unit, however, actually may haveonstruction unit, for it was reported to have been equipped with an inordinateof construction machines, dredging machines, and

Until early9 the artillery troops were almost the only troops identified in the immediate vicinity of Tauragc. Beginning early in

ir Force, Army, and Navy personnel and service troops were

Army, Navy, and Air Force uniforms were observed in the streets of Taurage. Duringir Force troops and officer!

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were again reported in Taurago. During the latter part9 and untilaval personnel with "BF" (probably Baltic Fleet) on their shoulderboards were observed in the Viesvile area. Army personnel in the same area wore shoulderboardseplica of an armored tank on them. onstruction site neaj- Viesvile (seeoviet officers in Air Force uniforms and officers of other branches of service were observed in Inoldiers in Soviet Army uniforms with black shoulderboards wereaccompanying an alleged missile being transported on the Pagegiai-Viesvilc

6. Transportation Facilities

Rail access to the Taurage area is provided by one Soviet standard-gauge line, the Sovetsk-Pageglai-Taurage-Siauliai area line. re-World War II narrow-gauge rail line connected Pagegial, Viesvile, and Smalininkai, but available evidence indicates that this rail line no longer exists.

A depot area near the Taurage railroad station is used for storing construction materials for the construction project. ail spurinto tho area from the Taurage station furnishes off-loading An engineering battalion ofen is stationed at the depot. Construction materials shipped to theareas northwest and south of Taurage are transloaded in this area and trucked to the construction sites, and materials for the sites in the Viesvdc and Smalininkai areas appear to be transloaded to trucks at Pagegiai or trucked from

Alleged missiles have been observed moving from the vicinity of Pagegiai in tho general direction of both Taurage and ViosvUe. If these alleged missiles were transloaded al Pagegiai, such transloading might indicate that Pagegiai will play an important role in logistical support for the entire area, especially in the early stages, for il is approximately equidistant from most of the suspect sites, is served by two rail lines (Sovetsk-Siauliai andndaree military POL depot.

Nine different informants have reported the construction of rail spurs in the Taurage area. There have been no references to the constructionail spur into the Viesvile-Smalininkaiact

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which may indicate cither that access to the area will be only by road or that one of tho rumored lines from Taurage will extend beyondo connect withnd D.

Rail spurs have been rumored to be located both north and south of the main rail line that could serve both Inail siding supposedly was observed from the Taurage railroad station south to the rumored guided missile site. No traffic was observed on the siding. At the railroad station, however, the main line of the railroad turns south,ail spur continues westhort distance into an ordnance yard. It is possible that the reported rail spur is actually the main Two people, however, haveail spur being constructed9 from the Tauragc railroad station toward tho cast. One informant reports lhat the spur ends in the Stragute area, whereas the other informant reports that it wasthrough Erzvilkas to According to hearsay gathered duringreat number of freight trains traveled into unknown forest terrain between Tauragc andon an obviously newly constructed rail spur. One informant, however, reports that as of9 he observed no rail connection into the vicinity of Sakaline and Pamexiai in Area A.

A rail siding was observed under construction between JoniskeNE) and BernotiskeN -E) during the summer The construction work was done by Soviet soldiers, and it was assumed by the informant that Ihe spur might lead to the construction site. It is not known on which side of the main line the siding was located. Another siding, possibly the same one,was built in the Joniske area (approximate location,E) The siding was along the north side of the main rail line andeavily wooded area, rejoining the main lineouthwest of its point of departure The siding was not supposed to be used except in an Asthe purpose of this siding cannot be definitely linked with identified sites of suspected missile activity in the area. If this siding leadsail spur connectingith the main rail line, there appear to be more direct, and equally feasible, routes that could have been used. If the siding is in some way connected with the areas south of Taurage, there again appear to be routes that would be as direct, no less difficult, and closer to the sites north of Taurage, onnking of the areas was desired.

rail spur has been mentioned in connection with Area B. According to information indirectly acquiredemberurveying team inail spur was to be constructed from Pozeruonai stationtraight line to an airfield that was to be7m northwest cf Taurage. lanned siding wason another occasion from the freight yard southwest of Taurage, which is near Pozeruonai station, to the military barracks in the vicinity. The likely existence of construction activity in the vicinity also is supportedeport that Pozeruonai station, which was destroyed during World War II, was being reconstructedpur line were being constructed, the rumored missile support area (Area BJ north of Taurage wouldogical area to be served by the spur. The initial leg of the spur line could pass in the vicinity of the barracks and stillirect line to Area B, following the existing road between the two

Inoil moving operations were observed on theimmediately north of Taurage, and it was rumored that rail sidings would be constructed to connect the airfield with the main Road and bridge construction in the area was reported as earlyhen the Tauragc-Sakalinc-Jurbarkas road waswith crushed stone by civilian contractors. Inreportedly beganew concrete bridge over the Scsuvis River on this same road, but two informants, one of whom left the area in9 and one ineport that the river was spanned at this pointooden structure which was built after World War II and whicheight limit ofons. Repair of the road as far as Kangailai was again reported to have been completed in It was estimated thatoviet soldiers worked on the repair of the road within the construction site. As late asew asphalt surface roadide was reported to be under construction from the barracks southwest of Taurage to the construction

