SURVEY OF SOVIET ECONOMISTS AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS (CIA RR ER 63-5

Created: 3/1/1963

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

N? 3

survey of soviet economists and economic research organizations

NOT TO BETrCHtQI

IN

PART WITHOUT

OF

central intelligence agency

SURVEY OK SOVIET ECONOMISTS AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS

k ek 6

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Research and Rcporis

Contacts between Western and Soviet economistsroblem for those Western economists who are unfamiliar with the Institutional organization of Soviet economic research activities or with individual Soviet ecanooiots. rief survey of the pattern of economic research activity in tha USSR is given in this report, and the activities of the more important research organizations and the most recently observed interests and affiliatloneumber of the major Soviet economists are identified. Hot covered In Uiis report are specialized economic research organizations and the substantial number of economists,specialists, and others active ln these organizations. Theof these specialized economic research organizations areprimarily on research on detailed problems of industry, commerce, or agriculture rather than on theoretical and applied research of acharacter that Is of wider Interest to Western economists. Because of the considerable Interest generated by recent Soviet activities in the field of ccooocetrics and mathematical programming, however, there are Included some of tbe specialized research organizations and less well-known economists active in this field. Omitted from the reportarge number of competent economists who for one reason orhave not distinguished themselves through numerous or recent publications.

report is an expansion and an updatinc ofo jj^of soviet

-

comtdrrs

I.

II. Organization and Direction of Economic

of Research Functions

in Coordinating

Problem Councils

III. Recent Developments in Economic Research

XV. Organizations Engaged in Economic Research and Their

Chief Personnel

of Sciences,

of Economic Sciences

of

of Economics of World Socialist

of World Economics and Interna-

tional

for Economic-Mathematical

Department of the Academy of Sciences

of Economic* and Organization of

Industrial Production

for Economic-Mathematical

of Sciences of tne Union Republics .

Organizations

State Planning Committee

Scientific Researchnstitute of Gos-

plan

for the Study of Productive Forces Institute of Electronic Controlling Machines of

5. Institute of Complex Transportation Problems of

Computer Center of Gosplan

Council of National Economy,

6. Scientific Research Institute for Planning and

9. Scientific Research Institute of

9

Central Statistical Administration

Scientific Reecarch Institute for the Study of

Market Porcee

Scientific Research Institute of Finance

All-Unlon Scientific Research Institute of Agri-

cultural

la. Other Government Research Organizations

and Educational

Moscow State

Leningrad State

Moscow Institute of Rational

U. Moscow Financial

Leningrad Financial

Moscow Ecoooadc-Statlstlcal

Moscow and Leningrad Engineering-Economic Insti-

tutes

Engineering-Economic Institute

Engineering-Economic Institute .

Important

Appendixes

Appendix A. Discussion of

Appendix B. Index of Economists

ANDIC RESEARCH ORGAHIZATIGKS

I. Introduction

General economic research In tbe USSR is performed mainly by economists at the professional level who are engaged in full-time research orombination of research and teaching. Moat of these economists haveear graduate courses ln economics in universities and educational institutes or in research Institutes leading to the degree of Candidate of Economic Science, and many have attained the degree of Doctor of Economic Science.' These highly trained economists constitutemall fraction of the totalofn the USSR as enumerated ln official occupational statistics. In the USSR the term economist also Is used to refer to personnel trained ln business administration and management skills such as accounting, to technologists or ecgineer-econoalsts, and to semi-professional and clerical personnel such as bookkeepers. Of the total number of economists in this broader sense, fever thanercent are graduates of institutions of higher learning, andery small fraction have completed graduate study in economic*.

* The degree of Candidate of Economic Science is roughly comparable to the Ph.D. degree in economics in the US. Because of the variations in the requirements for the degree among institutions ln both countries, the extent of comparability depends on which institutions awarding the degrees in the two countries are compared. The higher degree of Doctor of Economic Science, which normally requires no further training but does require the defonae of an additional thesis, has no counterpart in the US. ubstantial number of the economists listed in TV, p.elow, are not identified here as holding advanced degrees. Suchis difficult because Soviet publications do not referto the degrees held by persons in official capacities or by the authors of books and Journal articles, and, therefore, the lock of such identification does not necessarily neon that the economists listed do not hold udvanccd degrees.

Economists at the professional level are concentrated in Moscow, where the principal economic research establishments iind moat of tbe outstanding educational institutions are located. Many prominent economists are affiliated with two or three organisations,ew of the top economists ara affiliated with more. For example, numerous economists are affiliated with one of the economic research institutes of the Academy of Sciences, USSR, in Moscow and are concurrentlywith one of tho educational institutions ln Moscow or with one of

the goverameotal economic research establishments such as the Scientific Research Institute of Planning and Norms of the Council of National Economy, USSR (USSRr the Scientific Research Economic Institute of the State Planning Committee (Gosplan).* Perhaps theexample of multiple high-level affiliations is that ofof the Academy of. Nemchinov. Nemchlnov lea member of the staff of the Institute of Economics of the Academy of Sciences, director of the Academy's Laboratory for Economic-Mathematical Methods, chairman of the Council for the Study ofForces of Gosplan, chairman of the Council on Scientific Principles of the Planning and Organization of Social Production, and chnir-mAn of the Council for the Application of Mathematics and Computer Engineering in Economic Research and Planning of the Department of Economic Sciences of the Academy of Sciences.

The elite among the economists at the professional level Include principally those who have gained prominence both through exceptional research and through the performance of high-level administrative duties such as directing economic research institutions or government Many of these have received additional recognition by election to full or corresponding membership in the Academy of Sciences. who are full members of the Academy of Sciences. Arzu-maoyan, director of the Institute of World Economics and International.. Ostrovityanov, vice president of the Academy of. Strumilin, former vice chairman of Gosplan; and Ye.S. Varga, former director of the Institute of World Economy and World Politics (dow the Institute of World Economics and International Relations).

Economists who are corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences. D'yaehenko, former director of the Institute of Economics of the Academy of. Gatoyskiy, former director of theof Economics of the Academy of. Kantorovlch,in the USSR as the "father of linear. Khacha-turov, former director of the Institute of Complex TransportationN.N. Nekrasov, chairman of tbe Siberian Council of Expeditionary Studies and deputy director of the Council for the Study of Productive. Pashkov, chairman of the Department of Political Economy of Moscow State. Plotnikov, director of the Institute of Economics of the Academy of. Prudenskly, director of

* In2 the name of the State Planning Committee (Gosplan) was changed to the Council of National Economy, USSR (USSRnd the name of the former State Scientific-Economic Council (Gosekonom-eovet) vas changed to the State Planning Committee (Gosplan). Research organizations subordinate to these two organs, pp.elow, are presumed to have retained their subordination after the change in name.

tbe Institute of Economics and Organization of Production of the Siberian Department of Academy of Sciences;. Starovskiy, director of the Central Statistical Administration.

II. Organization and Direction of Economic Research

General economic research is conducted primarily in economic research institutes and laboratories subordinate (l) to the system of tbe Academy of Sciences, which includes the RSFSR affiliates of the Academy as well as the academies of sciences of the other lk republics,ariety of national governmental units including state committees and ministries all directly subordinate to the Council of Ministers, USSR.esser extent, economic research also is conducted by the economics faculties of universities and educational institutes that constitute the system of the vuz (vyssbeye uchebooye zavedenlyehigher educational establi shment).

A. Division of Research Functions

A formal division of research functions exists between theresearch organizations in the system of the Academy of Sciences and in the vuzes on the one hand and the research organizations of the government on the other. The former are charged with the development of broad theoretical approaches to the solution of outstanding economic problems and with the making of specific recommendations based on those approaches. Tbe latter typically engage in applied research primarily in support of the administrative functions of their parentalthough this appears to be Somewhat less true of the research organizations subordinate to Gosplan than of most of the others.

Within the system of the Academy of Sciences, the better known economists and, in general, the better quality of research tend to be concentrated in the research organizations directly subordinate to the Department of Economic Sciences of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow and to the Siberian Department located In Novosibirsk. The departments of economics of the RSFSR regional affiliates of the Academy and the institutes of economics of tbe academies of sciences of the uniongenerally have not attracted the better research economists, although there are notable exceptions.

Among the government-directed economic research organizations, those subordinate to Gosplan, the USSR Sovnarkhoz, and the Stateon Questions of Labor and Wages are the more influential, employ the better economists, and (because of tbe comprehensiveness of theof their parent units) are engaged in research on broader economic problems. Moreover, the economists in these organizationsto have somewhat greater freedom to explore paths of research and

to cake policy recoOTtendatione independently of their parent units than do those of other government research organizations. Tho economicorganizations subordinate to other central governmental units, such as the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Agriculture, as veil as the narrowly specialized research organizations subordinate to regional and local governmental units, generally are more closelyto research support of the administrative activities of their parent units and tend to employ less well-known economists.

