SELECTION AND TRAINING OF CUBAN INTELLIGENCE AGENTS ABROAD

Created: 10/12/1964

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

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FORMAT

M PHIIBlII BtUUUUf

PACKS WFfRlNCES

SUBJECT Selection and Training of Cuban yDATIWSTIt Intelligence Agents Abroad , ' '-

4 14

Of

INFO.

PLACE &

DATE ACQ. June4

field WFOm NO.

("foiiunon. dimeiwiwinvt.tht*tiw

former Cuban Intelligence officer who served with theService until

IntroductIon

Cuban foreign Intelligence norvlce, the General Directorate(Pirecclon General deG1), inits function of protecting Cuban Interests andpromoting the policies of the Cuban Government, eeploysman? nationalities.1 Although its activities extend toAfrica, its principal agent strength is lo Latinhave lo general two types of assignaents: collectionon tbe local government and the local situation,of revolutionary activity, Including guerrillaDCI agents abroad are therefore divided into two basicaccording to function: intelligence agents chargedof Information and penetration of local governmentswho are truly clandestine,re not'knowntarget countries as Cuban agents; and guerrilla warfaroagents, charged with directing and supportingactivities, who are often known as Cuban agents to theand leftist groups with which they work. The twoagents are trained separately and are controlled byIn the DGI headquarters in Havana, Intelligencethe Illegal Department (Pepartaeento Ilegal,called llegal)agents by the LM or National LiberationLlbcracion Sac 1opal).

Agent Selection

EfcPCINCLANT

CISCSO #

NFORMATION REPORT INFORMATION REPORT

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DGI employs some agents of Cuban nationality, as opposedmembers working abroad. They function as intelligenceclandestine agents under the Illegal Department, and are

recruited by that department. Of three knovn agents in thisoneeater of the Cuban Internal security service, the Department of State Security (Departaacnto de Seguridad del Estaso Vaaqimr.. Herained parachutist it the flaw of'his' recruitment, two other known agentaJ_RajTael Gu;md and "Chino" (niaeere recruited because" they were frlands of one of the Illegal Department officers. Saul Qvatalez^. Onr criterion for recruitment is that the agent snail not navewide circle of acquaintance.

Agents or other nationalities are usually recruited by agreementCI officer and the local Communist or leftistto which the peraon belongs, but there are other possible sources.

visiting Cuba. Host foreign visitors to Cubaby the Cuban Institute of Friendship with Cubano do 1 Amistad con Iob Pucblu3 - AP) , for their travel to Cuba; their itineraries,entertalruaent while there; and their return travelhomes or other destinations. The DCI has aoICAP under which members of th*Oof Illegalepartamento Centros Iand Interview foreign visitors for the purpose ofany lnfornatlon of value to Cuba and of assessing themagents. Contacts are so well camouflaged ascourtesies that rev of the visitors realize that theytouch with ao Intelligence agency. The DGI dowe notforeign diplomats, who are tbe responsibility of theit has access to any other foreigners. If the MOconsiders anyotential agent, especially ifa Marxist or extreme leftist attitude. It reportsand whatever It has learned about blm to eitherDepartment of the DCI, which handlesnot ln contact with local Communist or leftlatthe LN Department, which works with guerrilla agentswith such groups. Referral ls made on the basisin or attachment to an organized group. In notbe MO Department recruit the agent; that privilegefor tho operational department*.

resident in Cuba. Tbe BC Section (Colonial BureauColonial) of the SI Department (Department of- Departamento Servtclos d* Information) of the DGI

is responsible for screening foreigner* residing In Cuba (except diplomats) for potential agent*. Like the MOthe BC Section makes no actual recruitments, but reports potential agents to the Illegal or LN Department, according to whether they are or are not affiliated with an organized group.

volunteering information from abroad. The MO i* also responsible for *creening letters fromwho volunteer information or support to the Its principal aim le to extract any usefulfrom such letters, but It also notes any personsto havo agent potential and refer* them to thedepartment for consideration.

of Communist Parties and organized leftist groupsAmerica. The group recommendsrip to tbeocal representative or agent.

