FHOVISIONAL IHrKLUOErtCE REPORT
MARTI SHIPYARD PO. khk IN NIKOLAYEV, NIKOLAYEV OBIAST
CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE AS
The data and conclusions contained in this report do not necessarily represent the final position of ORR and should bs regarded as provisional only and subject to revision. Comments or additional data which nay be available to tbe user are solicited.
THIS DOCUMENT CO*TTAINS INFORMATION AFFECTING TEE RATIONAL DEFENSE OF THE UNITED STATES WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE ESPIONAGE LAW,SC,, THE TRANSMISSION OR REVELATION OF WHICH IN any MANNER TO ANEE PERSON IS PROHIBITED BY LAW.
Office of Research and Reports
II. Name and
III. History and
V. Buildings and
IX. Sources of Power and
Appendix B. Gaps in
Appendix C. Sources and Evaluation of Sources
Production of Ordnance and Ammunition in Marti Shipyard Xo
Apportioned Production of the Siemens-Martin Steel^
Estimated Naval Veasel Construction
Estimated Naval Vessel Annual Production
Estimated Merchant Vessel Construction 21
Estimated Merchant Vessel Annual Production 21
US Man-Hour Requirednstruct Baval a3
Estimated Number of Direct Employees required to Construct Soviet
Bikolayev, Snip yard Ro. hkhack
MARTI SHIPYARD NO. hhk IN HIKOLAYEV, NIKOIAYEV OBLAST*
Summary and Conclusions
Toe Marti Shipyard Ho. khk in Hikolayev, Hlkolayev Oblast is the aoat Important ahipyard in the Black Sea area and, next to the Baltic Shipyard In Leningrad, tbe second largest in the USSR.
It has capacity and technological ability to produce all types or naval vessels from snail submarines to battleships and to produce merchant vessels Proa barges to fairly large ocean-going passenger liners. In addition to having good facilities for the building and assembly of ships, the shipyard lo equipped with shops which, should conditions demand, could produce most of the ship components. Including heavy ordnance and ammunition.
The usehipyard's facilities lo tbe Soviet economy is dictated by tbe national coed of tho end product. This end product is determined by civilian need or military plan. In post-World War II ye are, the Marti Shipyard Ho. kkk has been devoted principally to tbe construction of nsval vessels, as most of tbe USSR's merchant vessels have been procured from Soviet Bloc and non-Soviet Bloc countries.
Postwar construction of cruisers by the shipyard Is believed fairly well established. Little information is available as to the construction of other naval or merchant vessels.
The shipyard's capability to produce cruisers, destroyers, andusing known and probable facilities, but excluding vessel repairs and merchant construction, is estimated at UQ,2C0 standard displacement tonsof naval construction annually. Using thc same facilities and
* This report contains information available as of* Standard displacement is the displacement (in tonsUo pounds} of the vessel, complete, fully manned, engined, and equipped ready Tor sea, including all armament and ammunition, equipment, outfit, provisoes and fresh water for crew, miscellaneous stores, and implements of everythat are intended to be carried in war, but without fuel or reserve boiler-feed water on hoard.
excluding vessel repairs and naval construction, the shipyard is capable of0 gross registered tonsf self-propelled Merchant vessels annually.
The production of the Siemens-Mart In steel mill and foundry, located within the confines of the shipyard. Is of great economic Importance. ThisIs capable of annually0 metric tons of steel. The output le used for castings, forglngs, ship and armor plate, and structural shapes.
The location of the shipyard Is of strategic importance. It la near many sourcea of rav materials and has excellent connections to both rail and water transportation. The shipyard Is also well screened froa the view ofrading in Hikolnycv, as commercial vessels dock downstream, about 1
Electricity ie usedery great extent in toe ehrpe and facilities. It Ir. estimated that the shipyard uses about k6 million kilowatt-hours (kwh) per yeareak load requirement0 kilowatts (kw). Electric power le obtained from the BUcolayev municipal plant which is connected to theonets power grid system. mall amount of power ia produced in the shipyard. Disruption to the power sources would seriously retard shipbuilding and shipyard production In general.
A total shipyard force (direct and0 employees would be required to produce the estimated WJ.POO SDT of naval construction;otal shipyard force (direct and indirect) of5 employee! would be required to0 CRT of merchant construction.
This plant study ie oneeries of Soviet shipyard studies. These studies are being made in an effort to better assess ihe capabilities of the
* egistered tonnageeasure wherein the entire internal cubic capacity of the vessel is expressed In registered0 cubic Teat to tlie ton). Certain items are not included in the measurement such as peak tankB end other tanks of water balladt, open forecastle, bridge and poop, hatchway excess, certain light and air spaces, anchor gear, steering gear, whecihouse, galley, cabins for pasoeugere, and other minor spares specified by law.
** Direct employees are personnel whose labor is directly chargeablepecific ship; Indirect employees are personnel engaged In Bonagcmeat, clerical work, and maintenance.
Soviet shipbuilding Industry and to evaluate the Importance of thin industry lo Its Interrelation with other industries and the general economy of the USSR.
II. Waste and Location.
The Marti Shipyard Ho. Witt, also known as Yard, Southern imeni Andre Marti, Hikolayev South Shipyard, or asekhanicheskly Zavod imcnl Andre Marti, (Shipbuilding and Mechanical Works in Honor of Andres situated southwest of the city of Hikolayev, Hikolayev Oblaat. Ukraine SSR. lo Economic Reftlon* III. The plane coordinates are latitudeP, longitude,
It la located on the north bank of the Bug River, which at this point flowsest-east direction. Tbe Bug River empties into the Dnecr Bay (Dneprovsklyn arm of the Black Sea. Tbe shipyard extends along the?lio with an Inland depth ofards, core ring an approximate areacre*.
