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Generating, regenerating or recycling reactant

Subclass of:

429 - Chemistry: electrical current producing apparatus, product, and process

429012000 - FUEL CELL, SUBCOMBINATION THEREOF OR METHODS OF OPERATING

429013000 - Process of operating

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DocumentTitleDate
20080261091REGENERATIVE OXIDIZER ASSEMBLY FOR USE IN PEM FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS - An oxidizer assembly provided with a housing having a plurality of inlets each for receiving a different gas and a plurality of outlets each corresponding to a different one of the inlets and outputting gas resulting from the gas received from its corresponding inlet. A catalyst assembly able to support gas flow therethrough is disposed within the housing and includes a catalyst able to oxidize carbon monoxide gas and to be regenerated. The catalyst assembly is further adapted to be movable such that successive parts of the assembly are able to be brought repeatedly in communication with a first inlet and its corresponding first outlet and then a second inlet and its corresponding second outlet of the housing. In the preferred form of the invention, the catalyst assembly is additionally adapted so that each section is brought in communication with a third inlet and its corresponding third outlet after being in communication with the second inlet and its corresponding second outlet and prior to being brought back into communication with the first inlet and its corresponding outlet.10-23-2008
20080261090Catalyst for a Catalytic Process Which is Used to Obtain Hydrogen from Bioethanol and/or Ethanol, Catalyst-Preparation Method and Use Thereof in Said Catalytic Process - The invention relates to a catalyst which is used to obtain hydrogen or a hydrogen-rich gas that is suitable for use in fuel cells or other applications from bioethanol and/or ethanol, comprising a support, a promoter agent and an active phase which is incorporated into the support, said catalyst taking the form of a calcinated solid in which the support comprises at least one oxide with high surface mobility and is modified with the promoter agent. According to the invention, the promoter agent comprises at least one oxide of a rare earth that is selected from the lanthanide group and the active phase comprises at least one oxide of a transition metal from group VIII or IB.10-23-2008
20090253002Optimizing Reactions in Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Reactions - This invention relates to novel methods for affecting, controlling and/or directing various reactions and/or reaction pathways or systems by exposing one or more components in a fuel cell reaction system to at least one spectral energy pattern. In a first aspect of the invention, at least one spectral energy pattern can be applied to a fuel cell reaction system. In a second aspect of the invention, at least one spectral energy conditioning pattern can be applied to a conditioning reaction system. The spectral energy conditioning pattern can, for example, be applied at a separate location from the reaction vessel (e.g., in a conditioning reaction vessel) or can be applied in (or to) the reaction vessel, but prior to other reaction system participants being introduced into the reaction vessel.10-08-2009
20100047633Electric Storage Fuel Cell System and Method - The invention discloses an innovative fuel cell-type electrochemical energy conversion device and method of potentially high power density capability, suitable especially for stand-alone applications such as electricity-powered vehicles The inventive device, named “storage fuel cell”, may be viewed as a converted storage battery, including plates, electrolyte and separators that can be similar to the ordinary known lead-acid battery. Thus it can be charged from an electrical source, or discharged across an external load with the usually high surge current features of storage batteries. An innovative additional charging mode of the storage fuel cell, by chemical reactions of each electrode with fuel and oxidizer supplied at specific flow ratios, is however the prime object of this invention.02-25-2010
20090191436Fuel cell system - The fuel cell system and method in accordance with the invention is used for the generation of electrical current and heat from liquid and gaseous fuels. The system comprises a reformer and a fuel cell stack (07-30-2009
20090191435COVERS FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS AND RELATED METHODS - Embodiments of the invention relate to an electrochemical cell system including a cover that affects reactant flow into an electrochemical cell array.07-30-2009
20100119894REFORMER SYSTEM, FUEL CELL SYSTEM, AND THEIR OPERATION METHOD - In fuel cell system 05-13-2010
20100119895OXYGEN RECOVERY SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR RECOVERING OXYGEN IN AN ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL - An oxygen recovery system configured to recover evolved oxygen from a regenerative electrochemical cell. The electrochemical cell includes an oxygen reduction cathode, a fuel electrode configured to be a fuel anode when the cell is operated to generate electricity and a cathode for reducing fuel thereon when the cell is operated to regenerate the fuel, and an oxygen evolution anode that is configured to evolve oxygen from an electrolyte solution when the cell is operated to regenerate the fuel. The oxygen recovery system includes an oxygen separator located downstream of the oxygen evolution anode in a recharge direction of flow. The oxygen separator is configured to separate the evolved oxygen from the electrolyte solution. An oxygen recovery path is disposed between the oxygen separator and the oxygen reduction cathode. The oxygen recovery path is configured to direct the evolved oxygen separated from the electrolyte solution to the oxygen reduction cathode.05-13-2010
20100119893FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND OPERATION METHOD THEREFOR - An alkaline fuel cell having an electrolyte, and anode and cathode electrodes disposed on two sides of the electrolyte is provided. A fuel cell system has this fuel cell, a discharge passageway that is connected to a discharge opening of the fuel cell and that discharges from the fuel cell an exhaust fuel containing unreacted fuel, and a circulation passageway that is connected to an introduction opening for introducing the fuel into the fuel cell and that circulates and supplies the exhaust fuel to the fuel cell. The fuel cell system further includes fuel/water separation means linked to the discharge passageway and the circulation passageway and disposed between the discharge and circulation passageways. The means separates and removes water from the exhaust fuel flowing in from the discharge passageway, and then causes a concentrated fuel from which water has been separated and removed to flow into the circulation passageway.05-13-2010
20100075185FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR PROVIDING HOT WATER TO A HOUSING - A fuel cell power generation system includes a plurality of fuel cells executing power generating operations by use of oxidants and fuel, a plurality of hot water storage tanks in which heat energies generated upon the power generating operations of the fuel cells are stored as hot water, a power supplying portion supplying electric energies generated by the fuel cells to plural electric energy consuming portions, a control portion controlling the power generating operations executed by the fuel cells. The control portion includes a power generation correcting device by which a standard generated power output Wa is calculated by dividing a total loading dose applied to all the fuel cells, by a total number of the fuel cells that is operated to generate power, and on the basis of heat energy storage capacities of the hot water storage tanks, the standard generated power output is corrected.03-25-2010
20100075184CARBON DIOXIDE DISSOLUTION AND C4+nM STATE CARBON RECYCLING DEVICE AND METHOD - With this technology, we build a nano-material which is structured as a tree with the branches and leaves being tentacles. When the temperature is between 150° C. and 180° C., those tentacles will shape themselves into nanometer holes to catch ion.03-25-2010
20090246571DETERMINATION OF THE LAMBDA VALUE OF REFORMATE WITH THE AID OF A FUEL CELL - The invention relates to a process for determining the lambda value (λ10-01-2009
20090269630FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND ITS CONTROL METHOD - Deterioration of an electrolyte and a sealing member is suppressed taking account of the durable temperature characteristics thereof, while enhancing the starting performance of a fuel cell. For this realization, in a system comprising a gas piping system for supplying a reactant gas to a fuel cell, and a gas supply controller for altering the supply state of the reactant gas in response to a power generation request, a gas supply quantity is altered in accordance with the temperature of the fuel cell. Preferably, the gas supply quantity is altered in accordance with the durable temperature characteristics of a passage member forming a gas passage of the reactant gas. Furthermore, the differential pressure of the gas supply state between the anode side and the cathode side of the fuel cell is preferably taken into account and the differential pressure between both poles is suppressed by altering the gas supply quantity on the cathode side as the case may be.10-29-2009
20090155645SYSTEM AND PROCESS FOR GENERATING ELECTRICAL POWER - The present invention is directed to a process for generating electricity in a solid oxide fuel cell system. A mixture of steam and a hydrocarbon containing feed is reformed to produce a reformed product gas containing hydrogen. A first gas stream containing at least 0.6 mole fraction hydrogen is separated from the reformed product gas and fed to the anode of a solid oxide fuel cell. The first gas stream is mixed with an oxidant at one or more anode electrodes in the fuel cell to generate electricity. An anode exhaust stream comprising hydrogen and water is separated from the fuel cell. The anode exhaust stream and/or a cathode exhaust stream from the fuel cell is fed into the reforming reactor, where heat is exchanged between the hot anode and/or cathode exhaust streams and the reactants in the reforming reactor.06-18-2009
20090155644SYSTEM AND PROCESS FOR GENERATING ELECTRICAL POWER - The present invention relates to a process for generating electricity with a solid oxide fuel cell system. A liquid hydrocarbon feed is cracked in a first reaction zone, and fed as a gaseous feed to a second reaction zone. The feed is steam reformed in the second reaction zone to provide a reformed product gas containing hydrogen. Hydrogen is separated from the reformed product gas and is fed as a fuel to the anode of a solid oxide fuel cell. Electricity is generated in the fuel cell by oxidizing the hydrogen in the fuel. An anode exhaust stream containing hydrogen and steam is fed back into the first reaction zone to provide heat to drive the endothermic reactions in the first and second reaction zone, and to recycle unused hydrogen back to the fuel cell.06-18-2009
20090155643Method for using a fuel cell comprising a regeneration step by lowering the temperature - The fuel cell supplies power to a load under nominal conditions. The method for using the fuel cell comprises at least one regeneration step of the performances of the cell by temporarily lowering its temperature below the nominal operating temperature. The regeneration step, performed during a preset time, can be triggered periodically or when the voltage at the terminals of the cell or the cell temperature is lower than a threshold. The performances of the cell, in particular its voltage, can thereby be maintained substantially constant during long periods of use.06-18-2009
20090155642SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR RELIABLE FEEDSTOCK DELIVERY AT VARIABLE DELIVERY RATES - Hydrogen-producing fuel processing assemblies and methods for delivering feedstock to a hydrogen-producing region of a hydrogen-producing fuel processing assembly. In some embodiments, the fuel processing assemblies include a feedstock delivery system that includes a pump assembly and a stall prevention mechanism that is adapted to reduce pressure in an outlet conduit during periods in which the pump assembly is not emitting a liquid outlet stream within or above a hydrogen-producing pressure range. In some embodiments, pressure in the outlet conduit is isolated from pressure in the hydrogen-producing region of the fuel processing assembly and is reduced during periods in which a liquid stream is not being pumped within or above a hydrogen-producing pressure range.06-18-2009
20090155641MULTIPLE INJECTOR AND EJECTOR ARRAY - A fluid injection/ejection system for a fuel cell stack is disclosed, wherein the system includes an array of injectors and ejectors that support hydrogen recirculation and maximize a use of the hydrogen and an efficiency of the fuel cell stack.06-18-2009
20100104897FUEL PROCESSING METHOD FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEM - A fuel processing method performed in a solid oxide fuel cell system can completely remove a hydrocarbon remaining in a reformed gas, thereby preventing deteriorated fuel cell performance. The method comprises (a) removing sulfur from a hydrocarbon-based fuel and obtaining hydrogen-rich reformed gas using a desulfurizer that removes the sulfur and a primary-reformer that reforms the hydrocarbon-based fuel to generate the hydrogen-rich reformed gas; and (b) selectively decomposing a low carbon hydrocarbon of C04-29-2010
20100104898FUEL CELL SYSTEM WITH A RECIRCULATION STRAND - The invention relates to a fuel cell system comprising a reformer for generating a reformate from a fuel and an oxidising agent, a fuel cell for converting the reformate into a depleted reformate and electric energy, and a recirculation conduit for partly returning the depleted reformate to the reformer. In this connection the invention is advantageously characterised in that a delivery device is provided by means of which the fuel as well as the depleted reformate from the recirculation conduit are supplyable to the reformer. The invention further relates to a method for operating such a fuel cell system.04-29-2010
