Created: 12/1/1961

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible


Psywar By Forgery

author: Alma Fryxell

volume: Winter



a collection ol articles on the historical, operational, doctrinal, and theoretical aspects ol intelligence.

tatements or fact, opinion or analysis expressed in Studies in Intelligence are those of

the authors They do not necessarily reflect official positions or views of the Central Intelligence Agencyny other US Government entity, past or present. Nothing in the contents should be construed as asserting or implying US Government endorsement of an article's faciual statements and interpretations.

Case study of how the Sino-Soviet Bloc intelligence services provide black support for overt psychological warfare themes.


There is nothing new about the use ot forged documents in the psychological warfare operations of the Sino-Soviet Bloc intelligence services, especially In pursuit of particular almsingle country; West Germany, for example, has been flooded with them for years. But the78oticeable increase in internationally distributed propaganda-by-forgcry supporting the general Bloc objectives of discrediting the United States and other Western countries and of promoting division in the West For these two yean and the first half8 such forgeries surfaced hihave been discovered,umber of other Instances wherein the texturported document was quoted without attempt at reproductionocument was at least falsely reported to existotal ofases available for study from this period.

Some of these were sniper shots at individual Important targets, without relation to any of the others and usually without any further follow-up. but most ofinterconnected into rune distinguishable series, and some formed rather elaborate progressions In prolonged campaigns given heavy play in the overt propaganda media. The false documents were many of them originally surfaced in the overt Bloc media,reater number were planted, especially in the underdeveloped countries, in small "Independent"subsidized for such purposes or otherwise controlled.were transmitted to their targets through diplomatic channelsew by covert mailing.

The orchestration of these varied mediaoordinated campaign requires central direction. We know that black propagandaunction of the Bloc foreign intelligenceunder close direction from high Party echelons It Is

possible that the entire Bloc show Is directednit ol the CPSU Central Commit toe and run by the KGB through its liaison officers with the other services.

Single Documents

An example of the Isolated false document Is provided by the most recent of the cases in this period, the only one con-rope the purported textocument signed by the prime minister of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Sir Boy Weiensky, and by the "head of the European organization of Central Africa, Alfredhich declared that it had been officiaUyto transfer African nationalist prisoners "to another concentration camp where all those who would not express their resolution to break, with African nationalism would beTI explained that this meant the Hola camp in Kenya, and reported further:

The African prisoners involved numberf,they refuse to disown the Nationalistwill be thrown Into ditches called "poison wells" filledwater.ew days the poisoned water willthe body andCairo bureau of the Kenya African

Association states that according to their knowledge,fricans have already been exterminated "experimentally" by

MTTs sensational disclosure of this perhaps too heinous plan was not picked up and used, as far as we know, in other media

A more ambitious single-shot effort was made in8 by the Czech intelligence service. It forged, with accurate duplication of format and style, an entire issue of Ceskeona fide newspaper published In Munich by Czech emigres, and mailed It black from Munich and Vienna to current and former subscribers, using one genuine mailing list it hadsome years earlier by unknown means and another recently obtained by burglarizing the Ceske Slovo offices. The

'ad transllteraUon from Cyrillic through Arabic, alongarbled title. Alfred Vincent was chairman of the Organisation of European Members of the East African Central Legislative Assembly. Neither Cyrillic nor Arabic, and Arabic has no p.

forged edition carried antf-West propaganda and announced that the newspaper was going out of existence because itswere disillusioned with the West. In an exceptionalarticles from it were quoted as authentic not only by the official Rude Pravo but by Party papers In Austria and Luxembourgon-Party Chicago monthly, Svobodne Ceskoslovensko, that follows the propaganda line of the Czech

articularly dangerous kind ot forged document was put into the mall7 by the Hauptverwaltung Auf-klaerung, the East German equivalent of the KGB, which In January of that year had been assigned psychological warfareajor operational responsibility. In France thatone of the biggest news stories was the killing of the Strasbourg police chief's wife onayomb mailed her husband in the guiseift package. There had been mailed at the same time and in the same Paris postatch of particularly vicious hate-letters to French officials and private citizens in Paris and Alsace-Lorraine, and the conviction was growing that these and the terrorist bomb stemmed from the same source. The letters, demanding the return of Alsace- Lorraine to Germany, were one of several series of Nazistlc letters and leaflets signed "Kampfverband fuer eln Unabhaengigesn organization since determined to have been invented by the HVA for agltatory purposes (andraternal plug8 broadcast from Radio Moscow warning the French against It andthat it was secretly supported by the West German