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eadquarters officer io Cubaroup official is visiting there--any of its members as candidates Tor guerrilla training in Cuba or in their own country. The DGI and the group agree on ehlch of tbe candidates are nost suitable. GI agent working with the group may also recommend members for training, genorally as guerrilla fighters but possibly also as clandestine intelligence agents; in the first instance, the recommendation Is known to the group, but In the second is kept secret from it.

Becrnltcd agents sent to Cuba lor guerrilla warrare training. DGI officers observe guerrilla warfare sod sabotage agents during their training in Cuba and select those of special potential for recruitment as unilateral intelligence agents.

f. Agents of other intelligence services. The DGI sometimesas double agents employees of hostile intelligence services with whom lt cones into contact. Such agents may also be turned over to the DGI by the DSE if it has recognized and recruited them.

an agent candidate is proposed, tho Illegal or LHtbe available Information about him. If be ie inmay request the DSE to conduct an investigation; tbeDepartment (Pepartamento Inspecclonl. whichwith DGI staff personnel, has forms for submissionDSE requesting an Investigation. Since the DGI does notthe identities of its intelligence (illegal) agents tonot all agent candidates are thus investigated. Thedepartments select their agentB on the basis of allinformationersonal recommendation from amember or trusted agent. The candidate is thenagents are aware of the government agency for whichworking, but agents of other nationalities are not;are recruited to work for their own organisation,and intelligence agents are usually aware only that theyfor tbe Cuban Government. They may believe that theythe jurisdiction of the Cuban army because militarygive some of the instruction, and the more sophisticatedthey arc under the DSE, which is widely known as anorgan.

Preliminary Training Arrangements

uban agent ischedule for his training la arranged inay that he can continue his normal manner of living. If be is employed In an office or factory, he continues in bis regalar job, and tbe training is set up for his free time. If he is unemployed, he goes od living Just as he has before, and the training is scheduled for hours when his absence from his usual haunts is not noticeable.

Agents from foreign countries are usually brought to Cuba for training in either intelligence or guerrilla-sabotage activities. The DGI is notified of the agent's selection through channels from the field, and the Central Processing (Tramltes) Section of tbe LN Department bandies arrangements for this travel to and from Cuba. Normally the agent candidate uses bis own travelbut sometimes the group to which he belongsassport belongingellow citizen who has already been to Cuba. He must obtain ble Cuban visa through tbe nearest Cuban

AS/

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consulate.2 Since there are no official Cuban missions inthe agent normally makes his way to Mexico andCuban visa there.3 In order to keep secret from thein his pen country that be is going to Cuba, the-gives another destination, and the Cubanhelp by Issuing his Cuban visaeparate sheetinstead of stamping lt in his passport.4 The agentmay pay bis own passage, but usually he Is Supplied fundsairline ticketocal DGI agent or the leftistwhich he belongs; the funds are Issued by the CentralSection. Whether he isicket or given money toovn, the funds originate vlth the DGI and are forwardedcandidate's area through the DGI SrieicKEOraa

DGI officers attached to Cuban consulate* are alerted to assist agent candidates in their travel. The agent isassword, which varies from place to place; agents from El Salvador, for example, are told to mention "Haurlclo." GI officeronsulate interviews vlea applicants, he expedites the visa for anyone using the proper password; if the password Is not used, he stalls the applicant for several days while he cables Havana for authority toisa. If the visa is Issued In Mexico, the agent trainee islane ticket on Cubana, tbe Cubanairline, and is told when be is to leave. AccoessodatIons and subsistence -are provided IT the trainee has to wait for passage. Agent candidates froa British Guiana sometimes travel to Cuba by small boats, not regular shipping service.

