PRODUCTION OK ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS IN THB
CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE AS SANITIZED
DIRECTORATE OF INTELLIGENCE Office of Research and Reports
Electronic components (nonmcchanical devices thnt amplify, switch, dissipate, or store electrical energy) are the basic building blocks for aaklng electronic end equipment. Information on the level of production and the types of Soviet components available provides one approach to the study of the quality and the types of end equipment.etailed discussion of the Soviet electronics Industryhole and for revised plans, secRomposition and Site of the Military Sector of the Soviet Electronics,U, SECRET,
The electronic components industry of the USSR ln the period of tne Seven Years surveyed in the present report, which supersedes previous publications of this Office on the subject- This report is oriented toward the study of components as an indicator of production of end equipment and Includes discussion of administration and orgaaitatlon of the industry, patterns of production andand production technology. Areas of trade and scientific-technical intelligence ere covered in more detail lo other publication; end are discussed here only briefly.
I. Volume of Production
TI- Administration and Facilities for Production
Appendix B. Gaps in
Appendix C. Source References .
Estimated Production of Electronic Components,
Estimated Distribution of Active Electronic
Figure 1. US aod USSB: Estimated Production ofComponents, Selected
Figure 2. USSB: Estimated Distribution of ActiveComponents, by
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PRODUCTION OF Elf CThOKICIN THi USSR*
Production of active electronicn the USSB is expected to rise from ITO million units8 toillion unitsn average annual rate of growth ofercent. The original Seven Yearor active components probably will bebyoercent. The share of semiconductors io the total production will rise fromercent8 to aboutercent Production of semiconductors throughout the Plan period will show an average annual rate of growthercent, fromillionillion units; in contrast, production of electron tubes willat an average annual rate ofercent,illionillion units. Comparative rates of production for tubes andin the US and the USSR are shown in
In terms of units, exceeding the production plans for semiconductors core than compensates for the probably deliberate reduction in the rate of growth of production of electron tubes and creates the potential for increased production of electronic end equipment ln support of revised goals of the Seven Year Flan. Tbe only serious deficiency apparent is production of tubes for consumer entertainment equipment: defective tubes are being supplied to manufacturers of equipment in order to meet scheduled production plans. Steps that are being taken to improve this situation include the following: more intensive use of semiconductors in entertainment equipment; pressure for the Improvement of production technology; and, for television picture tubes, construction of new plants and imports of production machinery.
For the Seven Year Plan, production of passive electronic components (resistors and capacitors) was originally planned to increase from 1units8illionut the Plan probably was "Hie low level of production technology in passive components at the beginning of the Plan period made large increases in productivity and output possible through modernization of existing plantorresponding increase in new construction. There is evidence that2 domestic facilities for modernization became inadequate to supply the Increased demand for passive components and that the USSR turned to countries outside the Soviet Bloc for imports of production equipment.
* The estimates and conclusions in this report represent the best Judgment of this Office asU.
** Throughout this report, data on production of electronic components exclude selenium and copper oxide rectifiers. Data on distribution of electronic components, however, include all components producedas well as net P.elow.
The quantity of active electronic components allocated to tbe consumer sector* shows an overage mmiml rate of growthomponents allocated to electronic end equipment used in the military and industrial sectors show an average annual rate of growth ofercent. The high rote of growth in the military and industrial sectors canubstantially rising rate of production for original equipment as welligh level of research and development activity. Distribution patterns for the consumption of activecomponents are shown in*
Soviet technological deficiencies in both the processing of raw materials and the manufacturing of components have created problems in semiconductors end in some of the more sophisticated types of passive electronic components. Although semiconductor diodes of average quality are widely used throughout the electronics industry, neither the quantity nor the quality of more advanced semiconductors, including transistors,
* The consumer sector includes radios, phonographs, and television eels- 'Ihc Industrial sector includes electronic instruments,and civil coenuinlcations equipment. The military sectorelectronic equipment associated with satellite and deep-space programs as well as equipment for use in military situations. The data on distribution iniffer from the production data given above becausencludes the eotimated production of selenium and copper oxide rectifiers and the net import of active components-
Is adequate. Soviet technology In production of semiconductors is grad ually Improving andew years should permit the use of high-quality semiconductors ln areas other than those having high priority. Transistors recently have begun to be used in substantial quantity In consumer entertainment equipment,atisfaction at least of priority needs in the industrial and military areas for devices of average quality. The Soviet technological level in electron tubes is high, although there are problem areas reuniting 'from the overly sharp cutback in tho original planned rate of growth of production and the difficulties of manufacturers of tubes in meeting the rising denand without adequate materials or improved production equipment.
