CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE IN?
THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INDUSTRY OF THEND PROSPECTS5
THIS RETORT SHOULD/NOT BE RFPROOUCKI) IN WHOLE OR IN PART WITHOUT THE/PKRMlsSION OF THE CENTRA/GENCY
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INDUSTRY OF THEND PROSPECTS5
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Research and Reports
This report is concerned with recent and projected developments in the construction materials industry of the USSR. In the first section the rates of growth of the industry are compared with other segments of the Soviet economy, and several indexes of tho production ofmaterials alao are compared. In the second section the component branches of the industry ore examined, including their relativeand the individual problems and possibilities for the development of the more Important component industries.
Data1 are fragmentary, and the data that have been published usually are preliminary and subject to revision. Because of thesepreliminary data1 are Included in the tobies whereverbut are not often included in the discussion. For example,for production of construction materials1 have beenfrom preliminary data for products representing less than one-half of the total value of production of construction materials.
When final data1 are available, this Index will be revised,5etailed methodology of theof prices and output and the subtractions necessary to obtain the value-added index.
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I. Construction Materials in General
in the Soviet
of Indexes of Production
II. Components of the Construction Materials Industry
Importance and Increases in Production
of the Component
3- Wall Materials
5. Other Construction Materials
Appendix A. Statistical
Appendix C. Source References
of Production of Construction Materials, Con-
struction-Installation Work, and the Total Industrial
Production in tbe,5
of Production of Construction Materials and
Average Annual Rates of Increase in the USSR and the
3. Relative Gross Value and Average Annual Fates ofin Production of Construction5
I4. Means of Increasing Production in the Cement Industry
in the USSR, Selected
5- Price per Unit, Production, and Value of Construction
Materials in the,5
Expenditures Required to Increase Production
Capacity for Nine Construction Materials in the USSR,
of Plants Producing Selected Construction
Materials in the
Figure 1. USSR: Indexes of Comparative Growth inof ConstructionWork, andIndustrial following page
Figure 2. USSH: Share of Major and Minor MaterialsGross Value of Productionndpage
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THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INDUSTRY OF THEi AKO PKOSPECTS5
The volume of construction in the USSR has increased atate that the problem of inadequate supplies of construction materials has not yet been significantly eased in spite of thehasla on expanding output. Projected rates of growth$ suggest that the supply shortage may become oven more acute. epresentative index of production of Soviet construction materials increased at an average annual rate of more thanercent. The corresponding rate for the US wasercent.
In an attempt to facilitate the growth and at the same tine to assist in lowering the costs of construction, the emphasisumber of the important components of the construction materials industry is shifting. These intra-Industry structural changes have favored the more highly fabricated materials In general in order to aid in theof construction and to help reduce its requirements for lumber and steel. The materials receiving primary emphasis are cement andconcrete. Cement Is the indispensable ingredient for precastthe expanded output of which ia to be substituted for structural lumber and ateel, thus reducing the consumption of these two products per unit of construction. Moreover, the increased use of preeaHtcomponents will assist in lowering construction costs by shifting more construction operations into plants, thus permitting betterand mechanization of production processes. The output and use of large wall panelsubcategory of precast concrete) is beingrapidly in order to decrease the extensive reliance on brickall material.
Plans for production of precast concrete components have beenin the past, and this trend probably will continue, butwill not be sufficient to satisfy the greatly increasedof the expanded construction prograa. The quality of precasthovever, will remain low (requiring excessive maintenance of structures composed of thia material) because of the need to continue to scrimp in the use of cement and because of the low quality of the rock products available for concrete aggregates. These shortages will result from the failure both to fulfill the goal for production of cement and to plan and produce adequate rock products of good quality. In the large wall panel program will prevent fulfillment of Ita production goals, and,esult, the primary dependence on brick for masonry wall materials will continue.
I. Construction Materials in General
A. Importance in the Soviet Economy
The significance of construction materials in the Sovietis indicated by their share of the expenditures of the construction organizations and their share of the basic inputs of Industry. , betweenndercent of the actual expenditures on construction-installation work were for construction materialsthe cost of transportation to the construction site). 5 this share is planned to increase torimarily because of the increased fabrication of materials in construction material plants (in the case of precast concrete) and because of the increasingof construction work on the site. As0 thomaterials industryercent of the industrialfixed capital assets (valued at replacement costs,5 prices). In addition, the industry accountedercent of the total number of industrial wageworkersJ
A comparison of the annual rate of growth of0 with the rates of growth of induatrial production and of the construction industry indicates that although output ofmaterials has exceeded the rate of lncreaae of the totalproduction, lt haa generally lagged behind the increase in the volume of construction (see. The rate in excesa of that for industrial production is to be expected because constructionare components of capital goods, which on the average havethe rate of Increase for other goods in the Soviet economy for many years because of the priorities assigned to them. Nevertheless, the volume of construction up0 has so increased that the problem of inadequate supplies of construction materials has not yet beeneased. Future projected rates of growth of the construction and materials indexes suggest that the shortage of construction materials will become even more acutelthough, if the original Seven Year Plan goals for construction and construction materials were merely
* For serially numbered source references, see Appendix C. ** These percentages somewhat understate the resources used lnof construction materials because presumably those in the lumber, steel, and glass industries arc not included. For theSoviet definition of construction materials, see B, p.elov.
*** ollows on p. U.
Indexes of Production of Construction Materials, Construetion-Installation Work, and the Total Industrial Production in the USSB,5
5 6 7 6 9 0 1 y 5 sJ
Computed value-added index ofconstruction materials 8 2l8
Value-added index of total
Index of value of-work l/ /
Indexes are based on value.
index is derived from unrounded data and may not agree with an index derived from the roundedin Tableppendix A,elow. For an explanation of the term value added as used In thiswith reference to the construction materials industry of the USSB, see the methodology, Appendix 3. 1 was derived aB explained in the methodology.
private housing and collective farm construction, which, on the basis of preliminarywould raise the index slightly. Data0re based on
h. On the basis of performance, an estimated average annual increase ofercent was usednd the result was rounded.