Agent trainees going to Cubaariety of cover storiee. For the local authorities, their travel is to some other destination, often as tourists, students, or laborers. For their own group, no cover story is required; for their families and friends, or student travel ie the usual explanation. For personstbe group, if Cuba Is known as the destination, the cover storycholarship for studyuban school or university. Groups of trainees from the same leftist organization often travel together from their owe country to Mexico and thence to Cuba, but intelligence agent trainees always travel alone.

Upon arrival at the Havana airport, trainees are met by DGI offlcors appearing ae 1CAP officials. Tho DGI has an arrangement with the Cuban immigration authorities under which persons of DGI interest are cleared through entrance formalities without Tbe trainees are placed in hotola while final training arrangements are made, then are transferred to tbe schools wbere tbelr training will be given, or to private bouses or apartments If they are intelligence trainees. Tbe case officer from the DGI department which will tbeocefortb control their activities isfor them during their stay In Cuba. Using the funds allotted by tbe department, he provides then lodging, food,expenses, medical care, and anything else they need during the training period; shoes, clothing, and personal Items are drawn for them from the DGI warehouse.

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10. As far as possible, DGI trainees live tbe normal life of students and use tbe cover story tbat they are studying on Cuban Government scholarships. Their movements In Havana are not restricted, except that arrangenenta are made to keep them away from fellow-citizens visiting or living in Cuba. Since nost of theirIs given in Havana, and the course is Intensive, they do not

usually travel to other parts of Cuba during the instruction period, unless they are taken by the school to participate in national campaigns for which all students are drafted, suchane-cutting and coffee-picking. After the training course is completed, if there is any delay ln returning students to their own country, they nay travel outside Havana; trips are arranged and financed by the DGI liaison officer in ICAP, During delay periods, howover, they are at the disposal of the school, which may use them in "voluntary" campaigns or other ways. Guerrilla agents of the same nationality are kept together If they belong to the same organization, but trainees from differentof the same country are separated. Trainees of twoare never put together, and foreigners are never grouped with Cubans. In both living quarters and training, the illegal intelligence agent ls separated from guerrilla agents. All trainees are encouraged to have as little contact as possible with persons outside the school.

arrival in Cuba, each agent isseudonym,uses throughout his training.5 Actually, within thestudents in either large or small groups use theirsince their identities ar? usually known to theirearlier association or traveling together. Tho pseudonyma means of protecting the student frompersons outside the school. ime, the DCI usedonly during the training period and assignedwhen the agent returned hone, but the confusion ofseparate files was so great that the training pseudonymas permanent. Sometimes, ho*evsr, pseudonyms arefor security reasons, when the student leaves Cubahe has returned tp the field.

Training of Guerrilla Agents

The LN Department, and specifically the case officer In chargeroup of agents to be trained as guerrillas, arranges for their instruction ln the EE Department (Department of Special Schools -Departamento Bscuelas Especiales) of the DGI.1 The case officer himself does not conduct the training, which is entirely an EE Department responsibility. The student group is assigned to one of the EE Department schools in Havana, by nationality; training groups are as large asnd as small as three or four persons. Courses last three to six months, depending on the type ofand the ultimate mission of the agents, but in special cases may last as longear (two Guatemalans were trained that long). Tbe Instructors are all military, drawn from the Cuban amy; there is one for each military specialty,olitical instructor.

Training covers all aspects of guerrilla warfare, weaponsexplosives, sabotage, demolition, military tactics, combat engineering,s well as means of countering anti-guerrilla activities. Weapons are of both American and Comnunlst-Bloc provenance. Some specialized training is given; for example, therechool for frogmen at the mouth of tbe Jaimanitas River in Barlovento, west of Havana, and two Guatemalansominican were trained as frogmen Guerrilla agents do notormally, however, receive any communications training (secret writing, radio,hen they return home, th*ir channel of communication for sending information and receiving instruction and support ls through the organized group to which they belong.