The single document mailed7eep and dexterous thrust evolved from the fictitious Kampfverband's campaign. Addressedigh French official in Westitorged letter from Bum O'Shaughnessy, head of the Political Division of our Bonn embassy, calling the State Department's attention to the activity of German reactionary and ultranatlonalist groups and recommending that. Government support these groups and use them. Having been delivered thus simply to Its target, the French government, the forgery was never published or replayed In any way. It was convincing enough to have caused genuine damage

by forgery

Frenchthat it had been typed on the same machine as some other HVA psywar productions.

The remaining (our individual cases were mere allegations of the existence of Incriminating documents, made once and not repeated. One concerned the Near East:8 the Czech press agency CTK attributed to "the Cairoeport that the new Sudanese government had found

three were targeted in tbe Far East and appeared ln the Bora-bayoviet-controlled "Independent"State Department directive to Ambassador Bishop in Thailand that he "screen the loyalties of the King and his governmenta secret pact between Premier Klshl and Secretary Dulles "to permit use of Japanese troops anywhere inetter from Chiang Kai-shek to President Eisenhower warning that "every third soldier" in the Natkmalist army was disloyal

The Taipei Cables and Indonesia

Blitz was also the vehicle for an extended if not veryseries of facsimile forgeries devised to takeof the7 riot at the American embassy InOneptember it prepared Its readers for the forgeries by reporting rumors that Ambassador Rankin was In trouble and might be dismissed because some of the embassy'ssecret documents had been lost when the premises were raided by the rioters. In Its Issue of the following week Ittbe first of these documents, two cables towherein Ambassador Rankin discusses with some obliquity tbe methods to be used in assassinating Chiang and others In his entourage and recommends the murders beas accidents. The text was couched In allusive terms for the sake of verisimilitude, but In Its accompanyingBlitz removed any uncertainty Its readers might have had about its meaning and left nothing to their ImaginaUon-Thls is the usual Bloc practice In the surfacing of verbatim forgeries; but the rest of the Taipei series used less subtle

The next issue of Blitz,eptember, reproduced theand first lines of two fabricated cables from Ambassador

Allison In Indonesia to the Department, as "repeated toand quoted their full texts. One urged Increased aid, including combat units from Formosa, for dissidentmovements; the other reported progress in intrigues to overthrow Sukarno and gave directions for packaging arms shipped from Formosa and Malaya to the Darul Islam. The same treatment was given the final Item In the series, in

a cable from Washington which deplored the tendency of SEATO members exhibited at Its Canberra session to use the pact to obtain economic aid.. ambassadors that "control over the armed forces of the Asian members of SEATO remains our primend outlined steps to keep the local governments in line. Blitz apologized that the

American Plot Overthrow Sukarno

Atrocities In Oman


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Oi Subversion In laipeH Voeumcrtt

International Gangsterisi Of American Embassies

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was incomplete because "the lower portion of the second page of this telegram was torn off during the riots."

After some months* delay the items in this Taipei series were given further play to vulnerable selected audiences. The story of Rankin's plot against Chiang was broadcast to Taiwan by Radio Peking onecember. The State Department's cabled views on SEATO were picked up at the turn of the year

by the pro-Communist weekly La Patrie published in Bangkok, the capital of the only proper Southeast Asia mainlandof SEATO.8 Radio Moscow addedimplicating Ambassador Cummlngs inf Indonesia documented In the forged Allison cables and broadcast an account of it to the United Kingdom,pril the Djakarta Berita Minggu, another controlled "indepcnd-enWflEcekly,hat. the^uthe^ son cables had been confirmed, and Peking's news agency nona carried this conJlnnation In its English-languagefor Europe.