Tbe shipyard is well situated to receive imports by rail or water. It. has several railroad connections with the extensive state railroad system, located to the north of tbe shipyard. Tbe port of Hikolayev is Important for the transshipment of manufactured goods and grain. mile channelDnepr Bay and tha port of Hikolayev Is reported to range ln depth of water fromo* It should be noted that the battleship Hovoroeslyak, whichaximum draftnches,tandard displacement draft ofeet, was observed in the Marti Shipyard Ho. tttttt.his channel, ln normal winters and with the use of Icebreakers during tbe coldest months, can be kept open to navigation all year.
III. History and
The Marti Shipyard Ho. Witt wan started near the end of the last. 3/ During World War II the Oernan Amy overran Hikolayev and occupied the shipyard from the middleI to tbe middle. Just prior to this occupation the Russians evacuated much machinery and many workers to other places ln the USSR. Various reports Indicate shipments of machinery and equipment to Potl and Batumi,or'kly,nd toy
The term region in this report refers to the economic regions defined and numbered on CIA1 (First, USSR: Economic Regions.
Footnote references In arable numerals are to sources listed in Appendix c.
Because of the speed of the advancing Germans, tbe retreating Russians were unable to strip the shipyard completely of equipment and machinery or to do much damage to tbe buildings and ways.* Upon occupying the shipyard the Germans made minor repairs to facilities and ways and began the construction of small vessels.
When the tide of tbe war turned and the Russians threatened tothe shipyard, the Germans methodically demolishedercent of the buildings above tbe ground level. Little damage was done to building foundations or to the shipbuilding ways.
Immediately after Hlkoloyev was retaken by the Russians in tbe middle, reconstruction work began. As original building foundations suffered little damage the pattern of reconstructing the shipyard followed closely the original installations, but practically all the facllitiea and machinery bad to be replaced. Improvements vere made in some installations with special emphasis on way* 7/ (For location, see tbef the shipyard.)
Aamall part of the removed equipment vas brought back to the shipyard, many machine tools necessary for reconstruction had to be allotted by tbe State Defense Committee from its special reserve and from Lead-Lease deliveries. Moreachine toola removed from the Desay Alket Plant in Falkensee, Germany, were received in the shipyard. 8/ Many reports state that machinery and equipment used to refit tbe shipyard are of German, British, and us manufacture. The Russians dismantled the Important German submarine construction base of Desehimag at Bremen, acquired aa reparations, and shipped tho material to Hikolayev. 9/ This material was probably intended for the Marti Shipyard Ho. kkk.
Reconstruction of buildings was done mainly by German, Hungarian, and Rumanian prisoners of war. Tbe installation of machines and equipment was done by Soviet, free labor. Only on rare occasions were prisoner-of-war skilled mechanics ever permitteduilding after equipment and machines were installed and only on rare occasions were prisoners of war used in shipyard production work.
A ma.1oritv of the reports bearirf on reconstruction progress indicate that the shipyard was not completely rebuilt by Full production in many of the shops was not possible, becauseack of installed machines and tools,
Ainclined structure onessel is built or supported in launching.
** Numbers in parentheses correspond with numbers In circles on the accompanying chart.
*** Inside back Practically all German prisoners of war were removed frc* thethis
Before the government reorganization of3 th2 activities of the 3hlpyurd cama under the Ministry of the Shipbuilding IndustryMiu-Isterstvo uudostroitel'noy During thethis Ministry vue combined with the Ministries of Transport, Machine Building, Heavy Machine Building, and Construction and Reed Machine Building toingle Ministry of Transport and Heavy Machine Building. Various reports show that the shipyard is under the direct control of one of the main administrations subordinate to the Ministry. Reports conflict as to which administration has control. Present Indications are that theprincipal production will be naval vessels ranging from submarines to cruisers. Merchant vessels may also be constructed in the shipyard.
This shipbuilding and repair yard is considered to be tbe largest Soviet shipyard in the Block See area, and ita facilities for repairing both naval and merchant vessels are of great importance to tbe Black Sea fleet. Sext to the Baltic Shipyard io Leningrad, it is the largest shipyard in the entire USSR. u/
Tbe empbasia placed on reconstructing the shipyard, following World War II, points up the USSR's high evaluation of the atrateglc Importance of thisIn the general rehabilitation and future economy of the country. and facilities reconstructed In tbe shipyard ore ofndicating that this shipyard will be integrated into Soviet long-ranee planning.
It la believed that tbe shipyard has been reconstructed to assume economic proportions at least equal to that of prewar years. Tbe improvement to wayhich now makes possible tbe simultaneous construction within tbe shipyard of two ships of battleship or carrier eiae and tbe installation of facilities for assemoly line production of submarines create added value to an already Important shipyard.
ddltlon to its capability for producing large naval warships and merchant vessels, it fiUe orders from other shipyards and industrial installations tnrougnout ute uotw iur OHMpwnarfum ports.
Within the shipyard, but subordinate to the fabrication and assembly shoos, ore numerous and extremely diverse shops which could produce nearly all the machines and machine parta needed for tbe completion of the lorcentwarships. lW
Another factor of considerable economic significance is the Sitaeoa-Martln steel Bill within the shipyard. This Bill has an estimated annual production0 Metric tons of open-hearth steel.