14. Practice id guerrilla warfare and weapons and explosives band1Ing is given on tbe school premises Id Havana, Ie addition, boththe course and near its conclusion, groups of students are taken to tbe Eacambray Mountains in Las Villas Province to put their traiaing into practice and to learn to live off tbe country. They are Integrated Into regular Cuban amy unite for short periods and take part- ln soy military activities theo ln progress. forroup of Guatemalansroup of Balvadorlans were taken separately to tbe Bscanbray andln tbe operations then being conducted by the Cuban amy against anti-Castro guerrillas ln the area.

15. Guerrilla etudeots are required totandard of complete

fanlllarlty with all the information and material forming partinstruction, examinations are given regularly; students

who fall them are required to repeat tb* Instruction. Abare to repeat the entire couree If he cannot pass tbeexaminations. Thar* are many failures. An agentproves completely incapable of mastering the course ls

removed from tbe school, and an effortad* to findpecial Job elaewhers. During tbe couree, the inatructors Issue monthly reporta to the school administration, both on the coursehole and oo the per romance of each student. opy ls sent to the caae officer. Reporting on students covers personal attitude, discipline, capability Id study, political level, etc.

16. While guerrilla training is In progress, two specialtbe future are made. The flret ie the arrangement oftravel to ble target area, either hie own country Passport* and other documents are prepared for hi*the return trip; funda are allocated for his futuroprovisions are made for bis carrying money or - equipment back with bin if that is required. The second thingassessment of tbe trainee for other possibilities. Through-

out the course he ls observed and evaluated; If be shows moreaptitude and ability, he comes under consideration aeintelligence agent for collection of information of bis hone government. rainee ls assessed as

suitable for intelligence-agent work, be le removed fromcourse and receives special instruction forand more complicated taska. eioJ'I'Cn^"1

Training of Intelligence

17. Intelligence (illegal)rom whatever source they arevisiting or resident In Cuba, contacts of DGIorganisations abroad, or guerrilla traineesone under tb* DGI Illegal Department,responsible for their recruitment, training, and Since tbey are truly clandestine agents, theirwith the DGI required special security from it* They travel to Cuba alone rather thanroup, andthey ar* kept apart from other persona of tbelr ownand froa one another. Agents of Cuban nationality areapart froa other nationalities and during trainingUvea as far as possible. Both Cubans and forelgnerefrom contact with tbe Cuban Government or officialavoidof any government connection. Ae withtralneea, agant* ar* assigned pseudonyms for ua* withpublic ln Cuba and for us* ln field operationsare not allowed any .knowledge of any DGI

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exceptones to "hich they ar*si :gned for "fwl off lota. 2 iu*

officer's hose.

A foreign agent candidate arriving in Cuba la first debriefed by tbe case officer on his background and qualifications, since up to that time the DGI has only advance notice of his selection and knows little about him. The Interview la recorded, but without the trainee's knowledge. On one occasion inase officer arranged toew traineeavana restaurant for the preliminary interview. Tbe case officer provided himselfocket tape recorder, whlcb be tested in advance and found warn In good order. Vhen he started to record the interview, however, he discovered that be had either forgotten to adjust theafter ho had tested lt, or he pushed the playback instead of the record button; the restaurant was suddenly olectrlfied byvoice saying: "Testing, one, two, three; testing, one, two, throe." The interview was hastily concluded and was rescheduled tbe next day In the safebouse where theuatemalan, was lodged; in this case, of course, the agent was aware that lt waa being recorded. The results of the interview are enterediographical questionnaire covering all aspects of the agent's family situation, political views, background and education, employment experience, connections, and Intelligence potential; tho document forms the basis of the agent's DGI personal file. In addition, the agent is required toomplete report on the operational situation In his country. Including types and etylos ot dress, eating hablta, working hours and holidays, location of public buildings and places of entertainment, the press and its type and circulation, urban and ruraleducational facilities, airlines, personal documents for Identification, and local linguistic idioms.