Soviet difficulties ln electronic components, largely the result of the low rate of improvement of manufacturing technology, have beenLn reorganizations of the industry. eparate state committee woe organized with responsibility for the design,and production of components. It Is not yet clear whether this autonomous status will materially aid the industry in Improving its technology, especially as production of materials aad sometypea of production equipment remain under the control of other Industrial branches whose responsibilities for supplying the components industry areinor part of their assignments in the national economy.
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I. Volume of Production
A. Active Components
llie tendency for semiconductors to replace electron tubas in the USSR (as elsewhere) is shown by the average annual rate of growth during thefercent for tubes and aboutfor semiconductors. (The estimated production of active electronic components in the USSRs shown in) The net result is an average annual rate of growth ofercent for all active In comparison, on the basis of recently revised plans, it ls estimated that the Soviet electronics Industryhole will achieve an average snnual rate of growth of aboutercentroduction of active components in the US and the USSR is shown in* The comparison ins somewhat unfair to the USSR: the much smaller amount of electronic end equipment already produced in tbe USSR generates lower requirements for replacement tubes,uch higher proportion of Soviet tubes is available for production of original equipment.
Output of semiconductorsendency to increase much more rapidly than planned in the early years of mass production (since. The superseded Sixth Five Yearrovided for an output ofillion unitsctual productionillion in that year. This high rate of growth continued1 but is believed to have slowed down in later years. Even so, the goal, of the Seven Year Planillionillion unitswas achieved3 and probably will be exceeded by atercent.
For the estimates for production of semiconductors it is assumed that the major source of expansionill beproduced capital equipment. Assuming that imports of equipment add directly to rising domestic production of equipment rather than compensate for domestic deficiencies or replace older equipment, an even higher level of production may be expected.
Especially significant was the purchase ofutomaticslicing machines from Japan In If these machines arc fully utilized on production lines, they could support an additional Increment to Soviet productionillionsemiconductors annually, und the USSR could approach US levels of production by
In contrast, the Seven Year Plan for electron tubes has been consistently underfulfilled. Probably less than hO percent of the original goal of the Plan ofillion units will be fulfilled.
* P.elow. ** p.bove. For serially numbered source references, sec Appendix C.
This shortfallithout doubt deliberate (although perhaps somewhat more severe than advisable) and should be considered in the light of the compensating rapid increase in production of semiconductors.
Considering electron tubes and semiconductors together,of active componentsill exceed the original figure for the Plan byoercent, supporting the increased plans for the electronics industryhole. Moreover, these nominal figuresthe increase in output of end equipment made possible by thepatterns of both component production mix and component consumption. Tbe increased use of semiconductors reduces the demand for replacement spares and increases the percentage of production of componentsfor original equipment. In addition, -Uie value of end equipment per component is greater for military and certain types of modernequipment; the total value of output thus can be expected to rise more rapidly than production of components would indicate as theweight of these two types of equipment increases.
In general, production of active electronic components has been sufficient to keep pace with the plans for the growing Sovietindustry. The most serious deficiencies are in the consumer entertainment sector, where the sharp cutback in the rate of growth of production of electron tubes hashort supply situation. Sufficient quantities of receiving tubes and television picture tubes are being produced to meet plans for production of end equipment in this area, but only by using tubes of inferior quality or eventubes. Forpot check was made at one of the major plants manufacturing receiving tubes. Of the tubes ready for shipment to assembly plants,ercent were defective. 2J Itoe situation with respect to replacement tubes is no better; many articles in the press complain of delays in getting spare components, the need for waiting lists, and the quantity of radios and television sets that arebecause of tube failurenot to mention the equally poor quality of the replacement parts even when they are available.
Tlie USSR is known to have in muss production electron tubes of excellent quality; thus it would appear that efforts which could have gone into improving and increasing production of tubes have been diverted to semiconductors and that the military and industrialsectors are being favored at the expense of the consumer.
Sons attention has been paid recently to the problem ofpicture tubes. Thereignificant program underway to increase the number of shops for rebuilding picture tubes. Although this program will have some effect, it will not solve the fundamental problem of inferior construction of the original tube. It Is doubtful whether the parts available to the rebuilding shops will be any better than those originally supplied to the tube plants. ore positive approach is construction of new facilities for production. One major plant is known to be under construction, andegotiations
have been going on with botb Hungary and the UK for the laport ofpicture tube plants. 3/
No ccxiparable steps have been taken to laprove tbe situation in receiving tubes for consumer entertainment equipment. light alleviation will result from the growth of production of transistor radios. Although over-all production of radios is planned to rise sharplyhe Increased use of transistor radios will reduce requirements for replacement receiving tubes for radios byillion tubes, or aboutercent of the current estimatedfor replacement receiving tubes in the consumer sector. the quality of components furnished to the consumer sector probably will not rise significantly in the near future unless ais made to bring capacity for production of tubes more into balance with demand oither by new construction, by extensiveor by improving the quality of materials furnished toplants.
