Created: 5/1/1964

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Western Europe has organized two cooperative veo-tures In tbe fields of apace research aad launchtechnology: the European Space Research(ESRO) to conduct basic space research, and the European launcher Development Organization (FLDO) tohree-stage satellite booster based on the British Blue Streak rocket. Theestablishing these organizations have onlycome into force, and the French, who have an energetic, well-organized, national space programin being, will exert significant Influence In them. Britainimited space program, and West Gertuny is just starting one.

The national and cooperative programs areboth by ths promise of industrial, scientific, and commercial benefits snd by considerations ofprestige. The present level of resourcesto space activities, however, will notthe European countries either Individually or col* lectively to rival the efforts of tbe US and theUnion. Moreover, the rate at which theytoward their sore modest goals In spacewill continue to depend heavily on the support they receive from the ?JS, bothjoint endeavors with NASA, and unofficlally--throughpurchases of OS equipment and technology.

Interest in Space

Nearly two and one half years elapsed after theof7 before the Western European countries began to consider seriously their potential role in the space age. Tbs impetus then came in large partelatedof the Immenseon the scientific andindustries of tbeof highly complex launchersspace research equipment,

In particular, the Europeans became aware that an important

part of tbe progress made in electronics, in metallurgy, and in certain fields ofand physics In tbe US could be attributed to the lm-pulae given by the conquest of space. They feared that, lackimilar effort, Europe would continue to lose its top researchers and technicians to the "newnd that the "old world" would never regain its traditionalin the fields of science and technology. The keyof national power would thus be Irrecoverably 1

Id the words of GeQersl Aublolere, director of the French National Center for Space Studies, "space technology touches so sany disciplines that to neglect lt would signify for our peoples, formerly wasters of theecadence and underdevelopment and aneconomic servitude, no matter wbence lt coses."

Establishment of ESRO

Impelled largely by these considerations, tbe Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unions, ateeting in Mice, settudy group to investigate ths feasibilityointspace research andprogram. The group's report led to other meetings, andcountry European Preparatory Commission for Space Research (COPERS) was established toharter for aspace researchpatterned after theexisting and highlyEuropean Center forResearch.

The European Space Research Organization convention was signed In Paris on2 by all but two of the members of COPERS, and came into force on Theare Belgium. Denmark, France, Vest Cermany, Italy, the Netberlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Austria and Norway declined to participate primarily

for budgetary reasons although it la highly likely thatwill join ESRO within tbe neat year or two.

ESRO's Program and Budget

ESRO'sfor peacefulbuilt around the designing andof sounding rocket payloads and earth satellites

and the launching of space probes.

The proposed short-term projects will be limited to studies of tbe upper atmosphere in the auroral zone by means of sounding rockets. Thehopes to reach arate ofounding rockets annually by the third year. Beginning in the fourth year of its existence, ESRO would attempt to put small satellites into orbit or to launch probes of outer space. Longer term objectivestabilized astronomical observatory in earth orbitong-life planetary observatory in lunar orbit. anned spacecraft program is beyond ESRO'sand level of technology and Is therefore not contemplated in present planning.

ESRO's eight-year program calls for expendituresillion in ths first three2 million in the second three-year period,otal expenditure6 Three quarters of the costs will be set by tbe UK, West Germany, France, and Italy.

Th* facilities toestablished include: paceaod technology center at Delft, ln the Netherlands;pace data procession center lo Darsstadt, Vest Germany;pace research institute Id Rone; ounding rocket Launching range at Kiruna, Sweden; and (e) variousstations around the world.