This late replay of the Allison cables merged them Intoseries concerned with Indonesia. The outbreak of open rebellion there in8 brought new specific and heavily played charges that the United States had planned the revolt and was covertly giving It military support. Onarch Blitz told its readers that US. officers at SEATOin Bangkok had been ordered to submit Immediately an opinion on the construction. atom bases in Sumatra:

It Is known hereop Secret agreement has beenby tbe Indonesian separatists with the SEATO andgroups, which provides for both SEATO and US. bases In "free-Sumatra. This agreement was finalised after secret talks which took place recently in Tokyo between COL Bumunal. representing the "Separatist Government" of the Ussata-ShafrodcUn rump, and represcntaUves of. Embassy.

This report was followed up onay, in the Rangoon weekly The Mirrorhird controlledy the textetter said to be from rebel leader M. SJamsuddin to Ambassador Mac Arthur, evidently on the subject ofthe atom-base agreement. It began:

Your phone call proved to be real magic Theas very useful. We have agreed on practically aU the details.ope, ties will remain permanent and we will receive all necessary materials without delay.

Soon, however, it became necessary to counter the effect of the United States' publicized friendly negotiations with the Sukarno government,ew forgery was promptly launched to show that. public attitude wasmoke-screen.une The Mirror printed the text of aletter from naval intelligence chief Rear Admiral Lau-

rence Frost to the rebel leader Kawiiarang, telling him "not to despair Just because the US. Issued statements expressing on the surface *no Interference' In the Indonesian civil war. We will continue giving assistance to you through Taiwan and the Philippines and otherfter two weeks this story was repeatedhronic Indonesian vehicle for plot charges, the "Independent'* Djakarta Blntang Timur, andfjQpjfAQfivp version was carried by the Chinese.ncnAeek*laWrino-Soviet domestic broadcasts.

We happen to have some details on the mechanics through which such counterfeit texts would be placed in The Mirror or another of the half-dozen receptive Burmese papers. The KGB rezldentura at the Rangoon embassy would receive them from Moscow in Russian, translate them there into English, and pass them In this form to the more or less controlled press outlets. The papers would do their own translating into Burmese, but the rezldentura would check the published texts against the original Russian and report any variations to Moscow.

Expansionist Israel

A most complex and enduring misinformation series using the full orchestra of rumor campaign, diplomatic whispers, planted Intelligence information, press allegations, andforgeries beganear after the abortive British-French -Israeli Invasion of Egypt. In7 rumors began circulating in official and diplomatic circles In Paris that the French and Israeli General Staffs were working togetherlanew Joint action against Egypt. When the rumors were traced It was learned, first, that they had no foundation in fact and. second, that all traceable such talesingle local point ofAndre Ulmann, directormall "independent"ribune des Nations, but notoriousro-Soviet propagandist. During the first weeks of April these rumors were complemented by Intelligencereceived from Lebanon and from Italy to the effect that France "waslot In cooperation withhe Italian report said that "the Israeli press has not mentioned the matter, but details are being discussed publicly."

On these subtle foundations the campaign was openlyIn the falL Onctober the Bombay Blitz carried

a long article exposing "Israeli plans to dismember the Arab states and organise an empire":


A buu correspondenteat Asian country bad an opportunity of getting acquainted In detailecret strategic plan of the Israeli General Stall. We may be able to publish the plan In full In

It envisage* military operations against tha countries bordering

for the annexat


Tha scheme take* Into account the circumstance that Israel will not be able to rely on victory if she acta alone. In this connection. ,oa tea part of the USA, Britain and France Is envisaged beforehand. The Plan especiallyhat "the US. Is Interestedlash between Israel and tbe Arabnd tbat -the UA Interest In the strategic points of tbe Middle East is explained by the striving lo strengthen her positions la thla oil-rich

A month later, in fulfillment of its promise. Blitz putpage booklet, entitled Dagger of Israel, containing the "Strategic Plan of the Israeli Army, translated from the original Inhis document, an obvious fraud,umbling, badly written tract with the details given in the October article as its propaganda climax. The book had been In preparation, according to its Introduction, since March,he time when the "French-Israeli General Stan-rumors had appeared In France.

