Created: 8/30/1942

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

*2. O S_


Colonel Duxton

- Organisation Progress

By ray of keeping you advised ofn doinc Id tho way ofish to roport as followm

have obtained tho concent and supportPrincipal Officials ind Heads of Geographicfa program of eloci! ocoporatlon between the toothe following:

use of ooramon Geographic Dealtawill bo placed reprooentatives,

working outrainingwill beo tlio point rhero the etudentBor SO opealaliate.

pooling of inforsetiononson "Reporting Board1.

Colonel Jrooker, Cotcencant of the British Canadian School, haa agreed toert of each week with uo us "Advisory Director or Training". He, Dr. Baker, and Captain Brewer haveraining Syllabusot of inatructlona for the Gao,;ruphioumbered copy of whioh lo uttoched hereto.

It baa been agroed by allncluding,nderstand. Colonel Donovan and yourself) that the BO Training Progran should look to quality rather than quantity production. Our Britlch friends and vlsltore are in thorough accord with this progror. He are consequently currently attempting to find four or five country house establlshsenta (of the type of Dr. Baker's) where our various courses can

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be Installed and operated.

i. By mason of the change In Training ProgramTraining Objective tho areas heretofore in use will be unouited tc our needs. It lo believed that sone oi' then and their equipment, however, nay be uoeful for Guerrilla Training. ould suggest, in this connection, that the Winterizing Prograra heretofore authorized be held in abeyance until Colonel Goocfello* has decided wbother or not he aishoo to utilise the areas in question,

tfe have projected an SO Hendquortern and Field Organisation and attuah hereto numbered copies ofnclunive indicating our prelioinary ideas on organization.

Since it- ia ovldent that SO Personnel (certainly Adninistrativa Personnel and heads and Assistants of Missions)largely he comnieiiloned pcrccnnel of tho Arny or Navy,

we have asked for an increased Allotment and Procurenent Objective for the SO Section. It ia believed that the Allotacut anc* Procurenent Objectivo requeated ie the Blniraun required to neet SO needs as beet ia con visualise then at the noaent. They rill only suffice, honevor, in the event mo are able to transfer to Theater Ccsaotandera the personnel of our various Missions as they are sent to the Field, thus creating vacancies nith which to oeet the needs of now projects as they aatorioU.se. eparate ncnornndun is t'oing sent you on this subject.

progress vlth reapoct to HiBslonsunder diBcuesloneport concerning Missionstholl be aade the subject nattereparate fie are currently in tho proceee of fnailioriaingDeoks with Projects on hand.

separately roport on the questionandhichatter of vital concernSection.

Fllory C. Huntington, Jr. Lt..

Copy No.ttachediZ attached

cc to Colonol Donovan

To all Country Soction Heads

Further tc cur conversations at tho mooting held on Vfedncsday,o arc enclosing herewith somehich wo fool nay bo of value concerning various aspects cf subversive work. Ko arc alsoopyroposed syllabus of training which, it is proposed, will be available as soon as the training schools are sot up.

Tho papers onclosod aro not in any way intended asiroctlvo or aa boing static. Wo merely put then forward asasis for though- and discussion. So shall look upon itavor if vc could have your reactions, cemnonts and advicoeeting on Wodncsday, September2l.

R. M. Brookcr Lieutenant-Colonel Advisory Director of Training




Bulow ore set out all the 3ubjocts which will boto studont3 in each of the training schools under our command. It must bo born in wind that all training programs will be flexible and programs in each school will be bosod on tho actual roquiroraonts of tho group in training, aa spocificd by the geographic doska concerned. This is merely to uako it clear that the complete subjects available aro shown although there will beoro students naturally will not rcquiro training in all of the subjects Mentioned.,

A. Preliminary Training School.

Organization and Equipment of. Armed Forces.'

Hap Reading.

Sketch Making,

Jlllit-ry torus and elementary tactict..

Fiold craft,

Horse Cede and use of the Korso Koy (including an aptitude tost for possiblo capacityperator). Blinker and semaphore.

Scouting and Patrolling.

Weapons Training (Snail arms).


Simple Explosives (no dovicos).

Firstield Dressings, Diot, otc^y

Preliminary Assault Training and Planning.

Outdoor practice exercises.

Course to laat approximately throe weeks.

On completion of prcii.ninc.ry training,"thoffo* atudonta which roquiro any or all of. the following training, will bo sont to theschools under Colonel Goodfollow'z command:

Para-military training.

Aquatic Training.

Pcrachuto Training.

Advancod Training School


Security aspect of 3ubvorsivo activity.

Organization of an information service.


Objects and methodsounter ospior.ogo organization.

The arrival and the firstours.


Observation and surveillance,

House searches and raids,

Body sqarplios,

Use and typos of influonco3.

Approaching and rocruiting agents.

Handling of Agents.

Organization of Agonts.

Internal communications.

orso Codo, Koy, blinkeremaphore.

and organization ofresistance.

Selection and survey of targets.

Makeup and disguises.

Planning and raothods of attack.nd 2.

of Agonts by parachute arid soiotrt-ioTr

of landing grounds .and roccption committoos.


Gorman counter espionage methods.nd 2.

Dcfonsivc Measures.

Intelligence Roports.

Tho Nazi Party and its organization.

Organization of the Gentian Auselands.

Organization of the German Police.

German counter ospionago.

Propaganda and political subversion,

Propaganda Reconnaissance.

echnical propaganda principles,


Reprvductien Methods.

