1. USE OF FORCED LABOR IN MINING, RAILROAD AND CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISES 2. LOC

Created: 10/5/1983

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DOMESTIC COLLECTION DIVISION Foreign Intelligence Information Report

WARNINGLNTELLICENCE SOURCES AND METHODS INVOLVED

STATE/rNR * .

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TVtTUa DLHEMLVATION AND VIE OP THII LVTOAVIATION SUBJECT TOAT BEGINNING AND END OFI OF i FACES

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SOUtCE

Dae of Forced Labor lo Mining,oad end Construction Eotsrprlsae

Location of Prison Caap and Eatled [Tkrainian Rationalists leer Ts

.Field and Pipeline area

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'prlsoo'ursaloB sOidng" work "camp" la'tha Polar Orel operating prison.in Ubytnangiaxf* population of

nines la lieu ofthat they usually died from lenknavU within two yearn, 9 euamar workers on tbe BAM railroad line reportedoffor construction project work on thai

lino. Prison labor waa used at as Industrial construction alt* Ia Ogllch There warn Dunetone prison lumbering work camsa in Corklyskaya Oblast as. Some prison work colonies on tha northern Drina River have baaa relocated to remote areas further north.

, TEXT: 1. eophysical team dispatched to the Tyumen gaa field area fromo assist la layingout* for tba Tonal gaa pipeline observed aa operating

Approved fcr Ra-yue

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WAStNINC Nonci INTELUCENCE SOURCES AND METHODS INVOLVED

mining work cup In the Polar Uralrge labytnangl,arge population of

Inr the mouth of tho Ob Rlvar. Tho uranium Bin* via pointed out by tba geophyslciat who haadad tha permafrost sounding aactlon of thoa tha train thay warsy tha alca. Tha nine waa adjacent to tbe reilroed line and nun*roue prison workera ware aaan working with vnaachaalzad equipment. The aita waa roughlyiloaater* east of what the Soviets refer to aa tha Europe-Asia border andtloaetera waat of Labytnangl on tbe Koacow-labytnangl railroad line. a aaabar* who ware told by the geopbyelclet that the aan were prlaonara aaaigaad to farced labor at tbe caap aaauaad he knew thia froa earlier vialte to tha area. Tbe geophyalclat had apent considerable tlaa ln the Teanl gaa field area and thus had travelled th* rout* by train on auaeroua occaalona.

2. Tbe prlaoo caap in Labytnangl waa located oa tbe westers bank of tbe Ob River on the outskirt* of the aunlcipality. It waa dearly visible froa tba train, and probably waa aot acresters away froa tba track*. Tba prison con*Let,quare coapouad about tha siss of sn average city block la the Doited State* that wa* enclosedire fenceecond electrified fence aad concertina. There ware Bavaral guard poet towers around th* caap and there weren enplin the towers. Rbeop was viewedaaalaf traia7 tba towers wars nenned and tba prlaoo appeared to b* la fall operation. Thez*atrol' boat lying offabora in tba river that wa* araedeanry narMn* gun and appeared to be guarding tb* river old* boundary of tba caap ccaapouad.

a* ofarge Ukrainian nationallet population of Salekhard wa* Indicated by the pinsane* of_aany woodenith white walla. InLira atreat*p byand'oue ofaaai asadiITI coaatad atuch bouoe* in just on* part of the town. miWany wooden houaa painted white and having tba appearance ofeen In gelekhexdlear indication that the resident* vara, froa tba Ukraine. Ithnicdo aot paint wooden houaaa la thia aaanor.) One Rolakhard realdent bora la3 ate tediaitlng taaa aaaber7 that b* badong prlaoo tern,ytn*agl or *oviroo* and had lived thereear*rea voxinx. bat that he and other Ukitlnion nationalist* war* forbidden to leave tbe Salekhard are*. Taaaaaauaad that tha prlaoo facility observed froa tba traiaymang;wae aaa af these to which exiled Ukrainian national lata had been seat to serve their prison

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4. Tha geophysical teoa had bean dlap*tchad by an naapacll'lad gnophyalcal institute in Hoacow. f th* taaa members, lnclodlag the group leader oa tbaaoundlng aactlon, were regular, Instituteut other* vara unlveralty *tud*nt*onal caaually hired for th* durationwoexpedition for completing ea*lgned route preparation teek*. The pern*ounding section used ultra-long radio wave electronic equipment to take sound lags

chat determined depth of panaafroat layers. Transceivers with ratingsatca waca uaad to transmit radio wavaa Into gaologtc formations. Tha same gaar was used to racord th* echoes and register the data. Their teamote sampling section Bade up of geologists who took ground esaplee on tha oioeliaa route. The team apant lta first weak of the tour in Salekhard and the following seven weeks

in tha field. They spent an additional three or four days In SalekAard at tne

end of the tour before returning by train to Koeeow. The team conaleted of abouteople,f whom were geologists andf whom wore geophyslelste by training.