ECHO'S Prospects

The distinguished French scientist, Pierredirector general ofdescribed the scope of ESRO's prograa as equivalent to one fifth the US effort, minus the US nanned spacecraft prograa. Although the ESRO budget till be auch less than one fifth the US space budget, Auger expects disproportionately favorable returns through an efficient use of all mvailabL* resources and the incorporation of advanced technology.

effectively direct their

HU is interested lnNASA Launch its first two satellites, planned for tbe fourth year of its prograa. further evaluation Is needed, NASA tentativelybothpolarsatellite) and ESRO II (solar astronoay and cosslc ray satellite) to beconceived scientific projects, and believes the orbital requirements can be set with the US Scout vehicle. ESRO planning also envisionsthrough NASA, froa US ranges using the Thor-Delta booster. Forlarger payioads, ESRO isboth launches using theehicle and, possibly. Launches froa the US using Thor-Agena, AtLas-Agena, and Atlas-Centaur vehicles. It hasan interest inracking station ln Alaska. These inquiries have in general been favorably received by the US agencies concerned.

estimate Is probably too optialstic, but ESRO couldignificant contribution, particularly if its prograa is coordinated with and is coople-aentary to tbe work being done in tbe CS. ESRO's scientists apparently desire to avoidof efforts, and they have held several seetings with NASA to discuss space objectives toward which the Europeans night

Tbe lsplenentatlon and evolution of ESRO's progras wiLl provide European scientists and engineers opportun1tles totheir coapetence inaspects of space science and spacecraft technology. It will not allow thea to coapete across the board with the US and Soviet Union.

Creation of ELDO

As compared withESRO prograa. tha Europeaneffort to develop acapability baa been aucbcontroversial. Indeed, the ESRO planners rejected aucb an undertaking {or tbeir ownbecause tbehad qualaa about the "cold war" implications of launcher devalopaent, and partly because it was generally felt that such an effort wouldasteful duplication of US programs.

owever, tbelong-range ballisticround tbe Blue Streak, which was developed with extensive US technologicalcanceled after an expenditure of tbe sterling equivalent of2 million. In an effort to salvage some of this Investment, Peter then Britain's minister of aviation, offered to make the Blue Streak and the British Black Knigbt availablewo-stage launch vehicle forEuropean development and use. This generated littleat first, but the Frencb were eventually attracted by a

British offer torench rocket for the Black Knigbt.

These twoonference lo1 from which ultimately omerged the European Launcher

Development Organization. Tbe ELDOInon2 by. Belgium, France, WestItaly, tbe Netherlands, and the Unitedeffective aa of

ELDO Program and Budget

ELDO's initial program calls for ths developmentehicle. As expected,the first stage will be tbe British Blue Streak aod tbe second stage will be French; the third stage is to be developed by West Germany. Italy has been alloted tbe design, development, and construction of the tsst satellite; Belglua and thswill supply ground stations for radio guidance and telemetry. Test firings of both tbe first-stage Blue.Streak and of the complete multistagevill be froa the Woomera range lo Australia.

The convention also calls for concurrent study of future lsuncber requirements, anderiod of two years the organization will consider what new program it wight undertake. Thia provision waa inserted to placate Italy aad West Ger-aany, which felt that ELDO sbould not be too firaly bound to the Blue Streak project.

Status of ELEO'3 Program

Tbe Blue Streak first stage of theehicle Is al-ready at tbe tfoomers range and is expected to be fired soae-tine during Kay or June of this year, The second stage Is to be fired In5 froa Prance's Colomb-Bechar/Hammaguir range la Work on the third stage is proceeding but has been slowed by organizational la the West Germanand industry, and ln ELDO Itself. The difficulty ofthe multilateralwill probably alsoto soae delays ln the original schedule, which called for test firing of the completed vehicle Presentplace this7

ELDQ'a HUltary Implications

ELDO's charter restricts it to tbe peaceful applications of space vehicle launchers and equipment. However, tbehas no enforcement machinery to police compliance, and the possibility is raised that EIDO might contribute to the spread of ballistic missile technology.

This issue has already presented Itself to the US in the form of requests for the export of propellants, guidance components, and other hardware and technology. Licenses have been granted for the export ofewItems. However, the

export of bslllstlc missile technology occurs "in bulk" via normal commercial channels. Multimillion-dollar annual sales to the western European nations Include quantities of missile components aod of research, de-velopaentp and test equipment, as well as the visits of US technicians and engineers to Install, calibrate, and service this equipment. If these sales were cut off and the Western Europeans were dependent on their own resources, both the national and multinational pro-gramt would be delayed

ELDO *a Prospects

Compared with CS vehicles, the three-stage ELDO vehicle will be obsolete when completed. Tt could meet some of ESRO'S advanced program needs, however, and the desire toelf-reliance will add to tbe attractiveness of the ELDO booster in both ESRO and the major national space programs.