fulfilled, the index of construction would have increased to only 4l3 and that of materials to somewhat. Even If the revised goals for construction materials were fulfilled, that Index would have been revised only to somewhatnd still would hove beenbelow the level expected for construction*
B. Comparison of Indexes of Production
Listed below inre four Indexes of production ofmaterials in the USSR and one for the US. An analysis of the asons nade for each index Indicates the validity of each of the Soviet Indexes and the comparability to the US Index and explains the varying rates of increase among the Soviet indexes. The Soviet indexes are shown in the chart, Figure
The old and new official Soviet indexes are based on the gross value of production of construction materials, excluding transportation. The extremely rapid rate of Increase in these indexes is caused mainly by the exclusion of lumber and ateel, as they are subcategories of larger Industries. Flat glass also la excluded, but because it accounts for lessercent of tbe total value of construction materials, it ha6 little effect on the index. These materials combinedarge but declining share in the gross value of production. 0 they accounted forercent of the value of all materials, but although the computed Index of the gross value of allncreased at an average annual rate8 percent0he comparable rate for these materials wasercent, and their share of the total decreased toercent. Thia situation la due to the relative maturity of the lusher Industry evenO and the trend toward the substitution of precastor both lumber and structural ateel during the period, so that the
* The planned increase ln construction lu derivedpercent Increase5 above the level8 (in centralized6/ The alternative Increases in the construction materials index were all calculated as in Tableppendix A,elow, by making the necessary changes ln the individual commodities. ollows on p. 6. Following p. 6.
t These percentages are baaed on the computed gross value ofderived from Tableppendix A,elow, unless otherwise indicated. When lumber, ateel, and flat glass are omitted from thie index, lt becomes almost Identical with the new official Soviet index and Increases as follows: .
tt This category includes only concrete cast at some place removed from where it is to be used, aa opposed to monolithic concrete, vhlch ia cast in place.
Indexes of Production of Construction Materials and Average Annual Bates of Increase in the USSR and the US,5
5 6 Ba 9 ^9 c 1
Official Soviet lnlei of the gross value of production of cane (ration
JT5SoV}Plaal6/ J / l f SCO 1/
aflex of tbe cross value of productloe
of construction n* tarsals In thealue-added Index of production of
nooatruotloa Taterlala In thesdei of production of eonstrtistloe
anteriaU la the OS
IT Mas are WmJ on value! "
lunber. eteel, and flatbe old Index la baaed odata. The new Index Ie baaed oo change* lnclasslflMtlot of ladu* tries and*one of the tav and faetar giving alUmgh oloor Idjutrlee.
outcut0 Increased byercent above tbe level/
level5 le to be aoreinea taa levelB, lav olnlrwiines) vas
Data form oocjuted on the basis of the sane percent of increase65 he oldof Increase7 as ln tie old aertoa. Data5 areh* beala uf Oreo* outlet1 Increased byercent above the level
k. TBeie irjiexee ere derived frsa vrnroundadand nay not agree wiii Indexes derived free the rounded data rtcn In Tablepp^^lx A,elou. Derivation Ie explained la tee retAOdalogy, Wpeoilx B.
I. For nr. explaniloc oftern value added at used ln this report vith reference to the conatructloo nateriale Industry of tMee the netlololsBy, Appendix B.
USSR: Indexes of Comparative Growth io Prodoction ol Construction Materials, Construction-Installation Work, and the Total Industrial,5
inclusion of precnBt concrete in all indexes requires the Inclusion of lumber aod steel toealistic index of the increases inmaterials.
The computed value-added Index of production ofore valid Index for the USSR than either of the gross Indexes. This Index Includes all of the materials in the computed gross Index but excludes the inherent duplication of the computed grossomparison of the rates of Increase reveals that the computed gross Index increases only slightly faster thon the value-added Index in the USSR. This situation occurs because most of the commodities are bulky, and consequently the extractive and processing stages are usually combined and are performed by the same enterprise, so that the multiple accountingommodity that results fron further processing by other enterprises is ralnimljied. The rate differential that does occur Is caused primarily by the rapidly increasing production of precast concrete, vhlch does Introduce more double accounting into the Index.
The value-added Indexes for the USSR and the US given ln Tablere close enough in concept and coverage to allow meaningful comparisons to be made, but with some reservations.** Although transportation of
the finished products is generally excluded from both Indexes, there are some Soviet products which are priced including transportation and for which there was no valid indication of what part of the price reflected this element. 0 the total value of these productsercent of the total gross value, but because generally these vero not high-bulk, lov-value products, transportationelatively small share of their value. Similarly, the US index ia dependent not only on production statistics but also on shipments and Bales statisticsumber of commodities, and this factlight distortion In the indexesult of changes In Inventories.
There arc two factors that slightly lower the US average annual rate of Increase compared vith that for the USSH, as indicated In Tableecause of the cyclical conditions ln the US, an average annual rate of increase basederiod60etter period tothis cyclical factor andateercent. The second factor cannot be quantified but is of sufficient Importance to be noted. The value-added index for the USSR is estimated to include asample that covers more thanercent of the total value ofmaterials. The US Index, hovever, does not Include severalconstruction materials, such as aluminum products, plastics, and synthetic floor covering, vhlch have been Increasinguch more rapid
** ore detailed comparison of these value-added Indexes, another US index,aterials Input index of Soviet construction, see the methodology. Appendix B.
rate than the total of the other materials, and this omissionlight downward bias Into the index. Although aluminum products and plastics used ln construction also are excluded in the Soviet value-added index, their exclusion has little effect on the index because of the relative insignificance of these commodities in the Soviet economy.
II. Components of the Construction Materials Industry
A. Relative Importance and Increases in Production of the Ccanponent Industries
The relative gross value of production of the variousmaterialsood measure of the comparative importance of each material to the construction industry.*ignificant shortage in the supply of any material, however, can make its output particularlyand can increase its importance to the economy beyond that measured by its comparative gross value (for example, cement).
The relative importance and average annual rates of increase, based on gross value, are given inorasically different subcategories of materials (also see the chart. Six of these materials account foroercent of the gross value and are classified as the major materials. With the exception ofhe industry producing each of these materials ls aindustryelatively high level of output, so that therates of increaseood measure of the relative priority of each industry when compared with the average rate for the major materials. The first two of these materials Increase at rates above the average for the group during both periods and account for increasing shares of the total output in0 The rapid rate of increase in cement and precast concrete reflects the increasing emphasis on the use of concrete In construction. The rapid increase in the value of wall materialss primarily due to the shift in emphasis from the less expensive brick to large wall blocks because, in terms of physical units, wall materials will increase at an average annual rateercent.