There have been four reports of the construction of road bridges across the Jura River. One report statedoad bridge which was over the Jura River botwecn Taurage and Pozeruonai and which had been damaged during the war was replacedew bridge which was completed inooden bridge reportedly was begun in the autumn8 and completed inew bridge was reported to have been built northwest of Taurage in the

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fall9ew concrete road that connectsith the Taurage-Silalem north of Pagramantis. Two concrete bridges reportedly were being constructed over the Jura River in the spring One bridge was built by military troops on theperimeter of Taurage. This bridge carried all traffic to and from the artillery troops barracks in the area. The other concrete bridge was constructedm southwest of Taurage by Soviet engineering units. This bridge was out of bounds to civilian traffic. It was rumored locally that this bridge was to be used for military traffic to and from Area

A road using the bridge or bridges would tie into the new orroad from Taurage to the construction site (Area A) via the bridge over the Sesuvis River. ew road was reported to be under construction in The road branched off the main Sovetsk-Taurage road,m southwest of Taurage, and allegedly led toia the village ofE). If extendedorthwesterly direction, this road would form an almost straight line to the suspected missile support area (Area B) northwest of Tauragc.

One new road (and possibly two roads) has been reported in the Viesvile area. This new road, which was constructed in the fallrosses the Pagegiai-Viesvile road atnd connectsnd C. ign at the entrance of the road loeads, "Stop, Entrance Prohibited." If this road werehort distance intoeyond that reported, it would connect with the improved road from Area B, linking Areas A, B, and C. Another new road intersects the Pagegiai-Viesvile road at coordinatesN -and extends south into Area C- An existing hard-surfaced two-lane road connectsnd D, whereas improvementsew parallel hard-surfaced road have beenin progress on the Tau rage-Jurbarkas road that "linksnd D. These roads provide, if all reported and suspectedareircular network of roads through all areas of activity in the

An informant *

stated that the electricity worksapacity otilowatts even though connected with -an overhead power line from Sovetsk. Electric current from Sovetsk

was taken by underground cable as far as Pagegiai and from there by overhead line to Taurage. Between Pagegiai andere connected.

The installation of electric power and telephone lines to thesites is based only on rumor. Conflicting reports have stated that cable trenches have been dug from Taurage to thearea west of Viesvile forower or telephone line, that an overhead telephone line was erected from Taurage to eitherr Area D,ew electric power line between Kaunas and Taurage was to be completed inhree-line high-tension cable supported by concrete postsigh was constructed through Pagra-mantis and Tauragc to the restricted area east of Siline in the fallnd that electric power was supposed lo have been installed in the restricted area south of Taurage during The informant, however, did not know of any power lines into tho area. Possible electrical switchgear or transformers were transported into the area in According to hearsay, three or four transports arrived from the USSR with "steel construction" loaded on well wagons that was then transferred to low-slung vehicles (Tieflader) at night and taken away on the road to

7. Fuel Supply

A fuel pipeline was constructed in tlie direction oftorage area by local residents} in the fall The informant was unable tooint of origin for the pipeline. According to the informant, however, the pipeline branched off from another pipeline that paralleled the Sovetsk-Taurage road for some distance. The point at which the pipeline branched off is in the immediate vicinity of Pagegiai, where thereilitary POL depot. The pipeline was approximatelym in diameter and was buried aboutm under the ground. Thereipeline pumping station about midwayPagegiai and the restricted

oviet labor battalion with an estimated strengthen, stationedarracks compound at the northern border of Pagegiai,uge stockpile of aluminum pipesong andom in diameter. The stockpile was increased in the spring The labor battalion was trained inipeline from Pagegiai to Kaliningrad. An average of lb km of pipeline was laid

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each day, and small pumping or sucking stations were installedm intervals along the

A possible explanation for the reported pipeline in the directionB is given by an

reports that he participated in the laying ol the soutnern sectoremporary POL pipeline from Sovetsk to Riga duringhe pipeline was dismantled after pressure tests. This pipeline passed to the north of Taurage and possibly is the pipeline reported as serving Area B- 7lj

The POL depot at Pagegiai has been linked with the missileactivity in Only one other instance. Between9 and9

eight railroad tank cars that were four-axle types with one dome inwere observed to bc parked on ihc rail spur at the POLtank was painted white and dark brown alternately instripes and was markedkull in red paint on thetanks

ca liquid causing causlic pains when applied to "human skin. According to the same informant, tank trucks traveled at night between the depotuided missile base under construction in the Viesvile Forest and between the depot and the Sovetsk

8. Electronics Facilities

Ano evidence of the SAM-

associated Spoon Rest or Fruit Set radars in the vicinity of Tauragc. The closest Spoon Rest radars arc at VU'nyusN -EJ. Kaliningrad,'LicpayaNRigaN -EJ. and VentspilsNE). FruitSet radar signals have been received only from the Kaliningrad

Electronic facilities have been reported at the Tauragc airfield-,iiico in the areas north, south, and southwest of Taurage. Jnn electronic installation was reportedm north of Taurage along theagramantis rood and approximately

* ismission of construction at the Tauragc airfield, see. 2J, above.