For the short term, ELXO's prospects areon its ability to carry through therojectuccessful conclusion close to planned schedule and cost. To continue after that, ELDO will have to gain support among its members for the development of advanced vehicles beyond tbe ELDO A.

Role of European Industry

European industry Isengaged ln space-

age research and technological development.

uropeansatellite system program

two firmsBritish Hawker-Siddeley and the French 3EREB (Societtf pour 1'Etude et la Realisation d'Enginaointlytudy on "Industry andmphasizing theof unified European action. Inhese firms took the lead Inwith other members of the European aerospaceommittee for European Space Research (EUROSPACB). in it are other French and British industrial firms, as well as members from Belgium, West Germany, Italy, Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland.

Headquartered In Paris. EUROSPACE now Includes almost all tbe European aircraft and missile industries, the greater part of the electronicsthe principal companies in the fields of chemistry andand firms concerned with precision and civil engineering. Eight US firms are affiliated members without voting powers.

The organization's first reportear ago calledreatly accelerated space program. It stressed inthe development ofand medium-altitudesatellites, meteorological, and propulsion systems andprojects; it recommended further that the Europeanmove quickly to es-

Whlle these are rather wishful objectives, the members of EUROSPACE are bound to have considerable Influence on the future course of Westernspace activities. Although EUROSPACE will not develop and Implement Its own space program, lt doesorua in which the individual member firms csn coordinate their space efforts.

Communications Satellites

Several European countries have for some time been Intensely Interested In the developing technology of communlcstions satellites. Tbe United Kingdom and France, for example, with NASA in the highly successful experimental program utilizing the REUY and TELSTAR satellites.

These experimentsumber of Europeanofficials of theof regional cooperation in this field as well. arge number of ground stations to serve Western Europe could not be justified technically or economically, and they further felt that, in view of tbe technologicalof the US, European interests would be best protected if the Europeans could speak with one voice.

Ia2 theConference of Poatal and TelecommunicationsAustria, Belgium,

Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, Frince, West Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, llonaco, the, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Swedent Switzerland, Turkey, and the Unitedto establish an ad hoc committee to study the question ofparticipationlobal communications satellite system. The work of this committee led eventually to the conveningEuropean Conference onCommunications" in London in3 and in Rome tbe following November. At Rome the conference agreedew European regional agency should be created, reconstituted the conference as the provisional organization, and authorized its Committee of Deputies to serve as the organization's temporary executive.

The European Conference and the US and Canada met in Rome in February of this year. The US pressed tbe Europeans toestablishmentlobal communicationsinterimwhereby the USSatellite Corporation would be charged with thedeployment, andof an Initial basic system. The Europeans baveillingness to go along with such an arrangement; they lack the technology and resources to go lt alone, and the US has made it clear lt would set up theon its own if necessary. Tbe Europeans want assurances, however, that the Interimwill be of a fixed and short duration and that they

will thereafterreater voice in the system's management

and operation.

Discussions will continue with the Westernalso Canadians, Japanese sndtoward tbe esrly conclusion of an interim Intergovernmental agreement.

French National Space Program

France is at preaentnly West European nationmore on its national space program than lt contributes to the cooperative ventures, and that programigorous, well-organized one. Financialearmarked for nonmllltary space research have steadilyfrom approximatelyillion1 to moreillion3 andillion From this, France is contributing in the neighborhoodillionto ESRO and EUX>.

These funds are intended toroadly basedrocket experiment programelatively wide range of French-built vehicles. rench-built satellite is to be orbited in6hree-stage French vehicle, the Clamant. This booster is designed toound payloadile-hlghorbit. In addition, France has concluded bilateralagreements for sounding rocket experiments withand India, and NASA willrench VLFsatelliten


Thaitiaatfad In Million! of Ui Milanffro* 4mmm oAidiboth bnded and

ond bolh oolandof-roor and voriawot counting. ary rough and Intendad only to aSow ralativa proportion!.