B. Passive Components
Production of resistors aad capacitors vas planned to riseillion8illion units Although no production figures8 are available, the plan probably has been increased to correspond with the new plans for active components.
The major source for increased production of passive electronic coapononla haa been intensive autocatiot! and nechanlzatlon. The rapidly increasing production of active componentsnd the consequent associated demand for resistors and capacitors probably have outstripped the rate of growth of production that Soviet Internal resources can provide. Soviet Interest in Importing production equipment for passive components aa reflected by both negotiations and actual shipments has risen considerably
II. Administration and Facilities for Production
A. Historical Development
After World War II the USSR recognizedell-developed electronic components industry would be necessary for theodern capability in electronics. imited amount of specialization existed at that time, components being largelywithin Uie consuming plant.
The rapid postwar increase in production of electronic end equipment required additional output of components. Thia was achieved by the construction of specialized plants and the separation andof components sections of existing plants. heindustry was organizedroup of seal autonomous Industrial
branches. Separate "submlnistries" (main administrations) of the Ministry of the Radiotechnical Industry (MRTT) administeredof various categories of components. "Hien which the MRTT waa transformed into the Statefor Radioelectronics (Gosudarstvennyy Komitet po Radioelektronlkeid not alter the administration of manufacturing of components in relation to electronic equipment tn general.
For some time the USSR had been dissatisfied with the low rate of introduction of new technology into manufacturing of electronic Hoping to rectify the consequent low productivity offacilities and the difficulties in producing adequateof advanced types ofhe USSR in1 divided the GKRE into two new state committees. One, retaining the title GKRE, kept the responsibility for most electronic end equipment and systems. The other, named the State Committee for Electronic Technology (Gosudarstvennyy Komitet po Elektronnoyook over responsibility for components and related areas. Thus1 the electronic components industry of the USSR had developed into anbranch of Soviet industry with separate administration andproduction facilities.
The chief specific responsibilities of the GKET for components appear to be (l) the design and development of newhe development and introduction oi" modern manufacturing technology, including production machinery, for components;he primary ministerial-level responsibility for the supervision of production of components (shared with other All-Union and republican governmental organizations in the usual Soviet practice).
The establishment of the GKET does not seem to have had much effect on the problems of the electronic components industrythe rate of development of production technology1 has not been noticeably more rapid than in previous years. arge degree this Is the result of the diffusion of responsibility in the.industriesto production of components. For example, although the GKET itself controls the actual production of components, the metallurgical industry is responsible for production of special metals and monocrystal-llne semiconductor materials. The chemical industry has thefor solvents, phosphors, and synthetic materials. In spite of the interests and responsibilities of the GKET for modern production machinery and equipment, the machine building and electrical equipment industries continue to be responsible for the development of manyitems of production equipment- These other Industries have long been lax in servicing the needs of the electronicsery small but important proportion of their total responsibilities in the national economy. esult, although the GKET and organizations subject to it must share the blame, the satisfactory development of the
components industry has been retarded. Success in producing standard components ln adequate quantity and quality for the consumersector and in producing technologically advanced types for military and industrial use vlll depend largely on the degree ofthat the GKET and its producing enterprises receive from other areas of the economy. 5/
C. facilities for Production
As already noted, the manufacture of components has tended to become more and more specialised. The majority of components are now produced in plants concentrating on oneew types of components. This tendencyivision of labor within the electronicshas Improved the efficiency of the components sector.
Electron tubes are primarily produced in specialized plants. In contrast, the very rapid Increase of output of semiconductors6 led to tbe setting up of production facilities in existing plants (mostly producers of components) in order to satisfy the demand. The current trend, however, is toward the establishment of separateplants.
One holdover from the old system of producing components within the consuming plant is production of semiconductor diodes for electronic computers. These diodes are still produced in computor plantsubstantially higher coot and lower reliability thanunits produced in components pLants. Some specialized typen of diodes are not made outside computer plants. 6/ The increasingof semiconductors by GKET enterprises will permit the transfer of production of computor diodes to the more efficient, specialized plants.
Several Scientific Research Institutes (Hauchno-Iaaledovatel' shiye InstltutyU's) also play on in port ant role in production or active components. ese NH'a were set up to carry out research and development on specialized or advanced areas of cosponents and, in some cases, have grown into Important production organizations in their own right. For example, one of the most important isearajor producer of microwave tubes (klystrons, magnetrons, and traveling-wave tubes). Other Nil's are active in the series production or newly designed components that have not yet been assignedlant and of some high-performance components for military use.
There has been very little new construction of planto in'troii tube sector during the Seven Year Plan. Several plants were converted or newly built ror production of mercury rectifiers (used ln welding, electric locomotives, and various other industrialbut the growing use of semiconductor rectifiers will make any further increase of production capacity unlikely In this area. In
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elevision picture tube plant is under construction at present in Lithuania, jj Apart from these minor additions to total capacity Tor production of tubes, the modest increase In production of tubes has been accomplished through the expansion and modernization of existing plant.