Among the vuzes, those located in the traditional centers of learningoscow and Leningradtend to have economics faculties of higher caliber and to engage in more research on broader topics than do their counterparts in other parts of the country. Thefaculties in vuzes outside Moscow and Leningrad tend toreater proportion of their time to teaching and performimited amount of economic research, much of which is oriented toward local problems.

B. Difficulty ln Coordinating Research

Nearly all economic researchinanced directly by theand is controlled by both the Party and the government. Because of the large number of parent units to which research organizations arehowever, the focusing and coordination of economic research on important national problems has proved to be difficult. At the present time, there is no single organization responsible for over-all direction and coordination of economic research on national problems, although it has been proposed that Gosplan function in this capacity. Under the present arrangement the Department of Economic Sciences nnd Gosplan snare in the direction and coordination of economic research on national problems, with the Department being responsible for that done in the system of the Academy of Sciences and in the vuzes and with Gosplan generally being responsible for that done by governmental research organizations over and above research done purely in support of their parent units.*

Tlie Department of Economic Sciences is charged specifically with the direction and coordination of economic research among the departments of economics of the RSFSR regional affiliates of the Academy of Sciences, the institutes of economics of the academies of sciences of the unionand the economics faculties of the vuzes. Direction andof research are effected through the Association of Soviet Economic

" Tne State Committee for the Coordination of Scientific Research under the Council of Ministers, USSR, also is associated with tho coordination of economic research, but its role is limited mainly to coordination of research on the economic aspects of technological developments inindustrial branches.

Scientificermanent organization that ie subordinate to the Department and comprises the economic research organizations in the system of the Academy of Sciences and tbe economics faculties of the vuzes. In the performance of its duties the Association assigns the research priorities and coordinates the annual research plans of the member organizations. The Association also promotes continuingthrough the holding of regular national and regional conferences, through exchanges of working programs and draft research reports, and through the encouragement of personal contacts among researchers. The Association is subdivided into problem sections that correspond roughly to the fields of research covered by the scientific problem councils at the national level (discussed below).

In directing and coordinating the work of economic research organizations that are subordinate to governmental units on national economic problems, Gosplan has no standing association comparable to that used by the Department of Economic Sciences." Presumably because of the large number of these organizations and their relatively narrow interests, Gosplan performs its coordination function primarily by means of ad hoc conferences that are convened to discuss specificproblems and at which only limited numbers of theseare represented.

C. Scientific Problem Councils

1

* The closest counterpart under Gosplan to the Association of Soviot Economic Scientific Institutes is the Council of Economic Institutes, established8 under the Scientific Research Economic Institute. This council, the membership of which includes most of the top-level economic research organizations in the government, in the Department of Economic Sciences, and in the vuzes, was designed to facilitatebetween governmental and other research organizations rather than within government. The function of the Council has been taken over largely by the scientific problem councils, and it appears to be relatively inactive at present.

Over-all coordination of the research on national problemsin the Department of Economic Sciences with that conducted in governmental units is effected primarily between individual research organizations and economists rather than through parent units. this coordination is facilitated by numerous ad hoc conferences convened to discuss specific research topics,0 its main means of attainment hasarge, interlocking network of semipermanent "scientific problem" councils, most of which are directed by theof Economic Sciences and which have authority only to advise and recomnend.

These problem councils, which coordinate research on the most important national problems as determined by Gosplan and the Academy of Sciences, are composed of economists with common interests employedide variety of research organizations within the system of the Academy of Sciences, in government, and in the economics faculties of the yuzec. The councils, which remain active only as long as the problems on which they are to work remain on the priority list, plan research programs in their fields in accordance with the directives of the regime, apportion research work among their members, and review the results of the

Most of the councils are directed by "head" researchto which they are assigned on the basis of special competence, and are chaired by individual economists who are outstanding in the field of research covered by the council. The principal .councils that are believed to have been active2 are listed in the following tabulation, together with their head organizations and their chairmen wherever known:

Organization

on Scientificof the Planning and Organization of Social

DepartmentNemchinov

Economic Sciences

on Problems of the Economic Effectiveness of Capital Investment and New Technology

Council on Scientificof Price Formation

Council on Materialand Profitability of Production

DepartmentKhachaturov

Economic Sciences

DepartmentSciences

DepartmentSciences

on Application of Mathematics and Computer Engineering In Economic Research and Planning

Council on the Achievement of Increased Labor Productivity

DepartmentNemchinov

n.a.

Economic Sciences

S.G. Strumilin

Council on Development of Lave of Socialism and theto Communism

of Economic Sciences

on Economic Comparison of the Two Systems andCountries

of Economic Scienci

for the Study of Pro- Gosplan ductive Forces*

Nemchinov

on Public Welfare

Institute of Labor of the State Committee on Questions of Labor and Wages

Coordination of economic research appears to have been in general far from satisfactory. Specific criticisms have included complaints of widespread duplication of effort and of effort wasted on research of no practical application. Most of the attempts to resolve these complaints have Involved increasing the number and the size of membership of the problem councils and increasing the number of coordinating conferences that they hold. The fundamental criticism of the present eysteci ofhowever, which was voiced. Yefimov, director of the Scientific Research Economic Institute of Gosplan, is that it lacksdirection and the power to enforce compliance.

IH. Recent Developments in Economic Research

The objectives of economic research in the USSR are twofold; first to preserve the heritage of Marxist-Leninist political economy and of the economic-political decisions made during the years since thean objective that generates research in the fields of recenthistory and the history of economic ideas and in critiques of the "contradictions ofnd, second, to resolve the practical economic problems of "building Corrmunism."

Although considerable research effort continues to be devoted to both objectives, since the death of Stalin increasingly greater emphasis has

The Council for the Study of Productive Forces differs from the other councils in that it has been in operation for many years and thatin addition to performingoordinating group, it hasa research laboratory.

been directed toward tbe latter of these two objectives. This trend, under which most of the emphasis has been placed on determining methods of increasing the efficiency with which resources axe used to attain the objectives set by the Party, has been stimulated by the Khrushchevthrough bitter criticism of economists for failing to make practical contributions to the solution of outstanding problems, through theand improvement of facilities for economic research, and through making available to researchers formerly classified official data. The most important stimulus, however, has been the establishment by the Khrushchev regime of ao intellectual climate that is more conducive to free investigation and under which the rewards for Innovations have been increased and the penalties for straying too far from the Marxist fold have been reduced.

The most striking feature of this trend ln economic research has been its pragmatism, which has ledareful sifting of Western economic doctrine and the incorporation of some concepts of this(often after sanitization by redefinition). Although Western "marginaliat" doctrine has been resoundingly rejectedafter having been proposed by two prominent Soviet. Kantorovich. Novozhilov,riterion for establishing prices of producer goodsconcepts such as "demandhend "rational" resource allocations have been adopted.

Perhaps most illustrative of the pragmatism of the Soviet approach to economic research is the current emphasis on econometrics (termed planometrlcs by Soviet economists to remove its bourgeoisncluding mathematical programming and Input-output analysis (hereafter referred to by the Soviet term interbranch balance analysis). From its modest beginnings during then email groups in Leningrad University (mathematical programming) and in the Scientific Research Economic Institute (Interbranch balanceconometrics has mushroomedizable industry, probably employingrofessional economists, mathematicians, and technical andpersonnel in Gosplan, in the Central Statistical Administration, andodd laboratories and research sections scattered about the country. The greatest progress in econometrics has been made in the field of linear programming, where tangible improvements arc claimed in its application to problems of transportation (railroad, motor vehicle, andarehousing (material-technicallant location, and enterprise operations. Other aspects of econometrics, which include mainly the application of interbranch balance analysis to planning on both national and regional scales, have made lesBowing in part to their complexity and their vast requirements for heretofore unavailable data and in part to en apparent reluctance of the USSR Sovnarkhoz to accept new methods. Recent statements byeconomists such. Dor, director of the Scientific

Research Institute of Planning and Norms of the USSR Sovnarkhoz, however, suggest that experimentation In this field by the USSR Sovnarkhoz as well as Gosplan will be expanded. Research in econometrics is under thecoordination. Yefimov, director of the Scientific Research Economic Institute of Gosplan (interbranch balance analysis onnd. Nemchinov, chairman of the Council for the Study of Productive Forces under Gosplan (regional interbronch balance analysis and mathematical programming).

Other priority fields of economic research, most of which aretoward the attainment of greater efficiency and economy inthe goals set by the Party, Include (l) continued efforts on the still unsettled problem of obtaining practical criteria for determining the relative effectiveness of alternative capital investments,by.ontinued efforts to increase the consistency of the success criteria for enterprise managers with the national objective of improved economic efficiency, coordinated. Gatovskiy;ontinued exploration of methods to increase labor productivity, ranging from broad questions of organization and location of economic activity to narrowly conceived time and motion studies,by. Strumilin.