c;.: Stated to cl. of hii iu< laurderera were hardly aver executed anymore, end that inercentcases people guilty of serious crimes auch as murder were sent to work inmines In lieu of execution. Ba said that usually tbey laatad foryears In ths ursnlua mines bsfore they died froa leukemia. Tha teamlived InHpacow, subsequently heard similar accouata froa several residentscity. Comment l Source cannot recall any further apeclflcs on auchof "prison laborers, but tba Information correlates vlth that providedSoviet aafasaaaVwho la8rlaon ship off tha north coastPoluoetrov Kanln panlnaula on tha Berenta Sea. Tha^oM Bti4 serving aboardailitary ablp that was taking on fresh water st aremote radar end portradar operator stationed at the facility disclosed co hla that the vassal waaprison ship that made regular rona to Rovaya Zanlya to deliver

who war* to ba assigned to work tasks described asdou* to their live*. Pre-euaebly, the haiard came from radiation on Sovaya Zemlya, elChar from peat nuclear teatlng or froa uranium or other hasardoue mining activity. Tha clear Implication of the remark waa that the prisoners were" likely to dieesult ot the' forced

9 three recant high school graduata* disclosed toscientific worker at tha Institute of Sigh Tenperaturee (ITT) lathey had worked alongside prison laborers during summer construction JobsBaykal-Anur Mainline (SAM) railroad la SlberU. Several of the students asmany thousands of prlsonara were used for construction projects on thedlacloaure cameiscussion ln which the former high school studentsabout the terrible working end living conditions thay eufferad whll*the project. They had volunteered forsniir work program where they earnedpar month for their efforts. They lived In tents while working on theformer etudeote complained that tbe food they received was terrible. Theywhile their living conditions were bad enough, the prisoners lived underconditions. They did not eleborata. At leaat on* of the formeraboratory assistant at TTT who took that Job after returning from

the auDBcr can?. It seemed implicit froa their raaarks that they bad performed the work tbe prevloue year but tbey did not specify the time frase Involved.

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I LVTEI LICENCE SOVRC ii AND METHOD! INVOLVED

FURTHER DlSSEaONATION AND WE OF THB INFORMATION SUBJECT TO CONTROLS STATED AT BECINNTNC AND ENDFORT FACE* ACES

?. oscow visitor to tha city of Oglleh, on tho Volgs river laobserved ao iaduatrial cooatructioa sits1 that vas utilisingforced labor. According-ocal resident at the construction sits,unspecified locations war* brought to th* site under araad guardwere taken back again la tha -constructloo site cocaIstad of one

unfinished factory building aboutaters long and las*ide that took up aa araa of about one-quarter of aa. city block. There we* barbad wir* and concertina around the worksiteuard post at the only entrance. Tbe alt* wa* viewedeekend when there wer* no worker* praiant. ldeat of Sharanga aualclpality ln Corkiyikaya Obiaat, RSFSR, statedlativ*8 thatad seen numerous prlaoo work caap*t*rn Siberia during. She said that the caapa ware all la wooded area* and that tba prleoners vsre engaged in woodcutting activity. mla resident of Sharanga statedoscow rial o th* town9 that he hadive-year tern far boollgenlearlaon wort camp en tb* Earellaa Fanlneula la The Sharangaaraar

born Inaid that be had been aeocene ad for stabbing another aaa with a

knife In aa erguaeat after tha two had bean drinking. The knife wound waa net aerloua.kw:i! i It vaa not clear if tb* man had completed hla tern3 or if

ha had bean sentenced at that time end had served soma thing less than tb*

prescribed ln the

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oscow visitor to tba Tiling* of fbaraaga ia Klrovekaya Oblaat mat auaarou* residents of tbe village who war* former prison laborers at 1unbaring cease la forested area* nf tba oblast. AX leaac aoa* ofaaa sentenced for boollgaaXsau -wax* fwllrli-fl inwolvnd with eay of:th* prlaoo.terme. tba individuals did ast reveal It t

8ocal realdent at a'awamter fishing recreation araa on th* North Dvina River near Arkhangelakacationer that then active forced labor prison colonies la tbe eatraaa northernf the area. The remark* were proapted by comment* aade by the vscetloner who hadumber of rula* froa oldrison labor caap* la tb* araa* wber* b* fished aleng the Dviaa. Tb* local resident Mid that ha ran

dismantledut that new cenpe had bean conetrueted further northareas where they would aot becoae known to civilian*. Re causela these reaoc*ppsraatly for fishing and hunting, tbasaid that b* had s' onaap*. Be noted that govtst citlaeaethat the ceap* war* daatroyad aftar th* Stalinut h* had observedad baan novad Source did not actually see any

operating prison colonlea ln the Dvlna River area.)

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NOTICE

INTELLIGENCE SOURCES AND METHODS INVOLVED

FURTHER DISSEMLNATION AND USE OF THIS BVFORMA HON SUBJECT TO CONTROLSED AT BEGINNING AND END OF RETORT ACES

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