Hew facilities for production of semiconductors have come into operationairly steady rate. One or two now facilities have begun operating during each year of the Plan. Some of these plants are not yet producing at full capacity. These, together with other plants under construction, should provide for the continued high rate of growth of production of semiconductors and should compensate partly for the reduced rate of growth of production of electron tubes.
Resistors and capacitors arc produced in specialized plants. Some passive components plants produce both, but the majority specialize in one or the other type.
There is very little evidence of any major nev construction in tbe passive components sector, although new production areas have been added to some existing plants. The increase in output of passive components needed to support Uie growing Soviet electronics industry has been achieved by modernization of inefficient existing plant.
As an example of the possibilities ofajor capacitor plant ln the USSR more than doubled the value of its output in theithout any increase ln production area. This was accomplished solely through an internal program of automation and mechanization using equipment designed and built within Uie plant (outside investment loans from Gosbank were required). Although these results were achieved before the beginning of the Seven Year Plan, the experience of the plant was to serverototype for other producers and may be taken to indicate the potential for increasing output of passive components in the USSR without new construction of plants. 8/
2. Production Machinery
The responsibility in the USSR for the development ofmachinery for production of components has traditionallyto components producers themselves. 9/ An extreme case is the capacitor plant mentioned above, which nearly doubled tho value of its fixed assetsears by installing machinery built within the plant.
A certain amount or machine buildinganufacturing plant ls common industrial practice, but tbe USSR has relied excessively on this arrangement. The plants often lack the equipment aod experience that would be availableroducer of specialized equipment forof components. The fragmentation of activity among many small groups and the lack of exchange of experience have resulted in aof effort that the industry can ill afford.
The Inefficiency of these procedures is well understood in the USSR, nnd corrective measures are being taken. 0nly seven plants had been built for production of specialized equipment. onstruction vas underway on four additional plants. Further attempts are being made to stress theof other branches of industry, especially those controlled by tbe State Committees for Electrical Engineering and for Instrument Construction, Automation Equipment, and Control Systems.
nevertheless, it is still reported that "almost allused in the manufacture of electronic components is produced by the electronics [components)argely by the "machineshops and sections of all enterprises of the If new production enterprises for specialized equipment are successfully created and if the necessary support from other industrial branches isignificant improvement will occur in the productivity in components manufacturing and the reliability of the rinished product. Above all, the ability of the USSR to produce large quantities oftypes of components requiring the most complex techniques of production would be greatly enhanced.
Total distribution of active electronic components in the USSR is rising at an average annual rate ofercent. The rate for thesector isercent, and that for the military-industrialisercent. The estimated distribution of active componentshe consumer sectorhe allltary and industrial sectors Is shown ln Tablend Figure
Although the majority of active components used in consumerequipment still consist of electron tubes, output offor uso in original equipment as shown Inas been growing rapidly. On the basis of plans for the increased use ofradios, production of semiconductors for original equipment for consumer entertainment will nearly equal that of tubes
Germanium diodes make up the majority of semiconductor devices used in consumer entertainment equipment. These units are widely used ln tbe signal circuitry of radios and television seta and have replaced selenium rectifiers in power supplies for television seta, although not in radio*.. Output of transistorized radiosercentage of total production of radios is planned to rise fromercent3 to aboutercent The resulting increase in the role of transistors in the consumer sector is shown in the following tabulation of requirements for transistors in original equipment for consumer(in million units):
P. lU, below. ** P.bovo.
3 lgS*! 1 17 22
In the consumer sector,for replacement purposes as aof total consumption of active components roseercent8eak ofercent Because of the risingof transistorized radios planned, requirementsercentage of the total are expected to decrease for these years, although still Increasing in absolute magnitude. These figures help to explain the disparity betweenH and industrial countries outside the Soviet Bloc in the relationship of total value ofof electronic equipment to output of components. For example, it is estimated that2 the US had inillion radios, radiophonographs, ond television sets; the comparable figure for the USSB was/ Had the Inventory of consumerof the USSB been equal to that of the US2 ia quantity and composition, aboutillion active components for replacement would have been required compared, with the actual figure ofillion. The much smaller Soviet inventory of equipment already produced reducesthe Soviet demand for replacement parts. Thus, in spite of the high rate of growth of the consumer sector and the consequent rapid increase of sets in operation, the relative demand forcomponents Is and vlllfor some time much smaller than US experience applied to current Soviet production levels would Imply.
