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DIRKCTORATE OF INTELLIGENCE
Expansion of North Vietnam's International Radiobroadcasting Effort
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
Directorate of Intelligence9
Expansion of North Vietnam's International Undiobroadcasting Effort
Sincenternational radiobroadcasts controlled by Hanoi have climbed fromours per week to moreours. Radio Hanoi and Radio Liberation (the clandestine voice of the Viet Cong) have accountod for most of this expansion, with smaller increases in the clandestine broadcasts known as Radio Pathet Lao and Radio of the Patriotic Neutralist Forces
The primary target audiences for Hanoi's official and clandestine international broadcasting are the indigenous populations of South Vietnam and Laos. Allied forces in South Vietnam also have begun to receive substantially increased attention, and since the beginning of the Paris talks, Hanoi has initiated radiobroadcasting to the European area. Transmissions to Europe now amount to almostours per week.
Tho clandestine broadcasts of Radio Liberation, Radio Pathet Lao, and Neutralist Forces Radio are not independent operations originating from South Vietnam and Laos, aa represented by North Vietnam and other Communist countries. From all indications, these clandestine broadcasting operations are tightly controlled by North Vietnam and probably are carried out from the Radio Hanoi transmitting complex located at Me Tri.
North Vietnam has achieved this rapid expansion in international programing by importing seven now
Rote: Thio memorandum Oas produced solely by CIA. It was prepared by the Offioe of Economic Research
and wasOffice of Current
transmittersbringing to at leasthe number of transmitters in international serviceand by making more intensive use of existing facilities. Hanoi is procuring more broadcasting equipment from both Communist and Free World countries, and it can be expected that the North Vietnamese radioeffort will be further stepped up.
North Vietnam's Radio Propaganda Apparatus
Vietnam's international radioapparatus is tightly controlled by bothDong (Communist) Party and the government* its target audiences, located primarilyHanoi hasoordinatedboth overt and clandestine broadcasting. Atlevel, guidance and control over thebroadcasting effort is exercised in tandem
by the Propaganda and Training Department of the Lao Dong Party Central Committee and by the General Directorate of Information, attached directly to the Office of the Premier. Provision of facilities, equipment, and technical personnel is thoof the Directorate of Broadcasting, aarm of the Ministry of Communications.
day-to-day operations, the focalare the Vietnam News Agency (VNA) andas shown in Figure 1. The VNA provideswith the information used in dailyand utilizes Radio Hanoi's facilities
to broadcast its international radio-teletype news service.*
is strong evidence that in additionown official radiobroadcasting effort Northexerts direct control clandestinely overpropaganda activities of the Viet CongNational Front for the Liberation ofor NFLSV) and the indigenous CommunistLaosboth the Pathet Lao and the lessNeutralist Forces. The VNA in Hanoidirect radio communications with theAgency of the NFLSV in South Vietnam andPathet Lao News Agency in Laos* There alsothat the dissident Neutralist Forces inthe Pathet Lao radio communications facilityin contact with Hanoi.
4* From all current indications, the clandestine stations share with Radio Hanoi the use of the transmitter complex at Me Tri, just outside Hanoi,
* In addition to their international radioactivities, VNA and Radio Hanoi are aleo re-sponeibte for domes tic radiobroadcasting *
although their broadcasts are represented by North Vietnam and other Communist countries as independent operations carried out from South Vietnam by tho NFLSV's Radio Liberation and from Laos by Radio Pathet Lao and Radio of the Patriotic neutralist Forces. Daily international radio-teletype services operated by the Liberation News Agency and the Pathet Lao News Agency also arc broadcast clandestinely over the Me Tri facilities.