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i

ast of the road. The installation was called both an electronic warfare stationamming station. The installation included the following: equipment with Yagi aerials and elements mountedastigh and corresponding to thenife Rest (early warning) family but without the rectangular mesh refractions ofooden hutom rotating Bpiral aerial protruding from theowl-shaped, possibly rotating, antenna withiameter. Close to the antenna was an unidentified tractor and one unidentified closed truck. Although, inairly large-scale military construction project was reported in this same vicinity, another informant reports that as of0 no guided missile or rocket activities were observed in the general area.

A radar site has been reportedm northeast of Taurage.orth of the Taurage-Siauliai road. The radar was identifiedkew Feed (height finder) and was mountedteel towerigh. The screen, which wasigh, also was observed revolving slowly.

Duringilitary antenna site was locatedast-southeast of Zygaiciai. The installationof two radio vansopart. Each van carried amast thatigh and was toppedorizontal bar. The horizontal bars of both vans were connected by several wires. Duringboutans were parked in the

Approximatelyound timber towers were reported to have been constructed in the summer and fall9 in the area north of Taurage. (It was rumoredotal ofowers would behe towers are described as approximatelyigh andn diameter at the base. Round or square black objects approximatelyom in diameter were observed on the tops of the towers. The informant could give the approximate location of only four of the towers, as follows: (a) in the town of RidikiskeNE.E, and Other wooden trestle towers are located southwest of Taurage. near the town ofE).

*ooden hut housed the ground equipment. ** istance the aerial appeared to be made of steel plates thatronounced sheen.

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One tower, observed during3 tos located just east-northeast of Lauksargiai at coordinates" NE. The installation is located on the topilligh and consistsimber trestle towerigh at the top of which ishaped device formed by twoong. Every spring, summer, and early fall, approximately nix Soviet soldiers reportedly ware housedent pitched under the tower. People living near the device claimed that iteteorological station.

The other wooden tower in the vicinity was located atNnd was built in9 by Soviet troops. It wasoigh andooden platform on its top. An unidentified apparatus waa placed on the platform but was kept covered. losed van truck waa at the foot of the tower, and moreozen soldiers were always on the spot. The soldiers arcto have said that the apparatus was for locating aircraftreat distance and for guiding home friendly aircraft.

A third timber trestle tower is located at approximatelyNE. It isigh andlatform on its top. It is not known whether or not the tower supported an

ther trestle-like structures were constructed In tho vicinity of BaltupenaiNukai, PagenaiciaiNezininkaiNnd SerciklaukisN Each tower was tapering,ound platform on its top, andow-pitched gable roof. oleom highorizontal black board was on top of the roof.

There were two towers in the vicinity of Baltupenai: oneoigh at2nd the secondoigh at approximatelyN -E. At Pagenaiciai the tower wasigh and was located at approximatelyNE. owerigh was located north of Vezininkai at approximatelyNnd at Sc rciklaukis, where the exact location of tho tower was not known.

At Zukai thereoweroigh at approximatelyN -E. oast of the tower at Zukai thereoncreteyn top of whichooden tripod. cm vertical pole was on top of the tripod.

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and the over-all height. Anotherthese installations, minus theoower, was located south of Zukai at approximatelyN

9. Security

Rigid security measures have permitted actual observation of the activities within the restricted areas (except Subarea Ay) onlyand each area of construction activity has been reported to have strict security restrictions. Descriptions of the security measures have ranged from barbed wire fences, watchtowers, electrified wire fences, and brick or concrete walls to the report of one informant that no special security measures were evident in one area in There have been many reports that civilian drivers of trucks carrying construction material to the restricted areas were not permitted to enter the areas with their trucks. Military drivers look over the loaded trucks at the entrance and returned the empty trucks later. One persistent rumorarmer being shot while trying to retrieve his cow from the restricted area. This rumor has been linked with each of the major restricted zones in the

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APPENDIX OURCE REFERENCES

Evaluations, following the classification entry and designated 'Eval.ave tho following significance;

Information

Source of Information

Doc. -Confirmed by other sources

ompletely- Probably true

suallyPossibly true

airly- Doubtful

ot usually- Probably false

ot- Cannot be judged

annot be judged

"Documentary" refers to original documents of foreignand organisations; copies or translations of such documentstaff officer; or Information extracted from such documentstaff officer, all of which may carry the field evaluation"

Evaluations not otherwise designated are those appearing on the ciicd document; those designated "RR" are by the author of this No "RR" evaluation is given when the author agrees with the evaluation on the cited document.

SSR. Gosudarstvennyy Nauchnyy Institut. "Taurage" (Taurage) Bol'shaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya (Great Soviet Encyclopedia;oscow, Eval. Doc.

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Original document.

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