Subversive propaganda to enemy forces.

Codes end cyphers.

Secret inks.


Fiold craft.

Guerrilla warfare.

Demolitions and devices.


'weaponsdvanced (Small arms).

llap reading and uso of tho compass.

V'/iro tapping and listening devices, (including construction)

Outdoor practical exercises.

Lock picking and Burglary.

Periods forroblems and Discussion, also the writinghesis.

50. Firstield Dressings, Diot, etc. Course to last approximately four vxeks.

D- SSpecialist School

, Map and aerial photograph reading

Organization of onomy annloa.

Identifications of enemy forcoa and equipment.

Censorship Methods.

Questioned documents.

Report making.

Rating of sources.

of army, navy and air information.

practice oxorcicee.

Code, Key, blinker and soitiaphcre.

Durationcourse dependent on requirements.

E. . Specialist School

Industrial Sabotage, general and particular according to requirements.

. special cyphers.

our or longer specific assignments in tho home field.

Cedo, Key, blinltor andof course varied according to requirements.

P. Field Operations School

The work vf this school will consist of revision and practice exercises to as near as possiblo actual conditions, varied to suit tho individual cases.

Suggestions tj Geographic Desks

It is suggootod as of paramount inportanco that tho contact officer* of the country section cjneornod shall visit his agents at least twico at each stago of tholr training. It will be up to tha country aoction contact officor to decide at whatfter his students hovo started advance trailing, to discuss with thorn in detail "thoir individual cover and.on tho necessary requirements that go with it, such as clcthca, papers, utc, etc.

It is absolutely ossontisl that tho officor undertaking this work 3hould bo absolutely in tho confidence of tho students and to have, himself, already undcrgono tho complete training*

It is very strongly rocommendod that as soon as tho schools are sot up andtart functioning, tho first pupils to take tho cuurso should bo thoso officers onvisagod as being tho oontcct officers of the various country sections. Vory great importanco is attached to this as it has been found from constant oxporionco thattudent has undcrgono complete trainingontact officer has not, thoro is, to say tho loast, considerable divorgonco in point of view and lack of understanding which is alioostfatal to the confidence of the student.



Our organizationajor weapon of warfare and is the only weapon which willon, even if all else fails.

Therefore our organization must be successful.

Many organizations have in the past beenfor one or more of the following reasons:-


attention to quality as opposed

Ours must therefore be an organization for the elite only and it must be felt by evory individual in the organization that itrivilege to be in it.

We will thereforoew facts of what constitutes our business.


A. General

Security means the protection of the individual and of the organizationhole from the enemy.

Securityonstant factor and therefore tho security angle must be considered in connection with every act of an individual or operation of the organizationhole.

There is only one way toecurity problem end that is to. put oneself in tho other person's shoes and ask onoself in every case WHAT DOES THE ENEleY WISH TO ACHIEVE IN THIS CONNECTION AND HOW WOULD HE BEST SUCCEED IN DOING SO. Clearly, his three main objectives in connection with our organization are as follows:-

i. To ponetrate our organization and so obtain dotails which will onablo him to neutralize all our activities.

ii. Failing penetration to obtain tho idontity of our agents elthor whon they are recruited during their poriod.of training, or in the field.

of Information -

Information in our business is not property of the individual but the property ofhole..This Includes all ouroverseas,.

Leakage of information can take placo in two ways, both of which are equally bad.-First of all wittingly and secondly, unwittingly.

Tho way to causo leakage ofwittingly is by carolossness in thostage and to allow tho enemy toorganization,.

The way to preventout unwittingly is to obey thoof using one man for one job andhis knowledge to that which is necessaryto perform his/her particular job,

Security Moasuros-

a pood covorovor does notthe guise you assume to be able to doEvery act you do in this business must

boinRingour business moans any thoughts, words ordo not tally with ourssociatesof rules and regulations,

Discretion -avoid caroless talk, doyour work outsido tho organization orinaido tho organization who So not needIn deciding how much or how little to toll

a person, always ask yourself "Does ho need to know this in order to do Mshis is tho only standpoint from which to decide. Unguordod roplics or "hush-hush" attitudeimple statement ready and stick to it. As organizer keep fulL plan to yourself. Collaborators should know their own job only. Sonioroty in an INDIVIDUAL DOES NOT NECESSARILY MEAN DISCRETION.

-etters -Where thoy must bo used take the

- Don't carry incriminating- burn waste paper andon'tabout. Always select what papers andare going to carry. .


Your En am?.

C.E. Methods and Personnel,



o tidy androtection in case of soarch.


clearlways consider aspossiblo in advance every possiblemight arise and forstall it with plansadvance,



Stops must be taken to assuro the bona-fides of evory potential agent by -

up his record with ell availablo sources.

close study of tho man's own characternamoly that any person recruited inshouldhoroughcovering his wholo life before he is

should be given christian nano3 atby which they should bo rcforredtraining or operations.

no circumstances should -j. person ofhavo twof they wisha false namo thoy must do sounder all circumstances.


Two kinds ofegative and positive

The secret of.good protection and good operation

is first and lost good information.


A, Evory individual in this organization is anand must consider themsolvos no such. It. is tho duty of every individual to train , himself/herself in powers of observation. To do this soloct things or persons which you like or dislike orro neutral and analyze your feeling.