After this the drive apparently went Into winter quarters, but it was renewed the following spring.8 Mikhail Stepanovich Rogov, Counselor of the Soviet embassy in ParisGB officer,esternof course told histhe USSR was currently "worried about increased French-Israeli political and militaryhe next day Blitz took up the refrain, with slight variations:

DiplomaUc circles at Tel Aviv report that the Israeli Armed Forces command l< elaborating Jointly with the Frencho-caned "Plan of Preventive HcoUBUes" against theeantime. Israel Is franUcaUy seekinghe Americans are now helping her to an alliance with the anU-Arab NATO member Turkey.

U.S. involvement, not to be left thus subordinate, was the main burden of another Blitz article onpril reporting

that Secretary Dulles had announcedlosed session of the House Foreign Affairs Committee "that the United States would support the demands of the Ben Gurion Government on enlarging the territory of Israel at the cost of the Arabecounting the year-old rumors of secret Joint planning by the French and Israeli General Staffs. Blitz said that. Government had been kept fully Informed of the plan by both

In October the secret Israeli strategic planear earlier by Blitz was Included,en-page excerpt.age book published by the State rhibushlng House forLiterature, Ln Moscow, under the title The Stateosition and Policies. Presentedhistory ofand the Zionisthe bookholeicious propaganda attack, of the rnlsinformation variety, against the State of Israel, all of Its political parties except the CP. and "the ZionistUnited States In particular and the West ln general. It seems to have been designed for use Ln Communist study groups,arxist-Leninist viewpoint on the part of the reader. But Its similarity in other respects to Bltts's less comprehensive Dagger of Israel Is great enough to present the possibility that bothwere prepared Ln the same place, if not written by the same Individual. It is notable that rather crude material like this Israeli plan and Admiral Frost's reassurance to the in-

, doneslan rebels, designed for unsophisticated targets Ln Asia and the Near East. Is deemed suitable for the more knowl-

j edgeablc but carefully warped Soviet audience.

Inew edition of the book Arab Dawn published by Blitz carried the author's statement that he had learned in October, in Beirut, "of the latest Ln the series of Anglo-American plans to 'cut Nasser down tohich France has sincehe plan, "scheduled to take place next spring orrovided for Western action against Ieba-non, Iraq, and the Sudan. In addition, however:

A supplementary plan has been attached to the mainsupplementary document Introduces the latest plan ofGeneral staff lo take over the West Bank of thaby meanswift bbtskrtes The Until plan, whichhas the approval of the CIA. the British Ambassador In

Beirut and the OS. Ambassador lns built around the

possibility of cllher the flight or the assassination of Klnr Hussein of Jordan In the near future.

The "Israeli General Stall" canard, now enshrined in anSoviet publication, can continue indefinitely withits roleart of the Bloc psychological warfareOn9 the Turkish Foreign Ministry denied witheport published In the Moscow Red Fleet that

of Turkey's support of Israel for an attack against the Arabs especially against the UAR. In the near future.

Other Near East

. Intrigues against theide-line In the elaborate Israeli effort, were the whole themehorter but equally important series of forgeries.8 the clandestine Bizim Radio, located in Leipzig but broadcasting in Turkish as from Turkey, carried the following "news item":

Report fromAmerican State Department has sentdirective to Its envoys In the Middle Eastiewthe UAR. The dlrecUve points out that Sovietin tbe Arab countries has Increased owing to Sovietof the UAR and urges tbe envoys to use every means tota-

Onortnight after the Iraqiocument answering to this description was published in facsimile by the Cairo daily Al Ahram. It purported totate"circular letter" over Assistant Secretary Rountree's signature, cabled onpril to diplomatic missions In theEast. Explaining that any apparent softeningoward the UAR wasactical device, it stated that one of the principal aims in the Middle East was to destroy the UAR by splitting it into Its original Syrian and Egyptian components, to stop the growth of Egyptian influence, and to spoil Soviet-UAR relations.