During the first pert or World War II the shipyard, in addition to building ships, vas engaged lo building naval and coastal ordnance, sea mines, torpedoes, bombs, and ammunition. It is reported that naval ordnance or caliber required to arm heavy cruisers has been made in tbe shipyard since the
V. Buildings and Facilities.
Tho chart of the shipyard was developed from an enlargednd is believed toeasonably accurate picture of tbo shipyard as of At that time, many buildings had not been rebuilt,umber of the reconstructed buildings had not been equipped. This chart has been prepared to show graphically the Interrelation of thamany shops and facilities. ey to the identification of buildings and facilities vlll be found on the chart.
Durlnp the period ofingle building may have been Identified with many different operations. As new buildings were erected and fitted out, an operation vhich formerly vas conducted in an older building was trfianferred to the new structure. It Is to be expected that further shirts will be made as the shipyard la rurther developed. Very little data on racilities are available, because prisoners of war wore rarely permitted in/iido buildings after tho buildings were fitted out for production.
The buildings, way, railroad and crane tracks, platens, and other construction have been newly built or reconstructedermanent basis.
Walls of buildings axe of masonry, aod roofs are made up or precastconcrete slabs covered with Steel columns and steel
girders support overhead crane tracks. Foundations for machines are of
lotra-vard transDortatlon le chiefly by railroad. As can be seen on the chart of the shipyard the shops, shipbuilding ways, and outfitting *uays are well nerved by railroads and cranes. The several connections with the main railroad trunk lines entering Nlkolayev make It possible to shunt carsinto the principal production shops or to quays without transshipment of freight.
The shipyardrotected on the land sideasonry wall aboutect high. All entrances are guarded by armed guards, and entrnnce le by pass only.
The description of the shipyard's buildings, equipment, and facilities was obtained from manynd captured German economic The equipment is listed as reported, even though it ieto perform the operations indicated by tbe designated use of the buildings. Although the prisoners of war had very little knowledge of tbe final installed equipment, it is believed that the designated use of buildings is fairly accurate.
In prewar years, the foundryupolaarge oil furnace for metalmall electric furnaces, several oil-fired revcrberatoryryingnnealingentrifugal casting machine, and an edge runner mill. Postwar reports etate that copper, brass, tin, steel, and light metals were alloyed and cast Into ingots end that the shop produced brass, bronze, anchors, gear wheola of steel with bronze teeth, parts for stoves and ranges, washing basins of cast metal, and propellers.
8. Machine Shop.
The machine shop contains drill presses, lathee, milling machines, grinders, several large vertical lathes,orge. The sectionsn the chart are servedton overhead traveling cranes, other sections are servedton overhead traveling cranes. orgeumber of unknown machines. urning shop for rough ship parts and for machining ship propellers. e an assembly shop Tor ship engines.
9- Machine Shop.
The machine shop contains lathes, grinders, and various machine tools.as large lathes capable of machining propeller shafts up toeet long. lesel repair and overhaul shop. All sections are servedton overhead traveling cranes.
Ii. Foundry and Forge.
The foundry and forgeevcrberatory furnace for heating propeller shafts,team hammers,some of which actually may be forgingurnaces, andupola furnace- The foundry produces propellers, ritt.ngs, pecking glands, ana anepor*.
Tne identifying numbers for this section correspond to those found on the chart. Certain numbers have been omitted, as nothing is known about the buildings they identify other than their probable use.
14. Drf-aning Shop.
The dressing shop produces castings andurning shop for snail sized ports in iron and brass.
15- Electric Shop.
The electric shop contains an armature-winding Machine Repair Shop.
The machine repair shop alsourning shop for nuts and bolts.
18. Main Electric Rover Plant.
f tbe main electric power plantoiler plant which probablyoal-fired boilers. robablyurbogenerators. Tbe estimated capacity of the plant lekilowatts.
The boiler shop contains lathes, drill presses, forge, overheadnd voiding machines. Tbe shop produces ship funnels, large boilers,ship bulkheads, and large pipes.
The compressed air plant contains two large Siemens turbines.
Platens are steel-surfaced platforms of concrete used normally for fabrication of subassemblies. The platen east of ways elevated with shops underneath. These platens were added during the rebuilding of the shipyard. The size of each Is not known. omparison of the area covered by the platens lo relation to the size of the shipbuilding waysthat tbe rate of construction of cruisers is not as rapid as reported.
The bull-fabrication shopable for markingtamping presses for smallrill presses for drilling steel
* it is believed that installations indicated on the chart asndave been combiwd during the rebuilding of the shipyard to facilitate hull fabrication and are now under one roof. Several reports estimate tbe size of Installation Ho.o be large enough to include these five Installationn. The forge listed under Installation Ho-ay be the same as that listed under installation
1 heavy-nail-plateillingxyacetylene cutting machine for plates up5 inche thick, several electric welding machines, plato rolls of an unknown size, severalil-fired reheating furnaces eacheet long, severalverhead traveling cranes oftonendingivetingelding slab, and pneumatic hammers. old loft may be located on the second floor.
The electric power plant'H steam turbogenerator with an unknown capacity.
Shop and Forge.
The machine chop and forge contains two large furnaces for heating large parts.
Shops for Outfitting and Repair Work.
These shopsachine and tool shop, an electric repair shop,achine assembly ebop.
The shop contains plate-bending rolls, electric welding machines, and. overhead traveling cranes.
The woodworking shop produces patterns and Copper Pipe Shop.
The copper pipe shop produces copper pipes, copper ship parts, and copper boilers.
Apprentices are trained as carpenters, sblpfltters, blacksmiths, and lathe operators.
The forgeurnaceBorging hammers or presses.