20090142631Fuel cell system - The present invention relates to a fuel cell system and to a method of operating such a system. More specifically, the present invention relates to the manner in which a fuel delivery system of a fuel cell system is operated in order to achieve practical advantages in terms of system operation. The fuel cell system of the invention comprises: a fuel cell assembly; a steam reformer for delivery of a fuel cell supply stream to the fuel cell assembly; a jet pump for delivery to the steam reformer of a gas stream comprising steam and a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, the jet pump comprising a steam inlet, an inlet for the gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and an outlet for the gas stream; a steam generator for delivery of pressurised steam to the steam inlet of the jet pump; and a source of a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel for delivery of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel to the fuel inlet of the jet pump, wherein flow of steam through the jet pump is responsible for entrainment and flow of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel through the jet pump in order to generate a gas stream comprising steam and gaseous hydrocarbon fuel that is suitable for delivery to the steam reformer.06-04-2009
20090123798METHOD OF OPERATING A HYDROGEN GENERATOR AND METHOD OF OPERATING A FUEL CELL SYSTEM USING A HYDROGEN GENERATOR - The hydrogen generator includes: a reformer 05-14-2009
20090123797EFFICIENT MICRO FUEL CELL SYSTEMS AND METHODS - Fuel cell systems and methods are described. A method for generating electrical energy in a fuel cell receives hydrogen from a fuel processor configured to process a fuel source to produce the hydrogen, includes transporting a heating medium from the fuel processor to the fuel cell when electrical energy output by the fuel cell includes less than an electrical threshold or when temperature of a component in the fuel cell is less than a temperature threshold, heating a portion of the fuel cell, transporting hydrogen from the fuel processor to the fuel cell, detecting temperature of the component or electrical output of the fuel cell, and generating electrical energy in the fuel cell when the temperature of the component is about equal to or greater than the threshold temperature or when electrical energy output by the fuel cell is about equal to or greater than an electrical threshold.05-14-2009
20090123795Condensate drainage subsystem for an electrochemical cell system - A technique that is usable with an electrochemical cell includes in response to a power producing mode of the cell, communicating a cathode exhaust that is provided by the cell through a liquid trap sealing device. The technique includes in response to an pumping mode of the cell, isolating the liquid trap sealing device.05-14-2009
20100003555METHOD AND DEVICE FOR DECONTAMINATION AIR FOR FUEL CELL, AND FUEL CELL - A method of air decontamination for a fuel cell to remove contaminants, that reduce cell performance, in air to be supplied to a fuel cell by treating the air so that the concentration of a sulfur compound is reduced to 5 ppb or less by removing the sulfur compound in the air is provided. By reducing the concentration of the sulfur compound in the fuel cell air to 5 ppb or less, the electromotive-force reduction in the fuel cell caused by the fuel cell electromotive-force-reducing impurities in the fuel cell air can be substantially completely prevented to stably maintain the characteristics of the fuel cell for a long period of time and to extend the lifetime thereof.01-07-2010
20100129691ENHANCED PRODUCT GAS AND POWER EVOLUTION FROM CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS VIA GASIFICATION - Provided are devices and related methods for enhanced gasification of carbonaceous material in which supplemental carbon dioxide is introduced to the gasifier. The gasified carbonaceous material can then be used as a syngas or further processed into hydrocarbon form. The hydrocarbon can then be used in a fuel cell to produce electrical power or used in a traditional combustion process.05-27-2010
20090042070Barometric thermal trap and collection apparatus and method thereof for combining multiple exhaust streams into one - A device that, in any situation where multiple streams of hot or very hot gases or exhaust are generated, can collect gases into one stream and divert the stream efficiently to any manner of reformers, treatment devices, scrubbers, exchangers, etc. The exhaust flow from multiple fuel cell stacks are mixed in a single stream within the invention. This must be done carefully so that the exhaust stack pressure is approximately atmospheric at a variety of operating conditions. The mixing occurs in a device (the invention) called a Barometric Thermal Trap (BaTT). The fuel cell exhaust has a fairly high steam and CO2 content. The steam represents a potentially significant source of latent heat. Typical fuel cell heat recovery units avoid capturing the latent heat due to its relatively low condensing temperature (140 degrees Fahrenheit) and the resultant acidic level of the condensate due to the presence of CO2, which forms carbonic acid. By combining the exhausts into one stream, the BaTT system makes these problems manageable and more cost effective. Design calculations indicate that a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) efficiency of 82% is possible, which is much higher than provided by standard heat recovery designs.02-12-2009
20090305093Method and Plant for Converting Solid Biomass into Electricity - A self-contained system for the generation of electrical energy from biomass by gasification combines several process units in one self-contained system. The global properties are greater than the sum of the individual properties of the process units.12-10-2009
20090110972FUEL CELL SYSTEM - A fuel cell system is provided with: a fuel cell generating electrical power by causing hydrogen and oxygen to react; a burner burning discharge cathode gas and discharge anode gas from the fuel cell; a cathode line supplying cathode gas to the fuel cell; an anode line which supplying anode gas to the fuel cell; a cathode switch valve switching the flow of cathode gas in the cathode line; a cathode bypass line connecting the cathode switch valve and the burner; and a controller controlling the cathode switch valve to supply cathode gas via the cathode bypass line to the catalyst burner, without supplying anode gas to the burner, to cause temperature of exhaust gas of the burner to rise so as to reduce an amount of water vapor in the burner to a predetermined level, thereafter stopping the fuel cell system.04-30-2009
20090246570METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING CROSSOVER LOSS OF FUEL CELL - When using a measurement of a crossover current density by the Gotesfeld method or a measurement of a methanol permeation coefficient by gas chromatography or by liquid chromatography, a measure for crossover amount may be given but the interrelation with a crossover loss is not clearly known and thus, it could not be possible to evaluate a degree of the crossover loss. The present invention has for its object the provision of a novel measuring method that is able to measure a methanol crossover loss directly.10-01-2009
20090269632APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR MOISTURIZING A GAS FLOW FLOWING TO A FUEL CELL - An apparatus or a method serves for humidifying a gas flow flowing to a fuel cell. A humidifier and a bypass line passed around the humidifier are thereby present. The gas flow is partially passed around the humidifier and partially through the bypass line, so that an appropriate humidity level adjusts itself in the gas flow when it has been mixed again. In order to realize this, at least one valve is arranged either in the bypass line and/or in the area of the humidifier. This valve can be switched in a clock form between two positions, specifically an open position and a closed position.10-29-2009
20090269631Fuel cell system and control method thereof - Disclosed is a method of controlling a fuel cell system including a fuel processor to generate reforming gas and a stack to generate energy by receiving the reforming gas from the fuel processor. The method includes performing an initial operation, in which the fuel processor is operated to generate thermal energy heating, a heat medium is heated by the thermal energy generated from the fuel processor, and raising a temperature of the stack to a normal operation temperature by the heat medium having a high temperature, and performing a normal operation, in which the reforming gas is supplied to the stack after the temperature of the stack has reached the normal operation temperature. The stack temperature is raised until the stack is normally operated by heating the stack through the circulation of a heat medium heated by heat generated from a fuel processor.10-29-2009
20090269629HYDROGEN GENERATOR, FUEL CELL SYSTEM, AND METHODS FOR OPERATING THEM - A hydrogen generator (10-29-2009
20090269628FUEL CELL SYSTEM, ESTIMATION DEVICE OF AMOUNT OF ANODE GAS TO BE GENERATED AND ESTIMATION METHOD OF AMOUNT OF ANODE GAS TO BE GENERATED - There is disclosed a fuel cell system or the like capable of sufficiently reducing an exhaust hydrogen concentration even in a case where a fuel cell is operated in a state of a low power generation efficiency. A bypass valve is arranged between an oxidation gas supply path and a cathode-off gas channel. In a state in which supply of an oxidation gas to a cathode falls short, pumping hydrogen is included in a cathode-off gas. Therefore, a valve open degree of the bypass valve is regulated, and a flow rate of bypass air is regulated to control the exhaust hydrogen concentration.10-29-2009
20090253004FUEL CELL ELECTRICITY-GENERATING DEVICE - A stable and high reliability fuel cell electricity-generating device capable of generating electricity even in the case of sudden drop of load power. A fuel cell generating electric power from a fuel and an oxidizer, a fuel processor producing fuel to be supplied into the fuel cell from an electricity-generating material, a combustion device combusting a residual fuel gas unconsumed in the fuel cell to raise the temperature of the fuel processor, and an electric power generation instructing means of determining the electric power generated by the fuel cell, wherein when the electric power generation instructing means decreases the electric power generated by the fuel cell depending on the decrease of load power to be supplied, the rate at which the generated electric power is decreased is made different depending on the change of the temperature of the fuel processor.10-08-2009
20090246572METHOD AND A REACTOR FOR MAKING METHANOL - Methanol is produced from carbon dioxide and water in a reactor comprising a cathode side with a cathode and catalyst for the cathode reaction, an anode side with an anode and catalyst for the anode reaction, and an intermediate membrane separating the cathode side from the anode side. The reactor is divided into a plurality of cells that are flow connected in series for carrying out a multi-step cathode reaction. A voltage is connected between the cathode and the anode where the carbon dioxide is exposed to a cathode reaction, and is reduced to formic acid, in a second step the formic acid is reduced to formaldehyde and water, and in a third step the formaldehyde is reduced to methanol. Reduction of the amount of carbon dioxide to be deposited may be achieved. Water is oxidized to hydrogen peroxide, which may be used as oxidant in DMFC fuel cells.10-01-2009
20100040916Methods and Systems for Generating Hydrogen From a Biomass - Methods and systems for producing hydrogen from a biomass are disclosed. In some embodiments, the method includes decomposing a biomass to produce an aqueous effluent including nitrogen species, generating ammonia from the nitrogen species, combusting the ammonia in the presence of catalysts to decompose the ammonia to hydrogen and nitrogen, and combusting a portion of the hydrogen and the nitrogen to provide heat for combusting the ammonia. In some embodiments, the system includes a bioreactor for decomposing a biomass to produce an aqueous effluent including nitrogen species, a mechanism for generating ammonia gas from the nitrogen species, a catalytic reforming reactor for converting the ammonia gas to hydrogen gas and nitrogen gas, a combustor for combusting a portion of the hydrogen gas and the nitrogen gas to provide heat for converting the ammonia gas, and a separator for isolating the hydrogen gas.02-18-2010
20100055516NICKEL SUBSTRATES - A method of providing a porous surface on a nickel substrate comprising treating the substrate with a flowing stream of gas comprising ammonia or hydrazine at a temperature of at least 4000 C, the resultant porous surface comprising pores which are substantially all interconnected and have access to the surface.03-04-2010
20090029203Fuel Cell System With an Electrochemical Hydrogen Generation Cell - A system for supplying a consuming appliance with electric energy, including at least one fuel supply unit in the form of a gas evolution cell which liberates a gaseous fuel on passage of an electric current and at least one fuel cell unit in which the gaseous fuel liberated can be reacted with an oxidant to generate electric power.01-29-2009
20090011292Electrical power generator - An improved system for generating electrical power using a fuel cell. More particularly, a system for generating hydrogen gas by reacting water vapor with a substantially non-fluid substance and transporting the generated hydrogen gas to the fuel cell which generates electrical power. Reacting water vapor with the non-fluid hydrogen generating substance rather than liquid water prevents caking of the non-fluid substance and deposition of byproducts onto the non-fluid substance that interfere with continued generation of hydrogen gas. Also, a non-electrically actuated valve for use in a hydrogen gas generating apparatus which regulates the generation of hydrogen as required by the fuel cell.01-08-2009
20090011291Method of Generating Hydrocarbon Reagents from Diesel, Natural Gas and other Logistical Fuels - The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.01-08-2009
20090011290Method and apparatus for thermochemical recuperation with partial heat recovery of the sensible heat present in products of combustion - A system and method for fuel reforming in which at least a portion of the exhaust gases from a combustion process, such as an industrial furnace, is mixed with a fuel, such as natural gas, and the mixture is introduced into a first stage heat exchange vessel in which the fuel is reformed. The reformed fuel is then returned to the combustion process for burning. In accordance with one embodiment, primary combustion oxidant is introduced into a second stage heat exchange vessel in which it is heated by a portion of the exhaust gas exiting the first stage heat exchange vessel. The heated oxidant is then introduced into the combustion process for burning of the fuel(s) therein.01-08-2009
