Fair Value of Financial Instruments
All financial instruments, including derivatives, are to be recognized on the balance sheet initially at fair value. Subsequent measurement of all financial assets and liabilities except those held-for-trading and available for sale are measured at amortized cost determined using the effective interest rate method. Held-for-trading financial assets are measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in earnings. Available-for-sale financial assets are measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in comprehensive income and reclassified to earnings when derecognized or impaired.
The carrying amounts of the Companys other short-term financial instruments, including accounts payable and accrued liabilities, approximate fair value due to the relatively short period to maturity for these instruments. The Company does not utilize financial derivatives or other contracts to manage commodity price risks. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (exit price).
The fair value of the Company's financial assets and liabilities reflects the Company's estimate of amounts that it would have received in connection with the sale of the assets or paid in connection with the transfer of the liabilities in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. In connection with measuring the fair value of its assets and liabilities, the Company seeks to maximize the use of observable inputs (market data obtained from sources independent from the Company) and to minimize the use of unobservable inputs (the Company's assumptions about how market participants would price assets and liabilities). The following fair value hierarchy is used to classify assets and liabilities based on the observable inputs and unobservable inputs used in order to value the assets and liabilities:
Level 1 - Quoted prices are available in active markets for identical assets or liabilities as of the reporting date. Active markets are those in which transactions for the asset or liability occur in sufficient frequency and volume to provide pricing information on an ongoing basis.
Level 2 - Pricing inputs are other than quoted prices in active markets included in level 1, which are either directly or indirectly observable as of the reported date and includes those financial instruments that are valued using models or other valuation methodologies.
Level 3 - Pricing inputs include significant inputs that are generally less observable from objective sources. These inputs may be used with internally developed methodologies that result in managements best estimate of fair value.
The Company evaluates embedded conversion features within convertible debt under ASC 815 Derivatives and Hedging to determine whether the embedded conversion feature should be bifurcated from the host instrument and accounted for as a derivative at fair value with changes in fair value recorded in earnings. The Company uses a Binomial pricing model to estimate the fair value of convertible debt conversion features at the end of each applicable reporting period. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives during each reporting period are included in the consolidated statement of operation. Inputs into the Binomial pricing model require estimates, including such items as estimated volatility of the Companys stock, risk-free interest rate and the estimated life of the financial instruments being fair valued.
If the conversion feature does not require derivative treatment under ASC 815, the instrument is evaluated under ASC 470-20 Debt with Conversion and Other Options for consideration of any beneficial conversion feature.
Recurring Fair Value Measurements
In accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, certain assets and liabilities are required to be recorded at fair value on a recurring basis.