Submarine Fabrication and Assembly Plum
This plant van partially equipped ao or In,nd the ueet end orere producing cylindrical flections which are reported to resemble pressure hull sections or submarines. Ldttle equipment was installed land In the eastern end or section c. The western end apparently is being equipped to shape and fabricate bull sections. There is no indication In available data as to the possible use ofnd the eaat end of section c. Several reports state that launching ways were planned for installation between the east end ornd the outntting baalo which iseet away. Available information states that the several sections are equipped as follows:
ontains punchverhead cranestonydraulic bending machine, an oxyncetylene cutting machine, automatic electric welding machines ror voiding cylindricallateatheeet long, assembly platroros, transformers, and numerous gas and electric welding machines.
ontains several overhead cranes.
ontains seven or more platforms located In the western end. Five platforms areeet byeeteet high andeet by ko feeteet high, having rails on top embedded ln concrete, some or which form an egg-crate pattern. The western end alsoertical lathe (or boring mill)urntable reported to be from V* toeet inong horizontalverhead traveling craneston capacity; and automatic welding machines. Two overhead traveling craneston capacity respectively, travel the entire length of section c. Prior to reconstruct log this shop there were several open cylindrical concrete pits, estimated to be abouteet lo diameter byeet deep, in both tha eastern and western ends. These pita were probably used as hydrostatic test basins. Several reports state that the pits ln the western end were filled ln and floored over whereas those in tbe eastern end remained unchanged. Other reports state that tbe pitB in the eastern end also were floored over. As little work war. done in the eastern end byhe condition of these pits is unknown; however. Indications are that they will be floored over similar to those In thc western end.
latform located in the open betweenndlate rolls and heavy plate cutting shears.
ontains transformers and air compressors.
ontain offices and small shops.
' yeche iB tbe German word for corporation. The name is given here because the plant is referred to as Zechen many intelligence documents.
Precast Reinforced Concrete Plants.
These plants produced roof and floor slabs during the reconstruction of the shipyard. Xt la unlikely that acre than one plant will continue the manufacture of precast slabs.
Little In known about these machine shops. 8trlct security vas drawn around the shops when prisoners of war were employed in the shipyard. Prior to World War II these shops produced ordnanco, ammunition, mines, and torpedoes.
Siemens-Martin Steel Mill.
he Siemens-Mart In steel millpen-hearth oil-fired furnaces ln operation which totaledquare feet of hearth area divided into furnace Bo.8 square feet; furnace Ho.quare rect; and furnace Bo.quare feet. It has been reported that three open-hearth oil-fired furnaces have been rebuilt since the war and it la assumed they have been rebuilt to their prewar size. Space la available ln tho plantourth furnace, and several reports indicateourth furnace was planned. essemer converters were in operationotal capacityetric tone. Postwar reports state that three Bessemer converters of unknown capacity are in operation. Electric furnaces vere in operation before and after World War II. The etoel mill produces Ingot steel and large coatings Including ship anchors. One rollingto produce ship plate was reported installedecond one planned.
Casting, Dressing, and Welding Shop.
This shop la need In conjunction with the Siemens-Martin steel mill. In prewar years the shop was equippedargemail annealing and
normalizing furnaces for castings.
The telephone exchangeiemens-Holske automatic exchange systemvolt extensionsvolt extensions.
Tho turbine plant produced marine turbines prior to World War II. Postwar reporto do not show that this Installation has been refitted to produce turbines.
Tbe dimensions used in the description of tbe followingere derived from photo Interpretation analysis. German aerial photography of the shipyard.
(1) large Shipbuilding Way.
Ihe estimated dry lengtheet* but tbe cofferdam extension may extend thc dry lengtheet. The inland end of the way contains shops. Estimatoc of height above grade of the inland end vary fromeet toeet. eclivity of five-eighths of an Inchoot and assuming the grade at the inland end to be abouteet above water level, it is believed that the inland height above grade is abouteet.
(2) Urge Shipbuilding Way.
Thc estimated dry length of wayeet. ossible cofferdam extension, the dry length may be extended toeet. The inland end contains shops. Estimates of height above grade of the inland end vary fromeet toeet. Using the methodology employed inthe height of way, the inland height above grade would be abouteet.
nd (M Shipbuilding Ways.
The estimated length of these ways5 feet.** The ways are Inclined and formerly were covered. It in believed that ship material used in construction on these ways is picked up by high overhead traveling cranes from an area lying between tbe north end of the inclined ways and fabrication shop Ship material is probably moved from theshop to this pick-up area by means of flat cars or small mobile cranes. It is estimated that this pick-up area is approximately kj feet wide and runs in length the full width of the building. The building housing these ways2 feet long. Deducting kl feet from thiB dimensioneet, which is considered to be the length of the shipbuilding way.
The estimated length ofaysbe Inland end of the ways is estimated to be abouteet above grade and the ways arc estimated toeclivity of three-fourths of an inchoot.
(Q) Outfitting and Repair Basins.
The depth of water In the basins is not known. Reports state that tbe ship Novorossiysk, whicha mum draft of 3ttnches, has been observed in the larger basin, The two wet basins in the shipyard
OKI estimates the dry length of the wayc*t. ** OKI estimates tbe length of the wayso ONI estimates the length of the ways at kUr. feet.
arc usefl for outfitting and for repairs. The lor per basin iseeteet and the smaller basin iseet by 4c0 feet. inear feet of quay side is served by railroad tracks froa vhlch mobile cranes could operate.
Probable Aide Launchlog Ways.
The estimated length of these wayseet.
Probable Submarine Launching Way.