19. In cases where an Intelligence agant is selected from among

guerrilla trainees, he nay remain ur.der the Jurisdiction ofi Department, which retains himuerrilla agent but arranges for his training as an illegal agent also. Training forwork, however, is always separate from guerrilla training and is not revealed to the Communist Party or leftist group sponsoring the agent, who becomes, inemi-overt Cuban agent in guerrilla activitieslandestine agent inreporting or other functions. One such agent, trained in Cubaas returned to the Dominican Republic aboute carries on revolutionary activities wltb the Dominican Popular Movement <ltoylalento PopularPD)nown Cuban-trained guerrilla and at the sane tine works as an illegal agent (underithout the knowledge of bis MPD colleagues,enetration of the HPD.

20.

The case officer from the Illegal Department arranges for thesupport of the agent during training, providing him lodgingrivate house or apartment, supplying his food and clothing and personal equipment from the DCI warehouse aa la done for guerrilla agents, and keeping bin lo pocket money. If tho agent is married, tho expenses of his dependent family are also covered by the DGI. The case officer does not give any Instruction, but arranges vltb the MI Department (Department of TechnicalSupport) of the DGI for training the agent In the skills he will require for his future mission. The Ml Department has no schools or regular training sites but uses private bouses or apartments, which are procured and maintained by the DGI General

Administration Department. The sane safehouse Is used foragents, but only one ia trained thereine. the agent'a operational plan as laid down by the case officer, the HI Department provides instruction in the necessary skills through its own sections and variousf the DGIthe operational departments.

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All illegal agents are trained In normal tradecraft elements Such as clandestine meetings, election and use of dead drops, of agents, establishment and operation of agent nets (only for agents specifically intended for networkse of Informants and collaborators, photography, and some form of Practice In operational techniques Such asand counter-surveillance and servicing dead drops is given in appropriate sections of Havana. Bach agent In addition ison matters relating to his particular mission, and is given whatever communications training he will need. receives special emphasis because all arrangements must be made during tho tralr.lng period. Techniques Include secretcodes and ciphers, radio transmission and reception,and microfilm. ew agents aro trained In the latter two techniques, and not all are trained In radio, but almost all receive instruction on secret writing, which la the most widely used means oi communication between agents in tho field and their case officers. The type of communications training the agent will receive is usually discussed with the case officer by the MI Department, but sometimes the Ml Department decides withoutand sometimes it consults tho SI Department forbackground on tbe country where tbe agent will work.

The ST Section (Technicalecclon Tocnlca) of the MI Department ban tbe main responsibility for agent communications training and itself conducts the training In secret writing. It first requests the LG Section (Chemicalaboratorlo Qulmlco) of tho MI Department to devise andecret riting system for the agent's use. Most systems depend on sympathetic inks made with salt, blocd, urine, and other materials; toe type assigned the agent is determined by his mission and operational situation. Each agentifferent system, although two agents working in the same operation use the same syittvm. An ngent normally learns two systems, one for incoming correspondence, development only, and ono for outgoingpreparation only. In addition, If he is to direct an agent network of his own which requires internal clandestineho Ishird system, both preparation and development, for use in the network. Tbe case officer not only does not participate In the training but knows very little about the secret writing systems, since the processing of messages from agents in tbe field Is bandied by tbe ST Section and he receives only tbe developed text, and the ST Section, for reasons of security and compartnentation, refuses to tell tbe casenything specific about communications. on

The ST Section trains the agent thoroughly on the materials and methods be Is to use and gives him practice in processing messages under direction, then in preparing tost message* and in developing and interpreting test messages prepared by the instructor. The training period varies according to the complexity of tbe system and the requirement for competence from the agent, In cases where communications are of special importance, the instruction may continue for two or three months with great detail, and the

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agent Is expected toigh standard of performance. Ano fallc the courseave to repeat it, if theplan requires it and hie schedule permits. Training normally continues until tbe agent has achieved the desiredan evaluation of his ability is Included in his personal file. Actually, however, secret writing training bas not been uniformly successful In DGI experience; in some cases,from the agent In the field could not be read at headquarters because the secret writing was Improperly prepared, and agents have also had difficulty in deciphering messages sent to them.