- 4

advantago of careless talk at all tines.

or non-security minded porsonnol.

false statements to elicit correct roplies.

ignorance and thus encouragingair their knowledge*

P, Building up an informative sorvico.

A* General

ovement- leisure.

B. Essential details.

ehaviour (money-associates-tablo manncrs-ta3tea-local conditions-slanc-mannerisns),


C.E. Organization does not sot out torathor than to mako then catchbecoming conspicuous or to provontoccuring in any area at all,

work is achieved by -


nformantnaponotration-adio interception

Success in our business doponds on good planning as it is essential -

rotain the initiativelor in an emergency.

maintain the element of surprise.


Plans are necessary for every isolatedourney, rocruiting, contacting, active operation, etc,


Recruitingery vital operation and requires

ood information. Secondly -and careful planning.

of thotate of local- occupations.

3. Consideration of typesnslders-

oites aux lettres -accomodationollectors of importedtores of material -headquarterswomen,

of potentialt is froman Informant service that first recruitslikely to be drawn, many of thobe indicated to you by the same means,

qualityad agent willyour organization. Got full informationpotential agent before approaching himweaknesses, character, roligion,etc.

Approach to potentialot to know your man.

Self Introduction

Introduction by mutual friend

iv. Coming down tohongo your line of appeal to suit the case, egriost, based on roligious grounds, etc.

Let any concrete suggestions come from him in the first stages.

Test reactions thoroughly before coming out into the open.

Sound by half-suggestions.

Loavoay out in the event of a

From tho first give him an impression that wo are partowerful and well organizod body -prostigo counts heavily,



A,' Agents require firm handling,-

agent wishes to fool, evon though hohim, that hef andeals with tho deputyhief, tho doputy have latent qualitieseader. If heit doos not matter howo agent mayfrom the fountain of- authority, thetho chief,-

whole of our organization ultimatelyon the agont and what he can achievefield. Build up the morale of your manyou arc worth. Never koep peoplealvays givo them definiteortnight's loavo".

interview an agont withouthis documents and always have afacts about him at your disposal.short tho timo you givo him lot him foolyour attention.

forget the best agents can bo highly-ourageous -and adventurous. To handle thorn arightmust havo the patienco andcn impressario if ho is to keop histhoir stuff for tho public night inout.

P. Fix details of salary and exponsos immediately after rocruiting,

grading agonts.

ovory eventuality and what you arcto do about it, openly and frankly.must come from. illnoss,death, commissioned rank, etc,

tho agents in security immediatelyloavoourse, etc.

J, Tho groatest safeguard against blackmail and all forms of indisciplino is to foster in your agents that they are working for an immensley powerful organization which can be benevolent to loyal-itios and ruthless with rebels.


Tho first stags towards implementing any plan is to find the personnel to carry it out, Tho best nethod is undoubtedly to recruit agentsiew to their carrying out part of the plan, but this isounsel of perfection, and it la morease of selecting whatover talent is available. In that case tho plan has often to be modified orinor one built around tho agent.

The preliminary interrogation of the rooruit by the prospective employod willuldo as to his capacity and into what place in tho plan he is most likoly to fit as well as his reliability -

The employer will havo to dopond largoly on his Judgment and knowledge of human nature to assess tho value of thesemportant points,


Various typos of agents will bo required, such as -


Political subversion and propaganda.



It is evident that It is useless to recruit,dospatch agents unless thereroundin the Country to use them. must therefore bo made to finden who can recruit and directis indeed arguable whether It is

worth whllo to recruit the rank and. couriers and operators in this country. Tho or-ganlzor should bo able to find most of those in tho country itsolf and train thoa. Thisovor tho question of 'cover' and tho difficulties of getting the men to their posts. Wo will, howovor,ortain number of men with tochnlcal.ransmission,otc.


A good organizer needs many qualifications, which wo will divide Into Personal and Technical,

A, Personal.

i. Must havo courago, rosourco an*cT*-do to rial nation.

have powers of leadership andorganization.

intelligent end capable of

iy, ISust inspire his mon with confidence.

v. Huatlair for underground work and tnoroforc able to protect himself against tho. E. service.

A very prominent or striking personality has its dangors but may be worth it on balance,

B. Technical.

bo able to passational ofif his cover demands it.

ood 'story' to account forbscnee and return.

"ec able to find moans of existing,job, in occupied territory.

knew intimately tho country in whichoperating.

bo young enough and fit enough toparaclvjis or by boat, ifre thohe rr.ust use,

Vi. Xus"ounrf fcoohv.toal knowledge ofho is toloaLvos, flcssolitiona, propaganda, intelligence, et


attentionr Rurally be paid*-ho rv-jpuiof personsoreigni.-iO irmod Forces, for oneto

3 younger and more virile elements-xpoct thesoo lost fiiffs /or.

v, howevor, other cJrclos rhich, if tV.eyde agents from their own ran>s, cm cftci id then for us, sutfi as

and business circles.

. certain

. sailors.

establishments for emigrants,

toA. . "

of dualof racial minorities.


Considerable- difficulties over tho question of divided loyalties may oriso, particularly in tho case of potential agents vho have been some timo out of their country and do not therefore know the actual conditions obtaining there an will very often saym quite prepared toack to Furutonia to doan against tho Enemy,ill do nothing which will hurt my country or her people.n Very understandable, buteservation. It may be possible during the training period in this country to agreerogramme which ho is prepared to carry out, but once he arrives in Ruritania,nay arise to cause him to change his mind. It will also be impossible to feel that ho will carry out blindly subsequent orders which may bo sent him.


ime has como toan he should bo ' asked if ho is willing toifficult and dangerous .task, making clear thon idea of the-kind of training,rovcclin- thoan or work to be.