This forgery was apparently thought convincing enough to be given rather wide play In the overt Bloc media, most heavily to domestic and Near East audiences but also to Europe and South Africa.ugust Blitz carried it. making explicit the supposition that the mcrlminating document had come to light in Bagdadesult of the Republican coup. In De-

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Thla circular letter la being aenta la Dapartaeat to. diplomatic repraeentatlTee In tbe- kiddla Eaat on tha aub;ect of tha Onltad Statee' policy ia ragard to tha united Arab Republic.

Tna Stata Betartaeot rtafflraa that Ma Male objaotivea of. policy In relation tohancad. It atroaaa ana-panaion .of Egypt'* spf.are ot influanca la counter to ihe Joint Resolution of tha Congreaa on tha L'lddle Eaat. etranjthene Arab nailonallan, enceuragee antl-ffaatern and particularly an tl-American tander.clee In tbe Kiddle Eaat and Africa, underolnee tha Baghdad Fact, an laportant UnX In Wa strategic netaor* of tha free -orld, and lapalra tha position of laroel tha lntareate of ahlchn noignore.

ha (aot that actual control over thaI'Iddle Saat oil to Europe both through tha Suesfrjr1 VMto the Mediterranean la no-

ser* ervvrated in Cairo seriouslya nowosition

to exertupon.ther aaatarn powers, thla poaallllltjr cuormidable weapon Ir.arda ofIf ha happen* to fall bae. on tha Soviet bloc In tha future.


First Pacz ok Pjibkhh CmcnLsit

cember. when Rountree visited the Near East, Radio Cairo and NCNA revived the story again.

The Rountree circular, like the Taipei cables, did look more or less like the real thing, but it could not stand up under close examination. Its "Confidential/Security Information" classification was one discontinued Lnhere is no "circular letter" in Department nomenclature, and a

berlng waseal Circularaving been transmitted nine months earlier; the form on which It was typed had been replaced Intate messages are not signed by an Assistant Secretary but only by the Secretary or Acting Secretary. Operational carelessness is also evident In Btzlm Radio's having described it eight days before its purported date and three months before the Bagdad coup was supposed to have made It available.

The Rountree forgery was followed up in late March and early9 by one other, sent anonymously In photostat to some papers and parliament and government members in the Near East and passed around in Intelligence circles there. It wasetter from Under Secretary Robertassuring Ambassador McCUntock In Lebanon thatIs not the man we shall support" since "you are right to note that we have nothing In common with Nasser and his kind" and adding, with obvious reference to the UAR and Iraq, that "You certainly are aware ofave In minday that after the snakes devour each other, the Junglesafer!" It was never published or otherwise replayed.

The presence of US. troops In Lebanon8 had been the occasion for another brief false document campaign. Onugust Radio Bagdad reported that "ln Lebanon, Saeb Salam hasable from four American paratrooperstheir desire to volunteer for service in the people'she cable was never produced nor the storybut onugust the outlawed Beirut ALMasaaa forged letter addressed to members of. Army Task Force In Lebanon and signedurportedly an officer in. Engineer Battalion. Thisalutation which showed that he was given to the use of Briticismsth Engineers" and "officers and

other ranks" and to soleclstlc rnUitary abbreviations, wrote

as follows:

I arrived togetherroup of American officers from Munich onulylobemasterew days ago weorders to remain In Lebanon for is months to safeguard the peace and security of the United States.


will be dispatched soon to Lebanon. and.Belrut harbor willinto America's principal naval base for its Near

One cannot fall to realise that the object of all these preparations Is to wipe out the millions of Arabs who are struggling for their nationalbat ism asking you, my comrades, to demand that we be withdrawn from Lebanon to the United States quickly, and If we truly love our country we should return there without further delay. American officers and troops: Don't allow yourselves to be fooled; don't allow yourselves to become involved In military adventure for the benefit of any of theracoons!