Agents never write directly to DGI hoadquarters; all their mall In both directions goes through accommodation addresses, usually in another country. Instruction in selection and use ofaddresses is given by the US Department (Department of Legalepartamer.to Centreshich handles DGI field statlonB and their correspondence^ because accommodation addressee are usually in countries where Cuba has officialand the field station services the letter drops. communications to agents go by diplomatic pouch to the field station and are mailed from there to the agent. Agent letters to headquarters go to an accommodation address, where they are picked up by the field station and forwarded by diplomatic pouch. The country used for incoming communications Is usually different from that for outgoing; an agentalvador, for example, may send his reports to Havana via Mexicoeceive headquartersand replies via Pari*. MIS Department controls tho assignment of accommodation addresses. Since tbe DGI bellevea that there is less danger of exposing the agent if his cover letters containing secret writing are as realletlc and natural as possible, the agent is briefed not only on the accommodation address to which be is to write, but also on the persons who actually live there--ages. background, relationships,o that he can refer to birthdays and personal interests or family events. The agent is also taught selection of plausible but not genuine return addresses for his outgoing communications.

Agents who aro to learn codes and ciphers and radio transmission and reception are trained by the ST Section, which has Its own radio transmitter for instruction purposes. The.radios the agents use in training are procured in their own countries and are adapted for clandestine use by the ST Section; most such equipment Is Western-made, and much of it is American. The agent learns transmission and reception and also is taught how toommerclal radio to his Individual requirements and how to make minor repairs on it. He nay learn the standard Morse code but usually isumerical code arranged in groups. Aa with secret writing, tbe case officer knows little about the actual mechanics of the radio communications arrangements because radio messages are processed outside the operational departments and reach him only in the form of clear text, and because compart-mentatlon keeps him from acquiring technical knowledge. Similarly, he knows little about the proficiency required of tbe agent and sees only tbe final evaluation report prepared by tbe ST Section for the agent's personal file.

If tbe agent is also to receive training in microfilm andtechniques, tbe ST Section arranges with the LF Section (Photographicabora torio Potografico) of the Ml Department for the use of equipment and tfie assignmentystem and thon Itself gives tho training. The LF Section bas

the necossary equipment. ew selected agents are given Such instruction. One clandestine agent In the Doelnlcan Republic, whoonsiderable time ln Cuba and vas extremelytrained, was provided microfilm and microdot equipment for preparing and developing messages, but his case is exceptional. }ie was also taught how to make devices for transmitting microfilm and microdot material securely. Tb* preparation of concealment devices and Instruction ln their use are handled by another section of the MI Department, tbe EMB Section (Concealment Devicesccclonhich also prepares for the agent any devices be will need-for carrying materials or codos back to hie own country when he returns.

Final Briefings

hen guerrilla agents have completed their training, the LN

Department case officer brlefa the group on Its mission ln Its home area, which is usually support of local revolutionary activities. The briefing includes assignment of tasks,of what support the group may expect and how It la to be supplied, directions for reporting to the sponsoring group, advice on security and self-protect ion, and theoute to be followed. In addition, the group leaderpecial briefing on means of communication with DGI headquarters, special arrangements for supplying the group or its sponsoringand perhaps the transportation to its home area ofor sabotage materials from Cuba. Although agents are allowed to take notes during their training, they are noto carry any compromising material on their return home. All final lnatructlons are given orally and are memorized by the agent. Actually, however, guerrilla agents do not always observe security precautions about materials. One Salvadorlan guerrilla agent succeeded ln hiding in hieopy of the Manual of Guerrilla Warfare he bad used in hia training course, even though tbe case officer inspected the luggage while it was being packed. The case officer commented that unless another inspection was nade at the time the agent left his quarters to depart the country or at the airport Just beforo boarding the plane, it was impossible to prevent agents from carrying off such