After the period of preliminary training theshould sottle with the. agent the torms on whichll be engaged, THE EMPLOYER IFJST'iT AMY PROXIES 'MEsappointrr.ont in this directior. i3 likely tothe faith of thefg. Comtiisslon In the Amy, etc.

Itmportant that the employerci; currency he will pay the Agent,no

vggostod thatnt shot-Id roccivu,f his Country,tipul-?sed do7.ia:?iiowance whilst the Agent is in. orry other than his own. The rate of'- increased automatically shouldowerurrency fluctuate,

Prom the very first tentativehereat raust feel that he is dealingowerful, woll-orgonizcd body.- AS he CAN ONLY judge OF

this fror. hisp the psv psrsons he

CONTACTS, IT IS ESSENTIAL" PERSONALITIES OP the RECRUITER AND theECTION CONTACT OFFICER SHOULD CARRY CONFIDENCE AND CONVICTION. The slightest sign of amateurishness or hesitation vrill bo quickly noted and the result may be 3orious. Prestige- counts vory heavily in any secret society, and an agent is not going to risk his nock for an organizational which ho has not the fullest confidence.




Thoy may Include sorao or all of tho following:


ocrot guerilla army andfor an eventual rising.



Tho organizer's dutios should be divldod by geographical area, by group, Cg, miners, pro-tostants socialists, or by type of. propaganda, sabotage. Tho type of organizer can then be selected especially suitod for each class of work. Security will benofit if the groups undor each organizor arc kopt entirelyhe possible bad security of one will not jeopardize others.

Each organizer must bo responsible to ono employer only, who must not oxpect him to do the wCrk of another.

All those points can bo decided before thedeparture.



This is tho most important assistance that

ployors can "

1. Making sure that out3idor3 do^uspoct the existanceocrot organization.

il. Giving to persons inside tho organization only tho minimum information necessary for off-icioncy,

ill. Keeping.all groups as nearly separate

iv. EJaking suro that "bad" agents arc suitably dealt with.

B. Adequate supplies of money.

This must be sent promptly to organizers. It is impossible to control their expenses except by comparing thorn, over long periods, with tho results obtained.

Ca Adequate hatcrial

Wot in excessive quantities, but must be sent as soon as required. Tho organizor is the best judge of what ho requires. He should not bo 3ont what he does not ask for*


Thoy should be availablo to be put at tho disposal of the organizer as soon as ho asks for them.


This must always be quite clearly distinguished from orders.


Thoy arc ofton best given in the form of advlco or ofrganizers should not be ordered to co-operate with third parties against thoirjudgment, nor to attempt tasks which they deem too risky. In this the organizers opinion merits particular respect. It must not be forgotten that no regular discipline can oxist to enforce obed-ionco. Orders must bo clear and brief. They can be general, nogative or positive.

orders ore equivalent ofend cover the organizer's duties, territory.

orders refer to what he nay do,or postponement of plans.

orders must be carefully given,with reasons. The organizer mustthat tho employer is indifforent to his safety.


THE ORGANIZER MUST HOT BE BOTHERED TOARLY RESULTS, UNNECESSARY EXPLANATIONS, ETC. The fewer messages ho must sond, the more socuro is his position. He nood not toll his omployor more than the minimum nocc3sary for officloncy, nor reveal his covor.




Must be available to oraployor. Pacts bearing on security must bo sent to the organizer at onco. He must bo posted with nows about his successes* Ho must not bo overburdened with unnecessary details. Ho should not bo notified of now orders or changes of plana until thoy aro finally approvod,

xut sack group -

This must be available to .tho employer, so that ho will not impose upon it tasks for which it is unfit.


.Coordination between tho work of groups inareas and/or trades otc, is vital. Bytho attention of and by straining thot helps security. Theof tho activities of groups also incroasos their. simultaneous acts of sabotage aro worth more than single.


Communications with agents is normally. It is essonttalecond lino bo maintained. No matter.how officient tho flrat, it may brook down. The second should bo dormant buc ready to rcpYaco it instantly, othcrwiso tho whole organization will probably collapse.

Mcssagos should never be sent the same way as material. Thisanger to tho security of tho rociplont.


Tho principals of relationship botneon employer and organizer are similar to thoso botween organiser and collaborator. The organizer is,for inforoation upon his employer alone.oans of communication with subordinates aro slow and uncertain.

10. IDEAL -

The whole organization should bohe human body. Tho movements of the limbs, althougharc perfectly co-ordinated by tho brain as tho centro.



Whether an agent is in contact with the chief of the organization or not, ENTI.'LED to feel there is ODE.

If agent only dealseputy of tho chief; Deputy must have latent qualitieseader. If he has this, it doe3 not natter how far agent may be removed from fountain of authority. Do-puty symbolizes "the chief".

specially in early stages of agent'shat he should, as far as possible, only have ONE Deputy to deal with.

Example - Agent "A" of Lapland, Doals with Kr. Jones. Knows Mr. Jones ha3 immediate superior Kr, X, head Lapland soctlon, who.is responsible to tho chief. Do not introduce Mr. Brown if Mr. Jones temporarily away. Do not break chain of authority,


Every agent, however individualistic, appreciates FIRMJling, Especially if he feels that it is humane and just. Must feel ho isorm of discipline overy bit as strict as that.IMPOSEDan in any first class fighting service.

