William J. Donovan
FOR RELEASE DATE:IIIH?0I1
This report contains nous of theonsider important about tie schoolsave seen to date. urther report will followuvr spent some time at the finishing school and at certain other establishments on ray list.
The British prepare the men for their work by putting themeries ol' schools which are progressive in nature. The period of instruction totals about three months, and it Is strongly felt that even, more time should De devoted to this instruction. The school system is set up as follows:
Fii ishing school
Post Craduute school
The elementary school isat its name implies. Vhe recruit is given on introductory map-reading and arms training. He is physically hardened, end closely observed Nothingecret nature Is taught hira, so that at this stage the unfit may be weeded out easily.
ci'<ssincA7icN review, co iress
LONDON,2 To: Colonel William J. Donovan
Captain R. P. Heppner
This report contains socio or the observationsonsider important jbout the Bohoolsave seen to dote. urther report will followavo spent sojae time at tho finishing school and at certain other establishments on my list.
The 3ritisa prepare the men for taeir work by putting themeries of schools which aro progressive in nature. The period of instruction totals about three months, and It is strongly felt that even more time should be devoted to this instruction. Tha school syatera is set up as follows:
Post Graduate school
The elementary school la Just what its name implies. The recruit ia given an introductory map-reading and arms training. He is physically hardened, and closelyothlngecret nuture is taught him, so that at this ttage the unfit mayeded out easily.
Jlext tne student passes to the paramilitary school whore he ia thoroughly indoctrinated with on aggressive spirit by means of rigorous physical exorcizes und tusks. Ke ia thoroughly instructed in the use of explosives and the art of demolition and is perfected In the use of rlreurme and the art of silent killing. m attaching hereto some hlnt3 for the Instructor In the course on silent killing. The paramilitary school Is.the last chunce to wesd out safely anyone who Is unfit.
Ths student next progresses to the finishingyllabus ofx attaching hereto and which Is Between the finishing school and the paramilitary school certain students are sent to parachute sohools where they make at least three and preferably fivo Jumpseighteet, one of which Is at night.
an goes into the field after finishing school. It may be, however, that he is uent to asohool to learn the fine points of Industrial sabotage or the like. If taere is no assignment in the field Immediately available, he will eoolding school to await such assignment.
Tha preferable sizelass in the various schools Is from flv6 to seven. This permits highly personalized Instruction and makes for eooy handling of the students. Nationalities are segregated, and the sohools ure so set up that each nationality will live
ouse which Is secluded from the other houses. Experience has taught that the various nationalities involved do not get along well together.
The normal house containing seven studonts is commended by an officer with the rank of major. Ills staff consistsaptain who serves as adjutant and supply officer. _'liia officer is usually an older man who is not physically fit for more rigorous duty. Also attached is an officer with the rank of captain who is chief instructor, and under him from two to three lieutenants to serve us instructors. The non-coms are carefully picked and they too render invaluablo service as instructors. All officers must possess the Qualities of leadership and physical fitness. They must accomplish their tasks by example rather than by their rank.
I anull description of this type of schoolo not believe that its importance can be overstressed. At this school it is ascertained whether the student has the ir.oral und physical stanina to acconpllsh the tusks with wnicu iie will be faced, and he is toughened both physically und psychologically to the point where he embarks upon his tasks with enthusiasm and conficence.
These schools are locatedather wild and desolate part of Scotland which has beenestricted military area. , Thereelieve, six
houses locatedadius of aboutiles. Eacharamilitary school. They aref"on one house ot whichieutenant-colonel who is not only commandant of his own school but commander of the other schools in the area. Euch schoolomplete physical plant and is not dependent upon the others for equipment. Each school has its owntalking course and an assault obstacle course. The stalking course is used to teach woodcraft and the use of cover. Ontudent armedub-:aachinell be required to pusseavily wooded, hilly area. During the course of his progress he will be confronted with various targets which are well hidden and camouflaged. lie is required to shoot ot these targets with maximuir. speed and accuracy
The ussault obstacle courseourse over which the student must pass at top speed encuubered by pack and rifle. Each coursetory, or what we would coll tactical situation for realism. m attaching hereto the tactical set-up for the course at one ofouses, anduide for grading the student on his progress over the course.