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28. Illegal agentsore intensive final briefing. The case officer reviews with tbe agent the general mission and *peclfic tasks he ls to undertake, all of which bave been covered during training, such as collection of information On his homeor specific organizations, penetration of official organs in the country or perhaps the local Communist Partyeftist group, aaslstance ln communications and forwarding of material, etc. The briefing includes advice on security and self-protection, refresher Instruction on accommodation addresses for secret srltlng correspondence, an explanation of the travel route for the return Journey and the document* to be used, and specificfor reportingroup or commencing bis assignment after arrival,chedule for initiating communications,n hie aileelon and bis return itinerary. Illegal agents receive their final instruction on communications two or three daysleaving Cuba. Instructions about frequencies, which sre assigned by tbe MI Department, and codes for radio communication, procurement and preparation of secret writing materials,re photographed and prepared for th* agent to carry with blalc*. One agent returning to Salvador received his

radi- frequency data on film, which was rolled and putalse heel on one shoe, prepared by thu EMB Section. Agents The _lto use radios do not take sets with thee; the DGI prefers to have then purchase their coaeiunicatIons equipment In their own country and provides money for the purpose; tbe radios are thus not attributable to Cuba. The agent usually carries with bin tbe funds needed for procurement of small equipment and mayactourier carrying special messages or funds. Normally however, large sums for the purchase of large equipment or arms for guerrilla operations are sent by diplomatic pouch or are carried by clandestine couriers. In for example, tbe DGIoncealed in tbe lininguitcase carried to Mexicoiplomatic courier; there it was turned over to an agent for the purchase of arms to support revolutionary activity In Nicaragua.

If agents are not able to leave Cuba at once when they havetheir training, tbey remain under the orders of tbe school If they are guerrillas, or of their case officer if they arc illegal agents. They are permitted to travel in Cuba or are assigned to public "voluntary" campaigns; tbe came officers try to keep tbea busy, partly, at least,ecurity precaution. Delays in departure may be due to lack of suitable documentation, difficulties in arranging air schedules, special situations In the home country, or physical disability of theagent broke his leg while In Cuba and had to wait until he was able to travel.

The principal cause of delay in returning boae is lack ofdocuments. The DGI case officer is responsible forpassports for bis agents' travel, but he is often sbort one or two passports of the proper nationality, because procurementonger time than the usual training period. For example,roup of aboutuerrilla agents from the Dominican Republic who completed alx acnths of training near the endbout ten were still in Cuba in4 because the DGI had been unable either to provide passports for their travel or to arrange for tbelr return boae Illegally. At that tine the case officer was trying to have additional passports collected and sent to Cuba via the DGI station in Mexico so that the stranded Dominicans could travel.

Return Travel

31. As noted above, while his training ie In progress, arrangements are made to return the agent to his operational area. For guerrilla agents, this is their own country and sponsoring group; for illegal agents normally It is their own country, butalthough rarely, one is assigned to another area. Guerrilla agents who have been trained together may travel backroup; Illegal agents always travel alone. All agents start their Journey by air to Praguo, on Cubana Airlines, using false Cuban passports, which they turn over to Czechoslovak authorities on their arrival In Prague." From there, agents travel on passports of their own or soae related nationality, or even their owncontaining entries carefully made to account for tbelr period of absence from their country without showing anywith Cuba. Both passports are provided the agent by the case officer at the time of the final briefing, when the travel route is also explained.

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The second stage of the Journey, rague to the agent's own country, la arranged by the DGI Central Processing Section. The agent's departure from Cuba and tbe first leg of the trip, to Prague, are arranged by ICAP, where the DGIiaison officer, pseudonyno handle sucb matters. When guerrilla agente are preparing to depart, tb* case officer notifiesersonally, by telephone, or by officialand allocates the funds they will need during the rest of tbelr stay ln Cuba and for their travel. The case officerthe agents to go to ICAP and establish contact withho thereafter le responsible for then as long as they renaln ln tbe country. If they are delayed, he arrange* for travel ln Cuba, and in any case be provides then subsistence and pocket noney. He also, through ICAP. procures their required ianunlzatlons; an ICAP request for vaccinationraveler ls an Indication that the person is of interest to the Cubanservices, since the ordinary departing visitor or resident secures his immunization through normal civilian channels. "Ricardo" also obtain* airline tickets and flighthe DGI reimburses ICAP for any funds expended by "Ricardo" for agent travel and handling.