The Chinese NCNA. picking up this story, credited theBeirut AUMasaa for it; but Sovietthe Daily Review of the Soviet Press distributed by the SovietBureau in Moscow,idely broadcast Radio Moscowit with only the phrase, "It has become knownnd they gave the writer's name as "Johnson" rather thanpparently having beenifferent draft of the forgery.

Irresponsible us. Atom pilots

The black support of propaganda campaigns aimed atwas more sophisticated. The principal series beganhrushchev statement possibly designed for the purpose, possibly only later recognized as exploitable. In his interview with Hearst and two other American journalistshrushchev stressed the danger inherent In aairborne, nuclear-armed SAC alert and continued,to TASS:

signalignal for action and fly to the target that be had been Instructed to fly to. Under suchar may start purely by chance, since retaliatory action wouldtaken

Inar may startesult of sheera derangement In the normal psychic sUteerson.

which may happen toEren if only one plane with

one atomic or one hydrogen bomb were ln theI would be

Some five months later,ayhe official East German Neues Deutschland reproduced what purported toetter datedarch from Assistant Defense Secretary Frank B. Berry to Secretary McElroy reporting thatercent of all USAF flignt personnel had been found to beondition which led to all sorts of phobias, unaccountable animosity, and other Irrational behavior.drinking, drug-taking, sexual excesses and perversions, and constant card-playing were mentioned as further evidence thatdepressionypical condition of all crewmaking flights with atomicombs"

Although perhaps convincing to the man In the street, this forgery was full of errors. The letter format would hardly have been used for this kind of report. The vague "group of experts" said to have reached the medical findings would have been named, and no such obscure and ineffectual corrective measures as "further improvement of aircraft equipment" would have been proposed. There is much wrong military terminology- -Internal Zone. Air Force Command and AFC, the Patuxent River AFBhe Cooke AFP,ore esoterlcally, Dr. Berry happened to be away on an official trip on the date of the letter; and finally, it was typed eitherachine assembled In composite from several different makes or one of unknown foreign manufacture.

The letter was widely publicized In the overt media,to European audiences.onth the Delhi Times, perennial purveyor of Bloc propaganda, replayed it, and this gave TASS and Izvestia reason to run it again, crediting the Delhi Times. After almost three months more, onugust, the Bombay Blitz carried it. explaining that it had been"early this month" in Neves Deutschland: the replay copy fabricated for Blitz had apparently been delayed Ln


a* -

By August several more installments in the serial had appeared.

Having provided official evidence that Khrushchev's "pilot who could decide the question ol war" waswo-thirds majority mentally unstable, the planners of the campaign soon fell into an unplanned {one hopes) bit of luck.SAF base in the UK managed to get into the airon-operational Air Force bomber he was neither au-


thorized nor qualified to fly and crashed shortly after takeoff killing himself. This dramatic example of Irresponsibility,in the press onune, was seized upon by Radioand linked with the Berry letter onndune The next installment was offereduly: the SovietIn London handed the British Foreign Office andto the WesternetterSAF pilot

to the danger of accidentallyuclear war. Radio Moscow of course Irrunedlately linked this aberration with the Berry letter and the crashed bomber, and the sensational character of the forgery together with Its solemn official transmittal aroused extensive comment in thepress throughout the Western world. No doubt In the hope of repeating this delightful burst of publicity, theembassyuly released two more letters along the same lines but varying In detail and oneptemberourth; but these were virtually Ignored by the press.

The last act of the campaign beganctober, when Neves Deutschland, reentering as the chief protagonist, claimed to have learned through the indiscretionSAF officer stationed at Kaiserslautem that SAC commander Oen-eral Power had recently issued orders forbidding any planes carrying atomic or hydrogen bombs to make flights. territory. During the next two months the dire implications of this prohibition, together with the Berry letter, were widely played by Bloc media, including the clandestine Radio Espafia Independiente. first to Europe and then to the Near and Far East. By the end of November even BUU had received and printed Its copy.