Agents entitled tosprit dc

corps". Owing to theoro

difficult to- establish thana fighter

squadron. Yet it can beto the employer.

It should be as difficultan to get into, "our business" as it isan to got into the Combat Air Forceilot,



with fully at Finishing School.

to pump it in,

cmployor, agent oxp.octs toonsoa memberarge,dconcern.


From tho moment an agent is engaged or scloctodsuitable for advanced training,have some idea as to how and whore itto use him. An agent should neverup the garden path". Tell agents thoof "our business" and any particularlytask or condition. An agent cxpocts,cases" to be ablp freely totask suggested by histhout


From tho outset there should bo no vaguoncss in tho agent's mind as to:-

A. What ho is to bo paid in. .

3. What ho is to bo paid when in the field.

and how payment is to bo made.

It is essential that agonts should be paid promptly on the day arranged. If an agent abroad expects money to bo paidertain account in USAiven date. It must bo ronittod. olayay may justly sour an agent.

expenses he is entitled to charge.

Dofino theso liberally, rather than stingilynot worry about petty overcharging on thecertain men. If you do not agree soy so; dobicker. Hakeule NOT to have any moneywith

ts of expenditure in tho field in thecomnwicotions for instruction being cut.

Remember you may bo cut off from the agent, Givo him reasonable rope with which to cope with unfor-seon possibilities of attacking the onomy.

in tho event of imprisonment,

Romember thatf caught cvon inountries, may bo oxposcd to long terms of-c'vii imprisonment, (five to ton years). Hon.will act with much more determination if they know tHoy will be "lookedhile doing timo.

in the ovent of permanent disablementof health in carrying outnd

Pensions to dependents in tho cvont of:-

in tho field,

and posted as missing.

It is most important that you have full authority for any commitments you undertake, from Higher Authority, Agents must feel that they havo real security (or none at all) in theso matters,



It isood plan to allow ondrawf his pay, Thoplaced on deposit. This from theof view Is not compulsory saving. Everymonths, ho should bo allowed to drawsumlowf he wishes. Thea toys on deposit. In this way, overorair sum is accumulated. holp to keep tho agent interested in Especially if ho knows thct,termination of hl3 contract, he will

draw tho sura in full,

Whon an agent goos abroad, giving him throe or six months' salary in advance is not much use from his point of view if he is oxpoctod to uso it for oxponsos. Always .differentiate botwocn salary and oxponsos In favour of the agont.

In gonoral look after agonts who arc temporarily ill; in reasonable financial difficulties (you will seldom bo employing men of tho. C. A.n family misfortune. It is better that thoy shox'ld come to you than to go elsewhere,

Incroasc- in Salary. Arrange to give'n setisfect-ory agent an increase in salary, say, overy three months (lifo is not always very long in theor make up for eachabic of graded pay. E. g. Grade 1 ollar; Gradeollar;ollar. Such arrangements buck tho agents up, mako them strive to earn tho higher pay not only for tho sake of tho money but r. also for the kudos. Don't forgot that kudosotood agent.


Lay down carefully what notice of this changowill get and what notice ho must


/in agont expects his personal initiative In the field to be (fairly) clearly defined as to how much' frcodom ho has got for action, how mush ho must wait on instructions from hoadquartcra. etc,


Inexperienced agents expect their onployors to arrange cover. It is most important thatottontion is given to tho subject on tho port of tho employer, for it Is the quickest way of getting an agcnt'3 confidenco.



Exporionccd end lnoxpcricncod cgonts oxpsct those to bo providod by thoutat* The nearer an employer can got to doing ao, tho bottor for all.


Agents rightly expect overy hoip and advice on these matters from their caployors. Time is ncvor wasted in working out every point in minute detail. Much time should be allowed for roho.-raala,etc, ,



"An agont expects tho confidenoo of his employer. Hewill bo hurt if he fools ho Is being spied upon or not trusted.

Toll agents frankly that throughout tholr scrvico thoy will be constantly.checkod up for security reasons, by othor branches of your organization, and that If you havo to restrict their liberty (which you must be careful not to do unduly) it is for their protoction as much as anything clso,


An employer.'s agentsight to be kopt in water-tight compartments. Do not mix thorn up; they will not like it, Kovorub-agent on an agent unless he agrees boforohnnd. It is often wlsor to let the agent pick his own aub-agonts.


An experienced agont. expects as much time to be given to the problem of tho "get-away" or return as to the outward journey and on inexperienced agont will bo givon cenfidonco by this.

Agents must fool that they aro of real value to thod that ho wants to sec the.t. again on tho coraplotion of their mission, etc.


It ia obvlouaerson who has bean icore or lesa recently in an area in which one of own agents ia operating or may in the future be is in possession of information of the highest value to the organization. In additionew rare coaoa It is possible to rocognlzo in oomo of these oscapees potential agents for the field in which case they can bo snapped up before thoy get enmoshod in socio otherfrom which it will prove difficult andimpossible to extract them.

Tho groat principle to remember la that allmay be of value, provided that it la sufficiently reliable and sufficiently detailed. In interrogating escapees, it is helpful tothat one la an agent about to operate in the district from which the escapee has just arrived; what, In that case would you want to know about it? With that in mind it should bpin dealingeasonablyporson, toomplete picture of the whole of the district and of the inhabitants and their activities. An agent supplied withsecured by such interrogation should be ablo to arrive at his destination and bo ablo to sottlo in as though ho hod been there for months.