The military and industrial sectors (including research andactivities) are the major consumers of semiconductors in the USSB, primarily in the form of-germanium diodes. Soviet electronic computers have used semiconductor diodes in combination with electron tubes since thea; limited production of fullyequipment began. This area of industrial electronics is claimed to be second only to tbe radio-television Industry In use of semiconductors. Ih/ Civil communications equipment uses diodes and,esser extent, transistors. Several new types ofcommunications equipment, including (l) unattended repeater stations for cable and microwave ccmaunicabionaoice-frequency telegraph multiplexing equipment, have been developed and are intended to go into production in tha mar This equipment, together with production of computers above the original Seven Yearnd the growing need for military and space electronic equipment of good quality, shouldeady market for the rising output of semiconductors.
USSR: Eetlaated Distribution of Active Electronic Components, by Sector a/
Consumer Original equipment
methodology. Bee Appendix A. The data in this table include all components produced domestically and not imports and differ from the data presented in Table.bove, vhlch exclude selenium and copper oxide rectifiers. Because of rounding, components may not add to the totals shown.
A. Active Componenta
1. Electron Tubes
The USSR produces in series all of the major types oftubes currently produced in other countries. Because of poorand because of production equipment that is relatively less modern, the USSR is technically deficient ln some areas representing extremely high levels of performance. Soviet tubes also tend to be less reliable than equivalent units produced by countries outside the Soviet Bloc. Hovever, the current Soviet state-of-the-art is adequate for production of most types of modem electronic end equipment designed around tubes.
The USSR has mastered the techniques of development and production of electron tubes and in some cases has been able to strike out along original lines. Several examples of Soviet capabilities can be given. 6 the USSR had in mass production subminiature tubes that easily exceeded US military specifications for similaranufacturing techniques vere used that were at that time in onlyuse in the US. Low-power traveling-wave tubes were reported to have been in operational use in military equipment as earlyAlthough the USSR has exploited foreign technology in thie area, lt also has done independent work; an original Soviet-designed tube, the spira-tron, aroused great interest when the tube was announced at anconference For several years the USSR has been producing miniature receiving tubec of original design and excellent quality using rod-type electrodes instead of the conventional thin wire. Because of their unusual construction, they offer the possibility of being used instead of either conventional vacuum tubes or semiconductors in many types of communications and navigation equipment, therebythe quality of the equipment without cutting into the supply of19/ These tubes wouldogical choice if it wereto replace the obsolescent equipment used at present by the ground forces and if the quantity or quality of semiconductors were not adequate for this purpose.
Another interesting line of investigation, in this case still in the research and developmental stage, is in high-speed cold cathode gas discharge switching tubes.** This general type of electron
* For some applications, electron tubes at present are preferable to semiconductorsost basis. Developments such as the Soviet rod-type tube and the nuvistor developed by RCA permit many of the advantages of semiconductors at reasonable cost. Over the long run, however, new types of semiconductors and lowered costs of production will reducein unconventional reccivine lubes.
as discharge tubes conduct electricity by the movement of thecharged particles of an ionized gus rather, than by the movement of electronsacuum- The term [footnote continued on
tube haa long been used for standard voltage regulators, low-speed counting devices, and neon pilot light bulbs well known ln the Soviet Bloc as elsewhere. The chief advantages ofevice in relation to conventional vacuum tubes derive from the absenceeated cathode and the simplicity of both tube construction and required associated circuitry. The results are lower cost of equipment, much longerlife, small size, better resistance to shock, and negligible power consumption. Traditionally these devices have not been widely used in applications other than the ones given above, because of the majorof low operating speed. Some work has been carried on outside the Soviet Bloc in highly specialized applications such as weapons fusing, but, largely because of the ready availability and low cost ofinterest in Improving these devices Tor wider use as conventional circuit elements has been minor.
The attitude toward these devices in the USSR has been 8 the Soviet press and technical publications have been paying considerable attention to the subject, giving extremely optimistic (and often exaggerated) estimates of the potential for cold cathode gas tubes and calling for their more rapid development and wider use. esult of Soviet research this type of electron tube has been developed to the point where itechnically feasible alternative to the use of the conventional type of active component to an extent not before believed to be practical. Indeed, the Soviet press has calledthird path" in the development of electronics, along with vacuum tubes and/
The most interesting Soviet development in cold cathode tubes was the announcement2eries of five-electrode, six-electrode, and seven-electrode tubes with de-ionization times ofew Apart from the rapid speed of operationmicrosecond switching, the multieleetrode construction permits using one gas tube to replace several vacuum tubes or semiconductors, with substantial savings in both active components and Uie necessary associated resistors and capacitors. Tubes of this type suggest many potential uses ln moderate-speed digital circuitry for programedcontrol equipment, telephone switching stations, and small data-processing units for use in individual agricultural, industrial, financial, and planning organizations.
