# Ketan Patel, Hanover Park US

## Ketan Patel, Hanover Park, IL US

Patent application number | Description | Published |
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20090157561 | CONVERSION AND LIQUIDATION OF DEFAULTED POSITIONS - A method of liquidating defaulted positions associated with centrally cleared financial product is disclosed. The method includes identifying a defaulted position associated with a centrally cleared financial product, calculating a value differential between the defaulted position and a standard position, offering the value differential and the standard position to a party such that the value differential and the standard position represent a converted position, and settling the converted position upon acceptance of the offer by the party. | 06-18-2009 |

20090171826 | CONVERSION OF OVER-THE-COUNTER SWAPS TO STANDARDIZED FORWARD SWAPS - Systems, processes and methods are described for converting over-the-counter derivative products such as interest rate swaps (IRSs) to standardized forward swaps, such as centrally cleared interest rate swaps. The value of each leg of the over-the counter swap may be determined and compared to a value of a corresponding leg of the forward swap. A mark-to-market value may be determined as the difference between the values. | 07-02-2009 |

20090248564 | SETTLEMENT PRICING FOR CENTRALLY CLEARED SWAPS - Methods are provided to determine a settlement price for an over-the-counter exchange traded financial instrument. The method includes receiving swap curves from a plurality of market makers and identifying missing data points in the curves. A repair mode may be determined for curves identified as missing data. The curves may be repaired based on the determined repair mode. The selected curves including the repaired curves may be blended together to derive a final settlement prices for each of a plurality of standardized centrally cleared swaps. The financial instruments may include Euro denominated interest rate swaps, U.S. denominated interest rate swaps, or OIS interest rate swaps. | 10-01-2009 |

20090248588 | SCANNING BASED SPREADS USING A HEDGE RATIO NON-LINEAR OPTIMIZATION MODEL - The disclosed embodiments utilize hedge ratios to determine the optimal hedge ratio and associated scanning spread. This tells traders what ratios of the quantities of products they should have in their portfolio in order to maintain the status of the portfolios as delta neutral, i.e. be delta hedged, and receive optimal margin credits therefore. | 10-01-2009 |

20100042550 | WEATHER DERIVATIVE VOLATILITY SURFACE ESTIMATION - Systems and methods are provided for determining the volatility of weather derivative option contracts. Volatility levels are initially determined with conventional methods. Unreliable volatility levels are then replaced with futures contracts volatility levels. If the futures contracts volatility levels are not available or appear unreliable, meteorological volatility levels are utilized. The data may be reduced to a three dimensional surface and used when determining margin account requirements. | 02-18-2010 |

20100106633 | VALUATION OF DERIVATIVE PRODUCTS - Disclosed are a method, apparatus, and computer-readable medium for determining the value of a derivative product over nonconsecutive periods. The derivative product may be an interest rate swap product, which, when exchanged traded, normally is valued on a mark-to-market basis over consecutive periods. The product may be valued using swap value factors and settlement values according to the methodology disclosed herein. | 04-29-2010 |

20100145841 | EVALUATION AND ADJUSTMENT OF SETTLEMENT VALUE CURVES - Disclosed is a method that is useful in connection with providing discount factors for an exchange-traded mark-to-market derivative product that has a variable tick rate, such as an interest rate swap product. In some embodiments, the method includes providing a series of consecutive settlement values, which collectively represent a settlement value curve for the derivative product. The curve is evaluated by determining, for each consecutive pair of settlement values, whether the difference between the first settlement value in the pair and the second settlement value in the pair exceeds a threshold. The threshold represents the value at which a discount factor derived from said pair of settlement values, in conjunction with other parameters, would be negative. In other embodiments the disclosed invention encompasses an apparatus and a computer-readable medium. | 06-10-2010 |

20110066569 | ALLOCATION OF A CREDIT DEFAULT SWAP PORTFOLIO - A method for allocating margin of a credit default swap portfolio is provided. The method includes identifying a credit default swap portfolio maintained by a defaulting clearing firm, determining a defaulting margin for the portfolio, the defaulting margin being determined using a margin model; and allocating the defaulting margin to one or more non-defaulting clearing firms based on account margins for each of the non-defaulting clearing firms. | 03-17-2011 |