Thla vay la used for submarines from the submarine fabrication oral assembly plane. The construction of this vay ia unconfirmed. The original reports may have referred to planned rather than to actual
Eight mobile tower hammerhead cranes serve way Bo. (l) and way. Estimates of eize range ln height fromeeteet and estimates of the working radius range fromeeteet. It is believed that these cranes are large, that they probablyeet under tbe Jiborking radius ofeat, and are capable of liftingetric tons near crane andetric tons at and.
Prior to World War II, waynd way) were serviced bytraveling crones. These cranes, together with the supporting structure, were destroyed by the retreating Germans. Considering the limited apace available on each aide of tbeae ways. It ia believed that, in the rebuilding of the ehlpyard, similar cranes vere erected.
Cranes serving other wayo, quays, ahops, and ln general use in tbeare of the mobile locomotive type.
Two floatingnd '2 floating cranesare available to cerve the port and the shipyards in Nikolayev. The larger dockeet long over-alleet wide inside and can be submerged tofoot depth of water over tbe keel blocks. This dockifting capacity0 metric The smaller dock la reported to beeet long. 2k/ loating cranes areetric-tonmetric-ton lifting/
Since, with few exceptions, the shipyard has been reconstructed along Its former lines, it may be assumed that production has been resumed along prewar Itoes modified to suit postwar plans.
i. Pre-World War II.
The shipyard has had almost continuing experience in navalsince the days of the It has produced battleships, cruisers, submarines, destroyers, motor torpedo boats, and
In prewar years the Marti Shipyard Bo. Ukk specialized in tbeof merchant vessels such as medium-sized lumber carriers, large tankers, and
Just before World War II tbe shipyard was engaged in the construction of tbe battleship Kraonaya This battleship was similar la site to the Sovyetsky Soyus class, which was estimated* feeteet In breadth, andmetrie-ton standard Tho Krosnayc Ukraine was practically completed when tbe Gcnaoos occupied the shipyard However, completion was not undertaken by the Russians after the war, and the vessel was finally cut up. The dismantling was completed ln
In prewar years the shipyard contained an almost independent railroad-car-manufacturing plant and an englne-bulldlng plant, which produced steam turbines and large reciprocating
Production In the various shopside range of commodities for both shipbuilding and Industrial application. Various reports state that the shipyard produced stationary and oarine boilers, marine diesel engines, cast steel and iron, forgings, general machinery, metal construction, rr.ip.-rs, jacks, castteam turbines andnd small turbogenerators up toilowatts.
The monthly production or ordnance and ammunition8 is shown
The production of the Siemens-Martin atcel mill uas used chiefly for forgings, axle steel, tubing billets, and ahaped castings as shown in The reported total annual production of the open-hearth furnaeoo varies0 metric tons 3JS/0 metric
Monthly Production of Ordnance and Ammunition in Marti Shipyard Bo.8
The production of the Siemens-Martin steel mill was apportioned8 for the usee shown in Table
Apportioned Production of the Siemens-Martin Steel8
his production tbe shipyard consumed aboutercent of the forgings and shaped castings. The tubing billets vere shipped to Leningrad; Izhevsk, and Taganrog; the remainder of the forglngs vere shipped to The steel castings vere shipped to other shipyards of the USSR,to Leningrad and even to Vladivostok. JjO/
Contained within tbe Siemens-Martin steel millarge steel-casting department. Adjacent to the steel mill, on tbe east,arge dressing and electric welding shop for castings. Tbe dressing department contained several large reheating furnaces for normalizing and for tbe boat treatment of tho rough castings. Castings ranging ln sice up toetric tons in single pieces were produced. The monthly prewar productionetric tons. Among the Items produced vere ahlp's fittings, anchors, stem posts, steering frames, rudders, propellers, bearing brackets, shaft beads, turbine portand railroad car porta, hxj
Specific reports covering completion of shipyard facilities and of postwar production are not available. For example, the large turbine shop that vas known to exist before World War II has not been reported aa being again in production.
Various reports indicate that the shops within the shipyard are capable of producing many components of vessels. From an economic point of view, it is believed that the shops would not engage ln any production that paralleled that of the specialized Industries. Io prewar years the cost of metal articles produced inhipyard3 percent higher than any similar article pro* .iced by specialized Industries elsewhere in the USSR. It follows altar, that the ahlpyard's shops would not produce Items that eculd be manufacture', by specialized industries unless such industries were overloaded with orders and the product could not be obtained outalde the USSR or that transportation difficulties made it ncceseary to produce the item in tbe shipyard's shops. It la believed that using the shops In assembly work and production of Items for vhlch the demand is not sufficient tolngle industry or shop to continuous production best serves the Soviet economy.
Probably the most important postwar contribution of the shipyard to the Soviet naval forces has been the completion of two cruisers, whosewas Interrupted by World War II, and tbe additional construction of new cruisers. These cruisers, the Kiybynhev and tbe Frunze, which were tawed away from the shipyardartially completed atate Just prior to tbe German occupation of the shipyard, were returned to the shipyard for completion and arc now believed to be in operation with the Block Sea Fleet. UJ/
Foilowing the dismantling of the battleship Krasoaya Ukraine, the keelarge vessel was laid down in wayn In i
lmllar keel was laid in way Tbeae were the first large vessel keela laid after World War II. Two or more warships of cruiser size have been reported several tines between January and1 as being alongside in tbe fitting-out Two hulls have been reported as occupyingarge Itrobable that the first hulls were launched in May and0 and that new vessels were laid down
It to believed that the new vessels arc light cruisers of the Chapayev or Sverdlov class. The probability that they are of the Sverdlov class appears greater as the Sverdlovostwar design and currently being built in the Leningrad Construction of Sverdlov cruisers inrequires aboutonths on building ways and about.onths for Estimating that the Marti Shipyardxtra months for buildingxtra months forrobableschedule would be as follows:
Vesselay Ho. (l) Vesselayesselayesselay
Consideringruiser ia on tbe ways foronths andonths are required after launching to prepare the ways for the layingew keel, cruiser launchlngs may be scheduled everyonths. Assuming that outfitting requireb an additionalonths and that it can be done In the shipyard simultaneously with tbe constructionew bull on the ways, the production rate of completed cruisersay may be scheduledveryonthB. ays are used for cruiser construction, the shipyard'srate wouldruiseronths.