* Doai not include loonch vahiele eapendilvre by aWllrory or communicaiioni satellite around terminal coal.

3 budget. 4I billion.

Tha USSR'* estimated onnvol expenditureof the beginnl ng

nam ie

France's military missile program has first priority for funds aod manpower. However, there Is firm evidence that the military and soace programs are closely intertwined, with the quasi-governmental organization SEREB responsible for both large missiles and space boosters. The French are reported to beolid propellent grain considerably larger than would be needed for any known French military requirement. Ifomponent were utilized ln the developmentpace vehicle, it would give the French considerably more lift capability than either Diamant or tbend would reduce their interest ln non-French or nultllaterally developed

Britain's Space Program

Britain's national space program is considerably smaller than France's, although British scientific achievement is more advanced in certain areas. Three fourths of the UK's annual space budget ofis contributed to ESRO and ELDO, the latter to receiveillion.

The UK's major national program is organized aroundarrangements with NASA. The UK provided thepayload for a1 was launched by NASA In Aprilas launched by NASA from Wallops Island, Virginia, onarch In its agreement with NASAhird satellite

launching, the UK la movingew phase by assumingfor the dealgn,and testing of flight-qualified spacecraft. British scientists are conducting asounding rocket program at Woomera, Australia, their major launch range.

The UK has competent space scientists, and has developedexperiments for Itssatellite program.the government has notan extensive spaceprogram, and there is no indication that the existing program will be expanded

Prograa ln West Germany

The West German Government has geared its initial spaceto participation ln the two European organizations. The greater part of its activity ts concerned with the development of the third stage of toeehicle. There la, however, growing activity in other areas of space research aod technologythewhich the government has providedillion.

The West Germans arefrom the production of missiles which exceed the maximum characteristics described in the London and Paris Agreements They are not proscribed, however, from the development of hardware which Is intended for civilian and scientific purposes.

Industrial and commercial Interests, as sell asof national pride and strength, are likely to increase pressures ln Bonn toore comprehensive prograa of basic space research and rocket development. Nevertheless, the Vest Germans will probablycautiously* not wishing to raise the apprehension of their allies and of the Soviet Union.

The Smaller Countries

Neither Belgium nor the Netherlands has much of aspace program apart from their participation ln ESRO and ELDO. They have, however, joined these organizations ln

order to provide research,and productionfor theirand scientific communities.

Space Prograa

The Italians haveilateral arrangement with NASA for tbe launching of an Italian satellite designed to measure air density at the The first phase of this

San Marco"testing of theunder way. The launch platform Is ln place off the Kenya coastuborbital launching from there is planned for later this year. The second phase will involve the launchingatellite prototype from Wallops Island, and the third phase, the actual satellite launching from the platform,

is tentatively scheduled

This project haseavy strain on the limitedallocated by Italy for space research, and there has already been considerablein the planned schedule.

Sweden and Switzerlandotential role ln the production of space hardware, although their presentare limited. Both have small research programs, and Sweden has beenmall sounding rocket program ln cooperation with NASA.


The longer term prospects for collective Western European

efforts and achievements in the field of space research and technology are hard to predict. Ultimate success will depend on the degree to which each of the participants Is willing to furnish funds, manpower,and technology, andunderlyingecision differ for each of thenations.

Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and,easer extent,Italy willa Western European effort because lt holds promise of achievement beyond their own individual resources. The Vest Germans are probably giving to the collectivefor the time being in part because of the nervousness of their neighbors; they can be expected, however, to develop the relevant technology and hardwareational basis if lt Is not available multl-laterally. While the Britishapabilityational program of reasonable stature, they are likely to seek instead to play an Important role In iny continuing western European effort.

It begins to look as though the French, stimulated by their efforts in the military missile field, will long as De Gaulle is on thereduce their participation in the European effort and push aheadomestic space program of sizable proportions.

In any event theof theand throughcommercialhas been, Is, and willremain the critical in the success of any European space programthla decade*

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