20110145117 | Clearing System That Determines Settlement Prices of Derivatives in Financial Portfolios - Methods, systems and apparatuses are described for credit default swap (CDS) settlement pricing. The method includes receiving at least quoted prices and/or executed prices, and using them to calculate a settlement price of CDSs in a portfolio. The calculation of the settlement price may also consider other information, such as recovery rate, hazard rate function, etc. The invention also may include an electronic trading platform that is fully integrated with a central counterparty clearing facility for CDSs. | 06-16-2011 |

20110145123 | CREDIT DEFAULT SWAP POST CREDIT EVENT - Methods, systems and apparatuses are described for determining that a credit event has occurred for an entity; determining an upfront price and a bond price for a credit default swap deliverable (CDSD) contract associated with the entity; determining a first weighting for the upfront price and a second weighting for the bond price; and calculating a settlement price for the CDSD contract that is a function of the first weighting, the second weighting, the upfront price, and the bond price. | 06-16-2011 |

20110161244 | Clearing System That Determines Margin Requirements for Financial Portfolios - Methods, systems and apparatuses are described for calculating a performance bond amount for a portfolio including interest rate swaps. A risk calculation module (or risk processor) may assist in the calculation. In some examples, values, such as swap (DV01) dollar values and volatility values, and adjustments/factors, such as calendar charge adjustments and liquidity charge minimums, may be used to enhance the margin calculation. These values may be maintained and updated in various ways, including but not limited to, lookup tables, matrices, and other structures. The margin calculations may be used by an exchange or clearinghouse to request a portfolio holder to deposit additional funds towards a performance bond associated with the portfolio. | 06-30-2011 |

20110246394 | SCANNING BASED SPREADS USING A HEDGE RATIO NON-LINEAR OPTIMIZATION MODEL - The disclosed embodiments utilize hedge ratios to determine the optimal hedge ratio and associated scanning spread. This tells traders what ratios of the quantities of products they should have in their portfolio in order to maintain the status of the portfolios as delta neutral, i.e. be delta hedged, and receive optimal margin credits therefore. | 10-06-2011 |

20120041860 | EVALUATION AND ADJUSTMENT OF SETTLEMENT VALUE CURVES - Disclosed is a method that is useful in connection with providing discount factors for an exchange-traded mark-to-market derivative product that has a variable tick rate, such as an interest rate swap product. In some embodiments, the method includes providing a series of consecutive settlement values, which collectively represent a settlement value curve for the derivative product. The curve is evaluated by determining, for each consecutive pair of settlement values, whether the difference between the first settlement value in the pair and the second settlement value in the pair exceeds a threshold. The threshold represents the value at which a discount factor derived from said pair of settlement values, in conjunction with other parameters, would be negative. In other embodiments the disclosed invention encompasses an apparatus and a computer-readable medium. | 02-16-2012 |

20120047063 | CONVERSION OF OVER-THE-COUNTER SWAPS TO STANDARDIZED FORWARD SWAPS - Systems, processes and methods are described for converting over-the-counter derivative products such as interest rate swaps (IRSs) to standardized forward swaps, such as centrally cleared interest rate swaps. The value of each leg of the over-the counter swap may be determined and compared to a value of a corresponding leg of the forward swap. A mark-to-market value may be determined as the difference between the values. | 02-23-2012 |

20120246056 | VALUATION OF DERIVATIVE PRODUCTS - Disclosed are a method, apparatus, and computer-readable medium for determining the value of a derivative product over nonconsecutive periods. The derivative product may be an interest rate swap product, which, when exchanged traded, normally is valued on a mark-to-market basis over consecutive periods. The product may be valued using swap value factors and settlement values according to the methodology disclosed herein. | 09-27-2012 |

20120246096 | Clearing System That Determines Margin Requirements for Financial Portfolios - Methods, systems and apparatuses are described for calculating a performance bond amount for a portfolio including interest rate swaps. A risk calculation module (or risk processor) may assist in the calculation. In some examples, values, such as swap (DV01) dollar values and volatility values, and adjustments/factors, such as calendar charge adjustments and liquidity charge minimums, may be used to enhance the margin calculation. These values may be maintained and updated in various ways, including but not limited to, lookup tables, matrices, and other structures. The margin calculations may be used by an exchange or clearinghouse to request a portfolio holder to deposit additional funds towards a performance bond associated with the portfolio. | 09-27-2012 |