20080299424CARBON MONOXIDE CLEAN-UP IN A PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEM - A fuel processor system contains an autothermal reactor (ATR) that produces a hydrogen-rich first gas stream containing carbon monoxide. Downstream of the ATR, a pressure swing adsorber produces a second hydrogen-rich gas stream containing 5 ppm carbon monoxide or more. Downstream of the PSA, there is a methanation reactor sized to reduce the CO level of the second stream below 5 ppm. A method of operating of proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack involves cooling the methanator output and feeding it into the stack as an anode fuel.12-04-2008
20090202872Method and system for hydrogen powered fuel cells - The present invention involves methods and apparatus for supplying hydrogen to a fuel cell to produce electricity. Water may be supplied in the form of steam for input to a catalytic converter. The converter may have a substrate element disposed therein coated with an oxide that may be oxidizable with steam and reducible back to an original state without used of a chemical agent. The steam may be converted to hydrogen and oxygen with the hydrogen channeled to an input and the oxygen channeled to an output of the fuel cell. The hydrogen output of the fuel cell and the oxygen may be combined to produce steam. The steam from the output may be recycled to the converter.08-13-2009
20090291336SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND ITS OPERATING METHOD - There are provided an SOFC system using kerosene as a reforming raw material, the SOFC system being capable of effectively cooling the cell and capable of being stably operated with no decreased efficiency, and an operating method thereof. The solid oxide fuel cell system includes reforming means for reforming kerosene to obtain a reformed gas, a methanation catalyst layer disposed downstream of the reforming means and capable of promoting a methanation reaction, cooling means for cooling the methanation catalyst layer, and a solid oxide fuel cell disposed downstream of the methanation catalyst layer. The operating method of a solid oxide fuel cell system includes reforming kerosene to obtain a reformed gas, performing a methanation reaction to increase a methane amount in the reformed gas, and supplying a gas obtained in the methanation to a solid oxide fuel cell.11-26-2009
20090280362FUEL CELL GENERATOR WITH FUEL ELECTRODES THAT CONTROL ON-CELL FUEL REFORMATION - A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.11-12-2009
20090286115METHOD FOR AVOIDING GASEOUS IMPURITY INCLUSIONS IN AT LEAST ONE GAS CHAMBER OF A FUEL CELL DURING AN IDLE PERIOD AND FUEL CELL EQUIPPED WITH MEANS FOR CARRYING OUT THE METHOD - A method and apparatus are provided for avoiding gaseous impurity inclusions in at least one gas chamber of a fuel cell during an idle period of the fuel cell through the production of a positive pressure in the at least one gas chamber. The method includes the steps producing educts that are supplied to the fuel cell for operation of the fuel cell during an operating mode, supplying the educts to the gas chamber so that the gas chamber is at least partially filled with the educts, and filling the gas chamber to produce a positive pressure in the gas chamber and thereby essentially avoiding gaseous impurity inclusions.11-19-2009
20090280363HYDROGEN GENERATOR, FUEL CELL SYSTEM COMPRISING THE SAME, AND OPERATION METHOD THEREOF - A hydrogen generator comprises a reformer which generates a hydrogen-containing gas from a steam and a material gas, a first gas supply device which supplies the material gas, a combustor which combusts an exhaust gas exhausted from the reformer to heat the reformer, a combustion air supply device which supplies air to the combustor, a second gas supply device which supplies another gas different from the material gas to the reformer or to a passage connecting the reformer to the combustor, and a controller. The controller is configured to control the combustion air supply device to increase an amount of the air supplied to the combustor (S11-12-2009
20090098422FUEL CELL POWER PLANT USED AS REFORMATE GENERATOR - A method for operating a fuel cell power plant to provide end-use electricity, end-use heat and end-use reformate includes the steps of providing a fuel cell power plant that consumes reformate to provide electricity and heat, said fuel cell power plant having a nominal reformate flow rate and including a fuel processor system for generating reformate from a hydrocarbon fuel; operating the fuel processor system so as to provide a reformate flow at a rate greater than the nominal reformate flow rate; operating the fuel cell power plant using a first portion of the reformate flow to generate the electricity and the heat, the first portion being less than or equal to the nominal reformate flow rate; and providing a second portion of the reformate flow as the end-use reformate.04-16-2009
20090098421Hydrogen-Catalyst Reactor - A power source and hydride reactor is provided comprising a reaction cell for the catalysis of atomic hydrogen to form novel hydrogen species and compositions of matter comprising new forms of hydrogen, a source of atomic hydrogen, a source of a hydrogen catalyst comprising a reaction mixture of at least one reactant comprising the element or elements that form the catalyst and at least one other element, whereby the catalyst is formed from the source and the catalysis of atomic hydrogen releases energy in an amount greater than about 300 kJ per mole of hydrogen during the catalysis of the hydrogen atom. Further provided is a reactor wherein the reaction mixture comprises a catalyst or a source of catalyst and atomic hydrogen or a source of atomic hydrogen (H) wherein at least one of the catalyst and atomic hydrogen is released by a chemical reaction of at least one species of the reaction mixture or between two or more reaction-mixture species. In an embodiment, the species may be at least one of an element, complex, alloy, or a compound such as a molecular or inorganic compound wherein each may be at least one of a reagent or product in the reactor. Alternatively, the species may form a complex, alloy, or compound with at least one of hydrogen and the catalyst. Preferably, the reaction to generate at least one of atomic H and catalyst is reversible.04-16-2009
20100003556PLASMA-CATALYZED FUEL REFORMER - A reformer is disclosed that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding method and system are also disclosed and claimed herein.01-07-2010
20090148732METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR WATER REMOVAL FROM A FUEL CELL SYSTEM - A method for removal of excess process water from a fuel cell system comprises: collecting excess process water in a container; applying vibrations, e.g. ultrasonic vibrations, to at least a portion of the water to create a mist of water; and removing the mist of water from the container and expelling the mist into the ambient atmosphere. The mist may be directed to a radiator to promote evaporation. A corresponding system for removal of excess process water from a fuel cell system comprises is also provided.06-11-2009
20100015478METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING METHANOL VAPOR CONCENTRATION, METHOD OF CONTROLLING METHANOL VAPOR CONCENTRATION IN A FUEL CELL, AND FUEL CELL USING THE SAME - A method of measuring methanol vapor concentration on a real-time basis and a methanol vapor concentration measuring apparatus used in fuel cells. The method of measuring methanol vapor concentration involves using an absorption spectrometry technique, that is, after measuring intensities I01-21-2010
20100035103HYDROGEN EXTRACTION - Representatively, a method of separating carbon from hydrocarbon molecules, the method including: heating hydrocarbon molecules beyond their boiling point; decomposing the heated hydrocarbon molecules to generate elemental or molecular carbon and hydrogen gas; separating at least some of the elemental or molecular carbon from the hydrogen gas; chemically reacting the hydrogen gas to produce heat; and applying some of the heat in carrying out said heating.02-11-2010
20080268300Method for producing fuel and power from a methane hydrate bed using a fuel cell - A method of producing natural gas fuel from gas hydrate beds is provided wherein natural gas is oxidized in a fuel cell producing electricity and heat. At least a portion of the heat is transferred to water and the heated water is passed downhole and brought into thermal contact with a hydrate bed. The hydrate is disassociated thereby producing hydrate gas. A sufficient amount of fuel is then passed to the fuel cell for operation of the fuel cell.10-30-2008
20080268299Power source with capacitor - A power generator includes a hydrogen producing fuel and a fuel cell stack layer that includes a proton exchange membrane. An anode layer and a cathode layer are disposed on opposite surfaces of the fuel cell stack. A capacitor layer is integrated with the other layers and electrically coupled to the anode layer and the cathode layer.10-30-2008
20090263684REFORMING SYSTEM AND REFORMING METHOD - A reforming system including: a mixing section that mixes a reforming fuel and a reforming raw material other than the reforming fuel to produce a mixed gas; a reforming section that generates hydrogen from the mixed gas; a reforming fuel supply flow path; a reforming raw material supply flow path; a first supply device disposed in one flow path of the reforming fuel supply flow path and the reforming raw material flow path, that causes periodic fluctuation in a supply quantity of fluid flowing in the one flow path; a second supply device disposed in the other flow path of the reforming fuel supply flow path and the reforming raw material flow path; and a controller that controls the second supply device so that the second supply device supplies the fluid flowing in the other flow path in synchronization with the periodic fluctuation.10-22-2009
20090263686METHOD OF OPERATING A FUEL CELL SYSTEM - A method of operating a fuel cell system includes step a) of providing a package accommodating a fuel cell stack and a hydrogen-rich gas supply configured to supply hydrogen-rich gas, step b) of detecting leakage of a combustible gas, comprised of the hydrogen-rich gas or a raw fuel gas, using a combustible gas detector, step c) of injecting the combustible gas intermittently into the package through a combustible gas guide pipe, and step d) of determining whether or not detection sensitivity of the combustible gas is proper based on an output value of the combustible gas detector when step c) is preformed.10-22-2009
20090263685METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR FEEDBACK CONTROLLING/CONTROLLING A TOTAL AIR FUEL RATIO OF A REFORMER - The invention relates to a method for closed/open loop control of a total lambda value of a reformer (10-22-2009
20090263683METHOD AND DEVICE FOR IMPROVING THE SERVICE LIFE OF A FUEL CELL AT TRANSITIONS IN OPERATION - The subject of the present invention relates to a method and a protector for reducing degradation of fuel cell systems at transitions in operation, in particular at electrodes or catalysts in a combustion chamber of a stack of a PEM fuel cell system in startup and shutoff events of the fuel cell system. A switchable material delivery device is provided for varying a delivery of material to the fuel cell system, so that a transition from a first state of the fuel cell system to a second state of the fuel cell system can be initiated, such that a potential difference between different electrodes can be effected. At least one reducing mechanism is provided for reducing the potential difference between the different electrodes during the transition, in which the reducing mechanism includes at least one compensating device for an unequal gas distribution by reducing the proportions causing degradation, to reduce degradation. The compensation device includes at least one short-circuiting unit, with which the different electrodes can be short-circuited, in order to reduce the potential difference.10-22-2009
20090263682Fuel cell system and method for the operation of a reformer - The invention relates to a fuel cell system comprising a re-former (10-22-2009
20080299423FUEL CELL SYSTEMS WITH MAINTENANCE HYDRATION - Fuel cell systems, and more particularly to fuel cell systems with fuel cell hydration provided during periods of inactivity by combining a fuel and an oxidant. In some embodiments, the systems may include at least one fuel cell with an anode region and a cathode region. The at least one fuel cell may be hydrated by disposing both a fuel and an oxidant in the anode region, the cathode region, or both the anode region and the cathode region, and, optionally, without generation of electrical output. In some embodiments, the systems may include a controller that controls combined delivery of a fuel and an oxidant to the at least one fuel cell. In some embodiments, the systems may deliver a mixture of the fuel and the oxidant to the at least one fuel cell after a period of fuel cell inactivity.12-04-2008
20080206611Fuel Cell System and Control Method Thereof - A fuel cell system includes a fuel cell (08-28-2008
20090291337HYDROGEN FORMING APPARATUS, FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND METHOD OF CONTROLLING HYDROGEN FORMING APPARATUS - A hydrogen generating apparatus including a reformer which performs a reforming reaction using a material and steam to generate hydrogen-containing gas; a water evaporator which generates the steam supplied to the reformer; a first water pathway through which reforming water to be supplied to the water evaporator flows; a pump which supplies the reforming water to the water evaporator 11-26-2009
20090274938FUEL RESERVOIR FOR FUEL CELL - The fuel reservoir for a fuel cell is a fuel reservoir detachably connected with a fuel cell main body, and it is equipped with a fuel-storing vessel of a tube type for storing a liquid fuel and a fuel discharge part; the fuel discharge part is provided with a valve for sealing communication between the inside and the outside of the above fuel-storing vessel. The valve assumes a structure in which a slit is formed in an elastic material and a structure in which a valve member is pressed by a resilient body, and is opened by inserting a fuel-supplying member.11-05-2009