It is doubtful whether these types of electron tubes would arouse the interest of designers of equipment outside the Soviet Bloc to the extent that they have in the USSR. The only remaining advantages over semiconductors (ease of servicing and lower cost) will disappear as advanced miniaturization techniques involvingms and solid circuits become more widespread. These tubes appear much more attractive
cold cathode indicates that, unlike moat vacuum and many gas discharge tubes, the cold cathode tube requires no external electrical source of energy to heat the cathodeource of electrons.
lo the USSR, with its many problem areas in the quantity and quality of production of active components. Their widespread use would aid in solving both types of problems by bringing the demand for vacuum tubes and semiconductors closer to the actual capacity to produce and by dampening the tendency to produce defective components merely to meet production plans.
whether or not high-quality cold cathode gas tubes come into wide use will depend largely on the successes in improvingtechnology in the materials and conventional component areas of manufacturing. It is doubtful whether the USSR will attempt theprocess of developing an entirely new technique of electronic circuit design and of reeducating its technical personnel as long as there is any hope of improving the status of vacuum tubeseasonably short time-
The USSR has developed an excellent theoretical capacityesearch ability in semiconductors that is at least adequate. Hoverthelcss, the translation of scientific achievements into mass production of devices has been anderious problem. Although the USSR has published the results of experimental research in almost all areas of materials and structures currently of practical Importance, indicating an ability to fabricate advanced devices on an experimental scale, it in generalears behind the state-of-the-art outside the Soviet Bloc in production models of readily available.
Structurally, Soviet semiconductors in series production appear to be restricted to unsophisticated point-contact, alloyed, and diffused junction types. The equally conventional grown Junction process is not used, probably because, in this process, formation of the junction and purification of the material ore simultaneous. Because material purification is the responsibility of the metallurgical industry, the device fabricator would have no control over the junction forming process nor, therefore, over the characteristics of the finished The metallurgical industry has never shown the ability to service adequately the demands of semiconductor producers, and the choice of junction forming techniques other than crowing gives enterprisesthe control of the GKET the minimum responsibilities possible under the present system of organization.
There is no evidence of mass production using more advanced structures and processes such as mesa, planar, or epitaxial types. The resultechnological lag relative to countries outside the Soviet Bloc, both in terms of maximum frequencies of operation available and in the power availableiven frequency. This deficiency is due to industrial inadequacies in equipment for materials processing andrather than to any lack of Knowledge, and the existence of
highly classified institutes vith some production capabilities makes It possible that there ls small-scale production of more advanced types for missile applications and especially for space applications.
In all countries the overwhelming majority of semiconductor devices are either germanium or silicon types. Germanium historically vaa the favored material because of ease ofnd even today, apart from ita lover cost, it has certain properties that make ltto silicon in certain applications. Silicon devices, on tbe other hand, can operate at higher levels of power, axe more stable, and resist higher temperatures than germanium. At present these advantages are accompanied by higher cost, although improved methods of production and locreasIng economics of scale are bringing siliconorecoat position. In spite of the higher cost, silicon units outside the Soviet Bloc are becoming more and more widely used whensuperior to germanium ls required or when cost of components isinor consideration, as in military and space applications.
Becauseombination of factors, Soviet technology in silicon lags even farther behind world standards than does germanium. First, silicon of quality adequate for modem semiconductor devices is inherently more difficult to manufacture and process than germanium. Second, the USSR by its own admissionreat deal of offort to the study of semiconductor compounds to the detriment of advances in silicon These factors, combinedack of modem production machinery, hove resulted in the use of germanium for the majority of semiconductors operationally used in electronic equipment.
Little evidence of improvement was seen in silicon technology8 (when silicon transistors and Junction diodes were placed in series production)3 In thatumber of new types of high-speed switching diodes, industrial power rectifiers, and, for the first time, four-layer devices were announced, reflecting substantial improvement over previous levels. Several new types of siliconwere Introduced. Their characterIstlce continue toag of atears behind standards outside the Soviet/
* The series production of silicon point contact diodes in the USSR for use as radar mixers and detectors dates from the early postwar period and preceded production of germanium types. These polycrystalline diodes are rou^ily similar in function to the crystal diodes used in early radios before the invention of the vacuum tube, and they are far easier to manufacture than the more versatile monocrystalline transistors and diodes. Comments throughout this report on the quality of semiconductor materials refer to monocrystalline material or polycrystalline material of high quality intended for processing into the monocrystalline state.
The USSR is adequately supplied with mineral sources for semiconductor materials, but the difficulties in refining and purifying have been reflected in imports. Inonth period froml througha the USSRilograms of purified polycrystalline germanium. gU/ This amount is estimated to be sufficient for production of aboutillion devices, orercent of totalof semiconductors All of this large amount may have been immediately processed into devices, but the material more probably was stockpiled for useonger period to make up theof the domestic metallurgical industry. In either case the transaction illustrates Soviet difficulties in materials processing.*
In addition to the large Import of germanium mentioned above, the USSR has taken an active interest in importing, fromoutside the Soviet Bloc, production machinery for semiconductors.nd especiallyteady and increasing volume of negotiations and actual purchases has been noted, ranging fromequipmentor example, crystal pullers, electron-beam welders, and furnacesto complete production processes. All phases of the production cycle are involved, from material purification to device fabrication. Negotiations have been more extensive than actual shipments, partly because several sources may be asked to bid on the same order and partly because of the international embargo on much of this equipment.