The courses are most difficult, requiring the student to scale cliffs, climb ropes and ropeladders, and shoot hypothetical enenles. Usually the situation istudent Is trying to escape fron an enemy. The instructors saidan may be very accurately judged as to his character, courage and stamina, through his performance on one of these courses.
In addition to tlie intensive training in weapons, silent Killing and demolitions, the students are taken out into the mountains to operate us guerilla bands. These maneuvers ure very rigorous end are climaxedhour non-stop march, during the course of which they are required to clirat the highest peak In that vicinity.
This training has tha added feature of toughening the students so that they may next engage in parachute jumping with less fear of Injury. The training is rigorousertain amount of casualties in the form of broken arms, leg3 and shoulders, results. The percentage, however, is not too high end the results justify the risks. J'uoh of the work is done at night and gr^at paln3 ore taken to teach the students to live on the country and to take advantage of nature in all ways.
During the course which lasts for one month, no leave ishe students and they are allowedalf-day hrlilay each Sunday. Theye in bedertain hour each night aad are permitted no drink stronger than beer.
Further reports will follow for your informationill keep you supplied with various training memoranda and syllabi.
fiQh+ *n* wiiof instruction designed to teach how klU ^out the use of firearms. Since the coursethe use of the knife, the tern "unarmed combat" would not be technically correct. "Silent killing'1 has been chosen, there-lore,ore accurate description.
ccmnencinr. the courselass of untrained
students, the instructor shouldhort introduction, not following the same words but to the same effect as the
system of combat is designed for use when you
have lost your firearms, which is something you should not do,is desirable for fear of raising an
some time or other, most of you, probably, have
been taught at least the rudiments of .boxing, under theThat training was useful because it taught you to thinkquickly and how to hit hard. The Queensberry rulesthe heading ofetae good targets which the boxertrained to
This, however, is WAR, not sport. Your aim is to kill your opponent as quickly asrisoner is generallyhandicapource of danger, particularly if you are without weapons. So forget the Queensberry rules; forget the term"foulhat may sound cruel but it is still more cruel to take longer than necessary to kill your opponent. "Foul methods" so-called, help-you to kill quickly. Attack your opponent's weakest points, therefore. He will attack yours if hehance.
There nave been many famous boxers and wrestlersafter time have won their contests with their favouriteholds. The reason is that they had so perfected thoseand holds that few could withstand them. The sameyou. If you will take the trouble to Derfect one methodyou will be far more formidable than if you onlygood at all the methods which you will be
Since this course of instruction, is designed to teach you to kill,it will be plain to you that, its methods are'dangerous. Your object here is to "learn, not to damage, and you will get no credit if you break your sparring'partner's" neck, for example. In' learning and practising, you will avoid, therefore, taking any risks of that kind. The submission signal (the two taps, on your own body or yourr on the floor) must never beIt is the signal to stop instantly, and thatuin which must never be
NOTJL Dummies are an invaluable aid to instruction in the various blows. They are essential to the-practice of Sectionhe should haveozen in readiness, therefore,
THE COURSS. Is divided, for convenience, into eight progressive seotions. This arrangement is to.be regarded, however, as elastic. Depending oh such considerations as time available, progress made by students or their standard of knowledge, there is no reason, for example, why two or more sections should not be amalgamated. Again,
if at the later stages the instructor thinly it necessary, in crdor to relieve the tedium of constant repetition, he may show at hxselection of the holds,n Sectione should keep steadily in mind, however, that students whose time Is limited are only apt to get confused if shown too much. It rat not be lost sight of that the primary object of theis to make then attack-minded, and dangerously so.