A priority field of research that is not directly related toefficiency is that of determining the long-term economic goals of Communist society, often classed under the "problem of theof socialism to Communism." ioneering attempt in this field by Strumilin, which was recognized explicitly in the Twenty Year,harp long-term increase in the proportion of consumption distributed free of charge to the population with adecrease in the proportion purchased in the market. Into criticism by the regime that this approach is too narrow in scope, the emphasis has now shifted to the exploration of problems of the "optimum" proportions between consumption and investment that ore required topecified long-term rate of economic growth. An indication of the direction being taken by this research is providedecent suggestion by Strumilin that this optimum proportion beas that proportion which maximizes long-term consumption.

IV. Organizations Engaged in Economic Research anil Their Chief PerBonnal

A. Academy of Sciences. USSR

1. Department of Economic Sciences

The Department of Economic Sciences, formed in2 from the economic research organizations under the former Department of Economics, Philosophy, and Legal Sciences, directs most of the economic

research performed under the Academy of Sciences. The principalengaged In economic research under the Department are discussed below.

a. Institute of Economics

The Institute of Economics, which employseconomists,roader charterarger number of the best known economists than any of the other economic research The research program of the Institute encompasses most of the fields of economic research currently being emphasized by the regime and stresses their theoretical aspects. The Institute is divided Into seven sections, as follows: Political Economy, Economics of the Effectiveness of Capital Investment, Economics of the Geographical Distribution of Socialist Production, Agricultural Economics, Industrial Economicc,Statistics, and History of Economic Thought.

The Section on Political Economy contains the largest number of well-known economists snd makes the largest numericalto the published economic literature. Much of the research of this group has been extremely theoretical, however, leading to charges by government officials that many of the economists of the Institute have failed to make significant contributions to theof the practical problems facing the economy. 6 the principal efforts of the section have bean devotediscussion of the relation between value and price and to (primarily literary)on economic growth snd capital formation.

Much of the econometric research done in the Institute, Including that making use of mathematical programming and interbranch balance analysis, is done in the sections on Economics of theof Capital Investment and Economics of Geographical Distribution of Socialist Production. The Institute publishes the leading monthlyjournal Voprosy ekonomlkl (Problems ofhich iato presentation of the results of theoretical research and toof the theoretical aspects of outstanding economic problems.

* cademicians and ll* corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences, USSR, who werecademicians and 5members were connected with the Institute of Economics.

A few of the more Important economiets active in the work of the Institute of Economics axe as follows:

Plotnikov,of the Institute; corre-

sponding member of the Academy of Sciences, USSR; member of theboard of Vqprosy ekonomiki; former director of the Institute of Finance; Soviet representative to tho Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; specialist in public finance.

. Specialist in public finance.

Bakulev,of Economic Science; spe-

cialist in industrial economics; former head of the Department of Economics and Planning ofMoscow State University; has done recent research on methods for determining the economicof capital investment.

D.A.

.

Belov, A. A.

.

.

recent research onof lowering the cost ofproduction.

Section on Political Economy;in banking and public

Candidate of Economic Science;on the Economics of theDistribution of Socialist Production; has done recenton geographicalin agriculture.

Section on Political Economy;of the Scientific Research Institute of Planning and Norms of the USSR Sovnarkhoz; specialist in planning.

Doctor of Economic Science; Section on*Agricultural Economics;in agricultural economics; has done recent research onspecialization in.

il -

.

.

Fayerman, Ye.Yu.

Feygin, Ya.G,

.

.

of Economic Science;member of tbe Academy of Sciences; professor of economic statistics; has done recent re-Bourch on methods of Improving cost accounting.

Candidate of Economic Science;member of the Academy of Sciences; member of theboard of Voprosy ekonoolkl; foraer director of the Institute; specialist in banking and public finance; hao done recent research on the social and economicof technical progress and economic growth; chairman of the Council on the Scientificof Price Formation.

Section on the Economics of theof Capital Investment; specialist in mathematicalcurrently doing research on the determination of tbeof capital investment by moons of mathematical programming techniques.

Doctor of Economic Science; chief of the Section on the Economics of the Geographical Distribution of Socialist Production; specialist on the economics of regional

Doctor of Economic Science;member of the Academy of Sclencee; chief editor ofkonoeiiki; former director of the Institute; chairman of the Council on Material Stimulation andof Production.

Doctor of Economic Science;in economic history.

- IS -

Kaxnuukhova, Ye.S,

.

.

.

.

.

.

e,

of Economic Science;in agriculturalrecently has doneon methods for increasing labor productivity in agriculture.

Chief of the Section onEconomics; member of the editorial board of Voprosy ekono-alk.i; specialist in agricultural economies.

Specialist in mathematicalhas done recent research on methods for determining the economic effectiveness of capital investment.

Corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences; member of theboard of Voprosy ckonoslki; former director of the Institute of Complex Transportationspecialist in transportation economics and econometrics;of the Council on the Problems of thc Economic Effectiveness of Capital Investment and New

Doctor of Economic Science; former director of the Instituto]in economic history.

Doctor of Economic Science; has done recent research oc theeffectiveness ofand automation.

Section on Political Economy;in national income formerly on the faculty of Moscow State University.

Section oc Political Ecooomy; has done recent research on the social and economic problems of technical progress and economic growth.

c. Kronrod, Ya.A.

.

..

Ll .

Manevich, Ye.L.

..

deputy director of thespecialist in pricemajor contributor to thediscussions of the relation of price and value.

Doctor of Economic Science; has dons recent research on regional economic development.

Doctor of Economic Science; chief of the Section on Politicalspecialist In price theory and national income accounting; major contributor to recentof the relation of price and value.

Member of the editorial board of Voprosy cjconomlxl; has contributed to the recent discussions of the relation of price and value.

Section on Political Economy;ln planning.

Deputy director and former director of tho Institute; specialist in agricultural economics.

Doctor of Economic Science; has done recent research on theof production costs.

Specialist ln labor economics; has done recent research on economic incentives.

Specialist ln labor and industrial economics.

Doctor of Economic Science; deputy director of the Institute; has done recent research on technical progress and its effect on labor productivity.

Mstioluvflkly,on Political Economy; major

contributor to recent discussions of the relation of price and value; has done recent research on prob-lcmn of price theory, economic growth, capital formation, and consumption.

IJemchinov,of the Academy of Sci-

ences; chairman of the Council for the Study of Productive Forces of Gosplan; director of thefor Economic-Mathematical Methods of the Academy ofchairman of the Council for tbe Application of Mathematics and Computer Engineering in Economic Heocarch and Planning; chairman of the Council on Scientificof the Planning andof Social Production; former chairman of the former Department of Economic Sciences, Philosophy, and Legal Sciences; specialist in mathematical economics andprincipal research efforts currently in the field of regional dlatributlon of economic activity.

Hotkln,of Economic Science; Section

on Political Economy; has donere&earca on problems ofgrowth and capital fornutlon.

Opatskly,of Economic Science; Section

on the Geographic Distribution of Socialist Production; has doneresearch on the geographic diatrlbutior. of the foodindustry.

Ostrovityanov,of the Academy of Sci-

ences; vice president of theof Sciences; chief editor of Vestnlk akadcoll nauk SSSR (Herald of the Academy of Sciences,ormer candidate-member of theCommittee of the Cowtunlat

.

.

.

a.

.

on the economics faculty of Moscow State University,of Political Economy; has done recent research on problems of economic growth.

Corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences; chairman of theof Political Economy of Moscow State University; specialist in the history of economic thought; has done recent research onof economic growth.

Specialist in mathematicalcurrently doing research on methods of determining theof capital investment.

Doctor of Economic Science; chief of the Section on Economicmember of the editorial board of Vestnik statistiki (Herald ofember of theMethodological Council of the Central StatisticalUSSR; specialist ineconomics and statistics.

Doctor of Economic Science; Section on Political Economy; specialist in labor economics; has doneresearch on the growth of the labor force.

Dean of Soviet economists;of the Academy of Sciences; member of the ScientificCouncil of the Central Statistical Administration; former vice chairman of Gosplan; former vice ehuirman of the Council for the Study of Productive Forces; currently active in directing and coordinating research on methods for Increasing labor productivity.

.

.

.

of Economic Science; Section on the Geographical Distribution of Socialist Production; has done research recently on the regional distribution of agriculturalper capita.

Doctor of Economic Science; Section on Agricultural Economics; has done recent research on tbe use of prices to stimulate laborin agriculture.

Chief of the Section on Industrial Economics.

A.G.

of Economic Science; Section on Political Economy; formerof Finance, USSR; has doneresearch on methods ofnational income.

of Economics of World Socialist System;!

The Institute of Economics of World Socialist Systems, establishedoes research on thc economies of Soviet Bloc One of the principal functions of the Institute is to provide research support for the Council for Mutual Economic Assistancehe director of the Institute. Sorokin.

of World Economics and International Relutions

The Institute of World Economics and InternationalIs concerned with economic and political research on ncn-Communlst countries. Its mission is to detect changes ln the economic andsituation of tha world and to assets the significance of these changes In relation to the lntorests of the USSR. Thc Institute vas originally thc Institute of World Economy and World Politics under the direction of Ye.S. Vorgal. hc Institute functionedection (Section on Economics of Contemporary Capitalism) of the Institute of Economics of the Academy of Sciences. Emerging under its present titlehe Institute of Wcrld Economics andRelations Is now divided into six geographic and six functional sections. The six functional sections are as follows: General Problems of Imperialism, Problems of American imperialism, Workers' Movement in

Capitalist Countries, Agrarian Problems in Contemporary Capitalism, National Colonial Problems, and Current Conditions in Capitalistic Economies. The Institute publishes the Journal Mirovayaeshdunarodny-ye otnofihentya (World Economics and International Re-latlonsWKIK).