The other major materials, with the exception of rock products and steel, Increase at below-average rates for the group of major materials in both periods. Although output of rock products in
" Cement ls the only material for which increases in quality are,in the value figures in the various years. The average quality of cementeasurable economic effect in construction. See B,elow.
** ollows on p. Following p. 8.
Relative Gross Value and Average Annual Rates of Increase In Production of Construction Materials In the USSR5
: r lusber
glaflB (vlnflou and
and gypsim boord
(flooring, facing, aad
and cerasuc sever pip*.
fiber tUM Br .'racier lee
Aveiag* annual rate of iBcreae-
a. 'The categories Of materials lava bean condensed frost Tobl*ppeailx A, p. "iff,Lhe percentages in thla table haw bean derived rrom tn* valua data ln Table 5, average annual rates aro derived Indajand^ntly froa ucrounded data and aay njtUio rounded data W
the later period increases at about the same average annual rate as that for the group, their share as on Input Into other construction materials must lncreaae fromercent0 toercent This factor suggests that, rather than being mitigated, the shortages vhlch existed0 vlll become more serious in the future. The rate of increase for steel ln the first period ls depressed by an absolute decrease la the use of rails0 compared5 (fromoercent of thend the high rates made possibleapidin the use of eteel pipe ln construction from IT percent of the total0 toercent The very lov rate of increase in production of lumber ls due to the substitution of concrete for lumber in construction and to the decreasing emphasis on caot-in-placcvhlchreater use of wood for forms and scaffolding.
Among the minor industries, particularly high rates of increase are evident for linoleum, mineral wool Insulation, and wood fiber slabs. All three of these vere infant Indus trieu in5o that their bancs vere lov, but the expansion of their output also has been receiving considerable emphasis because of their need ln theprogram and the possible savings in their use as substitutes for other materials.
Tvo of tho major categories Inonstruction steel and lumber, are unique in that they are subcategories of considerably larger Industries. In the USSR58 the total tonnage of steel used in construction vaandercent as large,as the total apparent consumption of rolled steel ln each of those years, and, excluding rails and pipe from construction eteel, the tonnage used vasndercent as large, respectively, as all rolled steel.** In the US in the same years, construction ateel vasndercent as great, respectively, as the apparentof rolled steel, and, excluding rails and pipe fromsteel, the comparable figures arond Thue a
** Production plus Imports minus exports equals apparent consumption. The total quantities of construction ateel are presumed to be informs, so that the loss in weight ln converting froa rolled steel to the forma used ln construction Is not accounted for ln these figures. On the basis of US experience, aboutercent of all rolled Bteel In the USSR5llocated to construction.
*** In the US8 percent of the apparent consumption of rolled steel vaa converted Into the various forms for the use of theIndustry, and8ercent waa converted. US percentagea in the textlight upward blae because the loss Incurred lnpipe is excluded from tbe figures for total US rolled steel but not from the Soviet figuree. However, [footnote continued on
greater share of total rolled steel is used in construction io the USSR than in the US, but by excluding pipe and rail from construction steel the difference Is lessened.
A greater share of the apparent physical consuaption ofwood (all logs except firewood) is used In construction ln the USSR than ln the US. 9 percent of the apparent consuaption of industrial wood was used for lumber and tleB in the USSRn the US."
B. Com|)oncnt Industries'* 1. Cement
Production of cement in the USSR has been Increasingapid rate, but it has not kept pace with demand in the past, and this trend will continue. he volume of physical production of cement increased at an average annual rate2 percent, and annual production wbh usually relatively close to planned levels.,HH* Also during this period, production of cement per million rubleB of construction-installation work (hereafteronstruction unit) Increasedons5onso that theof cement per construction unit was Increasing.1 According
the Tigures for total rolled steel ore notcategories In both countries, because the US figure excludes cold rolled steel. If, to avoid thisigure for the total shipments of rolled steel is substituted in the US, all percentages ore Increasedercent.
* Lumber and ties ore converted to loga by dividingactor For an explanation of the rationale of equating the uae ofand ties with the use of wood products in construction, seeB.
** Unless otherwise indicated, annual production figures and average annual rates of Increase In this section are taken from Tableppendix A,elow. The value of conotructlon-lnstollation work was obtained from the sources given in Table. U, above. Under the Sixth Five Year Plan0 goal wasillion metric tons. (Tonnages ore given ln metric tons throughout thiohis figure was later lowered toillion tone. The final plaa0 wasmillion tons, and this goal was
: In this dlscueslon, production and consumption are uaedbecause net laports were of relatively snaileakercent of the total6 and decreasing in each year -since, ao tbat inwereercent. With the rapid increasea inthe probably stable level ofcontinued on
to the original goalsroduction of cenent von to increase toillion toillion tons, thereby Baking fromons of cesaent available per construction unit. 9owever, increases in the volume of construction-Installation workthat the planill be substantially exceeded, so that onlyona of cenent would have been available perunit To ccepensate for the expanded need, thegoal for cement5 was increased6 Billionowever, this increase will allow onlyons per construction unit In that year, and, with the estimated production ofillion tonsnlyons per construction unit will be available. This gap probably cannot be Bade up by Imports, and,hortage of cement villajor hindrance to tbe construction effort.
The prime cause of the difficulty ln expanding production ln the past has been the lagging expansion of capacity in the cement Industry.* This shortfall is causedailure to concentrateon the most Important projects, an underestimation of therequired (that is, costs arc greater thannd the fact that completions of projects have taken longer than specified in the norms. ajor contributing factor to the slowness In completing projects has been the shortage of cement plant equipment. In the past the USSH baa been dependent on Importa from East Germany for most of ita equipment. , complete equipment for production ofillion tona of cement, orlonta, waa imported from East Germany. Theee importa have continued, although the USSR is now attempting to become almost self-sufficient in tbe manufacture of this equipment. ajor machine building plants,roduction lines (kilns and ancillary equipment) were scheduled for completion, but not oneline had been delivered bynd, inl, not ono line had been completely delivered of thecheduled for that Poor advance planning contributes to the equipment shortage also, as frequently insufficient time ls allowed for delivery, and equipment is sometimes scheduled to arrive after the planneddate for the plant.