France, Germany, and the Sahara OH

On8 Neues Deutschland reproduced, partly Inevious and rambling forged letter which it said had been written by former Under Secretary Herbert Hoover,o "the American capitalist Curtis, who is now ints purpose was clearly to recruit Curtis for the job of wresting control of the Sahara oil fields away from France and obtaining ownership, oil companies in or-

fsywar oy rorgeiy

USA-Monopole greifei

der to clip the wings of "the Gallichere wereto. conniving against France andbig NATO reorganisationther Bloc media picked up the story and publicized It for several days, especially toand North Africa.

onthorged letter lo Secretary Dulles from Ambassador David K. E. Bruce in Weal Germany was mailed

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ftywot fly rorgtry

anonymously to some prominent Journalists and otherIn France and England. It read In part:

o secret for the Germans that our policy In Europe is based on the principle the more pressure Germany brings on Britain and France In Europe, the more reasonable they become In Asia and Africa. The West Oermans share our view that the tick woman of the Seine Is no longer capable ofoodossible toertain anxiety in the business com-

o the Sahara. Do you not therefore consider It expedient for us. Sir. lo give the Oermans emphatic assurances that we will continue to help them in the matter of the Sahara aa i" other matters, sinceommon effort will make It potubke for ui to consolidate our own positions In this area*

This covert thrust, rather like the O'Shaughncssy forgery of the preceding summer urgingsupport of neo-Naziat the time of the Kampfverband letters, was never carried Into the open, and no kind of follow-up has been

The Summit Conference

Later8 there was another campaign of brief duration centered. policy, but this was targeted world-wide. Onay Rude Pravo printed the textetter allegedlyto Chancellor Adenauer by Economics Minister Ludwlg Erhard, reading In part:

The highest representaUves of the West German armamentsupport Adenauer's pohcy of remilitarization without reserve and eraphaUceUy ask Adenauer to frustrate all attemptselaxation of International tension, to prevent the convening of the Summit Conference, and to reject, along with the United Bute* the policy of peaceful coexistence

Publicity for this item was confined to Czech media, butune the East German press agency ADN published what It claimed to be the German translationsecretfrom. State Department sent to the chiefs of US. missions abroad" layingS. policy of sabotagingfor the summit conference. During the following week this forgery was carried to audiences ail over the world by Radio Moscow and other Bloc media, and It was revivedonth later for the Near East.

Rockefeller-Dulles Views on World Domination

The most ambitious ot the black propaganda campaigns oferiod in point of intended world impact, and the last to be described here, used as its mainorged letter from Nelson Rockefeller to President Elsenhowera plan. domination of the world through use of

In facsimile excerpts and full-text translation onubheads inserted into the translated text by the paper give .an Idea of the message its forgers wished to convey:

American prestige catastrophicaUy lowered What is good for Standard Oil is good for. How we established NATO State Department counted on war with China Iranian foreign policy under our control Economic "assistance" leads to military ties Egypt will bog down and need our "assistance" The hooked fish needs no bait Forcing neutral states in the desired direction Bringing others' colonies under our control About the "selflessness" of American assistance The objective: to secure military alliances

The forgeryredible one in general tone and phrasing (one passage has been spotted as taken almost verbatimew York Timesut its execution was really quite unskillful. There are the usual Britisheconomising,some BritishFlag followsthe hooked fish needs noramminghere are bad translations, apparently fromfriends" used In the sense of Parteifreunde or politische Freunde; the writer's "tiresome" discussion with the convalescent President, where ermuedende should have been renderedurportedly written Inhe letter refers in past tense to the visit of Sir Anthony Eden, who did not arrive untilanuary. Worst Is thetypingsalutation, uneven touch, ragged margins, strlkeovers, errors in punctuation and selling. It



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donerewar machine made in eastern Germany. Mr. Rockefeller's real correspondence is done on an electricwith particular attention to neatness and carefullyspelling and punctuation. The forger was also clearly

unaware that Mr. Rockefeller dislikes frequent use of the"L"