The research of the Institute tends to beighly theoretical nature. Practical research such as internationalof income, production, and labor productivity as veil as analysis of developments such as the European Common Market is done primarily in other economic research institutes.

A few of the economists active in the recent research of the Institute of World Economics and International Relations are as follows:

A.A.

a..

of tho Institute;of the Academy of Sciences; member of the editorial board of WEIR; former deputy director of the Institute of Economics of the Academy of Sciences; specialist ln international relations and in the economic problems of capitalist countries.

Deputy director of the Institute; specialist in the economicof capitalist countries.

Member of the editorial board of WEIR; also works with theResearch Economicof Gosplan; coordinator of interinstltute economicon problems of economic competition with Westernspecialist in publicand economic problems of capitalist countries; has done recent research on problems of comparison of the over-allpotentials of theand non-Communist Blocs.

Bechln,director of the Institute;

member of the editorial board of WEIR; formerly chiefection ln the Institute of Economics of thc Academy of Sciences dealing with the general economic problems of foreign countries; specialist in the economic problems ofcountries.

Inozemtsev,director of the Institute;

Candidate of Historical Science; member of the editorial board of Planovoye khozyaystvo (Plannedas done recenton long-term trends in world Coamunism.

V.D.

Khavinson, Ya.S..

professor at Columbia and Cornell Universities; specialist in US public finance.

Chief editor of WEIR.

Section on the US; Specialist in the international flow of

of the editorial board of

WEIR; Specialist in the economic problems of capitalist countries.

Lyublmova,of the editorial board of

WE IK.

Manukyan,of the editorial board of

WEIR; specialist in the economic problems of capitalist countries.

Mendel'son,of Economic Science; profes-

sor and chief of the Section on General Problems of Imperialism; specialist in the economicof capitalist countries.

NUSitin,of Economic Science; Sec-

tion on the us; also affiliated

.. Shlikter, A. A.

e.

..r.

. Varga, Ye.S.

the Scientific ResearchInstitute of Gosplan;in mathematicalas done recent research oneconomics and econometrics in the OS.

Candidate of Economic Science; has done recent research on theUnion and the European Common Market.

Chief of the Section on the US; specialist In economic planning, Internal trade, and international trade.

Member of the editorial board of WEIR; specialist in the economic problems of agriculture incountries.

Member of the editorial board of WETR; specialist in the economic problems of colonialism.

Deputy chief editor of WEIR.

Deputy director of the institute.

Member of the editorial board of WETR; specialist in the economic problems of capitalist countries.

Member of the editorial board of WEIR; specialist in the economic problems of underdeveloped

Academician of the Academy ofmember of the editorial board of WEIR; former director of the Institute; specialist in the economic problems of capitalist countries.

d. Laboratory forsaticul Methods

The Laboratory for Economic-Mathematical Methods of the Academy of Sciences is one of the more prominent institutionson research on the application of mathematical programming and interbranch balance analysis in economic research and planning. The main emphasis of the Laboratory since its establishment0 has been placed on the construction of regional interbranch balance tables and on experimentation with tho use or mathematical programming inoptimum intrareglonal and Interregional allocations of he Laboratory completed tables of regional Interbranch balances for Mordovskaya ASSR and Karel'skaya ASSR and for Kallnlngradskaya Oblast and Klevskaya Oblast and began workable for Tatarskaya ASSR.

The Laboratory la divided into three groups; ybernetics, engaged in research on types and methods ofof economic information for use by electronic computers in the planning and control of economic activity at the sovnarkhoz andenterprise level;apital Investment, engaged inwith regional "dynamic" interbranch balance tables that take account of the effect of investment ln now plant capacity during successive time periods;athematics, engaged ln research on the problemswith continuous optimal planning with particular reference to

. ml lut'thods orecast ir.,' . ir. ror.3umer demand.

A few of tho prominent economists active in tho work of the Laboratory for Economic-Mathematical Methods ore as follows;

Nracbinov,of the Laboratory."

ember of the economic

cybernetics group; specialist in Interbranch balance analysis;engaged in research on types and methods of processing economic information needed for electronic computers In tho planning andof economic activity.

.

ember of the capital Investment group; specialist in interbranch balance analysis; has

Seebove.

Golan.

.

.

.

recent research ona regional "dynamic" inter-branch balance table that takes account of new investment.

Deputy director of the Laboratory; apparently works with the capital investment group; specialist in Interbranch balance analysis;does research on the US; currently is constructing angrowth model of the US

ember of thegroup; has done recenton the application of linear programming techniques to problems of determining optimum methods for exploiting the resources ofregions.

Scientific secretary ofember of the capital investment group; has done recent research on determining the optimum distribution of capital la-vestment among industrial branches and enterprises within individual regions.

ember of thc economic cybernetics group; specialist in interbranch balance analysis and linear programming; has doneresearch on types and methods of processing economic information needed for electronic computers.in the planning and control ofenterprises.

V.F.

in interbranch balance analysis and mathematical

2. Siberian Department of the Academy of Sciences

The Siberian Department of the Academy of Sciences is located in Novosibirsk. This separate department presumably was established because of the great distance of the region from Moscow and the uniqueness of the economic problems of the region. Theorganizations subordinate to the Siberian Department that are engaged in economic research are discussed below,

a. Institute of Economics and Organization of Industrial Production

The Institute of Economics and Organization ofProduction is engaged primarily in research on the supply and optimum use of labor in Siberia and the Far East. The Institute is divided into five economic research sections: (l) Methodology of Planning Production and Analysis ofconomics andofndustrial Statistics, (U) Scientific Information,aboratory for Time and Motion Studies.

A few of the outstanding economists active In the work of the Institute of Economics and Organization of Industrial Production are as follows:

G.A.

.

.

of the Institute;member of the Academy of Sciences; member of the editorial board of Voprosy ekoaoaiiki; former deputy chairman of the Stateon Labor and Wages of the Council of Ministers, USSR;in labor economics; has done recent research on methods of increasing the effectiveness of the use of labor.

Has done recent research on methodc of increasing the effectiveness of the use of labor.

Corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences; chairman of theCouncil of Expeditionarydeputy chairman of tho Council for the Study of Productive Forces of Gosplan; has recently doneon tbe economic development of Central Asia.

b. Laboratory for Economic-Mathematical Methods

Tlie Laboratory for Economic-Mathematical Methods, one of the more prominent Institutions concentrating on mathematicalto economic research, vas established to develop methods of mathematical and econometric research for application in Siberia and the Far East. At the present time the research program of theis divided into three main fields; (l) the application of linear programming techniques in the solution of economic problemshe analysis of factors governing laborprofitability, and costs in Siberian sovnarkhozes;he construction, In cooperation with tbe Council for the Study ofForces of Gosplan and the Central Statistical Administration of tbe RSFSR, of interbranch balance tables for tbe Ural, East Siberian, West Siberian, and Far Eastern economic regions.

Two of the outstanding economists active in the work of the Laboratory for Economic-Mathematical Methods ore as follows:

L.V,

of the Laboratory;member of the Academy of Sciences; also employed in theof Mathematics of the Siberian Department of the Academy of Sciences; mathematicianin the USSR as the "father" of linear programming.

A.G.

employed in the State Committee of Labor and Wages of the Council of Ministers, USSR; specialist in mathematical economics and linear programming.

3. Academies of Sciences of the Union Republics

Each of the union republics except tho RSFSR has its own academy of sciences under the general supervision of the Academy of Sciences, USSR.* Each of the republic academies supports anof economics, which engages in research on many of the same

The RSFSR has, insteadeparate academy,iberian Department directly subordinate to the Academy of Sciences, USSR. Theseffiliates have departments of economicsin research but generally do not contain institutes of economics.

problem* covered by the Institute of Economics of the Academy ofbut which is oriented toward the regional aspects of these Typical of the organisation and activities of these institutes is that of the Institute of Economics of the Belorussian Academy of Sciences. Its staff ofrofessional economists is distributed among four sections as follows; Political Economy, Economics of Heavy Industry, Economics of Light Industry, and Geographical Distribution of Production. The research reports produced tend to be of anature and often cover such local topics as the development of Belorussian industry, prospects for growing beets and development of the sugar industry in Belorunoia, and problems of increasing laborand reducing costs ln the peat industry of Belorussia.

The location of the Institutes of economics of tne union republics and thc names of their directors are as follows:

the Institute

the Institute

Economics

Economies

A.A.

C.T.

C.T.

R.I.

P.

S.Yc.