20090104484SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL GENERATION SYSTEM AND START UP METHOD THEREOF - The invention provides a solid oxide fuel cell generation system and a start up method thereof which heat up a reformer and a cell main body without any water and nitrogen gas, and start up for a short time until a power generation and without deteriorating a reliability of the cell. In a solid oxide fuel cell generation system having a power generation cell including an anode, a cathode and a solid electrolyte membrane, a mixing portion for obtaining a mixed gas by mixing a used fuel gas discharged from the anode with a raw fuel, a reducing combustion gas generating apparatus, and a reforming portion, the reducing combustion gas generating apparatus has a starting burner generating a reducing combustion gas, and the mixing portion, the reducing combustion gas generating apparatus, the reforming portion and the anode are coupled alphabetically from an upstream side.04-23-2009
20090104483Fuel Processing System - An integrated reformer and combustion apparatus for use in a fuel cell system comprises at least one reformer plate (04-23-2009
20090104482Fuel Cell System and Method of Operating the Fuel Cell System - A fuel cell system includes a first heating mechanism and a second heating mechanism. The first heating mechanism directly heats a reformer using some of an exhaust gas discharged from a fuel cell stack. The second heating mechanism supplies the remaining exhaust gas to a heat exchanger and indirectly heats the reformer by the heat generated in the heat exchanger. The reformer performs preliminary reforming to produce a reformed gas. The reformed gas is supplied to an anode. At the anode, water produced in the power generation is present as a water vapor. The reformed gas is further reformed by steam reforming to produce a hydrogen gas.04-23-2009
20090104481Methods and devices for hydrogen generation - Systems and methods for hydrogen generation based on the hydrolysis of a solid fuel are disclosed. The hydrogen generator comprises a fuel chamber for storing a solid chemical hydride, a chamber for storing a liquid reagent, and a liquid distributor disposed within the fuel chamber. The contact between the solid chemical hydride and the liquid reagent produces a substantially fluid nongaseous product and hydrogen gas. The liquid distributor is configured to move through at least a portion of the substantially fluid nongaseous product within the fuel chamber.04-23-2009
20090104480ASSISTED STACK ANODE PURGE AT START-UP OF FUEL CELL SYSTEM - A fuel cell system that enables an assisted anode purge upon start-up is provided. The fuel cell system includes a fuel cell stack having a plurality of fuel cells with anodes and cathodes. The fuel cell stack has an anode supply manifold and an anode exhaust manifold in fluid communication with the anodes. The fuel cell system further includes a suction device in fluid communication with at least one of the anode supply manifold and the anode exhaust manifold. The suction device adapted to selectively draw a partial vacuum on the fuel cell stack during a start-up of the fuel cell system. Methods for starting the fuel cell system are also provided.04-23-2009
20090280365FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND METHOD OF STARTING A FUEL CELL SYSTEM - The invention relates to a method of starting up a fuel cell system comprising a reformer (11-12-2009
20090280361POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM AND METHOD OF CONTROLLING THE SAME - A power supply system using a fuel cell comprises a chemical reaction section (11-12-2009
20090280364FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND METHOD OF OPERATING SAME - A fuel cell system includes a fuel cell, a fuel gas supply unit for supplying a fuel gas to the fuel cell, an oxygen containing gas supply unit, which has a heat exchanger for heating an oxygen-containing gas, for supplying the oxygen-containing gas heated by the heat exchanger to the fuel cell, an exhaust gas discharge unit for supplying an exhaust gas used in a generating reaction and discharged from the fuel cell, as a heating medium for heating the oxygen-containing gas to the heat exchanger, and a combustion gas supply unit, which has a combustor disposed out of a passageway of the exhaust gas discharge unit for generating a combustion gas by combusting a raw fuel with an oxygen-containing gas supplied thereto, for supplying the combustion gas, together with the exhaust gas, to the heat exchanger.11-12-2009
20090286116FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND CONTROL METHOD THEREOF - The present invention provides a fuel cell system and a control method thereof that performs a scavenging process when the fuel cell is stopped, whereby stable electrical power production is ensured after startup, and faster startup is possible. The fuel cell system performs the scavenging process in which scavenging gas is supplied into an anode gas system when the fuel cell is stopped. When a startup request for the fuel cell is detected while the anode scavenging process is being performed, the concentration of hydrogen in the anode gas is detected, and then whether to continue the anode scavenging process and prohibit the fuel cell from starting, or to suspend the anode scavenging process and allow the fuel cell to start is determined based on this detected concentration of hydrogen in the anode gas system.11-19-2009
20090291339METHOD OF OPERATING A FUEL CELL SYSTEM - A method of operating a fuel cell system including stopping power generation of a fuel cell which generates electric power using a fuel gas and an oxidizing gas, filling and keeping a combustible gas in a cathode of the fuel cell after said step, supplying the oxidizing gas to the cathode, supplying the combustible gas discharged from the cathode in response to the previous step to a combustor capable of heating a fuel generator for generating the fuel gas or an exhaust pipe connected to the combustor via a branch passage branching from an oxidizing gas passage located downstream of the cathode, diluting the combustible gas supplied to the combustor or the exhaust pipe with air supplied to the combustor or exhaust gas supplied to the exhaust pipe such that the combustible gas has a concentration lower than a combustion lower limit, and discharging the diluted combustible gas to atmosphere.11-26-2009
20090291335METHOD FOR STARTING-UP SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEM - An SOFC system is started-up efficiently in a short time while letting a hydrogen concentration in a reformed gas high. A method for starting-up an SOFC system including a reformer having a reforming catalyst, and an SOFC which uses the reformed gas as a fuel, in which, catalyst A having POX function and catalyst B having SR function are used as the reforming catalyst, the method including the steps of: increasing the temperature of catalyst A, by combustion heat or electricity, to a temperature at which POX reaction can proceed; increasing the temperature of catalyst B by POX reaction heat, increasing the temperature of SOFC by feeding the reformed gas to an anode and heating catalyst B by combustion heat generated from combustion of a reformed gas discharged from the anode, or increasing the temperature of catalyst B by POX reaction heat, increasing the temperature of SOFC by feeding a combustion gas produced from combustion of the reformed gas to a cathode and heating catalyst B by this combustion gas; and reducing the proportion of POX reaction or stopping POX reaction and perform SR, after catalyst B is heated to a temperature at which SR reaction can proceed.11-26-2009
20090297897METHODS FOR MONITORING HYDROGEN FUELING SYSTEMS - The present invention provides a process and apparatus for monitoring and inhibiting leaks from a hydrogen gas fueling system. A fueling event controller measures the pressure of the hydrogen gas before, during and after a fueling operation and if certain pressure values are exceeded, can shut down the hydrogen gas fueling system.12-03-2009
20090169930FUEL CELL SEPARATOR AND FUEL CELL STACK AND REACTANT GAS CONTROL METHOD THEREOF - A fuel cell separator, a fuel cell stack having the fuel cell separator, and a reactant gas control method of the fuel cell stack are provided. That is, even when the fuel cell stack operates under the low load operation condition, a reactant gas is supplied to the reactant gas passages of the fuel cell separator, and thus, the length of the passage can be shortened by 50% as compared with the prior art having only one reactant gas passage. Therefore, the reactant gas can be effectively supplied without experiencing pressure loss. Further, in the high load operation of the fuel cell stack, the reactant gas is introduced into the first reactant gas passage of the fuel cell separator and utilized in half of the whole electrode area. Subsequently, the reactant gas is introduced into the second reactant gas passage and utilized in the remaining half of the electrode area. The flow rate of the reactant gas flowing along the passage channels is increased by two times, even when the reactant gas utilizing rate is identical as compared with the reactant gas flow in the low load operation. As a result, the moisture existing in the passage channels can be more effectively discharged and the flooding phenomenon occurring in the high load operation can be prevented. By controlling the reactant gas supply in accordance with an operation condition of the fuel cell stack without experiencing pressure loss and deterioration of the utilizing rate, the flooding phenomenon and concentration polarization phenomenon that occur in the fuel cell stack can be prevented.07-02-2009
20080241613Compositions, devices and methods for hydrogen generation - Methods and systems for hydrogen generation from solid hydrogen storage compositions which generate hydrogen in an exothermic reaction wherein the heat released can be absorbed by solid endothermic compositions are disclosed. The solid hydrogen storage compositions comprise mixtures of chemical hydrides and water surrogate compounds. Fuel cartridges suitable for use with compositions which generate hydrogen upon the application of thermal initiation and methods for operating the fuel cartridges are also disclosed.10-02-2008
20080241612Fuel cell system with one hundred percent fuel utilization - A method of operating a fuel cell system includes providing a fuel inlet stream into a fuel cell stack, operating the fuel cell stack to generate electricity and a hydrogen containing fuel exhaust stream, separating at least a portion of hydrogen contained in the fuel exhaust stream using a cascaded electrochemical hydrogen pump, such as a high temperature, low hydration ion exchange membrane cell stack having at least two membrane cells arranged in process fluid flow series, and providing the hydrogen separated from the fuel exhaust stream into the fuel inlet stream.10-02-2008
20090035619METHODS AND SYSTEMS OF PRODUCING MOLECULAR HYDROGEN USING A PLASMA SYSTEM IN COMBINATION WITH AN ELECTRICAL SWING ADSORPTION SEPARATION SYSTEM - Systems and methods for production of molecular hydrogen are described herein. Systems may include a plasma reformer and an electrical swing adsorption system. The plasma reformer may produce a gas stream from the liquid feed. The gas stream may include molecular hydrogen and carbon oxides. The electrical swing adsorption system may produce a molecular hydrogen stream from the gas stream generated in the plasma reformer. The gas stream and/or molecular hydrogen may be used as a fuel in a fuel cell.02-05-2009
20080274382Carbon Fuel Particles Used In Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells - A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.11-06-2008
20080286621Optimizing Hydrogen Generating Efficiency in Fuel Cell Cartridges - The present invention involves modifying certain characteristics of solid and aqueous chemical metal hydride fuels to increase the efficiency of hydrogen generation and/or to reduce the problems associated with such conventional hydride fuel sources. The present invention also relates to an apparatus (11-20-2008
20080286620Electrochemical Energy Generating Apparatus and Method of Driving the Same - An electrochemical energy generating apparatus with which the crossover of a fuel can be suppressed and a method of driving the apparatus are disclosed. The electrochemical energy generating apparatus (e.g., a fuel cell system) 11-20-2008
20080292922Method and apparatus for fueling a solid oxide fuel cell stack assembly - An SOFC fuel cell stack system including means for recycling a portion of the SOFC anode tailgas into the inlet of a hydrocarbon reformer supplying reformate to the stack. Recycle means includes a pump. A first heat exchanger ahead of the pump cools the tail gas via heat exchange with incoming cathode air, allowing use of an inexpensive pump. To facilitate endothermic or steam reforming of hydrocarbons, CO11-27-2008
20080305371System and method for carbon neutral or carbon positive production and use of hydrogen gas - A system and method for the production and use of hydrogen to obtain sufficient energy to negate or obtain a positive carbon unit balance. Waste is converted into a synthesis gas and heat energy using a plasma converter. The heat energy is transformed into electrical energy. The synthesis gas is split into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide may be used for the production of electricity. If desired some hydrogen may be used to fuel vehicles.12-11-2008
20080311443Hydrogen purification for fuel cell vehicle - A purification system and method for purifying a hydrogen stream supplied from a storage tank mounted in a vehicle to produce a purified hydrogen stream for use in a PEM fuel cell system that is utilized within the vehicle. The hydrogen is purified within a membrane separator having hydrogen transport membrane elements having a dense metallic layer such as palladium to separate the hydrogen from the impurities. The separated hydrogen is supplied to the PEM fuel cell. In order to heat the membrane to its operational temperature, heat is recovered from the hydrogen permeate stream of the membrane system in a first heat exchanger and heat is generated by combusting the retentate stream containing residual hydrogen and impurities.12-18-2008