The processing of Illegal agents ls somewhat different fronguerrillas. They do not go through ICAP or cone intothe case officer, working through the DGI CentralSection, takes care of procuring their immunizations,and reservations. They are thus not exposed toagency outside of the DGI. Tbe agent travels via PragueEurope and thence to hi* own country. At the finalbis journey, he nay enter his own country illegally. Ashe IS back and established, he is ready to initiatewith DGI headquarters in accordance with thehas received and using the schedule he carried with bin indevice, which is opened only when he reachesCuban aont abroadGI agent ls considered an illegaldocs not go through ICAP processing for travel. He mayillegally; if he depart* legally, he uses th* normalPrague but travelaassport of another nationality Of three known Cuban agents prepared forone vas scheduled to go to Mexico tbeof the other two wers not known. uban agentthe same aort of communications channels as an agentnationality, according to the training he has received He is reimbursed through tbe usuala DGI field station, which for Latin America Isand In addition hi* family is supported by the DGIentire period of overseas servlc*. An agent ofonce trained, is not expected to return to Cubaconsidered an independent operator with no communicationexcept through bi* clandestine channels, although lnhe le permitted to appealGI officer inestablishment if one ls available; Tbe policyof Cuban nationality had not been decided in earlyao sucb illegal agent* were tben operating abroad. Itcertain, for example, how long the Cuban vas expectedln place abroad nor whether be would be allowed accesaofficers ln the

92 the Cuban ore Ign-int ell igence*Onalrtnrahle use. of shipping for sending Its agents out of Cuba,

ogpeclally Into the Central American area and to tbe nortb coastowever, tbe practice of sendingagents home as crewmen has materially declined and4 was used only occasionally.

Effectiveness of Training

36* Hiboth guerrilla and Illegal agents trainedMl vary greatly because of differences In background,and adjustment to discipline. The DGI hasa few highly efficient agents, but some of itsnot come up to expectations. One agent with anrecord, of whom the case officer had high hopes,for participation in illegal activities after onlyperiod of operation following his return home. promising proved disappointing when

reieateo from training Supervision; one who was given funds toadio spent the money on himself and was in trouble with the group with which he was affiliated because'of bis lack ? discipline; another was accused of having misused funds en-

trusted to him for arms procurement and was also distrusted by his group as cowardly and spiritless. As noted above, In secret writing bas not always been productive ofl8; aiaappears to lie not with the quality fL ? *ra*ninK butthe lack of discipline and loyalty of, the trained accnt.

Headquarters Comments

a discussion of the organization of the DGI and the

i,Sfrom tho same source, see

has diplomatic relations, and hence consulates,America only in Mexico and Jamaica (relations were

" , With Braz11with Chile until

ith Bolivia untilnd with Uruguay until. Visas for Cuba can be obtained only in those countries; most are issued in Mexico, because that country has the only direct air connection with Cuba.

Cuban handling of visas and documentation is discussed at length by the sane source In

any travelers from Latin America were taken to Cuba on chartered flights by Cuban aircraft arranged to bring delegations to and from Cuba for Cuban celebrations and for the convention of the International Union of Architects in Havana in September. For the latter occasion, the Soviet ship NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA called at Santos, Brazil, to embark passengers for Havana. Among the traveling delegations were Cuban agents.

Source Comment. All DGI officers arc also assigned pseudonyms, which they normally use in all theirwork; even close colleagues do nor alwavs know their real names.

6- quarters Comment. The Cubans have also used special ana charter flights from Cuba to return agents to their

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