In tbe reconstruction of the shipyard, special attention was paid to tbe fitting-out of tbe submarine fabrication and assembly shop, whichwill fabricate and assemble submarines on the assembly linemethod. Byroduction had already begun in the fabrication of cylindrical sections which resembled pressure hull sections/ These sections were shipped outside thc shipyard to destinations Inn tbe Bug River and in the vicinity of the shipyard there wereumber of submarines with high conning towers, believed to be new and on builders' This observation may confirm that actual submarine production has begun.
Several reports slate that8umber of small craft were probably built on ways,,nd ranged. In types of vessels reported, from barges and oou.ll naval craft to boats for inland waterways. Rotlmntes of length range fromeet to IflP. feet.
With tbe exception of the foregoing probable construction, thereports indicate no merchant vessels of any size under construction.
Several reports Indicate that an aircraft carrier is possibly under construction in the These reports have not been confirmed.
The productivity of the Siemens-Martin steel mill and foundrygreatly toward satisfying the shipyard's steel requirements for castings, forglngs, plates, and shapes. It Is probable that the Siemens-Martin steel mill produces all of the steel required for hull construction. Information about varloua facilities within the reconstructed mill tends to support the assumption that, in addition to producing casting metal, the mill also produces steel of ship plate quality. This assumption, coupled with expanded ship construction facilities, would point toward the use, ln postwar years,igher percentage of the steel mill's output for shipbuilding.
Various data ahov that Siemens-Martin furnaces not connected directly with large metalluglcal Installations in the USSR differ considerably aathe number of raelta carried outorking period, tbe amount of coldear, and the time idle. tandardverhauls per year, each takingays, may be adoptedeasonable average. ays for holidays, this would mean that tho furnacan were inayu of the/ Using tbe production factoretric tons per square foot per day of operation, pS/otal hearth areaquare feet the annual production would amount8 metric tons. Because the Russians, in their Fifth Five Tear, have placed greet emphasis on ateel production and because this mill was one of the first units to be rebuilt, it la believed that postwar nnmmT production of rev ateel would not be leas0 metric tons.
The electric furnaces add greatly to the economic importance of tbe steel mill. Steel of the quality required for armor plate and possiblytool steel can be produced because the electric proceaa permits close control of the composition of finished ateel.
A rolling mill for the production of ship plate connected with the steel mill has been reported. W/econd rolling mill for the production of ahlp plate ia also planned, cb/
Some of tbe steel produced in tbe Slcmcns-Martln steel mill was shipped to tbe Northern Yard In
Postwar reports up to9 indicate production ofropeller shafts, propellers andmor plate,ship funnels, and large
Upon considering tbe capability of the shipyard to produce ships it is assumed that the shipbuilding facilities will probably be used to their fullest extent for building naval vessels, with particular emphasis on producing vessels for the Black Sea Fleet. This shipyard is capable of and has the capacity for building all types of naval vessels from the smallest type of submarine to battlehips or carriers and for building all types of cere bant vessels from barges to fairly large ocean-going passenger liners.
In assessing thc shipyard's capability to produce vessels larger than tbe Sverdlov cruisers, reference is made to the prewar partially completedthe Krasnayahis vessel was originally scheduled to be launchedL, but Invao reduced In priority, and construction work practically ceased. After World War II the vessel was cut up on the ways.
Estimated Baval Vessel Construction Capacity
Based on known postwar construction in the USSR, the following arbitrarily selected naval vessels may simultaneouBly be built In thc Marti Shipyard No, kuk aa shown in Table 3.
Although confirmation of complete rehabilitation or all prewarways is locking, it is believed that the shipbuilding ways listed above would be made serviceable should the program demand.
Tbe possible annual production in naval standard displacement tonnage (SIT) is estimated In Table
Estimated Naval Vessel Annual Production Capacity
Number of Vessels
ONI0 SDT not includingfrom tbe side leuncbirg ways.
In computing the annual production, three assumptions were made. -
The necessary materials, labor, and power would be available.
Only one mala labor shift would be employed.
Way time is considered to be the limiting factor of the production rate. The cruiser construction rate was taken atonths of way time, destroyers atonths of way time, and largo (K) submarinesonths of way time. Tho way timeonth in which to prepare the way for the next keel laying; For these vessels it is assumed that approximately an equal amount of time will be required ln outfitting. In this case all of the quay sides, now nerved by railroads, would be tied up ln outfitting theestroyers, and large submarines. The way time for the smaller submarines (Shch) was tokenonths. Because of lack of outfitting space It wasthat the smaller submarines would be essentially completed on the ways. In this connection several reports showaunching way was planned for the east end of tbe submarine fabrication plant No. So. Although actual construction of this launching way has not been confirmed, it is believed that some method will be employed for launching completed submarines directly from this plant either as reported or through the large door in the south side near the eastern end.