Blows with tho side of the hand. Iftplain that the most deadly blows, without tne aid of weapons, are these with the side of the hand. To deliver then effectively, the fingers'must be together, thumb up, and the whole hand tensed. The blow is struck with the side of the hand, all the force being concentrated in one smallpproximately half-way between the base of the little linger and toe wrist joint, or where the hand is broadest. If striking sideways, the back of the hand oust be uppermost. No force can be obtained if the pain is uopenaost. "
Explain that-with these blows/it is possible to kill, temporarily paralyse, break bones or badly hurt, depending upon 23 he body that is struck. The effect of these blows is obtained by tho speed with which they are delivered rather than by the weight behind them. They can be made frca almost any position, whether the striker is on balance or not, and thus can bemore quickly than any other blow.
Having explained the blows, the instructor shouldthem on the dummies and get the students to practice after him. His main point hero is to bring out the speed Of the blows and to see that students deliver them correctly.
Students should now be shown where to strike, as follows, explaining the effect- on each particular point:-
On'the back of the neck, immediately on either side of the spine.-
On the fore. arm.
On .either side of the head and;
From tho bridge of the nose to the base of the throat. The kidney region.
; Students should practice on the dummies again,the vulnerable points listed above. Strike with
Other blows. Demonstrate the .proper method of kicking and the use of the bootilling weapon once tho'ooponent isKick on the side or back of the head, noting that the effect is obtained acre by speed than weight.) Unless students oosscss unusually good foot-work and balance, discourage kicking above knee height, unloss the opponent has both hands occuDlodi
Demonstrate the boxing blows and the chin-jab, the latter with the fingerso--follow-up to the eyes. Utilise the occasion to obtain some improvement in students foot-work
Silent Killing ,
a chflT"hnlCe'youk*llingopponent on tho theyhe
SECTION 5 Releases frnsi hold*
out that, inold should be rccardod
S easier3 Position In^gSh It' easier to kill him thaneans of keeping hin captive.
A wist grip,
instrari n> thi^Si 13 or both- Show here how/ .y
A hair-hold from the,
d fr01'1 fr0ntr^ar, arms pinioned and arms
proficicnt.StUdentS Sh0Uld practicc these releases until they arc
Killing after release
_ filolc idea of releasing yourselfold is to enable you-to attack and kill your adversary. Whenever possible the dis-cngaging movement should form the commencement of an attack, inThG ln?tr?ctor should now demonstrate the follow-ups lo thehC WnCC of.balance, (footwork? to ,
strata hv^acticc each in turn as itcontinue until they become
Silent KillingECTION 5 Crowd Fighting,.
One cannot always choose when one will'fight and it mayhappen that one is facod with several opponents at once. On such occasions, unaroed yourself, your object is not so much to kill your opponents as to got quickly away from thou so that ycu do not got killed. Pride is expensive if it entails defeat and death.
To escape from circumstances likepecial technique is necessary.
For this technique, balance is essential and the instructor should now demonstrate how to keep your balance when swift movement Is necessary in kicking whilo standing on one fect. Studonts can be paired off and standing on one foot, ara3 folded, they should try to kick each other off balance whilst maintaining their own balance.
Gnce this is mastered, it should be explained that, surroundedrowd, youronly chance of escape lies in continuoll movement. This is so because, after you have takenew position, itecond for an opponent to turn and balance before he is able to strike you with any force. If one moves at least three foot in each second, there is obviously little chance of an opponent scoring an effective hit on you. At the same time, by the use of tho blows previously learned, you will bo able to do considerable dan-age while you are moving.
MOTE.n addition to forward, backward and lateral movement, move also at different levels, sometimos with the knees very much bent. It all helps, if done at speed, to bowilder your adversaries.
f necessity, there will be little room for movement, so make room moving into or against one opponent after another, attacking as you do so. Point out the value of the balance and foot work in which the students wore practiced at the beginning of this sootion.
The information contained in the two above notes should uffice to prepare students for the actuafc practice, which is now outlined.