Imports (primarily from Communist China andhere will be even less relative difference between production and apparent consumption in
* Assessment of pest performance in the expansion of capacity of the cement induatry is difficult because of the frequent revision ofplans ond the often conflicting statements on plan fulfillment and Increased capacity made by otherwise reliable sources. Future and even present plans for adding new capacity often reveal significant areas of indecision or undue flexibility in the planning apporatua.
he total of annual plana for additions of nev capacity vas fulfilled by onlyoercent, and yet annual production plans were generally fulfilled. ovever,emphasis has been placed on fulfilling annual plans forto capacity. or example,rojects (vhlch accounted forercent of all cement capacity to be commissioned) vere includedist of top-priorityesult, actual annual additions have more closely approached planned levels. For example,0 the plan was fulfilled byercent, andpercent fulfillment vas To fulfill the production goalovever, the fulfillment of annual goals* for adding capacity must be further improved, as the possibility of gains by intensifyingat existing plants is considerably diminished. Unless thefor adding nev capacity in the cement industry are increased nig-nificantly, the production goal for cement5 will not be
Another problem facing the Soviet cement industry is the regional disparities between production and consumption. Thesedo not appear to be easing significantly, because expansion of existing plants has been the primary renns of increasing The proportional trends in the various means of increasing production ore given in Table k.
Means of Increasing Production in the Cement Industry in the USSR Selected
Intensification of Production and Modernization
Time at Existing Plants of Existing Plants
* The total planned addition to capacitys tof1 mil-
expanded or reconstructed existing
The relative decrease in reliance on modernizationthe realization by the planners tbat this aeons of increasinghaa becooe quite United. Early indications in thevere that nev plant construction vould beovetend to improve the distribution in the regional productionbecause nev plants are usually constructed in areas that aredeficient in the supply of cement. The actual plan,reduced the reliance on new plants and increased thethe expansion of existing plants. These changes ore prompted byneed for increased production of cement and -by the high costplants compared vith the other means of Increasing productiveas well as the difficulties in getting nev plants intoto plan. Capital expenditures, per unit of capacity,new plants averageercent higher than theto expand existingnd whereasre-
quired toew plant has beenears, existing plants frequently can bo expandedear.
The greater difficulty in constructing new plants isin the number of new plants planned and completed. Twenty-seven now plants were originally scheduled to bebut this figure vas decreased to l6 vhen the production plan vas revised downward. Actualre now estimated to have been nine or ten plants, with the majority of the plants commissioned considerably later than scheduled during the period. In addition, now plant oonatruction was particularly deficient ln the Eastern Regions of the USSR. This situation hasontinuation of the regional shortage of cement and an Inordinately long average length of haul, which has actually increasedilometers (km)5mo that the plan to reduce the overage length of haulm/ probably will not be met.
A further problem in the transportation, loading, andof cement has been the heavy losses of cement (stated to be as high asercent) suffered during these operations. 2kJ The solution to this problem requires more and better loading and unloadingatorage facilities; und the widespread use of Bpecial railroad cars and trucks for hauling cement, as in tha US. It ls very unlikely that Bignifleant improvements will be naade In these areas
It is possible that3 the USSR wlU surpass the US ln the annual quantity of cement produced. 2 the USSR plansillion tons, and this plan probably will be fulfilled. ln the US? Is estimated at aboutillion tonsportlnad, masonry, and other hydraulic cements). In the USSR the
" See Tableppendix A,elow.
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annual production has increased by an average ofillion tons per yearhile in the US the estimate2 is only aboutillion tons above the level However, although the quality or average grade* of cement in the USSR has been increasing, lt will be considerably below that of the US even The quality of cement is very important because the quantity of cement required toiven strength varies with the quality used. Thus the higher average quality cement in the US is equivalentreater quantity of Soviet cementfor example, in the USSR an average grade0 was
originally planned5 (and probably will behile the
average grade in the US is The US grade is equivalent5 percent more cement than the Soviet grade, so thatS
although the USSR will produce aboutillion tons, It will be eouiva-
lcnt to aboutillion tons of US CewfiRt.
ft, considerable emphasis has been given to theconcrete program in the USSR. Premier Khrushchev hasinterest in this program as one of the principal means ofindustrialization plans andigh rate of growth inindustry. The economic rationale for this program is
use of precast concreteubstituteand steelecrease ir. th* use of such materialsunit. Shortages of these materials have been athe construction effortumber of years.
reduction in the requirements for on-siteconstruction unit and an increase in the efficiency of thelabor force are attained. Thereonsiderable reduction infor Skilled labor, such as bricklayers, structural steelcarpenters for form work. Semiskilled and unskilled labor canefficiently utilized by transferring such persons to moreregularized fabrication processes in precast concrete plants.
reduction of construction costs during thesevere winters that are characteristic of moat parts of theaccomplished by performing more construction tasks in plantsconcrete pouring end brick laying On-site during below-freezing
* Tlie grade number, or mark, of cement in the USSR indicatesday compressive strength (measured in kilograns per square centimeter)ube made up of one part of cement to three parts of sandater-cement ratio.
teapeTature requires temporary enclosure and heating of the wortprocedure that is relatively
d. The transfer of functions to plants permits the relocation of the limited supplies of equipment into plants, where theuch as concrete mixers and batchan be more efficiently utilized.