In the event that the shipyard should be devoted to the production of merchant vessels, the 3eIf-propelled cargo ships shovn inould simultaneously be built.
Estimated Merchant Vessel Construction Capacity
As these ways were over 8CC feetombinationessels on each way was used. The construction time of the shorter vessel being one-half the larger permitting the launching of the larger immediately following the launching of the second vessel.
On the above basis of merchant construction the possible Annualin gross registered tons is estimated in Table 6.
Estimated Merchant Vessel Annual Production Capacity
a! Off!0 GRT1.
The assumptions made in calculating merchant tonnage were aim) -or to the assumptions made for the calculation of naval tonnage.
The necessary material,nd power would be available.
Only one main labor shift would be employed.
Way time foressels was takenonths;oot vesselsonths;oot vesselsonths; andoot vesselsonths. Estimating that outfitting could he done In one-half the amount of way time, contluuous production could be based on way tine.
No merchant, vessels vere assumed to be nullt ln tne submarine fabrication end repair plant
Output in both naval and merchant tonnage would undoubtedly be greater if the number of working hours of the one shift or the number of labor shifts were increased. Output also would be increased by repetitious productioningle design.
Production of vessels at the foregoing rate would seriously restrict the shipyard's capability for repair work- All of the quay sides, now served oy railroads, would be tied up in the outfitting of newly built vessels.
Repair work is limited by the lack of adequate dry docking facilities.loating dryargemall, ere available to tbe shipyard. There are no graving docks* or marine railways among tbe shipyard's facilities.
As mentioned earlier in this report, the several production shops within the shipyard could, if necessary, produce many military items including heavy ordnance and ammunition.
Reports vary considerably as to the total number of shipyard7 reportotal0ostwar)00 employees the progress made inbe shipyard, it is doubtful that the shipyard was fully rebuilt and equipped at the time of the postwar estimates which may uccount for the lover figures.
A direct (productive) labor Force0 employees is required totheDT of naval Constructionne-shift basis. Assuming that the direct force is Co percent of total employment, direct and indirect, the total shipyard force required would 'a graving docktationary basin constructed partially below normal vctcr level, open at one end, throughessel is floated. This open end la tnen ciosedatertight gate and the basin drained, thereby facilitating underwater repair-"
In calculating the number of direct employees, the figures inhoving the number of US man-hours required to construct certain types of naval vessels vere
USurs Required to Construct Naval Vessels
Is assumed that
productivity of tbe Soviet shipyard worker is
to that of the US shipyard worker. Therefore, no factor ofefficiency was used.
The working year (man-year) in tbe USSR isorking hours; that5 days minusays, which Includes regular days off, holidays, absenteeism, and vacations,aysours per dayan-hours. On this basis the direct labor required by the Karti Shipyard Ko. kkk to yield tbe possible production9 SET of naval construction is shewn in Table 8.
Estimated Number of Direct Employees Required to Construct Soviet Navel Vessels
Type of Direct anployeeo
In estimating the man-hours required to construct the merchantS factoran-hours required toRT of cargo shipwas used. This factor may be reducedan-hours per ton for repetitious production afterh vessel. Since the estimate of merchant tonnage is based on cargo-class vessels, only one rate was used. Therefore,ne-shift basis the man-hours to0 CRTan-hours per GRThour man-year wouldirect employees. The total shipyard force, direct and indirect, would5 employees.
Ho estimate is made of tbe number of employees engaged in productive work other than that for shipbuilding. The foregoing labor estimates do notthe workers In the Siemens-Martin steel mill or in shops engaged in production of components for shipyards elsewhere in the USSR or for other industrial consumers.
A school for apprentices has been in operation in the shipyard since tbe end of World War The number of apprentices is not known.
IX. Sources of Power and Materials.
Following the rebuilding of the shipyard, most of the new installations are powered by electricity. Electric welding is used extensively In the fabrication and assembly of ships and in other production shops in tbe There are several electric smelting furnaces ln the shipyard. The Marti Shipyard Ho. khk is, therefore, one of thc largeot consumers of electric power in
Electric power is supplied to the shipyard chiefly from the Hikolayev municipal powerhich generates0 tew. 7k/ Another source of powermall power plant within the shipyard probably generatingww. This small plant, whichi or to World War II, was not expanded when rebuilt following the war-it Is possible that equipment installed after the war may haveits output. The municipal power plant Is tied in with the DneprDonets power grid system. The grid system total power supply, estimated as The total coincident peak load plusercent for reservesw, leaving an excess of available powerwercent of total available This power study assumed an annual consumptionwhoincident ceak load0 kw for the Marti Shipyard Ho.
Damage to the municipal plant would not seriously affect the shipyard as power would be supplied by tbe grid system. Damage to both the power grid and the municipal plant would seriously reduce production. Damage to* the municipal and shipyard generating plants and to the power grid would virtually haltin the shipyard.
The principal raw materials required fox production are available through relatively short hauls by rail or water.
In prewar years, unknown amounts of raw materials for tbe shipyard's smelting and casting plants were obtained from the following
are for the Siemens-Martin steel mill from Krivoy Bog.
ores (Torn the Urals. They were reducedteel bath.
from Seblno (on tbe Bug River).
from Doionit In the Donets Basin.
from Tlkhvln, near Leningrad.
and Cbsmotte bricks, chiefly from the Donets Basin.
and chromium magnesite bricks from Sadka in tho Urals.
from the Donets Basin, party by rail and partly byZhdanov.