B. Passive Components
The USSR produces in quantity almost all types of resistors and capacitors manufactured outside the Soviet Bloc. In general, tests and catalog data indicate that for the newer and more complex types construction is only adequate and the range of values available is not large. Thus the Soviet designer of equipment is less well favored than his non-Bloc counterpart, but careful design of circuits and layouts can minimize these deficienciesarge extent. It is also to be expected that as the USSR gains experience in the manufacture and use Of the newer types, the quality and range of component values available will improve.
The USSR has available for general-purpose applications several versions of carbon film, carbon composition, and wirewound resistors. They arc equivalent to similar units produced outside the Soviet Bloc One point of divergence between US and Soviet practice is the use of the carbon film type in the USSR as the standard resistor of average quality. In the US, composition types arc used for this purpose; carbon film resistors are restricted to high-precision or low-noise applications and are several times more expensive. Because there is no need for such
* Imports of silicon by the Soviet Bloc are severely restricted by the embargo of the NATO countries and Japan on the better grades of material of semiconductor quality.
high qualityeneral-purpose resistor, the USSR ie ableow cost film types equivalent in performance to US standard composition types.
In addition to general-purpose resistors, the USSR produces several high-quality types. Precision carbon film, borocarbon, metal film, and wire-wound resistors are available in series when their various special characteristics are needed. Micro wire resistorsolerance of up5 percent became available
The USSR also produces most contemporary types of capacitors. Only polyester film (Mylar) is conspicuously absent. The standard paper, mica, ceramic, aluminum, and polystyrene types are in wide use, with Teflon, vitreous enamel, and tantalum available for special.
The use of Mylarapacitor dielectric permits production of moderately priced general-purpose deviceseduced size as well as an extended range in .temperature. The lack of Mylar types in the USSR often requires either the use of more expensive high-temperature capacitorsesser degree of miniaturization than is common outside the Soviet Bloc.
As in the instance of semiconductors, tho USSR has been actively seeking production equipment from sources outside the Soviet Bloc. Since the latter partumber of negotiations have beendealing with machinery for production of metal film resistors and ceramic ond electrolytic capacitors. Attempts to import production equipment for Mylar film of electronic grade as well as the film itself (both under international embargo) have been noted since this material came into wide use for capacitors in thes.
Circuit design in the USSR remains conventional from the point of view of miniaturization. The use of subminlature electron tubes; semiconductor diodes, printed circuits; miniature passive components; and,esser extent, transistors is becoming fairly common. In addition to the simple substitution of smaller components for larger components, high-density packing techniques that minimize intercomponent wiring and empty space ore used in more sophisticated equipment. These high-density circuits are not manufactured ln standard packages but are specially designed and built for each individual model of equipment-
ore udvanced level the USSBimited capacity to produce micromodules. These devices are made of thin Insulating plates of uniform size, eachonventional although extremely small serai-conductor device or on individual passive component formed by theof thin The resulting plates are stacked vertically
and interconnected. There is evidence that micromodules are in oper tional use, probably in high-priority missile and space projects and in diagnostic radiocapsules, but it is doubtful whether the present level of technology of mass production will permit widespread use of micromodules even In military applications for several years. There are no indications that the USSR has in operational use still more complex techniques of
The volume of Soviet production of electron tubes shown in Tableor theas taken from-officlal Sovietf tubes in the RSFSR during the period2 was used as an index of total Soviet production2 on the basis of the experience of previous The rate of growthnd the results derivedere rounded to two significant digits. The original-Seven Year Plan forecast that production5 vouldimes the level
Production of semiconductors80 vas given bySoviet Productionl was reported officially to haveimes that/ The output9 was estimated byonstant rate of growth. According to Soviet sources, production .roseercent1 and was planned to increaseercent/ The increase2 was estimated to beercent. Outputas estimated by assuming an annual rate of growth of IjO percent based on increments to plant capacity and theof previous years. Figures derivedere rounded to tvo significant digits. The original Seven Year Plan forapparently underwent several changes* and there are several contradictory figures. The most recent figure,lanned outputillion to *CO millionas taken asthe final decision on the
Rates of production for semiconductor devices (poluprovodnikovyye pribory) have been given for various years of then the Soviet press. The contents of this category have never been strictly defined. Assuming that this statistical reporting category has not been redefined over the yours, the rates of production in thesfor0 units0 }Mjappear too small to include selenium and copper oxide rectifiers- On the other hand, these rates are reasonable for production of point contact diodes.** The rates of production for "semiconductor devices" as given ln Soviet sources are estimated to include all types except those made from selenium and copper oxide.