In terms of planned levels of productionhe precast concrete program has exceeded expectations, and this situation
tl"UC*Plans frequently have been revised upward, rae igoO plan, for example, was increased fromillion cubic metera (cuthe Sixth Five Year Plan directives,8 million cu m. ggyyttO.3 million cu m. 5 ihe goal has beenreaaedange of betweenillionillion cutoillion cu m, and production should exceed this revised goal and reach ZriTJJ? recast cc^crete'wtll^ tL most important construction material (in tcraa of value) and will account ytir* otal value of construction materials io^SS
The rapid Increase ln production of precast concrete hasonsiderable increase in its consumption per construction
Period are roughly
tne same. 3ere used per construction unit;ere used; and under the old construction plans the amount ins
Thin% erunit. This trend not only reflects the substitution of precast concrete for
lumber, ateel, and other masonry wall materials but also reflects ite uae in place of monolithic (poured-ln-place) concrete. or cxnople, precast concrete accounted6 percent of the total7 it had increased5 percent; and under the original
itimZjPaa gDaJ* "to "avc increased to more thanercent/
Because the construction goal5 will be significantly exceeded, the plan for production of precast concrete was Increased
^,kTk enT?1increase in construction. Even
with the eatimated exceeding of the goal for production of precast concretehe use per construction unit will remain aboirt the name as Numerous statemcnta by Soviet officials that the use
In the USSR, chemicals such as calcium chloride are used to permit placement of concrete in cold weather without heating, but thia practiceeleterious effect on ateel reinforcement and the strength of tba concrete and is not sufficient in extremely cold weather.
per construction unit will continue to trie reuse indicate either that production of precast concrete will have to lncreaaereater rate than presently expected or that the further industrialisation ofwill be handicapped.
Several problems continue to plague the precast concrete program in spite of the rapid rate of Increase in production during the past. ontinuing shortage of reinforcing steel, of rock products of good quality, and particularly of cement has had serious Attempts to use less than the optimum amount of cement in order to make lt go further haveignificant deterioration In the quality and strength of concrete. This deterioration has beenby tbe generally poor quality of rock producte available forituation that has required the use of more cement than would be necessary with aggregates of good quality. Also, optimum use is not made of the available reinforcing steel, which ia sometimos carelessly placed, so that the maximum benefits are not obtained from the available steel. The result of these shortagea, together with the extremely rapid expansion of production of precast concrete, hasoor quality of concrete products, resulting in relatively high maintenance coats of structures composed of concrete. urtherthnt faces the industry baa been caused by the over-mechanization of precast concrete plants, resulting In extremely high maintenance cootn ln the plants.
There ore two important subcategories ln the precastprogram that have presented problemsprestressed concrete" and large wall panels. Prestreaaed concrete has been emphasized aa long as precast concrete, but goals for prestressed concrete have been lowered and are still badly underfulfllled. nlyercent fulfillment was achieved and9ercent. f the original goal for that year was achieved. Production of prestressed concretearticular Importance in the USSR because it permits savings of as much asercent ln the weight of steel andercent in More expensive special types of steel, however, should be used that can withstand and hold the stress. This program has suffered because of the greater investment required, the acute shortage of the special steels required, and the technicalln producing prestressed concrete. In the last several years, plan fulfillment has increased somewhat, partially because of lowered
* In making prestressed concrete the reinforcing steel is put under tensionthat is, one end of the steel ls anchored and then the steel ls stretchedbefore pouring concrete into tho mold. The tension ls released when the concrete has hardened sufficiently, andompressive force la exerted oa the concrete that increases its strength.
goals but alao because of tbe uee of electrothermal prestresaing.* It is doubtful if the added costs of electrothermal prestressing (compared with regular reinforced concrete) are economically Justified by the Increaaed strength of the final product, but, using this system, the present goal5 for production of prestressed concreteill probably be fulfilled.
Production in the large wall panel program commencedut9ere produced, which waspercent plan fulfillment. ere produced.nterprises are to be constructed for production of large vail panels. Oflants scheduled for completion, however, onlyere constructed by the middle- Two of the major deterrents to the success of this program have been the shortage of equipment and the slow development of production of the light fillers (aggregates) necessary for thie program. Althoughincreases will be made, production5 probably will fall short of expectations, and the USSR will continue to rely primarily on the traditional masonry wall materials.
Any over-all evaluation of the precast concrete program in the USSR must take into consideration the unique circumstances and goals in that country. Given the limitation on available construction materials in the USSR (particularly the Bhortage of steel and ofa dictatorial form of government which permits standardization, and the goals of the construction industry (rapid expansion,of the housinghe precast concrete program isjustified. Because of the haste with which the precastprogram is being expanded, however, the advantages of the program are not being maximized. This haste is reflected in the poor quality of the product and in the failure to take precautions that, bya considerably better product (as well as less waste ofould in turn lower the need for the extensive maintenance on precast concrete buildings which is inevitable under the present circumstances.
3- Wall Materials
This category is defined as all masonry constructionused for walls except reinforced concrete. The largestis brick (both clay, or baked, and silicate, or sand-lime, which is unbaked). The other subcategories are natural stone, both field
In electrothermal prestressing the ateel is electrically preheated (causing expansion) and then is anchored by the ends in the concrete mold. Cooling self-atresses the steel. 9 this method accounted for 9'. percent of all prestressing in Moscow (which produced aboutercent of the prestressed concrete in the
and dimensionarge wall blocks; and other types of wall(mainly small wall blocks). Large and spall wall blocks are composed of cinders, slag, or sand, with cement or lime usedinder.
It ia difficult to evaluate plan fulfillment for wall materials because of the paucity of plans released and the general lack of reliable figures. These problems stem largely from thenumber of widely scattered plants, frequently of. limited size. For example, at the end9 there were morerick plants in the USSR.* This situation results from the widely available raw materials and the low value compared with the bulk of the products, making extensive transportation highly uneconomic. These conditions make centralized planning and statistical reporting very difficult. Long-term plans in particular have been nonexistent or highly unrealistic, ashen the plan to'produceillion unite of wall materials was fulfilled byT3
he average annual rate of increase in the gross value of production of wall materials will exceed the average rate for major construction materials. In terms of physicalowever,ercent average annual rate of Increase in production during the period will be one of the lowest for any constructionexceeding only the rate for lumber and refractories. The larger increase in the value figure reflects primarily the conversion away from the lees expensiveo the more costly large wall blocks.rick accounted forercent of all wall materials but will decline toercenthile large wall blocks will increaseercentO toercent5 in spite of en estimated shortfall ofercent in plan/ .-
The low rate of increase in physical units will resultecline in the use of wall materialsbrick units per construction unit5espectivelynitsa production end consumption are roughly identical. This decline le explained by the substitution away from brick to large wall panels, which are part of the precast concrete category. The conversion from brick to large wall blocksove ln the same direction. These changing relationships result from the
* See Tableppendix A,elow. ** The dimensionstandard brick unit arcyand kOO of these unitsu m. Thisarger than the average US brick.