20080311444Fuel Cell Power Generation System, and Method for Operating Fuel Cell Power Generation System - The fuel cell power generation system includes a fuel cell, a reformer, a carbon monoxide decreasing unit, a first raw material supply source, a first valve which is provided to a first raw material flow passage which is arranged between the first raw material supply sources and the reformer, a second valve which is provided downstream of the carbon monoxide decreasing unit, a second raw material supply source which supplies a raw material to the inside of a flow passage which is closed by the first valve and the second valve from a middle portion of the carbon monoxide decreasing unit or a downstream of the carbon monoxide decreasing unit, and a control unit which controls the first valve and the second valve, wherein the control unit, after the first valve and the second valve are closed, supplies the raw material fed from the second raw material supply source to the inside of the flow passage closed by the first valve and the second valve at the time of stopping the fuel cell power generation system.12-18-2008
20080311442Comprehensive Method for Triggering Anode Bleed Events in a Fuel Cell System - A method for triggering an anode bleed from split fuel cell stacks in a fuel cell system that employs anode flow-shifting. The method requests the bleed if any one of three different conditions are met. Those conditions include that the concentration of nitrogen in the anode side of the split stacks is above a predetermined percentage, the voltage spread between the maximum cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage of two fuel cells in the split stacks is greater than a predetermined spread voltage and the absolute value of the difference between the overall voltage of the two split stacks is greater than a predetermined voltage. The concentration of nitrogen in the anode can be determined in any suitable manner, such as by a nitrogen cross-over model or a sensor.12-18-2008
20080311441FUEL CELL SYSTEM USING CATHODE EXHAUST FOR ANODE RECIRCULATION - A system for providing fuel recirculation in a fuel cell is disclosed, wherein the system uses a cathode exhaust flow to energize a fuel recirculation pump that facilitates the fuel recirculation from an anode exhaust passage to an anode supply passage.12-18-2008
20090035617Fuel cell system and method for controlling the same - A control device 02-05-2009
20090123796HYDROGEN AND POWER GENERATION SYSTEM AND METHOD OF ACTIVATING HYDROGEN GENERATION MODE THEREOF - A hydrogen and power generation system has a reforming device for producing a reformed gas from a reformable raw fuel, a combination fuel cell and ion pump operable selectively in a hydrogen generation mode and an electricity generation mode, an anode off-gas passage for supplying an anode off-gas discharged from an anode of the combination fuel cell and ion pump to a catalytic combustor, a cathode off-gas passage for discharging a cathode off-gas from a cathode of the combination fuel cell and ion pump, a cathode purge passage, which branches from the cathode off-gas passage and is connected to the anode off-gas passage, and a valve mechanism connected to the cathode purge passage.05-14-2009
20090162709Inorganic-hydrogen-polymer and hydrogen-polymer compounds and applications thereof - Compounds are provided comprising at least one neutral, positive, or negative hydrogen species having a binding energy greater than its corresponding ordinary hydrogen species, or greater than any hydrogen species for which the corresponding ordinary hydrogen species is unstable or is not observed. Compounds comprise at least one increased binding energy hydrogen species and at least one other atom, molecule, or ion other than an increased binding energy hydrogen species. One group of such compounds contains one or more increased binding energy hydrogen species selected from the group consisting of H06-25-2009
20090162708Regeneration of Sulfur-Poisoned Noble Metal Catalysts in the Fuel Processing System for a Fuel Cell - A technique and equipment are provided for regenerating a potentially sulfur-burdened, noble metal catalyst (06-25-2009
20090181270Anode Recirculation Pump Control Strategy - A control strategy for controlling how much current can be provided by a fuel cell stack to a system load during a power up-transient. When a power up-transient command is given, the control strategy limits the amount of power or current that the stack can provide to the load based on how fast an anode exhaust gas recirculation pump can meet the exhaust gas recirculation demand so that the ratio between the recirculated anode exhaust gas and the fresh hydrogen remains substantially constant. Thus, during the power up-transient, the relative humidity provided by the combination of the fresh hydrogen and the anode exhaust gas maintains the membranes in the stack at the desired humidity level. Any difference between the commanded stack power and the limited stack power during the power up-transient can be provided by a system battery.07-16-2009
20090136800PROCESS FOR SUPPLYING A FUEL CELL WITH HYDROGEN BY MEANS OF SILANES OR POLYSILANES - Process for supplying a fuel cell with hydrogen, which includes the steps:—intermediate storage of (poly)silanes or (poly)silane solutions—transfer of the (poly)silanes to a reaction chamber—reaction or hydrolysis of the silanes or silane solutions in the reaction chamber with an aqueous solution to liberate H05-28-2009
20090136799FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR GENERATING ELECTRICAL ENERGY USING A FUEL CELL SYSTEM - A fuel-cell system, particularly a fuel-cell system for a drive system of a motor vehicle, includes an autothermic reformer unit configured to generate hydrogen from a raw material. The hydrogen is used to operate a fuel-cell unit disposed downstream of the reformer unit. An oxidation device configured to convert carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide is disposed between the reformer unit and the fuel cell unit. A water injection device is disposed in the oxidation device and is configured to inject water into the oxidation device.05-28-2009
20090297898REFORMING SYSTEM, METHOD FOR OPERATING A REFORMING SYSTEM AND FUEL CELL SYSTEM - The invention relates to a reformer system for generating a hydrogen-rich reformate comprising a reformer to which fuel and an oxidising agent can be supplied. According to the invention it is contemplated that the fuel supplied to the reformer is at least partly coolable by a fluid having other functions in addition to the function of cooling the fuel in the reformer system or a parent system into which the reformer system is integrated. The invention further relates to a method for generating a hydrogen-rich reformate as well as a fuel cell system comprising a reformer system according to the invention.12-03-2009
20090297896Method of using hydrogen storage tank and hydrogen storage tank - A fuel cell system supplies hydrogen to a fuel cell from a hydrogen storage tank in which a hydrogen absorption alloy is incorporated, and uses a heat medium that has cooled the fuel cell to heat the hydrogen absorption alloy when hydrogen is released from the hydrogen absorption alloy. The hydrogen storage tank is filled with hydrogen gas at a temperature which is no lower than the highest temperature reached by the heat medium at the time of steady operation of the fuel cell, and under a pressure which is no lower than the equilibrium pressure of the hydrogen absorption alloy. Hydrogen is released from the hydrogen absorption alloy at a temperature which is lower than the temperature of the hydrogen absorption alloy when the above described filling is completed.12-03-2009
20090035622SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR REDUCING ORGANIC SULFUR COMPONENTS IN HYDROCARBON FUELS - The present invention includes systems and methods of treating a hydrocarbon fuel to reduce organic sulfur components so as to be amenable to small-scale and/or field-based applications. Embodiments of the invention involve the performance of a vapor-phase hydrodesulfurization operation using steam reformate. The steam reformate is a hydrogen source for the hydrodesulfurization and is provided by an integrated steam reformer.02-05-2009
20090208786FUEL CELL SYSTEM - There is provided a fuel cell system capable of notifying a user that control for low-temperature countermeasure is performed, without any strange feeling and false recognition. When control for low-temperature countermeasure such as scavenging at system termination or warm-up at system start-up is made, the user is reliably notified that the control is performed, by a text message or a speech message. Consequently, even in a situation where the system is operating after an ignition key is turned off, the user suffers neither strange feeling nor false recognition.08-20-2009
20090208785SOFC electrochemical anode tail gas oxidizer - A fuel cell system comprises a fuel cell stack comprising a plurality of fuel cells and at least one shorted solid oxide fuel cell in which the cell anode is electrically connected to the cell cathode. In another system, the at least one shorted solid oxide fuel cell is located downstream from a fuel cell stack. The at least one shorted fuel cell is positioned to receive the anode exhaust stream from at least some of the plurality of fuel cells of the fuel cell stack.08-20-2009
20090246574FUEL CELL APPARATUS AND DRIVE METHOD THEREOF - According to an embodiment, a fuel cell apparatus comprises an electromotive section including a cell including an anode and a cathode, and configured to generate electricity by a chemical reaction, a fuel tank configured to store fuel, a fuel channel configured to flow fuel through the anode, and an air channel configured to flow air through the cathode, a fuel supply device configured to supply fuel supplied from the fuel tank to the anode through the fuel channel, and a cell controller configured to control a generated electricity drawn out from the electromotive section and execute a refresh process for drawing out a current of a current value which is generated when an amount of air larger than the amount of air supplied to the cathode is consumed.10-01-2009
20090081497ON-DEMAND HIGH ENERGY DENSITY HYDROGEN GAS GENERATION DEVICE - The present disclosure generally relates to an on-demand hydrogen gas generation device, suitable for use in a fuel cell, which utilizes water electrolysis, and more particularly galvanic cell corrosion, and/or a chemical hydride reaction, to produce hydrogen gas. The present disclosure additionally relates to such a device that comprises a switching mechanism that has an electrical current passing therethrough and that repeatedly and reversibly moves between a first position and a second position when exposed to pressure differential resulting from hydrogen gas generation, in order to (1) alter the rate at which hydrogen gas is generated, such that hydrogen gas is generated on an as-needed basis for a fuel cell connected thereto, and/or (2) ensure a substantially constant flow of hydrogen gas is released therefrom. The present disclosure additionally or alternatively relates to such an on-demand hydrogen gas generation device that comprises a gas management system designed to maximize the release or evolution of hydrogen gas, and in particular dry hydrogen gas, therefrom once it has been formed, thus maximizing hydrogen gas output. The present disclosure is still further directed to a fuel cell comprising such an on-demand hydrogen gas generation device, and in particular a fuel cell designed for small-scale applications.03-26-2009
20100003554 ANODE GAS CIRCUIT OF A FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ACTIVATING AND DEACTIVATING SUCH AN ANODE GAS CIRCUIT OF A FUEL CELL SYSTEM - An anode gas circuit of a fuel cell system. The anode gas circuit includes a return line leading from an anode gas outlet of a fuel cell stack to an anode gas inlet of the fuel cell stack, a recirculation blower disposed in the return line, a first valve disposed in the return line upstream of the recirculation blower, and a second valve disposed in the return line downstream of the recirculation blower. The first valve and the second valve are configured to close a cross section of the return line.01-07-2010
20090148731Hydride battery and fuel cell - This invention is directed to compositions of matter comprising a hydride ion having a binding energy greater than about 0.8 eV. The claimed hydride ions may be combined with cations, including a proton, to form novel hydrides.06-11-2009
20090197130METHOD OF PRODUCING (NH2(R2)) AND/OR HYDROGEN - A method of producing NH08-06-2009
20090246568SYSTEM FOR THE GENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER ON-BOARD A MOTOR VEHICLE WHICH IS EQUIPPED WITH A FUEL CELL AND ASSOCIATED METHOD - A system for generation of electric power on-board a motor vehicle of the type that includes a fuel cell, a reformer for supplying the fuel cell with hydrogen-rich gas, an air-compression device, and a control unit used to control the operation of the reformer. The reformer includes a main cold-plasma reformer and an auxiliary cold-plasma reformer that are mounted in parallel upstream of the fuel cell. In addition, a control valve, which is controlled by the control unit, is mounted upstream of the two cold-plasma reformers to supply compressed air, fuel, and water vapor either to the main reformer alone or to both reformers simultaneously.10-01-2009
20090208787FUEL CELL STACK - A conductance at an oxidizer flow path forming member is defined as C08-20-2009
20090220830ANODE SUPPLY SYSTEM FOR A FUEL CELL STACK AND A METHOD OF PURGING THE SAME - An anode supply system for a fuel cell stack having an anode section with a gas inlet and a gas outlet includes a sensor device for determining the fuel content inside the anode supply system. A discharge valve is operable to form a gas-conducting connection between the anode supply system and the environment in an open position, and a control device is configured to actuate the discharge valve. The control device controls the discharge valve based on signals from the sensor device, independently of current performance data of the fuel cell stack.09-03-2009
20090220832Hydrogen passivation shut down system for a fuel cell power plant - The invention is a hydrogen passivation shut down system for a fuel cell power plant (09-03-2009