Five or six duties should be suspendedonfinedoxing ring would answor the purpose. One studontimo should enter the ring and, with all the speed with which he is capable, ho should then attack the dummies at random, using every kind of blow with hand, kneo, elbow and head, from any position.
The practice is very exhausting and cannot be kept up far moreinute.
Tho instructor must watch carefully for faults so that he can givo advice,afterwards.
Bofore the studont tires he should be told to leave the ring and he will do so at spcod, exactly as If he were actually .making an cscapo.
To dorive tho maximum benofit from this exercise it should first bo done both by theand the students in Blow time, paying careful attention to footwork.
It should then be followed by many short periods in the ring and only an occasional longer one. It must always be remembered that the ain is to get out of the place and not to fight any longer than noccssary.
3tlcnt Killing (continued^ SOTTQWnife
,nifeilent and dcadiy uoaoon that is easilydofence, except fire-arms or by running liken5iUhCnJs*shoali bc toucht hownifo. how to passthrUSt'hW t0 ^'tta'dfioSSoi*
llCi'J Ulc vulnerable points,
^ hRriaia8flbJ0 and to make an openinghrust by flin-
Jcot in ffloS. Stress the value of surprise, showing the opportunities for it.
ious methods ofnife, and the value
taiM&-Mi1cdgc' thc ^ttcr being to'prevent the knife .from being seized as much as for slashing.
oregoing baa boon fully mastered, explain the
possible defences against the knife, such.as the parrieshair andteel helmet as a
SECTION J. Useful aids, mainlyi needs and
open handed strangle^ closing tile, catoridrear!lslocators' fror'1 the-front, standing, and fron
i. Disarming! if hold up with a
from the front.
c , c>n found holding up someone else.
risoncr, unrided, if you arcif thereall f there is no-wall handy. In
artor-hiporV.ho the prisoner lie face to the ground, oocuringth theiSher case, too search can only bc perfunctory, the log-lock ethod being slightly the better of the two. nil. Jf circumstances permit, kill tho. prisoner first. It is much castor to search him thoroughlyc is dead. Or, ifdo not permit cf killingnock him out while ho is lying laoe to the ground.
rt risoner. Easiest done if you sac* him out iIrst. Show the conventional method, usingTd and any oricctivc knot. Show aiso, what can bo done with less -lord, or with holt or braces, and how to gag him sirply.
kw*stressing ite simplicity and vtluc in crowd-iignting.
eat-arm hold, with its variations. For use if you havo rot been quick enough to get in an offoe live blow while your opponent's arm is raised to strike.-
arious holds, blows, attacks, etc.Those will bc known, of course, to all instructors and should bo learned by ail students who wish to qualify as instructors. In general, they are quitoand most of them can bc regarded as peace-time measures. Students should bo warned that.many of these holds,ould boot kipossiblc, to securerained adversary and that it is extremely unsiss to assume too lightly that one's
Silent Killing (continued)
adversary is untrained. Inold, show also how to get out of it.
(_ for smaller opponent,
/nrist and neck attqek. (Police holds.
(Plying marc (with variation) (HXpo (or hip throw) (Cross-buttock.
Comment. All tho above ore open to tho objection that while
attempting to apply then, you nake yourself veryto attack. Also, if you arcosition to apply then, you ore equallyositionilling attack.
THUi'IB-HOLD. Show how escape can often be effected.
HEAD-HOLD. This gives your opponent an opportunityrotch throw that can finish you.
Ara and neck hold. Effective when got but very difficult to getuick opponent.
Japanosc Strangle. Whon the hand is in tho correctlmost on top of tho head, it is impossible to prevent the hand fron being dragged away. If the hand is too low down, where it cannot be seized, thon there is no lovoragc and the hold becomes inoffectivc. The hold can only bo relied on if secured and taken to its conclusion with extrcne speed.
(Japanese ankle throw.
Consent, Good, but why not use one or other of the effective blows?'
Rock-crusher. Good, but not always certain in its effects.