Soviet production of brick at present is still four to five times as great as US production, and the USSR also exceeds the US inof most of the other masonry wall materials.
attempts to minimise the use of skilled labor (bricklayers) on the construction site and to transfer as many labor-consuming processes to plants as Is feasible.*
The share of brick in the total construction materials will not decrease to the extent planned, however, partially because brickraditional material, and, although costs of Investment and production are high, lt ls still frequently the most advantageous wall material in avail towns and in outlying areas. Furthermore, the ambitious plans for both large wall blocks and panels will not beso that primary dependence on brick will continue, and the Intended extent of the decrease ih on-site construction labor will not be achieved.
U. Rock Products
In the USSR9 percent of rock products, or non-metallic minerals, ore estimated to nave been sand,ercent gravel, andercent crushed atone and rubble. In the USas sand,ercent gravel, andercent crushed stone. Although rock products are not used by the construction industryother consumerselatively small percentage of the total production in the USSR. 3 porcent of all rock products were consumed In the construction and construction materials industries. The remainder was consumed by the metallurgical industriesnd tho chemical2/ Almost half of all rock products are utilized in production of concrete.
Output of rock products has not increased as rapidly in the past several years as have the other major construction materialslumber andnd rock products lag behind all but lumber in the average annual rate of Increase of major materials. Considering the rapidly expanding need for rock products in precastthis industry has received insufficient emphasis and is onproducerow-quality product that is subsidized in the Soviet econoaty. Tbe poor quality of the products of this industry also ls responsible for compounding the cement shortage. Recent Sovietindicate that the use of aggregates that do not conform to specifications causes an oversxpenditure of moreillion tons of
* Seebove. ** oviet blast furnaces2 million tons of slog, almost two-thirds of which was granulated and used as constructionin the manufacture of Portland slag cement and as concrete aggregate and road
cement annually. This overexpendlture vas largely caused not only by the poor quality of the aggregate but also by the frequent failure to use clean aggregates and to classify the aggregates by size, ashen more than one-half of the gravel and almost one-third of the crushed stone produced in the Soviet economy vas not graded by size.
The subsidization of the rock products industry is evident in the excess of prime costs* above the selling price. 7 the average prime costs for production of rubble atone exceeded theselling price byercent, crushed rockercent, and gravel byercent. Only the average prime cost of sand vas lover than its average selling price In that year, based on these llgures, prime costs exceeded the selling price byercent for all rock products.
In an analysis of tho importance of the rock productsin the Soviet economy, this undervaluation of production is noteworthy. In addition,8 the total expenditure on theof rock productsillionrimes the gross value of output In that Assuming that7 cost factors were validhese two factors addedrubles to the value of rock products received by consumers, so that if this amount is added to the gross value of construction materials and of rock products, the latter becomes aboutercent of the total rather
The failure to give sufficient emphasis to this important Industry has resultedhortage of rock products in theow level of efficiency. 0 the rock productssatisfied the demand of the national economy by onlynd the demand of reinforced concrete producers for crushed stone and fine gravel by onlyoercent. This shortage also isby the ratio of rock products and production of cement in the USSR and the US. 9 the USSR produced almost two-thirds aa
* Prime costs include all factor input costs (includingbut exclude profits. ** Unless otherwise indicated, ruble values throughout this report are given5 rubles (ruble values in use before the Soviet currency reforml) and may be converted to US dollars at the rate of exchangeubles tohich reflects average relative prices of construction materials in the US and the USSR.
The gross value of construction materials does not includecosts (exceptewut because, in the case of rock products, transportation isignificant portion of the cost to the consumer, rock products vouldignificantly larper percentage of the total even if the gross value includedcosts for all materials.
much.cement as the US but only one-third the quantity of rockhe efficiency is reflected in the low level of mechanization of the industryhen more thanercent of the enterprises were classified as not even madium-mechanlzed enterprises and more thanercent of the labor force was engaged in manual
Although there is increasing emphasis on the rock products industry, it continues to be probably the most backward of thematerials industries. Investment plans for the industry have been increased, end the goalshich have been given as high asillion cu m, are not (even if they were attained) of aufficient quantity to satisfy consumers. In addition, the quality of productiOB will remain low, so that this industry will continue to cause problems (particularly of quality) for the precast concretewhich will in turnontinuation of the overconsumption of cement.
5- Other Construction Materials
The products briefly evaluated in this section are the three groupings of older commodities (which will account Jointlyercent of the gross value of production of construction materialsnd the newer commodities. Except for asbestos cementoutput of these older commodities is greater in the US than in the USSR, and for the newer commodities, Soviet production isery small fraction of output In the US.
Asbestos cement articles consist almost exclusively of flat shingles, corrugated panela, and pipe.** The plants areeither adjacent or in close proximity, to cement plants because the product conaista of roughlyercent cement toercent(by weight). bout two-thirds of the roofing on houses and civil buildings in cities and workers' settlements was asbestos cemeat, and about one-third of the pipe in the country was asbestos cement (excluding steelhe rapid increase ln production by this industry in recent years will continue, and the
* Because of the lower average quality of cement in the USSR than in the US in terms of effectiveness, the Soviet production waato somewhat more than half of the US production (aeebove). In addition, road constructionuch larger shore of total construction In the US than in the USSR. This typeore intenaive use of rock products than most other types.
** Flat products are statistically counted in standardy "tOentimeters) tbatilograms each, and pipe are counted in standardillimeters in diameter, and weighing approximatelyons per kilometer.
goals5 probably will be fulfilled, permitting expanded use particularly of flat products for Bidings. Asbestos cement products are relatively inexpensive and light in weight, and their expanded use is economically Justified.
Production of flat glass for construction (window and polished or plate glass) has increasedomparatively modest aver-age annual rate in the past and will continue at about the same rate in the future. Production of window glass is sufficient for domestic needs (although of poorut polished glass is in shortand production will Increase at almost double the average annual rate for window glass. Nevertheless, production of polished glass5 will continue toegligible proportion of the total construction glassthat is,ercent of production of window glass. In the US, polished (plate) glass is about half of the volume of window (sheet) glass.