20090117422Balanced Humidity by Cross Coupling WVT and Stack Cathode Flow Paths - A fuel cell system that includes a first fuel cell stack and a second fuel cell stack in a divided stack design. A first water vapor transfer unit is used to humidify the cathode inlet to the first divided stack and a second water vapor transfer unit is used to humidify the cathode inlet air to the second divided stack. The cathode exhaust gas from the divided stacks is used to provide the humidification for the water vapor transfer units. In order to provide relative humidity balancing between the first and second divided stacks, the cathode inlet air flowing through one of the WVT units is sent to one of the divided stacks that receives the cathode exhaust gas from the other divided stack and vice versa.05-07-2009
20090253001Fuel Cell System, Fuel Cell Vehicle, and Operating Method for Fuel Cell System - A utility supply system (SS) supplies a fluid containing an antioxidant of a gaseous phase to a stack (10-08-2009
20090239109FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND METHOD OF STARTING OPERATION OF THE FUEL CELL SYSTEM - A controller of a fuel cell system includes an anode gas replacement apparatus, a stoppage time detection apparatus, and a cathode gas flow rate control apparatus. The anode gas replacement apparatus replaces hydrogen in an anode gas channel using an anode gas supply apparatus. The stoppage time detection apparatus detects a stoppage time during which operation of the fuel cell stack is stopped. When the anode gas replacement apparatus replaces the hydrogen, the cathode gas flow rate control apparatus changes the flow rate of the cathode gas supplied from the cathode gas supply apparatus depending on the stoppage time.09-24-2009
20090253003FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND METHOD OF SCAVENGING FUEL CELL SYSTEM - A fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell that supplies fuel gas to an anode electrode and that supplies oxidant gas to a cathode electrode to generate electric power; a scavenging gas supply device that scavenges the inside of the fuel cell; a temperature detection device that detects a temperature of the inside of the fuel cell; a deterioration countermeasure scavenging device that executes deterioration countermeasure scavenging by the scavenging gas supply device and replaces the accumulated gas accumulated in the anode electrode with the scavenging gas; and a sub-zero countermeasure scavenging device that executes sub-zero countermeasure scavenging with a greater flow volume than the scavenging gas supplied during the deterioration countermeasure scavenging and to discharge the generated water in the inside of the fuel cell.10-08-2009
20090258259Catalytic heat exchangers and methods of operation - A catalytic heat exchanger comprises a first channel and a second channel, separated by a partition wall. Catalyst coated metal substrates are removably inserted into the first or the second channel or both, which facilitates catalytic reactions in the channel. Energy released in the reaction in one channel is transferred through the partition wall to heat the fluid in the other channel. The catalytic heat exchangers can be used in a fuel processing system to convert hydrocarbon fuels to a hydrogen rich reformate.10-15-2009
20090258262FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND CORRESPONDING OPERATING METHOD - A fuel cell system (10-15-2009
20090258261FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND METHOD OF CONTROLLING THE SAME - A fuel cell system and a control method thereof are capable of preventing anode flooding due to a temperature difference between a stack and reformate upon starting a fuel cell system. The method of controlling a fuel cell system including steps of detecting a temperature of a fuel cell stack, detecting a temperature of reformate that is generated in a fuel reformer and then is supplied to the fuel cell stack through a heat exchanger, and setting the temperature of the reformate to be lower than the temperature of the fuel cell stack during a starting time of the fuel cell system.10-15-2009
20090258260Fuel Cell System and Method for Calculating Circulation Ratio in the Same - There are disclosed a fuel cell system capable of inhibiting freezing at a joining part of a supply gas and a circulation gas during a system operation, and a method for calculating circulation ratio in the system. In the fuel cell system of the present invention, the circulation gas discharged from a fuel cell meets the supply gas from a gas supply source to be supplied to the fuel cell, and a flow rate of the circulation gas with respect to that of the supply gas is set in consideration of condensation latent heat of water vapor in the circulation gas. The flow rate of the circulation gas with respect to that of the supply gas can be set by heat balance calculation at the joining part in consideration of the condensation latent heat.10-15-2009
20090246569METHOD FOR REGENERATING A REFORMER - A method for regenerating a reformer to which fuel (10-01-2009
20080311445High temperature fuel cell system and method of operating same - A high temperature fuel cell stack system, such as a solid oxide fuel cell system, with an improved balance of plant efficiency includes a thermally integrated reformer, combustor and the fuel cell stack.12-18-2008
20100047637OPERATION OF FUEL CELL SYSTEMS WITH REDUCED CARBON FORMATION AND ANODE LEADING EDGE DAMAGE - A method of operating a fuel cell system includes introducing a fuel mixture comprising hydrogen, fuel, and steam at a fuel inlet of the fuel cell system, and operating the fuel cell system to generate electricity. A ratio of hydrogen to carbon from fuel (H02-25-2010
20100015477APPARATUS, SYSTEM, AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING ENERGY USING AN ALKALAI METAL - An apparatus, system and method are disclosed for producing energy from the controlled reaction of an alkali metal with water. The method comprises forcing a liquefied alkali metal through a filter that separates the liquid alkali metal into alkali metal droplets. The alkali metal droplets comprise small enough particles that the alkali metal droplets completely react in water to produce heat, steam, an alkaline hydroxide and hydrogen gas before the alkali metal droplets reach the surface of the water. The filter separates the alkali metal droplets at a sufficient distance to avoid recombining of the alkali metal droplets. The alkaline hydroxide is reduced to an alkali metal and water which can be reused in the system.01-21-2010
20090291338Increasing The Efficiency Of A Fuel Cell - A technique includes removing nitrogen from an air stream to produce an enriched oxygen stream and communicating the enriched oxygen stream to a cathode chamber of a fuel cell. The technique includes transferring the nitrogen that is removed from the air stream to a reactant stream of the fuel cell system.11-26-2009
20090047554Fuel cell system and method of operating the fuel cell system - A fuel cell system includes a first heating mechanism and a second heating mechanism. The first heating mechanism supplies a reformer with some of an exhaust gas discharged from a fuel cell stack as a heat source for directly heating the reformer. The second heating mechanism supplies the remaining exhaust gas to the heat exchanger and utilizes the heat generated in the heat exchanger as a heat source for indirectly heating the reformer. Temperature sensors are attached to the reformer. An open/close valve is adjusted based on the temperatures detected by the temperature sensors to control the ratio between the amount of heat supplied from the first heating mechanism to the reformer and the amount of heat supplied from the second heating mechanism to the reformer.02-19-2009
20090246573CONTAMINANT SEPARATOR AND ISOLATION LOOP FOR A FUEL REACTANT STREAM FOR A FUEL CELL - A separator scrubber (10-01-2009
20100055518HYDROGEN-PRODUCING ASSEMBLIES, FUEL CELL SYSTEMS INCLUDING THE SAME, METHODS OF PRODUCING HYDROGEN GAS, AND METHODS OF POWERING AN ENERGY-CONSUMING DEVICE - Hydrogen-producing assemblies, fuel cell systems including the same, methods of producing hydrogen gas, and methods of powering an energy-consuming device. Hydrogen-producing assemblies may include a monolithic body that defines at least a reforming conduit, in which a feed stream is catalyzed into a reformate gas stream containing hydrogen gas, and a burner conduit, in which a fuel-air stream is combusted. The monolithic body is constructed to conduct heat generated by the exothermic reaction of the combustion from the burner conduit to the reformer conduit. In some hydrogen-producing assemblies, the monolithic body further defines a vaporizer conduit, in which liquid portions of the feed stream are vaporized prior to being delivered to the reformer conduit. In such embodiments, the monolithic body is constructed to conduct heat from the burner conduit to the vaporizer conduit. Hydrogen-producing assemblies may be incorporated into a fuel cell system that is configured to power an energy-consuming device.03-04-2010
20090075130FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR OPERATING SAME - A fuel cell system has recycle lines for recycling exhaust from the cathode and exhaust from the anode, with a recirculation device in each of the recycle lines. The recirculation devices are operated by a drive, such as a drive motor, with the drive and the two recirculation devices arranged on a common shaft.03-19-2009
20090253000System and method for operating a high temperature fuel cell as a back-up power supply with reduced performance decay - A method is provided for reducing degradation in a fuel cell assembly, including at least one fuel cell with a PBI membrane, during standby, operation. The method may include electrochemically consuming an oxidant from a cathode coupled to the PBI membrane in response to a disconnection of an external load and supplying fuel to remove or electrochemically consume any back-diffused oxidant to the associated fuel cell sufficient to replace or consume the back-diffused oxidant while the external load is removed, and/or also may include controlling a standby temperature of the fuel cell. In this way, it may be possible to avoid increased cell voltage decay associated with degradation of the PBI in a simple and cost effective system.10-08-2009
20090220831Hydrogen passivation shut down system for a fuel cell power plant - The invention is a hydrogen passivation shut down system for a fuel cell power plant (09-03-2009
20090220829Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Solid oxide fuel cell including an anode which has a cermet activated by a catalyst for hydrocarbon oxidation, process for the preparation thereof, and method for the production of energy exploiting it.09-03-2009
20090148730FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEM, ITS STOPPING/SAFEKEEPING METHOD AND PROGRAM - A fuel cell power system includes a fuel cell stack prepared by stacking a plurality of electric cells, each having an anode and a cathode with an electrolyte therebetween, a fuel supply line and an oxidant supply line that respectively supply a fuel and an oxidant to the fuel cell stack, and a fuel exhaust line and an oxidant exhaust line that respectively exhaust the fuel and oxidant supplied to the fuel cell stack. A method for retaining a power generation-suspended state of the fuel cell power system in a process of bringing the fuel cell power system into the power generation-suspended state and retaining the suspended state includes the steps of: closing the oxidant supply line in the course of bringing the fuel cell power system into the power generation-suspended state; applying a direct current from the cathode to the anode through an external circuit with the oxidant supply line closed by the step of closing the oxidant supply line until the electric cell voltage with reference to the anode comes to a level of more than −1.2 V to less than 0.1 V; closing the oxidant exhaust line after the start point of the step of applying a direct current; and closing the fuel exhaust line and the fuel supply line after the termination point of the step of applying a direct current.06-11-2009
20090169931Fuel cell system - A fuel cell system comprises a fuel cell assembly, a carbon-dioxide-removal unit, an anode exhaust conduit connecting the fuel cell assembly and the carbon-dioxide-removal unit, a fuel source, an oxygen source, a fuel conduit connecting, at least in part, the fuel source with the fuel cell assembly, and a recycle conduit connecting the carbon-dioxide-removal unit with at least one of the fuel cell assembly, the fuel conduit and the fuel source. The fuel cell assembly includes at least one fuel cell, each fuel cell including an anode and a cathode. The carbon-dioxide-removal unit removes carbon dioxide that is in a gas phase. The carbon-dioxide-removal unit includes a carbon-dioxide-removing material. The fuel source and the oxygen source are each independently in fluid communication with the fuel cell assembly. The fuel conduit and the recycle conduit are optionally merged into a single recycle-fuel conduit that extends to the fuel cell assembly. The recycle conduit and/or the recycle-fuel conduit directs essentially all gaseous fluid from the carbon-dioxide-removal unit to the fuel cell assembly.07-02-2009
20080280171Hydrogen Generation Device, Operation Method Thereof, and Fuel Cell System - A hydrogen generation device of the present includes: a reforming unit for steam-reforming raw material containing at least carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms to generate a hydrogen-containing gas; a raw material supply unit for supplying a raw material to the reforming unit; a steam generation unit for supplying steam to the reforming unit, a steam generation unit temperature detection unit for detecting the temperature of the steam generation unit; a heating unit for supplying a combustion gas for successively heating the reforming unit and the steam generation unit by heat transfer, and a control unit. The control unit controls a raw material supply amount from the raw material supply unit and a water supply amount from a water supply unit and controls one of the amount of the air to the heating unit, the amount of a fuel to the heating unit, and the amount of the raw material to the reforming unit so that no water remains in the steam generation unit according to the detected temperature from the steam generation unit temperature detection unit. Thus, it is possible to operate the hydrogen generation device without leaving water in the steam generating unit and to provide a hydrogen generation device operation method having a high reliability and economy and a hydrogen generation device using the same as well as a fuel cell generation system using the hydrogen generation device.11-13-2008