Grape-vine. Usolcsseans ofan prisoner. It takes two men to apply it and if he docs not csoapo fron it, ho will dio before very long. If you wish to kill hin do so, but do not torture him. If you wish to keep hin prisoner, tio hin up.
Match-box blow. Excellent, if you happen toatch-box in
your hand at the critical moment. Whyido-af-thc-hand blow?
Baton end Spring cosh. Show their use and possiblo counters.
Bayonet parries. Show then hut with tho caution that thoy arc all very riskyood bayonot fightor, who night alsoound in tho brooch.
Safcty-rczor blade or blades In peck of cap. Show it so that stud-cnts nay know what to expect, but do not rccca.ond it.
Silent Killing (continued)
KOTB. Holds designed tom captive or to take him awoyrisoner.
When showing these, it is as well to explain that theo ottenpts to use then for any purpose other thancr.ns of finishing off an opponent should realise that he isonsiderableisk onlyafter crippling his opponent or if possessing an bvious superiority in physique or knowledge.
.... 5.- G....
to "A" Lectures.ecurity.se of lUfoiuant Service. Cover.
Enemy Contrs-jispionage Methods.
Arrival and First Days.
Cells, Typos of Agents. Organisation, Use of Premises.
Security for an Organisation.
Coiminications, Personal Contacts.
Agent Mana/;aacnt: Recruiting,
Handling and Discipline.
Policy, Selection of Targets end Passive Resistance; Appreoittions; Sabotage Attacks; Operational Orders. Interrogations. Final Arrangements.
rganisation of Higher Command.
rgur.lsotion, Tactics andPoints.
Lif.mtry Lightractical Hand!d
rganisation and Tactics.
y i'/oapons and Epidiascope Teat on
Recognition ofraiy Ur.lforns.
Air- Uniforms and Elementary Organisation.
Test on Army, Air Force, Policed prj-ty
end Pro-GerriM Organisations in Students' Own
Tlmoi dnubua - oints.
oint forocondo oTor this tino.
Add ointf.coondc under this tino.
Oiirtftolcsi Suooicifuloints ccoli. Doduct poiitto for faultst-
Rlfloounds) - urcot.oints if lit with lot shot. 10 " a " Bnd "
a " " " " 4th 0 " Oth
Pistolounds) -oints por hit.
oualo) - oints per hit.
3 shots on onoolnt3.
C points Td.ll bo forfoitad for failure toanwill be forfcitod for failure to conpleto an .i ti a fioiacraft.
bod Inadiins of weapons.
TOTAL rOUffS. Tine points.
X^L. Parachute and container burying*
a). Demonstration and practice In burying by Burying at night and contacting, some person at a
" Making got-away after alarm has been given.
Attacking railway line.
a).aecomiais3anc9 and Attack by night.
X.3. Broaking in and breaking outuilding.
a). Gettingouse and carryingoarch Getting outuilding on the al.'jrm being given and asking one's wayiven rendezvous.
econnaissance and uilding at nl#it,
X.7. Treasure hunt, including:
a). Cover story chock.
bj. Finding one's way to given rendezvous without use of nap
or Body Silent approach.
X.S. Selection of Dropping points.
Y.l. Description and identity parade.
b). st,iven description.
Y.2. Observation exoroisos.
b). Examining objoct andescription of Memorislag air Identifying objects by. nd. iii). by Observation of Widening range of vision.
as operation involving co-operation from outside.
will bo posted as follows to provont civilians or othersdanger zone.
At track junction IOC yardG It. of Demolition :iut3.
Wliere beach traok noits Dorrodalo Burn, (o) At trackS.
Boforo eaoli round all weapons will bo examined by an Offioor to
ensure that thoy aro clean and unloaded.
(b) All magazines will bo oxanLnod to onsure that thoy aro in order and contain the correct number of rounds.
(o) Demolition materials will bo clieckod and examined.
Aocompanying instructors and others will not preoodo or move ahead of the person negotiating tho oourso but will follow in tho rear.