Sanitary technical equipment is defined to include heating boilers and radiators, bathtubs, and water heaters. Their production has been increasingate which is above the average for allmaterials and although this will continuehe average annual rateillercentage points less than that. Production of these articles currently isfor the needs of the Soviet economy and this shortage will The production plans0 for heating boilers and radiators were fulfilled byercent, and the production plan for bathtubs was fulfilled byercent. 5 the planned production figures arendercent, respectively, of the projected demand5 for these items. Uo/
The new materials are those which are produced in negligible quantities at present but whose production is expected to increase very rapidly during the balance of the Seven Year Plan. Host of them are substitutes for other, more expensive products. Included among these new products ore the following three broad categories: plastics, waste wood products, and insulation. These materials are important because their use affords savings in costs as well as in other materials in short supply such as lumber and metals.
The most important category of plastics is synthetic floor coverings. Linoleum, which is the most important type, was planned to increase at an average annual rate ofercentnd5 was to account for approximately one-third of all flooring (both in new construction and ln maintenance). The large increase in production was based on the possible savings in cost compared with
other types of flooring, roduction costs for linoleum were onlyercent of the wholesale price ofubles per square meter (sq ra) and. this price was to be.reduced toubles per sq m, so that linoleum would costubles peress than plankandubles peress than parquet flooring. 5 the planned production and useillionf linoleum, therefore, was to save moreillion rubles as wellillionf lumber. Although the goal for production8 was exceededercent, the ambitious plan0 was fulfilled bynd the goal5 therefore probably will be fulfilled by aboutercent. Even;thie productionery high average annual rate of increase-and should result in the saving of half arublesillion;illionf lumber.
..: Other plastic products of some Importance are pipetechnical equipment. It is planned to0 tonsproducts5 toons of metals. Theseuses of plastics in construction are to consume upf the total volume, of output of plasticsnd therefore consumption) will be considerably belowlevels, the total production of plastics probably willso that^thelr use in construction may approach
The two principal waste wood products are wood fiber and wood shavingsr sheets). The former product will have the highest rate of increase in production of any construction materialnd is-claasified as an insulating material. The principal uses probably are for interior walls and partitions. Wood shavings board is uBed in place of plywood and other lumber products. It Is only two-thirds as expensive as plywood,7f lumber. The use of these products should result lnsavings of lumber and plywood. kzf
The most important insulation material Is mineral wool. Although its production increased rapidlynd probably will continue to increase,lightly higher average annual rate, production has not been sufficient to fulfill the demand for it. 7ittle more than half of the demand wasnd, in spite of the large increases in production, the demand for this material will continue to be badly underfulflllcd
Capital Expenditures Required to Increase Production Capacity for Sine Construction Materials in the USSR
Current Rubles per Unit of Capacity V
. Capital investments are calculated as averagesor each material, taking into account the share of enterprises of the various types and capacities. The first two categories are primarily determined according to project data, and the third category is determined on the basis of actual data on fulfillment.
b. Ruble values in use before the Soviet currency reform
Bumber of Plants Producing Selected Construction Materials In the USSR a/
products (extraction and processing)
wool Insulation d/
total number of plants e/
numbers of plants are all given in or derived from published Soviet sources. There labo cause some of these plants produce more than one material. However, some minorwhose output Is not included in national output statistics are excluded free
six plants tbat are grinding installations only.
estimate includes quarries but not ateel or lumber plants.
Thie appendixoncerned'vith the derivation of the calculated index of the gross value of construction materials in the USSR and the derivation of the calculated index of the value added in production as veil as vith the method of determining the quantity and value of steel and lumber In construction. The product of this methodology isln The methodetermining the preliminary figures1 also is explained. In*addition, further details on comparison, of construction materials indexes ore given.
To obtain the index of the gross value of production ofmaterials, production of each of'the materials for every yearrice5 rubles vere- obtained. The sum of the products of the quantity and price for each commodity for each year yielded the total value of production. The index-was constructed from the annual totals. To obtain thendex, the value of four commodities (cement, gypsum, rock products/ and steel) that are utilized In other construction materials vas removed from each annual total, thusfor the double counting of products. The Input of each of these commodities vas determined per unit of finished product and vaaby the average price of the input commodity (for inputs of cement and gypsum). However, the rock products and steel inputs were priced according to the type of each commodity being usedroductfor example,ubic meter of .precast concrete, calculations Indicated that thore was one-fourthubic meter-each of gravel and crushed stone and one-thirdubic meter of sand. The average price of the inputs was determined on the basis of'the weighted price of each of these rock products. The average weight of steel reinforcement In both precast and prestressed concrete was determined and was pricedto the special types of steel used In each product. The total value of the four commodities used in other construction materials wasfrom the gross value of production in each year to obtain the value added in production, and an index was constructed from the annual
The quantity of lumber in construction was determined on tho basis of total lumber produced and of production of railroad ties converted into cubic meters. Although not all of the lumber produced ls used ln construction, the valua of the round timber used in construction is offset by the value of the nonconstruetion uses of lumber, and the trends in the values of the two were Judged to bo similar. The regional
* Appendix A,bove.
production of lumber and ties5 waa determined and then was priced, by region, to obtain the average weighted price for both commodities. The average transportation chargea were available and were deducted from the average prices.
The total amount of steel used in construction (excluding rails and pipe) was.given5 and was derivedther years. The derivations were based on the inputiven tonnage per millionof construction-installation worx (the total value of construction-installation work in each year was known). It was found that the quantities obtained accounted for almost identical percentagesthat is,9 percent of all the finished steel producedso that the use of steel in construction (excluding rails and pipe) was estimated for the other years on the basic6 percent of the total rolled steel. The annual use of rails in construction was assumed to be the.same as the annual production (production5 wasrunk oilvand gas pipeline for each year was converted from kilometers to tons. Local gas and oil pipeline was estimated Tor all years on the basis Of the ratio between local aad mainline pipe givenoviet source,. The ratio between tbe calculated figure for trunk and local pipeline5igure for the use of all pipe5 was applied to all previous calculations to allow for the other uses of steel pipe in construction. The tonnage forsteel, rolls, ond pipe for each yeor vas totaled to obtain steel used in construction.