D.S,

P.P.

K.

V.F.

A. A.

A.A.

o.b.

B. Government Organizations

1. State Planning Committee

See. the footnote on p.bove.

The economic research conducted under the variousof the State Planning Committee (Gosplan) probably is thc mostand influential of any economic researcn performed in the ussr. Tne principal purposo of this research is to support thc administrative

function* of Go apian In the field of long-range planning, and It la focused on the Improvement of methods of planning and of control of plan fulfillment aa well as on the content of long-range plana. Be-cauae of the comprehensiveness of planning ln the USSR, thla reaearch toucheB virtually all aspects of the economy.

To perform this research, Gosplan, since ita oatabliahnent0 aa tho State Scientific-Economic Councilasarge group of economists who are among tho beet trained and most able in tho country. For the most part these economieta were obtained through the transfer of existing resoarch institutions froa the USSR Sovnarkhoz (the former Gosplan) and fron the Academy ofbut many outstanding individual economists such as Khachaturov and Hemchinov hove been brought inart-time consulting basis from the reaearch institutions of the Academy of Sciences and from the vuzes. Ono of the principal features of this group of economiate in Gonplan that distinguishes it from other groups of economists ia its heavy weighting with epeciallBts in econometrics and statistics.

In addition to those engaged primarily ln reaearch in the economic research institutes and laboratories underumber of outstanding economists are engaged primarily in administrativeIn Gosplan itself, ew of these latter economists are aa follows:

P.M.

.

ChernyavukJy, V.

Suain, A.

epartment; Doctor of Economic Science; concerned with the regional distribution ofactivity.

Chief of the Department of Finance and Money Circulation; recently concerned with improving planfor various branches of industry.

Chief specialist in the Department of Economic Effectivoneas;concerned with methods of lowering production costs ofproducts.

Chief of the Subdeportment ofEconomic Balances;of Economic Science; concerned with measurement of national income in socialist countries.

Vaag,concerned with methods for

lowering production costs forproducts, measuring thc effectiveness of capitaland improving planning.

2. Scientific Research Economic Institute of Gosplan

The Scientific Research Economic Institute of Gosplan is the most active and influential of the government organizations engaged in economic research. The Institute was established under the USSR(then known as Gosplan)here it remained until the establishment of Gosplan (then known as Gosekonomsovet)t which time it was transferred to the new organization. The objective of the Institute is to generalize the experience of planning and to suggest methods of resolving planning problems. The most importantof its work has been research on methods of improving planningand control of plan fulfillment, ln this work it has engaged in extensive research on most of the currently outstanding economic Among the greatest contributions of the Institute have been its developmentractical methodology for determining tbe effectiveness of new capital investment to be placed ir. general use3 and its research on methods for rationalizing output indicators for use lnand controlling plan fulfillments that soon are to be placed in use.

The Institute pioneered in the field of interbranch balance analysis in the USSR, and it continues tc give high priority to this field of activity. 1 the Institute experimented with methods cf determining the effectiveness of the international division of labor within the Soviet Bloc by means of Interbranch balance analysis. Other recent research in tbe fields of interbranch balance analysis and mathe-itaticul programming has included research cn improved methods fordirect input coefficients; for planning household consumption and investment; for determining the effectiveness of capital investment ir: capacity to produce substitute products; and for determining optimumamong plant location, transportation facilities, and material-technical supply.

A few of the outstanding econoni sts active in the work of the Scientific Research Economic Institute are as follows:

fefimcv,of the Institute; Doctor

of Economic Science; specialist ir, mathematical economics andbalance analysis.

.

.

a..

.

Fridenberg, V.

Ioffe, Ya.A.

a.

..

. See p. lb, above.

of the Section on Economic Competition Between the USSR ana the US.*

Doctor of Economic Science; former deputy chief editor of Planovoye khozyaystvo.

Speciallet in interbranch balance analysis.

Member of the editorial board of Planovoye khozyaystvo; specialist ln international economics.

Chief of the Section on Statistics; Doctor of Economic Science; has done recent research on labor

Chief of thc Section cnCandidate of Economic

Candidate of Economic Science;in comparative economic systems.

Candidate of Economic Science; has done recent research on

Specialist in interbranch balance analysis and linear programming.

Candidate of Economic Science; has done recent research on technical progress end capital investment.

Candidate of Economic Science; has done recent research on

.

.

..

Petruflhln, H.

Pokatayev, Yu.K.

. Savel'yeva, L.

Yerahov, Ye.B.

in internationalcomparisons; has doneresearch on methods used by Western economists to makecomparisons of national income and standards of living.

Senior scientific worker;in statistics; has done recent research on the economy of tha UK.

Specialist in interbranch balance analysis.

Deputy director of tbe Institute; coordinator of research oneconomic planning;lot in the measurement of industrial production; member of tho editorial board of Planovoye khozyaystvo.

Candidate of Economic Science; has done recent research on methods of measuring production for purposes of planning.

Has done recent research on methods of making internationalof economic magnitudes.

Specialist in agricultural oco-nomlofl.

Chiefection in theCandidate of Economic

Specialist in mathematicaland econometrics; has done recent research on national inter-brunch balances and onof optimum fuel balances.

The Council for the Study of Productive Forces, which was transferred to Gosplan (then known as Oosekononsovet) from the Institute of Economics of the Academy of Sciences lates concernedwith questions of tho optimum Geographical distribution ofactivity, with particular reference to the underdeveloped areas of Siberia, the Far North, and the Far Bast.

A few of the outstanding economists associated with the work of the Council for the Study of Productive Forces are as follows:

V.S..

.

.

e.

..

Tyudogovskly, G..

Secbove.

of the Council.*

Has done recent research onof the economic development of northeastern USSR.

Has done research on methods oflabor productivity in agriculture.

Candidate of Economic Science; has done recent research on thedistribution of industry.

Doctor of Economic Science; has dona recent research on methods of determining the effectiveness of capital investment.

Has done recent research on the economic development ofUSSR.

Doctor of Economic Science; has done recent research on thedevelopment of northeastern USSR.

Chiefepartment of the

Haa done recent research on the improvement of indicators of plans and plan fulfillment.

Early1 the Laboratory for Economic-Mathematical Methods was established under the Council. The Laboratory is engaged in three principal fields of research effort, as follows: f mathematical programming techniques to the determination of the optimum location of branches of industry and of the most efficient use of transportation facilities; (b) construction of interbranchtables for large economic-geographic regions; and (c) econometric analysis of regional consumption. One of the outstanding economists active in directing the work of the Laboratorye. Mints.

Institute of Electronic Controlling Machines of Gosplan

The Institute of Electronic Controlling Machines, recently transferred to Gosplan from the Academy of Sciences, has been active in the field of interbranch balance analysis since much of the research of the Institute has been focused ondesign androup of economists associated. Selkin has been active in economic research. 0 the ^roup has been engaged in experimental research to determine "rational" interbranch price relatives, has done research on optimum fuel-energy balances including the constructionalancend has nade experimental attempts to measure the economic effectiveness of foreign trade.

5- Institute of Complex Transportation Problems of Gosplan

The Institute of Complex Transportation Problems, which va^ transferred to Gosplan (then known us Gosekonomsovet) from the Vcadeniy of Sciencesngages in research on problems of :oordinating tbe development of the national transportation system aid methods of obtaining the most efficient use of existing facilities, tatnematical programming and regional interbranch balance analysis are tsed extensively in the research of the Institute. Much of thisis done by the cybernetics group, under the direction of Ye.P. .'esterov. . Belousov is the director of the Institute,.

6. Computer Center of Gosplan

The Computer Center of Gosplan, recently transferred from .he Academy of Sciences, works closely with the Scientific Research Iconooiic Institute of Gosplan in research on interbranch balances, "ae Center has been engaged in the construction of interbranch bal-Jice tables23sing the recently revisedprices, and in sooe research on planned optimum fuel bal-jlcc's Active in the economic research of the Center. Koralev, in associationh. jusupov, Ye.N. Hikol'ukava,. Safron.

Although tho principal function of the Council of National Economy, USSR (USSRs administrative, thereeu outstanding economists in it serving in administrative capacities who do some economic research and who serve as members of the editorial board of the monthly journal, Planovoye Khozyaystvo, published jointly by the USSR Sovnarkhoz and Gosplan. ew of these economists are as follows:

B.N..

Karpov, P. Koldomasov, Yu.I. Mikhaylov, H.

..

Chief of the Division of Labor and Vagoo; member of the odltorial board of Voprosy ckonomlki.

Deputy chairman of tho USSRhas done recent research on now norms for amortization of capital investment.

Deputy chief of the Department of Summary Balances and Material-Technical Supply.

Deputy chief of the Department of Material Balances; Candidate of Economic Science.

Chiof of the Department of Finance and Production Cost; has doneresearch on methods ofthe coat of industriala.

Chief of the Division of Nationalember, mf tti editorial board of Planovoye khozyaystvo.