Before ans interviewedombcr of this organization he has already been severely

vet tod by rind probably interrogated by

Clearly, there is nothing to bo gained and much to be lost by going over all this ground agriln; it ia therefera most desirable to consult tho

^ reports well before beginning an in-

terrogat'o-.. t only does one aove an immense amount of -lie, but oneretty clear lder. of what sort of inforantlon one is likely to socuv*. Yhe word interrogation is not ideal to describe the type of interview which takes place, sinceplicsostllo subject, and secondtitude on the part of Jhoo breaktory than to build one up* In our case, neither of there conditions applios. In the first place escapees aro always most oagcr to help, and in the second wo uro not concornod with trying to catch him out .or secure some information which he is trying to conceal. Therefore, the approach is entirely different.

To secure the type of information in which wo arc .interested, there is obviously no system ofand answer that'can bo applied; the only way is to get the subject to talk and keep talking, and all the interrogator has" to dA._is to diroct the conversation along the lines likely to show the best yield. To do this is-not difficultertain extent. It is sufficient to start off on any subject at allerfectly friendly and informal manner, and to show interestj from that point, once the ico is broken the subjoct will go

on and on. The job of the interrogator ia to get all the details possible, cithorirect question when necessary, or by coming backivtn point later. There is, however, one drawback to thi3ong conversation conducted on the lines ofthe subject to talkariety of topics is likely to entail the omission of many points unless the interrogator has r. vory oleor Idea of what he Is after.

On the other hand It will probably bo foundto allow an escapee to discuss points as they occur to him rnther than to follow any rigid system, ainco much will come to his mind by simple association of ideas which might otherwise be lost; It Is therefore most essential that thomust be able to come back to any pointn his opinionrofitably be elaborated.

The attached qucstionalrc is intonded only to giveeneral idee of the information they should be able to provide after an interview. It is not in nny< way, Intended to setystem tab'i followed in tho actual Intr.rropjfitlon. In addition It may not bo out of place to point out that no one person is likely to be able to provide Information on all these headings, nor even on vory manyem. But an interrogationot be consid<-rod as concluded till the Interrogator hasimself that tho subject has nobo supply on any of these points, niron any other that may bo of interest. To evory queatIon the answer to be of valuo must be de-tailodj where porsons arc concerned, their names, addrcsso^ccupations should be.glvon IfIf tboy ore persons who might be especially contacted cr especiallyescription will bo iwaful. Simllarily, if there ia any quost-lon of contacting organizations likely to bo uao-ful, details should bo provided of how to establish contacts. On cattors concerned withe.g. tho application for food coupons evory possible detail concerning tho place and the times, tho best officials to soe, the degree ofof control should be secured. In short, let It be repeated; if you were going to work In the fiold what would you have to find out after your arrival?


N.D. Answers to those and other questions MUST betney MUST be extremely detailed, and they MUSTon first-hand knowledge.

Enemy Administration, especially local.

are the. of the German civil ad-

ministration? Police and Gestapo?

Who are the most important members of the personnel?

Whero do they live? What is the strength of those bodies? What is the attitude towards them of the indigenous

administration, and of the civil population?om and where do tho German authorities take

their orders?

is, and where are. of the local indige-

mous administration? Who are the officials and where do thoy live? How did they come to be appointed? What is their attitude to tho Boche? To what extent flo they collaborate, and is their

collaboration sincere or unwilling, and for

what reasons and to what extent? Who among- them do not collaborate?

Y/hat is the general attitude of the administration

to quisling government, to tho free forces, to USA

What is the attitude of tho population to the

does the German counter-cspbnage systemyou know who the local Gestapo men arc?

Have they any local recruits?

If so, aro they enlisted undor compulsion or ore they

paid for their services? Are thoy informants or agents provocatours? What other pro-Gorman elements are there in the region,

and are they being exploited?

far has tho Countor-Espionago met withthere been arrests of persons suspected of pro-ally


Havyubversive organizations been discovered? Has anyone likely ton concerned with any

sush organization disappeared? Has tho Gestapo shown interest in any particular cage,

or any particular group of individuals? Aro there any places or persons laiown to be watched?

fur does the local police etc.collaboration active, apparent, orof the local police do and do not collaborate


there any organized or unorganized opposition to

tho prcsont'systom of administration?hat form doos it take, and who aro the por-sons, groups or organizations concernod?

- 2

Enemy systor; of security and Control.

COKTBOL OF IRSHriTY: What identity papers aro

Cy whoa, when, whoro and how are thay issued? Are thay often asked. in the stroot? Whon and under what conditions are thoy asked for? Is it possible to soeuro forged papers?

from whomnd with what dogrco of spood,

reliability and discretion? Is It possiblo tosccuro illicitly real papers? How etc? Aro papers changed at any time?

Aro they over stampod, signod, punched or otherwise marked after the original issuing?

What papers would one normally have in one's possession apart from obligatory identity cards?

What arc their uses and dogroo of nccosaity?

Under whut circumstances aro they necessary?

(This applies to such papers as livrots do fiamillo, Hvrets nilltolroa, fouillos do demobilization, pennis dc conduiro, carte d'olcctour and their equivalent in other countries)

2. - KOVEl^NT: What are the restrictions on travelling from one jono to another? And botwecn different zonos? And into non-onemy torritory?