The total value of all construction steel vas determined on the basis of type. Structural ateel uaed In construction waB derivedears, and tbe plan vas givon The uae in theears was almost identical, and it vas assumed that the quantities used ln other years-were almost the same. The steel used io prestressedwas obtainedource that gave the per-unit usage, which waa multiplied by production of prestreased concrete in each year. Theuse of regular reinforcing steel was given When this figure was added to structural ateel and to steel for prestressed concrete and then compared with the total steel usage in constructionesidualercent resulted, vhich waa assumed to be the percentage that miscellaneous steel was of the total during all years. Regularsteel was then derived for other years oa the residual between total construction ateel (excluding rails and pipe) and structural, prestressing, and miscellaneous steel. The price of each of the types of steel was estimated, using price books, and the quantity of each type of steel was multiplied by its average price to obtain the total value of the steel used in construction in each year.
l figures for the increases in the gross and value-added indexes of production of construction materials were based on an
available sample ofQf accountingeroent of the groan value andercent of the value added The value of theoe commodities, however, In relation to both totals has beeneach yearo that it was estimated that these caa-Boditiee accountedercent of the gross value0 percent of the value added On the basis of these assumptions the total value for each category was calculated, and the Indexes vero conputed.
The principal differences between the computed value-added Index of production of construction materials In tho USSR (hereafter called the USSR Index) and the value-added index for the US, calculated by the Federal Reserve Board (hereafter called tho FRBere noted in* The specific exclusions from each index, hovever, vere not enumerated and are noteworthy. The USSR indexore complete coverage of vail materials (the FRB Index Includes only brick) andtechnical equipment and includes linoleum (not all of which is used inefractories, and insulation, which are omitted in the FRB Index. Conversely, the FRB indexore complete coverage of hardware and metal fixtures, vitreous and porcelain fixtures,brasivesetter coverage of asphalt products, lumber and wood products (includingnd paints. Plywood and paints have been excluded In the USSR Index because the major portions of those products in the USSR are consumed in other than construction uses, whereas in the US the major portions of these products are used in construction, so that their inclusion in the US is valid while these commodities ln the USSR are better excluded.
In addition to the FRB Index, the US Department of Commercean Index for theut thisross value indexf-'i9 prices. The FRB Index increasesore rapid rate and hasoercent greater coverage, by value, of construction materials produced ln the US than does tbe Department of Commerce index. The Department of Ccceerce index la limited in the nuaber of commodities covered because it requires monthly reportsaterial to Include it ln the index, while the FRB includes all materials for which there is annual data. The FRB Index is more comparable to the USSR Index because it has more complete coverage.alue-added indexore comparable price base.
There also is another index of construction materials ln the USSR calculatedroject published by the Rand Corporation. JO/ This
* The seven commodities for which preliminary production figures have been published are cement, precast concrete, construction brick, large wall blocks, window glues, asbestos cement shingles, and soft roofing. ** P.bove.
index incroaceoover rate than the USSR indexeriodnd dlffero fron the latter index as follows:
The Rand index, as the title denotes,aterials input index of Soviet construction and therefore attempts to measure the apparent consumption of materials ln construction and not production of construction materials.
The latest price base used ln the Rand index is in0 prices. These pricea are higher in general than the
15 prices uBed in the USSR index and are not recent enough to allow realistic pricing of the newer Items in constructionwhich are increasingapid rate.
- 3. As the Rand index was calculated at an earlier date, lt lacks reliable data for the later years that were not available at the time of publication. The index was forced to rely on projections of production and relationships that existed durings. data have Indicated that much of the estimating woe inaccurateas, for example, in the case of rolls and rock products.
If. The USSR index is basedroader Baaple of materialsas, for example,hen more thanercent of the value ofincluded in the USSR index in not included in the Rand index (the Rand index docs include paints). This determination is consistent with the Rand estimate that the Index includes onlyo TO percent of the value of all construction materials, vhercos it ls eatimated that the USSR index Includea somewhat more thanercent. The Items omitted in the Rand index. In general, are ones ln which production has beenat above-average rates and Include precast and prestresseda number of masonry wall materials, refractories, mineral wool insulation, linoleum, wood fiber Blabs, polished glass, gypsum wall board, ceramic pipe, and wall tile. The amission of thcoc Items is the primary reason for tbe lower rate of increase in the Rand Index than in the USSR index.
5. mall number of the materials in the USSR Index include the cost ofhereas the Rand index attempts to exclude all transportation charges.
* See I, B, p.bove.
- 3fc -
1. USSR. Narodnoye khozyaystvo8 godu (The National Economy of the USSR.. referred to ao The Rational Economy ofRtroltcl'nyyc materialy, noSSR. Harodnoyeaystyo0 godu (The National Economy of the USSR. referred to as The .National Economy of tho USSR- The National Economy of the USSR0 II.. Congress of theb Congress,eas. Joint Economic Committee. Industrial Production in the USSR,UopublishedT]
k. The National Economy of the USSR0 (l,. 5- USSR. l_radu (The USSR in Figures ln
oo. (hereafter referred to ae The
USSH ln yigurea
The National Economy of the USSR8 (l,.
USSR. Narodnoye khozyayBtvo9 godu (The National
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an 6l, p. 1.
EkonomlchccXnyn gor-eta,ug CO, p. 2.
The National Economy of the USSR0 (l,.
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Stroitel'nyye materialy,.he National Economy of the USSR0 (l, The National Econccy of the USSRtroltel'naya. 1.
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yeye razvltlya (The Cement Industry of the USSR and Prospects
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Stroitel'naya gazeta,ar 6l, p. Stroltel'nayneb 6l, p. 2.
Tsement, noep-Oct 6l, p. Stroitel'nayaar 6l, p. 1.
Stroltel'nyye materlaly, noay 6l,
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Zhilishchnoye atroltcl'stvo, Krimskl, N. Precaat Concrete in the Soviet Union, Moscov,
Stroitel'nayahclctobeton. no. ?B. helczobcton, no.
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3*. USSR. Vcesoyuznoye eoveshchanlye po
8 g; scKtslya strcltel'r.yhh matcrialov (The All-Union Conference for Construction,ection on Construction. (hereafter referred to as The All-Union Conference for Construction?
Stroltel'nyye materlaly, no. 3.
36. The All-Union Conference for,.
Ol-Unlon Conference for.bo, Ltvcatlya akadcslirxhlterttury SSSR, nohe All-Unlon Conference for, aboveJ, p.
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The All-Unlon Conference for,yulletcn' gtroitcl'noy tcfchnlki, no
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