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HQ 116037

October 3, 2003

VES-13-18-RR:IT:EC 116037 CK


Chief, Vessel Repair Unit
Bureau of Customs and Border Protection
423 Canal Street, Room 303
New Orleans, Louisiana 70130

RE: Vessel Repair Entry No. C53-0035048-1; Petition for review; M/V AMERICAN MERLIN; V-01; Casualty; “One Round Voyage” rule; 19 U.S.C. § 1466

Dear Sir:

This is in response to your memorandum dated August 13, 2003 which forwarded for our review the above-referenced vessel repair petition. Our ruling on this matter is set forth below.


The M/V AMERICAN MERLlN, an U.S.-flagged ship, arrived on August 13, 2000 at the Port of Houston at the conclusion of its voyage number 1. Osprey Ship Management, Inc. (“Osprey”) submitted on behalf of the M/V AMERICAN MERLIN its final entry documents and an application for relief from duties due to a “casualty” as defined in 19 U.S.C. §1466(d)(1) on December 8, 2000. The Vessel Repair Unit (VRU) denied the application for relief on May 1, 2003. By letter dated June 24, 2003, Osprey has filed the subject petition for review of the decision denying its “casualty” claim under 19 U.S.C. §1466(d)(1) and further alleging the “One Round Voyage” rule.

The M/V AMERICAN MERLIN was undergoing repair work in Orange, Texas between mid-December and February 7, 2000. On February 7, 2000 the M/V AMERICAN MERLIN sailed for Houston, Texas to load food aid cargo bound for Greece and Yugoslavia. During the course of the transit the port main engine suddenly, rapidly increased in speed, to the point where it over-sped, allegedly causing damage to some of the main bearings on the crankshaft. Repairs commenced in Houston on February 9, 2000. The American Bureau of Shipping (“ABS”) was notified and a surveyor attended the vessel. The engine was also attended to by representatives of Premier Engines, and a service report was submitted.

On May 10, 2000 the M/V AMERICAN MERLIN was transiting the Atlantic when the port main engine inspection doors blew off and sparks and smoke poured from the engine. The Chief Engineer’s statement was provided and states “Upon investigation the port main engine crankcase door from cylinder #11 was found on the deck, along with parts of a connecting rod. The #11 piston connecting rod had broken, resulting in damage to #11 piston and line, #2 piston and liner, the crankcase doors at #2 and #11 and the surrounding areas of the crankcase.”

The ship proceeded with one engine operational and a tug escort, in close proximity of land, to the first discharge port of Thessaloniki, Greece. A Salvage Association Surveyor and ABS surveyor attended the ship at Thessaloniki. The ship continued onto Yugoslavia to discharge all cargo. The M/V AMERICAN MERLIN was then ordered to Marseille, France to undergo repairs to the port main engine.

Two narrative reports have been submitted stating that the number 11 connecting rod failed during the Atlantic voyage, setting off more damage.


Whether the foreign shipyard operations carried out aboard the subject vessel are subject to duty pursuant to 19 U.S.C. §1466.


Title 19, United States Code, section 1466(a) provides, in pertinent part, for payment of duty in the amount of 50 percent ad valorem on the cost of foreign repairs to vessels engaged, intended to engage, or documented under the laws of the United States to engage in foreign or coastwise trade.

Furthermore, Title 19, United States Code, section 1466(d)(1) provides that the Secretary of Treasury is authorized to remit, or refund duties if the owner or master of the vessel provides good and sufficient evidence that the vessel was compelled by stress of weather or other casualty to put into such foreign port to make repairs to secure the safety and seaworthiness of the vessel to enable her to reach her port of destination.

The statute thus sets a three-part test which must be met in order to qualify for remission under the subsection, this being:

1. The establishment of a casualty occurrence.

2. The establishment of unsafe and unseaworthy conditions.

3. The inability to reach the port of destination without obtaining foreign repairs.

The term, "casualty," as it is used in the statute, has been interpreted as something which, like stress of weather, comes with unexpected force or violence, such as fire, explosion or collision. Dollar Steamship Lines, Inc. v. United States, 5 Cust. Ct. 28-29, C.D. 362 (1940). In this sense, a "casualty" arises from an identifiable event of some sort. In the absence of evidence of such a casualty event, we must consider the repair to have been necessitated by normal wear and tear. C.I.E. 1829/58; Customs Ruling Letter 106159 LLB (September 8, 1983).

If satisfactory evidence is furnished clearly showing any part of a vessel to have been repaired and/or serviced just prior to the commencement of a voyage from a United States port, we have held that it is reasonable to assume that the part is seaworthy for a round voyage, foreign and return.

Under the "One Round Voyage" rule, abstracted in Treasury Decision (T.D.) 71-83(38), 5 Cust. B. & Dec. 160, 167 (1971):

If satisfactory evidence is furnished clearly showing any part of a vessel to have been repaired and/or serviced just prior to the commencement of a voyage from a United States port, it is reasonable to assume that the part is seaworthy for a round voyage, foreign and return. Unless evidence indicates some other reason necessitated the repairs during the voyage, failure of that part to function within six months after the repair and/or servicing in the United States may be considered a casualty within the meaning of [19 U.S.C. 1466(d)]. However, remission of duty under that statute in the circumstances is limited to duty on the essential, minimum foreign repairs to the parts. (Emphasis added)

Section 4.14(h)(2)(i), Customs Regulations (19 C.F.R. 4.14(h)(2)(i)), provides, with regard to the "One Round Voyage" rule, that:

For the purposes of this section, the term "casualty" does not include any purchase or repair made necessary by ordinary wear and tear, but does include the failure of a part to function if it is proven that the specific part was repaired, serviced, or replaced in the United States immediately before the start of the voyage in question, and then failed within the six months of that date. (Emphasis added)

In the present case, any damage to the vessel that occurred between Orange, Texas and Houston, Texas, whether caused by crew negligence or not is not relevant to a “casualty” claim. The voyage between Orange and Houston is a coastwise movement, and the repairs were domestic. Therefore, the repairs made in Houston are not subject to the provisions of 19 U.S.C. §1466.

However, the repairs made in France are dutiable unless remission can be granted due to a “casualty” as defined in 19 U.S.C. §1466(d)(1). In this case, the port main engine experienced problems within six months of repairs made in both Orange and Houston, Texas, so the repairs are timely. However, a second requirement of the “One Round Voyage” rule is that a specific part that was serviced, repaired, or replaced be the part that failed to perform in the first six months of the voyage. In this case, only a service report by Prestige Engine was submitted, and not an invoice of those repairs or services that were performed in Houston. It is not apparent from the evidence submitted which specific part was serviced, repaired, or replaced in Orange or Houston, Texas that was the cause of the failure of the port main engine. Absent evidence that a specific part, which failed on route to Greece, was serviced, repaired, or replaced in Orange or Houston, Texas no relief under 19 U.S.C. §1466(d)(1) can be granted.


Absent evidence that a specific part failed within six months of the first voyage following the servicing, replacement, or repair of that specific part, no relief can be granted pursuant to 19 U.S.C. §1466(d)(1).


Glen E. Vereb

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