Candidate of Economic Science; has done recent research on the effects of specialization in lowering costs of production on collective farms.

the footnote on p.bove,

Thc Scientific Research Institute for Planning and Norms was established under the USSR Sovnarkhoz (then known as Goeplan)hen the Scientific Research Economic Institute was transferred from the USSR Sovnarkhoz to Gosplan (then known ashe efforts of the Institute are focused on providing researchfor the primary function of the USSR Sovnarkhoz of short-term planning. Much of tha work of the Institute is devoted tonorms for industrial consumption of labor and materials to be used in planning by the USSR Sovnarkhoz. Tne Institute is directed. Bor, who alsoember of the Institute of Economics of the Academy of Sciences.*

9. Scientific Research Institute of Labor

The Scientific Research Institute of Labor and its parent organization, the State Committee on Questions of Labor and Wages, both located in Moscow, were created5 to give greater emphasis to labor and wage problems that were formerly handled by Gosplan. The research of the Institute is focused on fields related to increasing labor productivity, including research on labor and wage norms, methods of stimulating economic incentives, wage administration, and Industrial organization. Other research of the Institute has included regional and international comparisons of living standards and econometric method* of planning for future consumer demand. Tin: Institute places considerable emphasis on the application of mathematical methods to economic research and employs numerouo specialists ln interbranch balance analysis and linear programming. The research reports of the Institute frequently appear in the monthly Journals, Sotstallstlchoski^ trud (Socialistublished by the State Committee on Questions of Labor and Wages, andfomatsli: arabotnaya plata (Bulletin ofc Information on Laborublished by the Institute.

A few of the outstanding economists associated with the work of the Scientific Research Institute of Labor are as follows;

H..

of the Institute.

Specialist in interbranch balance analysis and linear programming; also ansoelutcd with the Laboratory for Economic-Mathematical Methods of the Siberian Department of the Academy of Sciences.**

Antosenkov, Ye.G..

Aron, Ye.

. Kapustin, Ye.I.

.

..

.

scientific member; has done recent research on personal and public services.

Has done recent research on methods of Increasing labor productivity.

Member of tho Department forthe Wage System and the Form of Labor Payments.

Member of the section studying labor in capitalist countries; has done recent research onorganization and quality control ln the US.

Has done recent research on methods of increasing labor productivity.

Deputy director of the Institute; has done recent research on the organization of the wage system and standards of living In ao-cialist countries; specialist in interbranch balance analysis.

Candidate of Economic Science;in internationalof labor productivity and living standards; has done recent research on US-Soviet comparisons.

Has done recent research ondistribution of the labor force.

Doctor of Economic Science; senior staff member of the Institute; has done recent research on the use of leisure time.

Has done recent research on thebetween growth of labor productivity and methods of wage payments.

Petkevich, K.

.

R.

Rusanov, Ye.S.

Sergcyeva, CP.

.

.

.

dono recant research on methods of wage administration to increase labor productivity.

Deputy director of the Institute; Candidate of Economic Science; has done recent research on problems of the transition toour workday, the regulation of norms for labor and wages, theof industrial organization, and the mechanization oflabor.

Specialist In mathematical economics and econometrics; has done recent research on the use of mathematical models in planning calculations of wages, income, and consumption.

Has done recent research on the socio-economic problems ofprogress and on tbeof the labor force.

Has done recent research on theof the growth of laborto methods of wage

Chief of the Department of Machine Construction of the Central Bureau of Industrial Norms for Labor, which is attached to the Institute; has done recent research onof the transition toour workday and on the regulation of norms for labor and wages.

Member of the Department forthe Wage System and Form of Labor Payments.

Chief of the Department of Labor Productivity and Utilization of Labor Reserves; huu done recent research on thc geographicalof manpower to newly developing ureau.

.

.e.

. Vinogradov, Yu.V.

.

of the Department forthe Wage System and Form of Payment of Labor; has doneresearch on wageproblems.

Chiefepartment; specialist ln personal services.

Chief of the Department forthe Organization ofLabor.

Has done recent research on methods of increasing labor productivity.

Member of the Department forthe Wage System and Form of Labor Payment.

Has done recent research on tbeof measures ofmovements and methodology for studying public opinion.

10. Central Statistical Administration

Thereumber of economists ln the Central Statistical Administration who perform some economic research even though they arc engaged primarily In administrative work. Among the duties of these economists is the editing of the monthly economic and statisticalVestnlk statiotiki. published by the Central Statisticalew of the outstanding economists affiliated with theStatistical Administration are as follows:

Starovskiy,of tbe Central Statistical

Administration; correspondingof the Academy of Sciences; has done recent research onof comparing tho US and Soviet economies.

3elyakov,of the Section on the Statis-

tics of Material Supplies and

.

done recent research on labor productivity in agriculture.

V.V. Eydel'man, M.

.

.

.

a..

.

.

chief of the Administration of Industrial Statistics.

Candidate of Economic Science;ln mathematical economics; has done recent research on the improvement of industrialfor interbranch balance tables.

Consultant to the Section onStatistics and Statistical Methodology.

Deputy chief of the Department of Statistics of Material Supplies and Inventories.

Deputy chief of the CentralAdministration; has written widely on methods for determining the effectiveness of capitalalso has done recent research on statistics of prices and on price formation.

Chief of the Section on Budget Statistics.

Deputy cnlef of the CentralAdministration; specialist in interbranch balance analysis; has done recent research onof living in socialist

Chief of thc Department of theof Trade; has done recent research on standards of living and on methods of forecastingdemand.

Deputy chief of the Department of Statistics or Material Supply and Inventories.

.

.

of the Section on national Income; chief editor of Vestnlk statiB-lki; haa done recenton measuring standards of living.

Chief of tbe Section on Labor and Wage Statistics; haswritten on the effects of the reduction of the length of the workday.

of the Department of Statis-

tics of Labor and Cost of theof Statistics ofhas done recent research on the use of value measurements of industrial production.

Volcdar6kiy,director of the Central Sta-

tistical Administration; editorial board of Planovoye khozyaystvo; has done research on the planning and measurement of increases in labor productivity and on theof fixed capital.

11. Scientific Research Institute for the Study of Market Forces

The Scientific Research Institute for the Study of Market Forces of the Ministry of Foreign Trade, USSR, located in Moscow,research in the economics of foreign trade and trade policies of foreign states. The Institute, the director of which. Orlov, supplies the Ministry of Foreign Trade with information on theof commodity markets in order to aid the carrying out of foreign trade operations. The Institute is divided into the following six Economics of Foreign States, Commodity Markets, Prices, Foreign Commercial Information, Statistics, and Study of Foreign Firms. Theregularly publishes Byulleten' stranoy konanercheskoyii (Bulletin of Foreign Commercial Information)eries of occasional papers devoted to more complete studies of commercial conditions. The journal of the Ministry of Foreign Trade, Vueshnyaya torgovlya (Foreignlso provides an outlet for the work of this institute.

The Ministry of Foreign Trade also has an Academy of Foreign Trade (Akademiya Vneshney Torgovli) in Moscow that is almost exclusively

devoted to educational activities and, in addition, an Institute of Foreign Trade In Leningrad that specializes in training more advanced students and engagesnited amount of research work. Practically

all of the research under the Ministry of Foreign Trade le narrowly specialized commercial research; theoretical reaearch in international

economics is done primarily ln other research organizations.

12. Scientific Research Institute of Finance

The Scientific Research Institute of Finance of the Ministry of Finance, USSR, located In Moscow, waa established6 to provide research support for the parent ministry in the solution of pressing financial problems. Since then the Institute has acquired duties,basic research ln finance and the collection and analysis of statistical material on state budgets, taxes, credit, money circulation, and wages ln Soviet Bloc and major non-Bloc countries. In addition to its major publicationsusually generalizations of experience intho financial syatemthe Institute publishes periodic surveys of financial and currency conditions in foreign countriea. The work of the Institute la divided among the following four sections: Budgetary Finance; Finance of Branches of the Economy of the USSR; Credit and Monetary Circulation in the USSR; and Finance, Money, and Credit in Foreign Slates.

A few of the economists associated with the work of the Scientific Research Institute of Finance arc ao follows:

Kosyachenko,of the Institute; has done

Barmin, V..

.

recent research on the relationmaterial Incentives andprogress.

Has done recent research on housing and public servicco.

Baa done recent research on problems of reducing the cost of production of industrial products.

Candidate of Economic Science; has done recent research on theof prices and costs of industrial products.

Deputy director of the Institute; member of the editorial board of Finansy SSSR (Finances of the USSR).

13- nioa Scientific Research Institute ofd.cs

Tne All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Agricultural Economics of the Ministry of Agriculture, USSR, which was established in5 in Moscow, is charged with the study of broad problems of the economic development of agriculture not covered by the large number of more specialised agricultural institutes in Moscow and throughout the country. The Institutetaff of 8C0 persons, includingrofessional employees, androad system of regionaland supporting centers. Its research program is focused on methods for improving agriculture and includes studies on the optimum size of farms, regional distribution of crops, land use, labormonetary Incentives, differentiation of land rent on collective farms, and standardized cost accounting on collective farms.