20090068509Process for Operating a Fuel Cell Arrangement and Fuel Cell Arrangement - The invention concerns a method for operating a fuel cell system with fuel cells (03-12-2009
20090068508APPARATUS AND METHOD OF PRODUCING ELECTRICAL CURRENT IN A FUEL CELL SYSTEM - A method and closed system for producing electricity at more than one location. A reservoir containing an aqueous electrolytic solution produces hydrogen and oxygen gasses in separate chambers in an electrochemical reaction utilizing electrodes submerged in the chambers. The gasses are then introduced into a fuel cell, wherein the hydrogen is further split into protons and electrons, and the electrical current produced by the movement of the electrons is harnessed by a first generator. The hydrogen and oxygen are recombined in a second electrochemical reaction to produce water. The water then falls through a water column past a paddlewheel. The paddlewheel in turn rotates and the energy from the rotation is also harnessed. The water is then reintroduced into the reservoir.03-12-2009
20090004516Fuel cell combined heat and power generation - A cogeneration system having flexible and controllable cogeneration loops. There is a first cogeneration loop to recover heat from a fuel cell power module, thereby producing a heat to electricity ratio between 0 and approximately 1.0. There is a second cogeneration loop to produce supplemental thermal energy for hot water generation and/or space heating. This loop can be connected or disconnected via switching valves depending on the thermal demands of hot water and/or space heating. This loop can also be useful to control the fuel processor temperature to prevent it from being overheated in cases when the fuel cell has low fuel utilization efficiency. With this second loop, it becomes possible to adjust the heat to electricity ratio at any desirable levels such as more than 2. It is also possible to produce the hot water at a higher temperature or superheated steam, which would have been difficult if only the first loop is used.01-01-2009
20090035621PROCESS FOR GENERATING ELECTRICITY AND HYDROGEN THAT COMPRISES A HYBRID REFORMER - The invention relates to a process for co-generating electricity and hydrogen that comprises a stage a for steam reforming in the presence of water and oxygen of a hydrocarbon feedstock in which the O02-05-2009
20090035620Solid oxide fuel cell systems with improved gas channeling and heat exchange - The present teachings relate to solid oxide fuel cell systems featuring a novel design that provides improved thermal management of the system. The solid oxide fuel cell systems disclosed include gas channeling features that regulate the temperature of local areas of the system and protect thermal-sensitive current collection elements.02-05-2009
20090035618SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR RECIRCULATING UNUSED FUEL IN FUEL CELL APPLICATION - A system and method for delivering an input fluid stream through a fuel cell stack and discharge an unused fluid stream is provided. An inlet of the fuel cell stack is adapted to receive the fluid stream. An ejector is configured to combine the supply fluid stream and the unused fluid stream to generate the input fluid stream and control the flow of the input fluid stream to the fuel cell stack. A blower is configured to control the flow of the unused fluid stream to the ejector. A bypass valve is configured to control the flow of the unused fluid stream to the blower and to the ejector.02-05-2009
20100151292APPARATUS AND METHOD OF GENERATING MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ENERGY - In order to provide an apparatus for generating mechanical and electrical energy from a fuel that may be operated efficiently and in a simple manner, it is proposed that the apparatus comprises: 06-17-2010
20090311564FUEL CELL, ELECTRONIC DEVICE, AND FUEL SUPPLY METHOD - A fuel cell capable of downsizing the battery with a simple structure is provided. Between a battery body and a fuel tank, a fuel diffusion layer in which the surface on the battery body side is a porous oxide film is provided. Further, a liquid fuel supplied from the fuel tank to the fuel diffusion layer is diffused in the porous oxide film. By capillary phenomenon due to minute holes, the liquid fuel is uniformly diffused to a wide range and then vaporized, and the vaporized fuel is supplied to respective battery cells 12-17-2009
20100055517METHODS AND SYSTEMS OF PRODUCING HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN FOR POWER GENERATION, AND POWER SOURCE - Methods and systems of providing a source of hydrogen and oxygen with high volumetric energy density, as well as a power systems useful in non-air breathing engines such as those in, for example, submersible vehicles, is disclosed. A hydride reactor may be utilized in forming hydrogen from a metal hydride and a peroxide reactor may be utilized in forming oxygen from hydrogen peroxide. The high temperature hydrogen and oxygen may be converted to water using a solid oxide fuel cell, which serves as a power source. The power generation system may have an increased energy density in comparison to conventional batteries. Heat produced by exothermic reactions in the hydride reactor and the peroxide reactor may be transferred and utilized in other aspects of the power generation system. High temperature water produced during by the peroxide reactor may be used to fuel the hydride reactor.03-04-2010
20100040915HYDROGEN GENERATOR, FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND THEIR OPERATING METHODS - A hydrogen generator (02-18-2010
20100040917FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND METHOD OF STARTING A FUEL CELL SYSTEM - The invention relates to a method of starting up a fuel cell system comprising a reformer (02-18-2010
20100062293INTERNAL REFORMING ALCOHOL HIGH TEMPERATURE PEM FUEL CELL - This invention refers to an Internal Reforming Alcohol Fuel Cell (IRAFC) using polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), which are functional at 190-220° C. and alcohol fuel reforming catalysts for the production of CO-free hydrogen in the temperature range of high temperature PEM fuel cell. The fuel cell comprises: an anode; a high-temperature ion-conducting electrolyte membrane, and any other polymer electrolyte that can operate at temperatures between about 180° C. to about 230° C.; a cathode and two current collectors on each side of the cell.03-11-2010
20100062292Fuel Cell system and method for operating the same - The present invention relates to a fuel cell system and a method for operating the same. The method of the present invention includes: igniting a fuel by an ignition element to generate flames to allow the fuel to carry out an exothermic combustion reaction in a burner, and introducing a reforming reaction material into an evaporator to vaporize the reforming reaction material; transmitting heat generated from the exothermic combustion reaction to a reactor, and introducing the vaporized reforming reaction material into the reactor to perform a reforming reaction and generate hydrogen gas; and introducing the hydrogen gas into a fuel cell stack member to generate electricity. Accordingly, the fuel cell system and the method for operating the same provided by the present invention can reduce start-up time and avoid the additional consumption of electricity.03-11-2010
20100062291Fuel cell system and fuel supply method thereof - A stable fuel supply system in a fuel cell system produces heat and electricity by combining hydrogen modified from a major raw material selected from various hydrogen compounds, with oxygen existing in air. A fuel supply device and a fuel supply method in a fuel cell system, which automate a steam to carbon ratio (S/C) control and a lamda control, and achieve a fuel cell system operation efficiently and stably coping with pressure loss and pulsation occurring within the system, while using a minimum number of balance-of-plant (BOP) units. A method more efficiently and precisely supplies fuel during the start-up and operation of the fuel cell system, while preventing flame failure of a burner and maintaining an appropriate carbon monoxide concentration even when an abrupt flow rate variation occurs. Also, an operating method improves functions associated with a decomposition ability based on selection of the specification of a fuel pump, and thus, is more economical and stable in terms of the costs and configuration of the fuel cell system.03-11-2010
20100055519 PRE-REFORMER - A pre-reformer (03-04-2010
20090029205Integrated fuel line to support CPOX and SMR reactions in SOFC systems - A fuel cell system comprises at least one fuel cell stack, a CPOX reactor, and a conduit for providing a fuel stream to the at least one fuel cell stack through the CPOX reactor during both a start up and a steady state modes of operation of the system.01-29-2009
20090214906Hydrogen passivation shut down system for a fuel cell power plant - The invention is a hydrogen passivation shut down system for a fuel cell power plant (08-27-2009
20090214903FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND CONTROL METHOD THEREOF - A fuel cell system includes a fuel cell which has an anode. A fuel supplying device circulates a supply of aqueous methanol solution to the anode in the fuel cell. The fuel supplying device includes an aqueous solution tank for storing the aqueous methanol solution. By moving aqueous methanol solution from the aqueous solution tank to a water tank, the amount of aqueous methanol solution which is in circulation at the time of start-up is made smaller than the amount for normal operation. The fuel cell system and a control method therefore are capable of shortening a time that is necessary for heating aqueous fuel solution to be supplied to the fuel cell to a predetermined temperature without reducing fuel utilization efficiency.08-27-2009
20090214904Integrated Fuel and Fuel Cell Device - Described here is a device for generating electrical current via an electrochemical fuel cell that consumes hydrogen. The described device may be entirely or partially self-contained or may be made up of cooperating components. The device comprises at least and fuel and fuel cell components and those components may be integrated. The fuel is selected to produce hydrogen suitable for use in a variety of fuel cell designs that utilize hydrogen to produce electrical current. The fuel cell, in some variations, produces water and that water may be returned to the selected fuel source to create a self-sustaining supply of hydrogen for the fuel cell under load. The fuel cell may also contain a system for controlling the amount of water produced by the fuel cell that gets delivered to the solid fuel.08-27-2009
20080254326Method and a System for Producing, Converting and Storing Energy - The invention relates to a method and a system of converting and storing energy. Energy in the form of, for example, wind power or solar energy is used to convert carbon dioxide to methyl alcohol in an electrochemical cell. The methyl alcohol may later be used to produce electricity in a fuel cell.10-16-2008
20080254325System for transferring metal to electronic energy - Disclosed are a device and method for generating electrical energy. The device has a fuel cell that converts hydrogen gas to electricity; and a fuel cartridge in fluid communication with the fuel cell and containing a fuel which reacts with water to form the hydrogen gas. The fuel comprises a solid metal or alloy, and the fuel cartridge is configured such that the rate of hydrogen gas generation decreases automatically without consuming electricity as demand for the hydrogen gas decreases.10-16-2008
20100003553Method for improved efficiency for producing fuel gas for power generation - A method is provided for maximizing the production of electrical energy from coal by improving the thermal efficiency of gasifiers used in integrated coal gasification combined cycle gas turbine (IGCC) systems. Coal is reacted in a gasifier to produce a product fuel gas containing carbon monoxide from combustion of the carbon of the feed coal, plus additional carbon monoxide from the reduction of carbon dioxide, wherein the reaction of carbon monoxide with water is avoided to conserve the work potential of the product fuel gas which will increase the efficiency of conventional gas turbine systems and high temperature fuel cells. Combustion of the product fuel gas with oxygen produces carbon dioxide which is readily recovered from the exhaust by removal of water, such as from combustion of hydrogen in the coal, and molecular hydrogen from the coal may recovered by permeation through a hydrogen permeable membrane.01-07-2010
20080248346START UP METHOD FOR FUEL CELL AND FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEM - A methanol water solution circulation system having a smaller heat capacity than that of a methanol water solution circulation system used at time of regular operation or a methanol water solution circulation system having a small total volume is installed for startup. Startup fuel is supplied to an anode, and the temperature thereof is raised using heat generation action of the fuel cell, thus the temperature of the cell rises. Fuel at the exit of the anode is circulated again to the entrance of the anode, and the processing is repeated, thus the power generation cell is heated up to the operating temperature.10-09-2008
20090317669Carbon Efficiencies in Hydrocarbon Production - This invention relates to a method of producing liquid hydrocarbons, preferably internal combustion engine fuels, using feedstocks of coal or methane. Depending on the nature of the feedstock it is subjected to a gasification and/or reforming process and/or water gas shift process which produces a syngas that is rich in carbon dioxide and hydrogen rather than carbon monoxide and hydrogen as in the conventional process. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen are combined in a Fischer Tropsch process to produce desired hydrocarbons and water. The energy requirements of the gasification/reforming process to produce a syngas that is rich in carbon dioxide and hydrogen is considerably less than the energy requirements for gasification/reforming process for producing the conventional carbon monoxide rich syngas. This reduction in energy consumption reduces considerably the quantities of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere compared to conventional processes that are based on carbon monoxide rich syngas. Unreacted CO2-rich syngas can be recirculated or can also be used, in molten carbonate fuel cells, or to generate energy or steam in turbine processes such as IGCC.12-24-2009