Such errors as these, however, to the predominant extent that the forgeries are aimed at public opuiion rather thandetract less from their effectiveness than one might expect. Once the forged documents have achieved theirimpact on the public mind, especially in underdeveloped

areas, denials and offlclal exposures are likely lo be met with skepticism.ndeed they come to public notice at all Radio Moscow promptlyajor effort to publicize the Rockefeller letter and carried it during the following week in dozens of broadcasts In all languages, initially favoringhi underdeveloped countries but then broadening to include western Europe. It was assisted by other Bloc media


Deutchland to sharpen up one aspect of the Rockefellerthe grasping colonialism of American policy,eapon particularly effective against Near Easturported memorandum from Secretary Dulles to the President written in the last half of6 and urgingo step Into the Near East power vacuum, it waswith quotes and described as proof that the Wall Street views of Rockefeller formed the basis forolicy manifest in the Elsenhower Doctrine since enunciated.

This occasioned another week-long burst ot overtplaying on both documents, mostly for the benefit of the Near East. Covert assets were also employed: in late March an East German trade delegation official met secretly with Arab League personnel and arranged to have the two forgeries translated into Arabic for hand-out to the governments of member states. In November, with the withdrawal. troops from Lebanon, publicity for the documents wasand by the end of that month moreundredof replay had been reported, someercent of them world-wide Moscow broadcasts. Even0 the Rockefeller letter continued to cropFebruaryanoi newsin March in the Bagdad CP organ Ittihad al-Shaab. and in Julyroadcast from Peking to South Asia.

Patterns and Current Progress

It is notable that although the massive overt propaganda facilities of the USSR, seconded by the almost comparable media of Communist China, had the preponderant role inall nine of the black campaigns studied, neither of them did the original surfacing of any of the forgeries (unless you count the Londonropaganda facility In trans-

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muting the. pUot letters or Khrushchev's complicity in opening the unstable-pUotf the overt Bloc media the German were most frequently used for surfacing but even they brought out only six of thealse documents.'

There were doubtless other individual forgeries during this period that have not come to light, but our list of nine in-ternahonally distributed multiple-forgery series is probably fairly complete. It is therefore of interest that they form an almost regular pattern of geographical targeting for the two years in which they were7 one each aimed at Europe, Asia, the Near East, and the world at large, with none specifically for the western hemisphere;8 the same but an extra one for the Near Bast. If this pattern reflects' norms imposed on KGB planning8 must have created In the Near East section some Heroes of Socialist

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Forgery, and there should havehake-up of theHemisphere staff. Perhaps this is what produced0 the covertly circulated forged Dillon airgram exposed by the State Departmenteptember, referring to "the program set up [by the United States] to liquidate the Castro regime" butebruary, when Under Secretary Dillon was out of town, and marred by formal errors and one of thoseBritish i


Sino-Soviet black psychological warfare operattonsr uke overt propaganda attacks, may be not only sensitive to theprovided by hot spots around the world, as one might expect, but also subject to administrative damping duringto relax East-West tensions. From9 through0 only two new forgeries of the type under discussion appeared, one In Blitz for tbe Far East and one In Neves Deutschland for Europe. But between the collapse at tbe Sum-mil and the MS. electionuccessor to President Eisenhower, production was Increased sevenfold,eat schedule of one new forgery per month.

One of these, happily countered by the Slate Department before publication, was photocopies mailed to. embassy memorandum showing thatlanes were going to be hidden temporarily on Okinawa and then secretly returned to Japan. But the hottest spot0 has of course been Africa. In April9 story of concentration camps and poison wells, credited to the Afro-Asian Permanent Secretariat ln Cairo, was usedpeechAR delegate to the Afro-Asian conference in Conakry. In Juneorged paper revealing British and American Imperialist plots against the newly Independent African countries. And in early September, with Lumumba still ascendant In the Congo, Leopoldville newspapers received copiesrank "letter from Under Secretary Dillon toTimberlake":

Limit your contacts with Lumumba's political opponent* to aespecially with Tshombe's people, although they should not be dlsconUnuedoment. We of course are certain that after what he received In Washington. Tshombe will not go back on us at lesjt of hU own free will. Ood only knows what these blacks are likely to do. It would be difficult to Ond more mercenary creatures

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Original document.

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