The Institute has been subjected to extensive criticism for failure toositive contribution to the solution ofproblems, and in the spring2 the director of theA.I. Tulupnlkov, was replaced. Obolenskly, ain agricultural planning formerly with the USSR Sovnarkhoz and more recently with the Scientific Research Economic Institute of Gosplan.

A few of the economists active in the work of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Agricultural Economics are as follows:

K.P.

..

of the Institute; formerly chief of the Section on theProblems of Agriculture at the Scientific Research Economic Institute of Gosplan; has done recent research on methods oflabor productivity in agriculture.

Has done recent research on methods of increasing labor productivity in agriculture.

Deputy director of the Institute; has done recent research on long-range agricultural planning and on methods of economic management of collective and state farms.

- Uo -

Boyev, V.

of the Section on Prices; has done recent research on the differentiation of rent onfarms.

S.D.

done recent research onof land use.

V.A..

.

.

.

deputy director of the Institute.

Academician of the All-Unionof Agricultural Sciences; has done recent research onprogress and laborin agriculture.

Has done recent research on the optimum size of agricultural

Member of the Department forand Specialization; has done recent research on planning in ugrIculture.

Academician of the AU-Unioncf Agricultural Sciences; Academic Secretary of theof Economics and Organization cf Agricultural Production of the Academy of Agricultural Sciences; has done recent research on the economic problems of collective farms.

N.G.

of the Department forand Specialization; Candidate cf Agricultural Science.

D.G.

Okhapkin, K..

done recent research on thesize of agricultural

Chief of theetting Norms for Wages and Labor.

Corresponding member cf the All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Rusakov,of the Department of Economicb

and Organization of Production of Kolkhozes; has done recent research on accounting on collective farms and on the determination of thesize of agricultural

Solov'yov,of Economiceputy

director of the institute; has done recant research on problemsto long-range agricultural planning and on methods of economic management on farms.

Tlkhomlrov,member of the All-

Unlon Academy of Agricultural

Government Research Organizations

substantial number of research Institutions andthat are subordinate to other governmental units are engaged in economic researcharrowly specialized character. Among this group are those engaged in the application of mathematical programming both to regional economic problems such as plant location,and supply and warehousing, and to the problems of individual enterprises. Perhaps the most outstanding example of both approaches is the work done by the Central Scientific Research Laboratory for tbe Application of Mathematical Statistics snd Electronic Computerof the Moscow Oblast Sovnarkhoz. The laboratory, which wasins under the direction. Dlln and0 employedathematicians and economists. The laboratory has been engaged in research on mathematical methods of controlling product quality snd in applying mathematical programming to the problems of Individual enterprises such as the determination of optimumprocesses. ointly with tbe laboratories for economic-mathematical methods of the Academy of Sciences and the Council for the Study of Production Forces of Gosplan, the laboratory was engaged in constructing an interbranch balance table for the geographical area controlled by the Moscow Oblast Sovnarkhoz.

Other governmental organizations engaged in the application of mathematical programming and interbranch balance analysis to theenterprises and to smell regions include the Department for the Application of Economic-Mathematical Methods of Gosplan, Belorussian SSR,

under the direction. Polonskiy, and the department of economics of the TatarsKaya ASSR, under the direction. Gren'kov.

Governmental organizations doing research on theof mathematical programming to transportation problems andpersons associated with this work include tho Ail-Union Scientific Research Institute for Railroad Transport.he Gor'kov Engineering Institute of Water Transport.he Central Scientific Research Institute of the Maritime Fleet (n. Dmitriyeva and N.nd the Scientific Research Institute of Automobile Transport. Geronimus).

C. Universities and Educational Institutes

l, there wereniversities andconomic and engineering-economic institutes engaged in college-level training in economics and related subjects. In addition to maintaining fairly heavy teaching loads, members of the economics faculties of theseengage in some research. Those institutions that perform research of higher quality and employ the more outstanding personnel are discussed below.

1. Moscow State University

The economics faculty of Moscow State University, named. Lomonosov, the largest and most prominent institution of higher education in the USSR, is divided Into seven departments, or chairss follows: Political Economy, History of theEconomy and Economic Thought, Econcmice of Foreign Countries, Economics and Planning of Industry, Economics and Planning ofStatistics and Accounting, and Analysis of Economic Activity of Socialist Enterprises. The members of each of these departments ere engaged in some research primarilyheoretical character or. the outstanding national problems* lying wltliin their fields of specialization.

a few of the approximatelyembers of the economics faculty of Moscow State University are as follows**:

Sokolov,of the economics faculty;

chairman of tho Department of Economics and Planning of

* See II> P-bove.

** Two prominent members of the mathematics faculty, Academi. Kolmogorov. Sobolev, also have done recent research in the field of mathematical economics.

.

of Economic Science; ajeo affiliated with the ScientificInstitute cf Labor of the State Committee on Questions of Labor and Wages and with thofor Economic-Mathematical Methods of the Siberian Department of the Academy of Sciences."

H.G.

done recent research on methods of Improving economic incentives of labor In industry.

Z.V.

of Economic Science; member Of tho Department of Political Economy; specialist ln money, credit, and finance; has written on the use of cost accounting and profitability as methods of atl-mulating incentives in industry.

A.Ya.

of Economic Science; member of the Scientific Methodological Council of the Central Statistical Administration; specialist ln ota-tioticD and mathematical economion; active in work on interbranchanalysis and linear

N.A.

of Economic Science; ber of the Department of Statia-tice.

M.S.

of the Section onof the Department of the Economics of Foreign Countries.

minskly,.

dona recent research onof economic competitionthe USSR and the US.

L.I.

done recent research on the economies of capitalist countries.

p. 2h, above.

- hk -

e.

.

Kharaktiaah'yan, G.

.

.

.

Kumncheoko, Ya.

.

.

of the Department of Labor Economies; deputy director of the University.

Member of the Department of the History of the National Economy and Economic Thought.

Candidate of Economic Science;of the Department of Political Economy; has done recent research on international economic

Has done recent research onland rent and problems of price formation in agriculture.

Specialist in national Income, pricing, and value theory; also affiliated with the Institute of Economics of the Academy offi.

Corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences; Doctor of Economic Science; member of tho Department of Political Economy; specializes in land rents.

Doctor of Economic Science; baa done recent research onlal land rents.

Candidate of Economic Science; has done recent research on economic competition between the USSR and the US.

Doctor of Economic Science;in wage problems inand indexes of economicof kolkhozes and eov-khozes.

.

of the Academy

Academiclan of the Academy ofaffiliated with theof Economici of Sciences.*

A.I.

a.

e.

.

..

ding member of the Academy of Sciences; professor ineconomy; has writtenariety of subjects Includingbalances, national, planning, and economic

Chairman of the Department of the History of the National Economy and of Economic Thought; Doctor of Historical Science; specialist in the economic history of foreign countries.

Member of the Department ofand Planning of Industry; also affiliated with thefor the Study of Productivepecialist In energy economics and problems related to the location of fuel

Chairman of the Department ofmember of tho Scientific Methodological Council of Central Statistical Administration;with thc Department of Industrial Statistics, Moscow Economic-Statistical Institute.

Specialist in the political economy of the underdeveloped countries in Asia and Africa.

Has done recent research ongrowth.

bove.bove.

.

of the Department ofand Analysis of Economic Activity of Socialist Enterprises.

H.A.

of the Department ofEconomy; Doctor ofScience; has done recent research on differential land rents.

P.M.

.

of Economic Science; has done recent research on problems of training of the labor force.

Chairman of the Department ofof Foreign Countries; has done recent research on problems of equalizing the level ofdevelopment in countries of the Soviet Bloc.

2. Leningrad State University

The economics faculty of Leningrad State University, named for A. A. Zhdanov,ivided into four departments, or chairss follows; Political Economy, Industrial Economics, Statistics and Accounting, and Economics of Modern Imperialism. The fields of economic research in which the members of these departments are the most active are labor productivity, reduction of the costs of agricultural products, problems of contemporary capitalism, and methods of optimal planning of production.

The economics faculty of the University is noted for its pioneering research and its training of many students in theof mathematical programming to the solution of economicunder the leadership. Kantorovicb. umber of early researchers in this field of economics, including Kantorovicb, are no longer with the University, the faculty continues toubstantial amount of research and training in the field. Research on the use of mathematical programming is now done in the faculty'sof Economic-Mathematical Methods, which was establishedTrie research of the Laboratory has been devoted primarily to the solution of transportation problems and problems connected with the location of new cement plants, but2 the Laboratory also has been engaged in analysis of interbranch balances of industry in Leningrad.

Some of tbe members of tbe economics faculty and some of the employees of Leningrad State University are as follows:

l.v... Davidovich, Ye.G......

.

.

Member of the Department ofCapitalism.

Specialist in the economics of capitalist countries.

Specialist In mathematical

Specialist in mathematical

Specialist In mathematical

fThnlrmnn of the Department of Mathematical Economics.