In each caso what arc the passes required, and what are the conditions und circumstances of isauo?

Is it possiblo to got forged paocrs?

In applying for real papers, what importance is attached to the grounds on which tho application is made?

What travel controls cxiat, and by whom arc thoy put into effect ir each caso?:



r on canals

Vfliat is their degroo of efficiency and integrity? How can they be ovoidod, whore, and with tho help of whom?

Is there any Inspection of luggaqo? Can it bo avoided?

Arc thore any snap controls instituted? if so, ia it possible to be tipped off, or can they bo hnown of bofors they toko placo? How?

In tho case of rail travel, what is the procedure on arrival at the destination? Is thoro any ^om of registration? Isheck on passes or luggage ?

When arriving ct any new placo, what .'ormalitios dooa

one nave to observe? ey bj cvoidod and how? Do hotel proprietors etc. co-oporatc with tho German

authorities? Which ofdo net, and on what terms? What areul conditions of travel on tho roads

and by rail, what aro tho facilities, and how can

chey best be utilized?

ONTROLPSHCB: Aro there any prohibited areas? Arc they au^ to the prcsonco of troops,ow can special permits for residence be obtained? Arcany hotels, flats, offices, houses etc.,

rosorved for thoonoray? And any otherostauranto, cafos, otc?


control, What ia tho systsm ofwhen and whore,on are ration carda

issued? How often are they changed? To what extent arc they checked up on? How is it possible to got forged ration cards? Is thu coupon system used in addition to tho

cards? If so how can forged coupons be


What is the food situation? Jhab is scaroo, and how can scarcities bo circumvented?

Which dealers havo the oost supplies of each commodity?

Which doalcrs aro prepared to supply foodcoupons etc.?

Islack market in the region, what can be obtained there and at what cost?

To what degi-co is it supervised by tho enemy

Is it possible to oat in restaurants without

food cards?t, are there any exceptions? Whichnd places supplying meals

are frequented by tho various social classes?

cand how are

they applied?

V/hat and where arc tho cafes, whet Is theof tho respective prooriotor3 and by whom arorequented?

Whichown to havo attracted the attention of tho Gorman authorities?

Is one allowed toar? What

permits are required, end how and under what conditions arc they issurud? How is patrol obtained/ Aro there anyforms of fuel, and if so how aro they obtained?

V/hat aro the restrictions on ccmi^rcial vehicles?

V.ho ovni suchat journeys do they

make, and to what extent could one count on

their complicity? What are tha controls on blcvclus and how are

permits obtained?

on is it in force and what restric-

tions does it imply? How strictly is it observed? Are poruits available giving exemption from

such restrictions? How obtained? What are the.fr not observing the

curfew? Who aro exempt from it?

o) Wireless. Arc- sots oasily obtained? ormit required? Is listening to foreign broadcasts forbiddon? If so to what oxtont is this obsorved, and what are tho penalties? Can headphones be obtained?

Hhct are the restrictions on tho carrying of camoras, firearms, etc? Do you know ofpossessxug firearms illicitly?

control op

SEif nr- tho restrictions on the uaa of tho phono?

Aro long distance calls allowed? Is th-ro any supervision or censorship orfoi

of eavesdrop, ing? Dooo one have to produce papers boforo phoning from

public places? Is there any similar coni.rcl for telegrams? Aro letters conoorod? In tho zono, or only inter-zone? How can letters be smuggled from one 2one to another

or out of the country? Could those mama boor norv compromising material?


".mat are the local papers, b; whom are they published and edited?

What is their general attitude, what groups do they represent?

Doavour collaboration, and on what lines? Is this policy frcoly chosen, or is it forced on them? wbftt ore the private views of th- editors, otc? Would they bo prepared to help?

Whet controls are thv.ro by tho enemy authorities for

the insertion of swell ads? What authority havo tiu.se papers with the publio? If therea local wireless station, to what extent

is it allowed to broadcast its own programmes? Who nr. its officials, and what are their views?


In whom is the rjal pov/er vested locally, and how was

it obtained? -Vhathe: outward form of thla authority? What is the attitude ol this body to the enemy?

quislingfree forces, USA, etc? Whet is the extent of collaboration? And ahat is the

feeling behindkioto any form of

Are thjrc any groupsht ultimately be

on for opposition? Who areocal personalities, what arcws and


How far can anti-enemy feeling bo identified with pro-ally feeling?

Armed Fores.


at ere the units concerned, whore are they

how strong ere they? Have there been any recent chan^-s? VJhct isgc end type of the troops? How reliable and efficient are they?

Are they open to bribery? To whet wXt_nt, end withto -Jhr.tt' Wliatis their morale?

Whet isttitude to the population, and vise versa?

and troops in training.

Semo questions aa above, but distinction to bo drawn as far as possible bctwoon troops used for occupatioh and those onuties.

end auor-lioa.

7/hnt ar.-tho otheroints in theand how arc thoy guarded? Bridgos, culverts tunnels, viaducts, goods yards, engine sheds, garages?

s the attitude oi indigor.ous employees in such works to theapoctally railway workers otc?

What form does the frontier control toko? Mow can it bo avoided?

What roads and railways cro used by the enemy for

trans porting troops and material? What ports are the enemy using xnd for whet purposes?


Arc thorc any subvor3ivo organizations in oxistanco?