Vietnam has substantially increasedof international broadcastingbothclandestine since Theof programing rosoours perours per week byof the increase directed at audiences inand Laos (seea Withinthe number of broadcast hours targetedVietnamese audiences alone jumpedours, per week, an increase of nearly
international broadcasting byclimbedoursourswas sufficient to raise North Vietnamto eighth place among Communist countriesvolume of official internationalHanoi's international broadcasts areat South Vietnamese and Montagnardan increased amount of broadcast time hasallocated to Allied forces in South Vietnam,and to Cambodia. orthno broadcasts to Europe. Since thethe Paris talks, however. Radio Hanoi hasschedule of voice news broadcasts to Europeconsists ofeek inand Vietnamese. These broadcasts areto VNA offices in Paris and Moscow but can
be heard by anyone tuned to the right shortwave.
Radio's internationalmore than doubled sincencreasing
* In aontraat, the volume of domestic broadoaating by central radio etatione in Saigon and Vientiane has remainedtatio
from aboutours per week. As the voice of the Viet Cong, its broadcasts are targeted primarily at the South Vietnamese population, but it does carry some programs in Cambodian, Mandarin, French, and English. Like Radio Hanoi, Radio Liberation begano broadcast to Europe and has recently increased its programing to this area fron5 hours per week.
Pathet Lao has increased itsby aboutercent to almostourssinceith all of itsat Laotian audiences. AboutercentPathet Lao's weekly broadcast hours arc inlanguage, with the remainder allocated toin minority languages such as Lao Theung,
Lao Soung, La Ve, and French.
of the Patriotic Neutralista relatively modest increase of morepercentfrom abouto aboutoursbetween8 and operation evidently wasand sustained by North Vietnam forof winning over moderate neutralistin Laos to the Communist side. the beginningorth Vietnamesein Laos, however. Neutralist Forcesoff the air abruptlyilent for almost three months. of operations late in April, RadioPatriotic Neutralist Forces has abandonedmoderate propaganda line and nowindistinguishable from Radio Pathot Lao.
Me Tri radiobroadcastingabout four miles southwest of Hanoi,only known international radiobroadcastin North Vietnam. The mainat He Tri is connected by cable toarea of the Hanoi Internationalstation at Dai Ko, which isprincipal internationalfacility and is located aboutsouthwest of Me Tri. It is probableMo is the facility used by the VNA inits out-of-country radio communications
with Liberation tlews Agency and Pathot Lao News Agency headquarters. Another cableireline lead northwest from the Me Tri control building toward the Hanoi Citadel. These landlines are probably used to link studio facilities andauthorities in central Hanoi with the two transmitting stations.
number of transmitters used byfor overt international8 from threell butin tho shortwave band. Of the tenadded to Radio Hanoi's schedule,was transferred from the domesticapparently were reassigned from Radiobroadcasting, and the remaining sevenprocured from foreign suppliers (fourChina and three of unknown origin). five other transmitters are assigned tobroadcasting effort, and it is also
1 possible that Radio Hanoi allocates some program time on its own transmitters to clandestine
Vietnam can be expected toits internationalin terms of both total broadcastinggeographic coverage. kilowattbroadcast transmitterrderod fromrobably will go into oporationendnd North Vietnam haswith other Communist and Free Worldfor an unknown quantity of additionalequipment. Hanoi also may choose to expandoutput by using existingintensively. South Vietnam and Laosthe primary targets for radio propagandaHanoi, but broadcasting to other parts ofAsia and to the European areancluding
the Communist countriesrobably will share in any increase in the broadcasting effort.
(Thai) CAMBODIA .Cambodian
SOUTH KOREAN FOHCES IN SOUTH VIETNAM (Korean}
LAOS (Lao and minority languages)
US FORCES IN SOUTH VIETNAM
EUROPE (Vietnamese, French.ONTAGNARD (Six tnbal languages) SOUTHEAST ASIA GENERAL (French. Cantonese. Mandarin, Indonesian) SOUTH VIETNAM (Vietnamese)
RADIO PATHET LAO
RADIO OF THE PATRIOTIC NEUTRALIST FORCESOriginal document.