Specialist In mathematical

Specialist In mathematical

Chairman of the Department of the Economics of Contemporary

Former dean of the economicshas done recent research on the effect of repair andof equipment on labor

Specialist in mathematical

3. Moscow Institute of Rational Economy

The Moscow Institute of National Economy, named. Plekhanov, was established1 by combining an institute of the earoe name that trained specialists in the operation of tradewith the former Moscow State Economic Institute. The Institute

is an educational institution primarily engaged in training personnel for positions in the USSR Sovnarkhoz, in other governmental units, and in The Institute trains students in nine branches of economics as follows: Political Economy, Economics and Organization of Industrial Enterprises, Economics of Industry, Economics and Organization ofEconomics of Labor, Geographical Location of Branches of the National Economy, Economics of Material-Technical Supply, Problems of Price Formation, and the Finance of Branches of the National Economy. The Institute alsoubfaculty that trains students in theof electronic computers In the planning of the national economy.

A few of the outstanding economists affiliated with the Moscow Institute of National Economy are as follows:

U.S.

.

.

.

.

.e.

of the Institute; chief editor of Ekonomlcheskiye nauki (Economiconthly jour-nal of economics published by the Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education.

Director of the Section on theand Organization ofEnterprises.

Director of the Section on Finance of the Branches of the National Economy; specialist in finance.

Has done recent research onof reducing the cost ofproducts and on the measurement of output of machine building enterprises.

Co-director of the Section on the Geographical Location of Branches of the National Economy.

Economics of Industry.

Director of the Section on theof Labor; alsoith Moscow State University.*

See, above.

Itln,of the Section on the

Economics of Industry; Doctor of Economic Science; has done recent research on the concentration of production and the size of

Kamenltser,of the Section on the Eco-

nomics and Organisation ofEnterprises; Doctor ofScience; has done recenton management of industrial enterprises and on methods of measuring labor productivity.

Lokshln,of the Section on tbe Eco-

nomics of Material-TechnicalDoctor of Economic Science.

.

Candidate of Economic Science; specialist in statistics and mathematical economics; has done recent research on theof living standards.

.

Specialist in mathematicalhas done recent research on location of economic activity in agriculture.

Turetskly, Sh.Ya.

Director of the Section onof Price Formation; has done recent research on methods of loverlng costs of production of industrial products.

4, Moscow Financial Institute

The Moscow Financial Institute trains specialists lnand finance for work ln industrial enterprises and Inorgans of the government. ew of the economists on tho faculty of the Institute who do some research are as follows:

. Chairman of tbe Department ofalso affiliated with thc Institute of Economice of the Academy of Sciences.*

* bove.

Atlas,of Economic Science; spe-

cialist ln banking and finance; major contributor to recentof the relation of price to value; has done recent research on the history of the state bank.

Maslov,of the Department of Sta-

tistics; specialist in statistics and mathematical economicB; has done recent research onmethods of forecasting consumer demand.

5- Leningrad Financial Institute

As is the case with the Moscow Financial Institute, tho function of the Leningrad Financial Institute is to train specialistf in accounting and finance for work in industrial enterprises and ln financial organs of tne government. ew of the economists on the faculty of the Institute who do some research are as follows:

Aleksandrov,done recent research on methods

or using profits in industryeans of stimulating incentives.

Pavlov,of the Department of Po-

litical Economy; has done recent research on the use of working capital in industrial enterprises.

6. Moscow Economic-Statistical Institute

The Moscow Economic-Statistical Institute trains statistical workers for Industry and government. The Instituteember of the Council of Economic Institutes under Gosplan and has been assigned to coordinate the research of the Council in the fiold of methods oflabor productivity. The more important members on the faculty of the Institute are as follows:

Ovciyenko,of the Institute.

.

.

.

.

Mekeimova,

..

.

.I.

of the Department ofStatistics; Candidate of Economic Science; also affiliated with the Moscow Engineering-Economics Institute.

Member of the Department ofStatistics.

Member of the editorial board of Vestnik otatletikl.

Chairman of the Department of Trade and Transport Statistics.

Chairman of the Department ofStatlatics.

Deputy ill roc tor of the Institute.

Has done recent research on living standards.

Member of the Department ofStatistics; also affiliated with the Central Statisticaland with Moscow Suite University.

Member of tho Department ofStatistics.

Member of the Department ofStatlatics.

of the Department of Ma-

chine Accounting.

Thebrak,of the Department of Ac-

counting.

7. Moscow and Leningrad Engi nee ring-Economic Institutes

The Moscow Engineering-Economic Institute, named for Serge Ordzhonlkldze, and the Leningrad Engineering-Economic Institute train engineering students In the economics and technology of individual branches of the economy. Most of the curriculum Is devoted tosubjects, and the amount of economics taught is nominal. In spite

of the lack of emphasis on thc teaching of economics, however, thehave competent economics faculties whoonsiderable amount of economic research in addition to teaching. The principal emphasis of this research has been placed on the use of mathematical programming in planning the operations of individual enterprises. ew of the economists active in research In the two schools arc as follows:

a. Moscow EnBlneerlnfi-Kconomic Institute

Kozlova,of the Institute; Doctor

of Economic Science; specialist in mathematical economics and econometrics.

V.G.

Fedorovich, M.

Girovskiy, V.

.

.

e..

.

of Economic Science; has done recent research on theof the size of industrial centers on their economic

Specialist in mathematicalhas been active recently in the use of mathematicalin enterprises in the Moscow City Sovnarkhoz.

Deputy director for research of the Institute; Candidate of Economic Science; specialist in the pricing of construction work.

Doctor of Economic Science; has done recent research onorganization and planning.

Doctor of Economic Science;in the economics of tho ferrous metallurgy industry.

Ran done recent research on OS-Soviet economic comparisons.

Doctor of Economic Science; member of tho Section on Political

Doctor of Economic Science;of the Department of Static-tics.

b. Leolograd Engineering-Economic Institute

V.V.

of Economic Science;in mathematical economics and econometrics; has done recent research on methods of determining the effectiveness of capitalnotable for thehe received for advocating the use of the Western marginal efficiency of capital as thefor determining theof investment.

I.A. Toallov, fi.D.

done research on price

Has done recent research on methods of reducing the cost of industrial products.

D. Other important Economists

In this section are listed other important research econoalsta who have not been clearly identifiedarticular researchas follows:

A.

of Economic Science; has done recent research on theof depreciation andof industrial equipment.

I.S.

of Economic Science; has done recent resoarch on thoeffectiveness of scientific research.

N.G.

of Economic Science; has done recent research on speciali-ratlon and cooperation in industry.

L.A.

member of the Academy of Sciences; recently has written

- $k

on the relationship betweentheory and practicalwhich has led to criticism that he has denied the existence of the "basic law of socialism."

Karkarov,of Economic Science; has

done recent research on theof agriculture and the economic basis foradministration.

Kileykovskiy,of Economic Science; has

done recent research on problems of the international division of labor.

.

.

done recent research on the nature and growth of capitalism.

Doctor of Economic Science; has done recent research on methods of increasing labor productivity.

Doctor of Economic Science; has done recent research on methods of improving the financing of capital investment.

S.

of Economic Science; has done recent research on the planning of land use.

APFHMDJX A

? SOURCES

The principal sources used for the textual material in this report are announcements, editorials, speeches, and reports of conferences contained in open Soviet periodical publications, including particularly the monthly Journals Vostnik ukndemll nauk SSSR (Herald of the Academy of Sciences, USSR) and Voprosy ekonomlki (ProblcmB of Economics) and the weekly newspaper Ekonomichoskaya gazeta (Economic Gazette).

The names of economists were drawn mainly from lists of authors of articles ln economic periodicals and of monographs in recent years and from lists of participants at various economic conferences. Thecriteria used for their Inclusion in the report were the frequency or importance of publications in the field of general or mathematical economics and official position. Thus the list of economists tends to slight competent middle-rank economists ln government researchwhose work is not regularly published in the open literature and competent younger economists both in and out of government.

INDEX OF ECONOMISTS

8461488,0855 Mtosenkov,58 Aron,4,168219901911168298, ll,14189

9941 Chernyak,165193 Davidovich,8223447,2557 7 Fayerman,23 Feygln,248,,19332424430995

579 loffe,80022

KafCDgQUZ,

0

,k, 47

Kapustln,

Karriaukbova,3

3

2

3

9

.

5

Khavinson,9

3

5

Kirichenko, N.8

3

3

Kol&oEaeov,2

l

5

3

9

3

k

7

1

s

k

L

KoBlov,2

2

9

5

3

5

8 Kronrod,U8934 Kumachenko,5ft2i5l9k4 Lokshin,099270 Manevich,k95141k74952295127518,,,

05

Nesterov,195 Nikol'ekaya,1520105856171559319,62 Pokatayev,9300965,22571302 Rusanov,5

63919,2505552560660068030267,,,66724805h70 Turetskly,000

58273 Varga,07807333 Vinogradov,6

6788,7 Ycrohov,972i827

Original document.

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