How wore thoy founded, whon, by whom and with what Objoota?

To what extent aro those those bodies organicod?

Of ivhat groups cro thoy composed? areroops

or fcrmor troops aaon& thoir number? Who or- the loaders?

Are thorc any sympathi.-rc in high places oho do not actively help?

aro the Booting places, and 'how doesontact thorn? Jhot arc their proscnt activities?

Havo" thoy any arms or other notorial at thoir disposal? What arc thoir potential activities?

Have any such organisations contacts with others in other districts?

In tho case of Communists, aro thoy actively pro-ally, or couldny nay bo enlisted?

What la the attitudo of such bodios as tho Freemasons Rotarios, otc.

Could thoy be cvuntuaily utilized aa tho basisubversive organization?

Aroany omod forcoa of tho country in tho

If so, what is thoir attitude and nhat'thJLr potentialities


What is ES3 gon.ral situation with regard to employment? Conditions endes? Unjir.ploya^nt question? Whatthoocal trades and occupation? '- Which would afford tho best cover end Qiva tho greatest y

liborty of mov nont? Which employers would jiot bo too inquisitive in engaging

a nan?

Aro there- any whose complicity could be counted on? What areocal labour groups, their strength,and activity?

Have the workers suffered curtailment of rights smco tho occupation:

Whatr tho Comaunist party aro thoro?

What is their at'.ituic since tho outbreak of tho Russc-German Mtrf

To whete tlicy any influenc- in local Labour?

Has there over boon any terrorist activity?

Arc there any local branches of tradou Unions?

And what attitudo dj thoy adopt?

To what extent dc tho workers opposo tho enemy?

Sabotago, stri-os, "go-slow"re thoro any Fascist groups among tli- workers? Dcos local labour depend on any national organization?

If so, which and how close i3 tho connection?

'.fliat factories are thoPO in the neighbourhood, and what

do thoy produce? Which factorios cngagod in war production Tor enemy? Who arc tho" employers, otc. and to what extentoy


To what oxtent crc theso factories controlled by tho Germans?

lfavo th- nctivc work-rs been replaced b. gncmy? Prom what sourcos are supplj.ua obtained, andat quantities?

Does thisecrease since the Occupation? (hat is the output end how docs it compare with former output?

Is th-.ro any prospect of any major change in the position Hon effected by clockedc andombings?

lias therebeck to tho land" movement? To what oxt

Has it met with any success?

Has thoro boon any opposition to it in the form of

sabotage hoar Cineeeasant mov-mont?

Is it influenced by any other workers'ommunism?

Hew have then effected by Invasion end occupation?

Do tho? collaborate with the occupying forces? Or do they destroy or hido their produce, leave fields untlllcd, kill off the livestock?


What restrictions have been imposed by theat havee reactiens?

'/hat ere the chief local interests, end who arc tho chief

personnel? Whet is their ettifiudo?

'JittJ what officiel bodies ere they in contact?

Dc thoy have any foreign contacts? Or any contacts in

cs or disterotat is tho attitude to the blockade? To -noray pillage? lias there been any attenpt to inpede the Oernar. war y


Is there any fear of inflation? If so,aur.s

arc being edoptod against itl To what extent do these olOBOntl collaborate? And tc what oattcnt night tiioy aid in subversive activitie;


Oho cro the chief in each line? .rfhat is their attitudo

andat extent could one hope for their complicity' Do they attempt to obstructrtfins?

XI- Utility Ser-.'lcos.

re the local supplies ofter, Gas, Phono

andoro do cables, pipes, etc pass, end uhoro are they

most vulnerable? ave there been any case's of 3aboeago? De the employees collaborate willingly?

Aro such things as power stations guarded? If so, by ufaor To what extent damaged.

XII. Wirolcss arid Propar.anda.

Is. C. or etner braadcasts Jammed? Whate

best times and wave lengths for listening? Who listons to. and what is the effect nt

Ifliat arochief lxiios or anittiy propaganda, end

what ia the taction tonows frou- Jidaly circulated crliston tc. and what aro

tho penalties? Arorisala onforcod?

Have you ovor hoard any illicit stations? hat

woro tho- unU what lino did thoy taho? Do you liston tc br-adcasts from neutral ccuntr*oS Reaction ua civil moraleF. -ctivit;,?

XIII Pr-ss

Uhat national papora aru nost road locally, anddo tho,

Yihat SIM thopors, to whoa doolonCi "ho aro tho editors, uhat viyjs do they held?

Uhat do^rco of *ndoTond_Co havo thoy?

YJhat chants hr.vo thoyic sir.ee tho Amiatico?

By what groups arcd respectively, and what dogroc of popularity dt. enjoy?

Have thoy any roalhew any slgni of eppositen tc tho cnuuy?

Arc thoro any signs ofa*s?

here any illicit pr.porseaflets circulated?

'.Jho aro responsible for th.in?

AT* thoy popular?

XIV. Church, JducatAjnal 3oaloa,c.

hoecal religious and educations!

bodloS, and Jho are tho loaders? 3hot is tho attitude of those groups to tho various

aspects ofhe occupation, froo forces etc? Do thoy ovor ir.dulgo in any form of propaganda for cno

or other 3ido? Has tho Russia-German war had :jiy offoCt on th.ir views,

especially on tho Catholic any cfodies been favoured by tho Gormans

at tho expense of the others? Do any of thoro harbour potential oloaonts of resistance?

Original document.

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