20120259798 | Scanning Based Spreads Using a Hedge Ratio Non-Linear Optimization Model - The disclosed embodiments utilize hedge ratios to determine the optimal hedge ratio and associated scanning spread. This tells traders what ratios of the quantities of products they should have in their portfolio in order to maintain the status of the portfolios as delta neutral, i.e. be delta hedged, and receive optimal margin credits therefore. | 10-11-2012 |

20130013485 | EVALUATION AND ADJUSTMENT OF SETTLEMENT VALUE CURVES - Disclosed is a method that is useful in connection with providing discount factors for an exchange-traded mark-to-market derivative product that has a variable tick rate, such as an interest rate swap product. In some embodiments, the method includes providing a series of consecutive settlement values, which collectively represent a settlement value curve for the derivative product. The curve is evaluated by determining, for each consecutive pair of settlement values, whether the difference between the first settlement value in the pair and the second settlement value in the pair exceeds a threshold. The threshold represents the value at which a discount factor derived from said pair of settlement values, in conjunction with other parameters, would be negative. In other embodiments the disclosed invention encompasses an apparatus and a computer-readable medium. | 01-10-2013 |

20130031027 | Weather Derivative Volatility Surface Estimation - Systems and methods are provided for determining the volatility of weather derivative option contracts. Volatility levels are initially determined with conventional methods. Unreliable volatility levels are then replaced with futures contracts volatility levels. If the futures contracts volatility levels are not available or appear unreliable, meteorological volatility levels are utilized. The data may be reduced to a three dimensional surface and used when determining margin account requirements. | 01-31-2013 |

20130066807 | Clearing System That Determines Margin Requirements for Financial Portfolios - Methods, systems and apparatuses are described for calculating a performance bond amount for a portfolio including interest rate swaps. A risk calculation module (or risk processor) may assist in the calculation. In some examples, values, such as swap (DV01) dollar values and volatility values, and adjustments/factors, such as calendar charge adjustments and liquidity charge minimums, may be used to enhance the margin calculation. These values may be maintained and updated in various ways, including but not limited to, lookup tables, matrices, and other structures. The margin calculations may be used by an exchange or clearinghouse to request a portfolio holder to deposit additional funds towards a performance bond associated with the portfolio. | 03-14-2013 |

20130117197 | Determination of a Size of a Credit Default Swap Guaranty Fund - A system for determining an amount of a guaranty fund to cover mutual systemic risk of loss among a plurality of entities trading credit default swap (“CDS”) instruments using a central counterparty, such as the CME, is disclosed. The disclosed embodiments relate to a system and method for calculating a value, i.e. the size or magnitude, such as in dollars, of a CDS guaranty fund, such as more optimal size thereof, e.g. a size more reflective of the true risk, or each member's contribution thereto, thereby reducing or minimizing the burden on participants while adequately ensuring that risks are covered. The disclosed embodiments utilize a generalized approach to avoid too many risk scenarios while still accounting for all relevant possible portfolio constructions. | 05-09-2013 |

20130346279 | Weather Derivative Volatility Surface Estimation - Systems and methods are provided for determining the volatility of weather derivative option contracts. Volatility levels are initially determined with conventional methods. Unreliable volatility levels are then replaced with futures contracts volatility levels. If the futures contracts volatility levels are not available or appear unreliable, meteorological volatility levels are utilized. The data may be reduced to a three dimensional surface and used when determining margin account requirements. | 12-26-2013 |

20140025559 | Credit Default Swap Post Credit Event - Methods, systems and apparatuses are described for determining that a credit event has occurred for an entity; determining an upfront price and a bond price for a credit default swap deliverable (CDSD) contract associated with the entity; determining a first weighting for the upfront price and a second weighting for the bond price; and calculating a settlement price for the CDSD contract that is a function of the first weighting, the second weighting, the upfront price, and the bond price. | 01-23-2014 |