* P.bove. ** See the footnote onbove.
The total production of components as derived in the preceding section does not reflect production of selenium and copper oxideor the effects of foreign trade and, therefore, somewhatthe quantity of devices actually available for use. Production of selenium rectifiers for radios was calculated by the method discussed ln b, below; these figures wore combined with estimates for industrial consumption of selenium and copper oxide rectifiers and availableon trade. The result represents an addition to the totalwhich rises in absolute terms during the Seven Year Plan period but declinesercent of productionercent
Annual actual or planned rates of production for specific models of Soviet consumer entertainment equipment were takenargeof Soviet sources. Circuit diagrams or descriptions of thewere used to determine the component complement for each set. The resulting figures were then added and adjusted to total rates offor consumer equipment. For example, ifiven year there were plans toelevision sets of specified types8 million semiconductor diodes butets were actually produced, it was estimated thatillion diodes were used. This type of calculation was carried out for transistorized and nontransistorized radios, television sets, ond phonographs and for picture tubes,tubes, semiconductor diodes, selenium rectifiers, and transistors. The results were combined to give total requirements for activefor original equipment for the consumer sector.
Requirements for replacement components were estimated byto the total amount of entertainment equipment in operation, data from Soviet sources on rates of failure of consumer equipment and the percentage Of failures due to various types of components. by tbe military and industrial sectors combined was derived by subtracting consumer consumption from the total-
GAPS Dl IETKLLIGEKCT:
On tho aggregate level the lack of any firm8 precludes any estimates of current or futureof passive components. Statistics on production of electron tubes were discontinuedut the fairly stable nature of this sector of the components industry permits projectionsair amount of confidence. There ls sufficient information available to estimate Soviet production of semiconductors Future increases ln production depend on successes ln advancing theof processing and manufacturing materials and in improving, through imports or domestic efforts, the supply of specialized equipment for production of components. Information on current Soviet plans forof semiconductors or details of production facilities, existing and planned, would therefore greatly aid in reliably projectingof production of semiconductors
In the area of active components the most serious gap inis the lack of Information on the composition of the categories of electron tubes and semiconductors. Data on the subdivision of these categories, by type (transistor, diode, transmitting tube, aad they function (replacement or originalnd bybetween the military and industrial sectors, would provide much useful Information on current and future developments ln the Soviet electronics Industryhole as well as Its components oubneetor.
State, Tokyo. ep 6k. C-
Ekonotnlchenkaya gazeta,k2. U.
3- FBIS- Economic Abstract, l6 0.
Ducsseldorfeb 6k. U. k. Izvestiyu, 0.
JPHS" 2 U. 5- Ibid.
6. Prlborostroycnlye,. U-
7- CTA. FDD Summary0 Jan 6k, p. 1. C.
CIA. d. S.
Fromyuhlenno-ekonQmicheskayn ftnzcta, U.
JPRS. 2 U.
k Jan 6b. Electronic Industries Association. Electronic. Yearbook, p. Ik. u. USSR, Tacntral'noye Statistlcheskoye Upravleniye. Harcdnoye kiiozyaystvo2 godu (The National Economy of the CSS?,. U. Ik. JPRS. 2. 8. U.
t al. Opredclenlye ekonomicheokoy affehtlvnosti
novoyhozysyBtvc uvyusi (The Determination of the Economic Effectiveness of Now Technology in the Economics of- U. Vestnih svyaxi,. U.
CIA. CIA/RR CBSSR Boosts Computer Plan, Apr 6k. S.
Arey, US Army Signal Engineering Laboratories.
, Soviet Development of Traveling.Wave Tubes,
Includingec Yf. Radio,- U.
Cherevychnik, Yu-K- Primeneniyc logicheskikhholodnym
tskretnoy tekhnlkw (The Use of Switching Tubes with Cold Cathodes in Pulse U. Priborostroycniye, U.
23- Radio,. U.
ul 6a,. U. 2k. CIA. CTA/RR, Soviet Imports of Polycryatalllne Germanium,
6 Prlboroat jroycnlye, Mar 6l, p. 2k.
26. . U-
USSR,. Pravda, U.
EkonoolcheBaayg gazeta,- Sovetskaya Roaalya, U.3 k U.
CIA. FDD Summary1 Radlotckhnlka, U.
30. . Poluprovodnlkovyyepparaturc svyozt (Semiconductor Devices in communications. 3. U.roltvodatvo,,. U.
Ukrayns'kfl radyans'ka entslklopedlya.
FBIS.Dally Report (USSR and East0. dd-kO.
3fc- rolivodstvo. Dec on, U.
35- Ttekhnikaelevldenlye.. U.
Scopomlchcsxaya gaaota. U.
MosXovakaya pravda,. 1. u.