Loading of Tfoapona;.
The riflo will be loaded at tho point iriioro "A" coses undor firo and not boforo*
istol will have magazine inserted but will not bo loadod until tho target appears.
(o) Magazine- will be fitted to tho gun when tho gun is proourod but tho oooking handle will not bo pullod backarget appears.
nstruct or will bo on duty at oaoh point fron which afirod. Ho will onsuro that all safety precautions are obsorvod.
G. Spectators, if siiy. willtonco as laid downourso.
BOTES FOR INSTRUCTORS.
Caroful preparation of the next day's work is essential. Instructors oustlear idea beforehand of tho lossona to bo taught and the methods to be used.
Tho neoessaryps, weapons otc: must be ready for use before the commencement of the period, and thin should be arranged preferably bv. whoso subject la being taken.
Squads must be snail, and ohould not oxcaed 7.
Try to arcuso the ftudonts* interest,hen maintain It.
Be briof and to tho poiat, but avoid tho tondoncy to sacrifice accuracy and clarity to speed.
Endeavour to workpirit of ccrapetition.
Whan asking Questions do not ask individuals. Address the luostion to the whole olass, and aftor thoy havo had tiae to think it over, then ask for an answar from an Individual. In this connection suppress taotfully tho eager one* who will blurt out the answer.
9. Ensure that the Students are all comfortable, atS that they can sea tha weapons oto. uaed for demonstrations.
All stores, weapons, maps oto. will be returned cloan and in good condition to their approprlato stores immediately thoy are no longer needed.
Before setting outcheme ensure that tho neoessary Administration work has been done and. Student's clothing, rations, meal on return, transport arrangements, setting cf sentries, preparing of objectives
RSMEKBEB. ENTHUSIASM, like yawning, isnfectious, and an enthusiastic instmotor will have Ma elasa on thair toos from vie beginning.
ASSAULT ii OBSTACLE COURSE.
Arieaig Houso is local* oneay II.Q. and twondnformation raooivod havo ouccooded in gaining entry and securing cortain irportont dooinnonts and plane. "ffMlo rifling tho sofo thoy are disturbedontry whom tlioy aro forcedoot. Ths shot iiavinc alarmed the Garrison, tho nocossity arisesuiol: getaway by an unusual route.
"B" has an intimate fcnowlodoOc groundsurrounding tho houEo and tho twooute known to liira.
Tho approaches arc well guarded and all wirero clootrlfiod.
"A" tai:cc possession of the sentry's rifle and with "B" leaves tlio houaoindow on tho South side. At tho foot of tho wall on tho ffost aide thoyopo fittedrappling hook and by using this thoy scale tho wall.
Leaving tho wall tho pair turn South and follow tho path skirting tlio bushes until they reaoh tlie odgo of tlic Ecat. io moat is crossed by swingingope suspendedroo and which is norrially usod forgoods aoross.
Continuing South they cross tho riverallen troo and aro skirting tho wood when tlioy aro firod onatrol approaching from tho direction of the Borrodalo Burn. "A" returns tho firo and tho two thon soalo the oliff to gain oonoealoont- On reaching the oliff top thoyentry whom thoy kill. This sentry is armedommy Qua wjiiol. "A" takes and discards the rifle. Continuing aoross tho broken ground thoy meet two men hurrying to tho scone of tho shooting. Those rcn are killed by "A" using tho Tomcy Gun.
The olootrified vri.ro fence is thon encountered and crossed by climbingiagonal ropo. As thoy prooeod along tho foot of tho oliff thero aro indioatiojia that their purposrs aro drawing olosor. Thoy deoido to take to the rough country East of tho Borrodalo Burn and roaoh this by doubling aoross tho field andopo laldor to tlio top of tho cliff. Tho ladder is found to be secured at tho toptool cablo. "A"harge and outs this oablo and ths pair oontiiiuo East to oafoty.
attempting tlio oourso.
. Instructorho accoapaniea "A" and carriec