SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in annual financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America have been condensed or omitted as permitted by such rules and regulations. These financial statements and related notes should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company's audited financial statements for the year ended October 31, 2011, contained in the Company's annual report on Form 10-K for 2011.
In the opinion of management, the interim condensed financial statements reflect all adjustments considered necessary for fair presentation. The adjustments made to these statements consist only of normal recurring adjustments.
Certain items have been reclassified within other income (expense) on the statement of operations for the three and six months ended April 30, 2011. The changes do not affect net income but were changed to agree with the classifications used in the April 30, 2012 financial statements.
Nature of Business
Golden Grain Energy, LLC (Golden Grain Energy) is approximately a 110 million gallon annual production ethanol plant near Mason City, Iowa. The Company sells its production of ethanol, distiller grains with solubles and corn oil primarily in the continental United States.
Golden Grain Energy is organized as an Iowa limited liability company. The members' liability is limited as specified in Golden Grain Energy's operating agreement and pursuant to the Iowa Revised Uniform Limited Liability Company Act.
Management uses estimates and assumptions in preparing these financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Those estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, and the reported revenues and expenses. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Equivalents
The Company's cash balances are maintained in bank depositories and periodically exceeded federally insured limits during the year. The Company has not experienced any losses in connection with these balances.
Credit sales are made primarily to one customer and no collateral is required. The Company carries these accounts receivable at face amount with no allowance for doubtful accounts due to the historical collection rates on these accounts.
The Company has less than a 20% investment interest in five unlisted companies in related industries. These investments are being accounted for by the equity method of accounting under which the Company's share of net income is recognized as income in the Company's income statement and added to the investment account. Distributions or dividends received from the investments are treated as a reduction of the investment account.
The fiscal years of Renewable Products Marketing Group, LLC (RPMG), Guardian Eagle, LLC and Guardian Energy Janesville, LLC end on September 30 and the fiscal years of Absolute Energy, LLC and Homeland Energy Solutions, LLC end on December 31. The Company consistently follows the practice of recognizing the net income based on the most recent reliable data. Therefore, the net income which is reported in the Company's income statement for the three months ended April 30, 2012 for all companies is based on the investee's results for the quarter ended March 31, 2012.
Revenue and Cost Recognition
Revenue from the sale of the Company's products is recognized at the time title to the goods and all risks of ownership transfer to the customers. This generally occurs upon shipment, loading of the goods or when the customer picks up the goods. Collectability of revenue is reasonably assured based on historical evidence of collectability between the Company and its customers. Interest income is recognized as earned.
Shipping costs incurred by the Company in the sale of ethanol, distiller grains and corn oil are not specifically identifiable and as a result, revenue from the sale of ethanol, distiller grains and corn oil are recorded based on the net selling price reported to the Company from its marketer. Railcar lease costs incurred by the Company in the sale and shipment of distiller grain products are included in cost of goods sold.
Inventories are generally valued at the lower of weighted average cost or market. In the valuation of inventories and purchase commitments, market is based on current replacement values except that it does not exceed net realizable values and is not less than net realizable values reduced by allowances for approximate normal profit margin.
Investment in commodities contracts, derivative instruments and hedging activities
The Company evaluates its contracts to determine whether the contracts are derivative instruments. Certain contracts that meet the definition of a derivative may be exempted from derivative accounting and treated as normal purchases or normal sales if documented as such. Normal purchases and normal sales are contracts that provide for the purchase or sale of something other than a financial instrument or derivative instrument that will be delivered in quantities expected to be used or sold over a reasonable period in the normal course of business.
The Company enters into short-term cash, option and futures contracts as a means of securing corn and natural gas for the ethanol plant and managing exposure to changes in commodity and energy prices. We occasionally also enter into derivative contracts to hedge our exposure to price risk as it relates to ethanol sales. As part of its risk management process, the Company uses futures and option contracts through regulated commodity exchanges or through the over-the-counter market to manage its risk related to pricing of inventories. All of the Company's derivatives, other than those excluded under the normal purchases and sales exclusion, are designated as non-hedge derivatives, with changes in fair value recognized in net income. Although the contracts are economic hedges of specified risks, they are not designated or accounted for as hedging instruments.
Realized and unrealized gains and losses related to derivative contracts related to corn and natural gas are included as a component of cost of goods sold and derivative contracts related to ethanol are included as a component of revenues in the accompanying financial statements. The fair values of contracts are presented on the accompanying balance sheet as derivative instruments.
Net income per unit
Basic and diluted earnings per unit are computed using the weighted-average number of Class A and B units outstanding during the period.
The Company's operations are subject to environmental laws and regulations adopted by various governmental authorities in the jurisdiction in which it operates. These laws require the Company to investigate and remediate the effects of the release or disposal of materials at its locations. Accordingly, the Company has adopted policies, practices and procedures in the areas of pollution control, occupational health and the production, handling, storage and use of hazardous materials to prevent material environmental or other damage, and to limit the financial liability which could result from such events. Environmental liabilities are recorded when the Company's liability is probable and the costs can be reasonably estimated. No expense or liability has been recorded as of April 30, 2012 or October 31, 2011 for environmental liabilities.
Financial instruments include cash and equivalents, receivables, due from broker, accounts payable, accrued expenses, long-term debt and derivative instruments. Management believes the fair value of each of these instruments approximates their carrying value as of the balance sheet date. The fair value of derivative financial instruments is based on quoted market prices. The fair value of other current financial instruments is estimated to approximate carrying value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. The fair value of the long-term debt is estimated based on anticipated interest rates which management believes would currently be available to the Company for similar issues of debt, taking into account the current credit risk of the Company and the other market factors.
Risks and Uncertainties
The Company has certain risks and uncertainties that it will experience during volatile market conditions, which can have a severe impact on operations. The Company's revenues are derived from the sale and distribution of ethanol and distiller grains to customers primarily located in the United States. Corn for the production process is supplied to the plant primarily from local agricultural producers and from purchases on the open market. For the second quarter of 2012, ethanol sales accounted for approximately 79% of our total revenue, distiller grains sales accounted for approximately 0%18% of our total revenue and corn oil sales accounted for approximately 3% of our total revenue while corn costs averaged approximately 83% of cost of goods sold. For the first six months of 2012, ethanol sales accounted for approximately 79% of our total revenue, distiller grains sales accounted for approximately 0%18% of our total revenue and corn oil sales accounted for approximately 3% of our total revenue while corn costs averaged approximately 84% of cost of goods sold.
The Company's operating and financial performance is largely driven by the prices at which we sell ethanol and the net expense of corn. The price of ethanol is influenced by factors such as supply and demand, weather, government policies and programs, and unleaded gasoline and the petroleum markets with ethanol selling, in general, for less than gasoline at the wholesale level. Excess ethanol supply in the market, in particular, puts downward pressure on the price of ethanol. Our largest cost of production is corn. The cost of corn is generally impacted by factors such as supply and demand, weather, government policies and programs. Our risk management program is used to protect against the price volatility of these commodities.