J. Coke for cupola furnaces and for bending of copper tubinc from the Donets Basin.
k. Mazut (fuel oil) from Kberson and Tuapse. (The supply source for Canal0)1 probably,lnce the"it* the opening of the Volga-Don
1. Pig Iron (ateel pig from tbe Donets Basin). Analysis: ercentercent0t percent25 percent sulfur.
m. Scrap metal from the shipyard's own volume of scrap and from the southern Ukrainian scrap area (Nlzhnedneprovok scrap base).
n. Foundry pig iron from the Ukraine.
o. Ferroalloys from the Zaporozhye ferroalloy plant-
P- Honferrous metals (copper, nickel, zinc, and tin) were obtainedonsiderable extent through imports, but in port also from Soviet production.
The main body of this report was compiled chiefly froa postwar intelligence* aerial photography- Prewar production reports were used to indicate postwar potentialities, assuming that the shipyard was reconstructed to at least duplicate prewar capabilities.
The designation of building and shop use and the description of facilitiesigest of the many postwar reports contained in the consolidated plant folder in the Industrial Register.
The layout of the shipyard was made from the same consolidation, but using enlarged aerial photographs to fix the position of installations.
Explanations of the methodology used to estimate tbe shipyard's capability to produce naval and merchant vessels and the rate of production are contained in the text.
gaps ib imtbi-ugebce
Information on plant reconstruction since World Wax II is very poor, and data on current production are practically nonexistent.
The high sensitivity of the shipyard's production in the Soviet naval program caused rigid security measures to be Invoked during tho reconstruction period.
Little is known about the actual machinery and equipment inside shops. Tbe use of buildings and the technology employed in production can only be deduced from vague references and limited data.
Although this report contains Information up toola available as to development within the shipyard after
The major gaps are those pertaining to the development of buildings,and facilities sinceources of raw, semifinished, and finished material; destinations of products; production, availability and skill of manpower, budgets; and technological process.
SOURCES AMD KVAUIATTONOURCES
1. Evaluation of Sources.
The compilation of data and the preparation of estimates and conclusions were derived from Industrial Register, CIA Library, Graphics Register, and discussions held with other IAC members.
The numerous documents reviewed in the Industrial Register werereports. Host of tbe reporting prisoners of war wereand nontechnical men. ew were skilled mechanics. Thesingle reports could be evaluated only oa their contributions to thea whole. The composite of fleeted reports may beating
The documents reviewed in the CIA Library wore additional prisoner-of-war reports, publications by IAC agencies, naval attache reports,ew foreign government intelligence reports and digests. Tbe prisoner-of-war reports should be rated the same as those reviewed in the Industrial Register, possibly true. The remainder of the documents, reviewed in the CIA Library, has beenigh evaluation as they represent the considered opinion of experienced observers and analysts.
The Graphics Register gave valuable aid In obtaining aerial and land photos from which the location of the shipyard and installations could be determined.
Evaluations, following the classification entry and designatedave the following significance:
Confirmed by other sources
Cannot be Judged
Cannot be Judged
not otherwise designated are those appearing on the cited document; those designated "RR" are by the author of this report. No "RR" evaluation is given when tbe author does not disagree with the evaluation on the cited document.
S. Eval. RR 2.
6 S. .
S.P. Loglnov, The Econoolcs of the Shipbuilding Industry o' the
USSR, R^ Eval. RR 2.
SDS 35 S. Eval. RR 2.
SDS S. Eval. RR 2.
1 S. Eval. RR;v 9 i - r
Moacov, R- Eval. RR 2.
v. E. 1
State, SDS B. Eval. RR 2.
CIA SO, S. Eval. RR 2.
IR Consolidation. S, ' LNLi
, R- Eval. RR 3-
German Aerial Photography, dated- C.
CIA SO, S. Bval. RR 2.
IR Consolldotloo. S, 1
State, SDSp. clt.
CIA SO," C- -
CIA SO, R 3.
Register ofppendix. U. Eval. RR 2.
SO, C- .
SO, R 3.
SO, undated. RR 2.
S.P- Loglnov, op. clt.
CIA SO, RR 3.
ublished In Sveden by Sverlges Plotta. U.
Eval. RR 2.
Loglnov, op. clt.
USAF Treasure, R- Eval. C. Eval. RR 2.
State, SDSp. cit.
C, op. clt.
Loglnov, og. clt.
* R- Eval. RR 2.
ivy, ONI fmvk 6l,, US OFFICIALS ONLY. Eval. hh Bavy, 8. .
CIA SO, RR 3.
CIA SO, Eval. RR 3-
Air, USAFE, Report? Eval. PR 3.
CIA SO,Eval.IA SO,, lAU Oi Ll. Eval.ir, R- Bval. RR 3-
55- Kavy, S. .
Havy, Atlantic Command, Weekly Intelligence Wl.y Eval. RR 2.
56. Air,undated. R. Eval. RR 3.
AISWndated. R. Eval. RR 3-
AISW R. Eval. RR 3.
Air,V " B- Eval. RR 2.
Air,3 S. Eval. RR 3.
Air," ndated. S. Eval. RR 3.
CIA SO, RR 2.
hapter VI, Section 6U, S. Eval. RR 3.
CIAjORRWP), Input Requirement* of the Submarine and
Shipbuilding Industry of,ebRP 3.
Havy,b S. Eval. RR 3.
Air,, R. Eval. RR 2.
Federal Power Commission, Electric Power Requireueots in the USSJt^
, Part II, "Individual Grid Eval. RP 3-
SO, RR 2.
Power Commission, oj>.SDSlt.
Power Commission, op. clt.