20090136798Autothermic Reformer - The invention relates to a device for producing a product gas which is rich in hydrogen, comprising a reformer part which comprises an inlet for a fuel/oxidation agent mixture, an inlet for a water/carrier gas mixture, a catalytic surface and a first heat exchanger. Said device also comprises a combustion part which comprises an inlet for an anode residual gas from a fuel cell, an inlet for an oxidation agent, a catalytic surface and a second and a third heat exchanger. The reformer part and the combustion part are connected via lines which are used to guide a water vapour/catrier gas mixture and for directing the reformat. According to the inventive method for producing a product gas which is rich in hydrogen, a first mixing chamber guides a water vapour/carrier gas mixture via a line and a fuel/oxidation agent mixture via a nozzle. The fuelwater vapour/oxidation agent/carrier gas mixture is catalytically converted into a product gas which is rich in hydrogen in exothermic and endothermic reactions. The anode residual gas from the fuel cell is catalytically converted in exothermic reactions into waste gas having few harmful substances. The heat required for evaporating water into water vapour in the water vapour/carrier gas mixture is partially produced by cooling the product gas which is rich in hydrogen and partially by cooling the waste gas of the combustion which contains few harmful substances.05-28-2009
20080292921RECOVERY OF INERT GAS FROM A FUEL CELL EXHAUST STREAM - A fuel cell system is provided including a fuel cell stack having a fuel cell having an anode, an anode outlet, an anode inlet, and a cathode. The fuel cell system further includes a hydrogen pump in communication with the anode outlet and the anode inlet. The hydrogen pump features a proton exchange membrane disposed between a first electrode and a second electrode. The first electrode is configured to accept an anode outlet stream from the anode outlet, the anode outlet stream including a hydrogen gas and an inert gas, the first electrode being configured to exhaust the inert gas. In one embodiment, the hydrogen pump is in communication with a PROX unit and configured to provide the hydrogen gas to the fuel cell stack. Further provided are methods employing the hydrogen pump wherein a start-stop degradation of the fuel cell is militated against and a hydrogen feed stream is humidified.11-27-2008
20080268301Fuel reforming apparatus and its method of driving and fuel cell system including the apparatus - A fuel reforming apparatus includes an oxidation reaction unit in which an oxidation catalyst is formed, a reforming reaction unit in which a reforming catalyst is formed, and an ignition unit for igniting a hydrocarbon-containing fuel and an oxidant and preheating the oxidation catalyst in an early driving stage. The oxidation reaction unit has a first section and a second section respectively formed opposite to each other with the oxidation catalyst interposed therebetween and forms a stream of the fuel and the oxidant flowing to the second section through the oxidation catalyst from the first section, the ignition unit being located in the second section.10-30-2008
20090029204Hybrid fuel heat exchanger - pre- reformer in SOFC systems - A fuel cell system includes at least one fuel cell stack, a fuel inlet conduit, and a fuel heat exchanger containing a fuel reformation catalyst. The fuel heat exchanger is connected to the fuel inlet conduit and to at least one fuel cell system exhaust conduit which in operation provides a high temperature exhaust stream to the fuel heat exchanger.01-29-2009
20080213636Reformer, Fuel Cell System and Method For Operating a Fuel Cell System - A fuel cell system (09-04-2008
20100068571SYSTEM AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCING HIGH-PRESSURE HYDROGEN - A method and apparatus are provided for use in producing high-pressure hydrogen from natural gas, methanol, ethanol, or other fossil fuel-derived and renewable hydrocarbon resources. The process can produce hydrogen at pressures ranging from 2000 to 12,000 pounds per square inch (psi) using a hydrogen carrier, with or without high-pressure water, and an appropriate catalyst. The catalyst reacts with the hydrogen carrier and, optionally, high-pressure water, in a catalytic reformer (03-18-2010
20090214905Direct methanol fuel cell operable with neat methanol - A fuel cell system running on direct neat methanol. Back diffusion of water from the cathode to the anode is sufficiently high so that water is not accumulated at the cathode, thereby leading to fuel cell systems without the need for a pump system to remove circulate water from the cathode to the anode. Other embodiments are described and claimed.08-27-2009
20090202873HYDROGEN PURIFICATION MEMBRANES, COMPONENTS AND FUEL PROCESSING SYSTEMS CONTAINING THE SAME - Hydrogen-producing fuel processing systems, hydrogen purification membranes, hydrogen purification devices, fuel processing and fuel cell systems that include hydrogen purification devices, and methods for operating the same. In some embodiments, operation of the fuel processing system is initiated by heating at least the reforming region of the fuel processing system to at least a selected hydrogen-producing operating temperature. In some embodiments, an electric heater is utilized to perform this initial heating. In some embodiments, use of the electric heater is discontinued after startup, and a burner or other combustion-based heating assembly combusts a fuel to heat at least the hydrogen producing region, such as due to the reforming region utilizing an endothermic catalytic reaction to produce hydrogen gas.08-13-2009
20090197129FUEL CELL SYSTEM - A fuel cell system can be initiated in shorter time while minimizing the deterioration of a fuel cell. The fuel cell system includes a fuel cell stack having a fuel electrode, an oxidizer electrode and an electrolyte membrane disposed there between, the fuel cell producing electricity by an electrochemical reaction of a fuel gas and an oxidizer gas, which are supplied to the fuel electrode and the oxidizer electrode, respectively; a fuel gas supplying device for supplying the fuel gas to the fuel cell stack; an oxidizer gas supplying device for supplying the oxidizer gas to the fuel cell stack; a current controlling device for extracting a current from the fuel cell stack; and a voltage sensor disposed in at least two of the fuel cell stacks. A controller controls the current controlling device such that a minimum voltage, which is obtained from the voltage sensor after a fuel gas is supplied to the fuel electrode without supplying the oxidizer gas to the oxidizer electrode at the time of initiating, becomes zero volts or more. Then, the oxidizer gas is supplied to the oxidizer to start producing electricity.08-06-2009
20090176135Operating Fuel Cell During Down Time on Cryogenic Hydrogen Boil-Off - A fuel cell power plant (07-09-2009
20090176134Water recovery assembly for use in high temperature fuel cell systems - A water recovery assembly for use in a fuel cell system having an anode and a cathode, the anode being adapted to receive fuel and output anode exhaust, the water recovery assembly comprising a first cooling assembly adapted to receive and quench cool the anode exhaust and to recover a first portion of water including electrolyte from the anode exhaust, and to output quenched anode exhaust and the first portion of water, and a second cooling assembly adapted to receive the quenched anode exhaust and to recover a second portion of water from the quenched anode exhaust, the second portion of water being suitable for humidifying the fuel supplied to the anode.07-09-2009
20100028736Hybrid Ionomer Electrochemical Devices - A membrane electrode assembly for use in a fuel cell includes an anode electrode, a cation exchange membrane, an anion exchange membrane and a cathode electrode. The anode electrode includes a first catalyst. The first catalyst separates a reducing agent into a plurality of positively charged ions and negative charges. The cation exchange membrane is configured to favor transport of positively charged ions therethrough and is also configured to inhibit transport of negatively charged particles therethrough. The anion exchange membrane is configured to favor transport of negatively charged ions therethrough and is also configured to inhibit transport of positively charged ions therethrough. The cathode electrode includes a second catalyst and is disposed adjacent to a second side of the anion exchange membrane. The second catalyst reacts electrons with the at least one oxidizing agent so as to create reduced species.02-04-2010
20100028735PROCESS FOR CONVERTING METHANE INTO A HIGHER ALKANE MIXTURE - The present invention relates to a process for converting methane into a higher alkane mixture, preferably a liquid alkane mixture, comprising (C02-04-2010
20100028734Structure for high temperature fuel cell system start up and shutdown - A fuel cell system includes a fuel cell stack and a PEM stack for providing power to the system in a start up or shut down operating mode and hydrogen to the fuel cell stack in a steady state operating mode.02-04-2010
20090011293Selective Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide Relative to Hydrogen Using Catalytically Active Gold - The present invention provides technology for controlling, or tuning, the catalytic activity of gold provided upon nanoporous supports such as those derived from nanoparticulate, crystalline titania. In some aspects of practice, the surface of nanoparticulate media incorporated into a catalyst system of the present invention is provided with chemical modifications of the surface that dramatically suppress the ability of the resultant catalyst system to oxidize hydrogen. Yet, the system still readily oxidizes CO. In other words, by selecting and/or altering the nanoparticulate surface via the principles of the present invention, PROX catalysts are readily made from materials including catalytically active gold and nanoparticulate media. Additionally, the nanoparticulate support also may be optionally thermally treated to further enhance selectivity for CO oxidation with respect to hydrogen. Such thermal treatments may occur before or after chemical modification, but desirably occur prior to depositing catalytically active gold onto the support incorporating the nanoparticles.01-08-2009
20080220296PtRu core-shell nanoparticles for heterogeneous catalysis - PtRu nanoparticles, which contain Pt shell and a ruthenium-based nanoparticle core, and which nanoparticles may be used advantageously in oxidation of hydrogen containing relatively large amounts of CO.09-11-2008
20100112392METHOD FOR REGENERATING A REFORMER - The invention relates to a method for regenerating a reformer fed with a mixture of fuel and an oxidant having a mean air number λ05-06-2010
20090317670Hydrazine supply device, fuel cell system utilizing the same, vehicle carrying the fuel cell system, and method of supplying hydrazine - Hydrazine supply device (12-24-2009
20080268302ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEMS AND METHODS - A photobioreactor includes a cultivation zone configured to contain a liquid culture medium and facilitate growth of a microalgae biomass, a plurality of parallel edge-lit light transmitting devices mounted within the cultivation zone, and a collection zone oriented in relation to the cultivation zone such that at least a portion of the liquid culture medium and microalgae from the cultivation zone may be periodically harvested. Methods for illuminating algae, for dissolving materials into an algae medium, for extracting oil from algae, and for producing biodiesel from algal oil are also provided.10-30-2008
20090130505Enhanced efficiency of a combined sorfc energy storage and fuel generation system - A fuel cell system includes a solid oxide reversible fuel cell (SORFC) stack that is adapted to generate an exhaust stream containing hydrogen and water vapor from an outlet of the SORFC stack when the SORFC stack is operated in an electrolysis mode, a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) hydrogen pump that is adapted to separate at least a portion of the hydrogen contained in the exhaust stream, a first conduit that is adapted to provide the exhaust stream from the outlet of the SORFC stack into an inlet of the PEM hydrogen pump, and a second conduit that is adapted to provide at least a portion of remaining exhaust stream from an outlet of the PEM hydrogen pump into an inlet of the SORFC stack.05-21-2009
20090197128Fuel Cell System Management System and Method - A fuel cell system management method, wherein a reformer is provided for supplying hydrogen-containing reformed gas to the fuel cell unit and a compressor is provided for supplying air to the fuel cell unit. The fuel cell unit includes cells arranged in modules. Voltages are measured across terminals of each cell of each module of the cell unit, and the voltage difference between the mean cell voltage for the cell unit and a predetermined mean cell voltage is calculated. The voltage difference is compared with a predetermined threshold voltage different, and the presence or absence of carbon monoxide poisoning in the fuel cell unit is determined based on the comparison.08-06-2009
20100040918METHANOL STEAM REFORMING CATALYSTS, STEAM REFORMERS, AND FUEL CELL SYSTEMS INCORPORATING THE SAME - Methanol steam reforming catalysts, and steam reformers and fuel cell systems incorporating the same. In some embodiments, the methanol steam reforming catalyst includes zinc oxide as an active component. In some embodiments, the methanol steam reforming catalyst further includes at least one of chromium oxide and calcium aluminate. In some embodiments, the methanol steam reforming catalyst is not pyrophoric. Similarly, in some embodiments, steam reformers including a reforming catalyst according to the present disclosure may include an air-permeable or air-accessible reforming catalyst bed. In some embodiments, the methanol steam reforming catalyst is not reduced during use. In some embodiments, the methanol reforming catalysts are not active at temperatures below 275° C. In some embodiments, the methanol steam reforming catalyst includes a sulfur-absorbent material. Steam reformers, reforming systems, fuel cell systems and methods of using the reforming catalysts are also disclosed.02-18-2010
20100047639METHOD FOR THE ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF AIR/SOLVENT MIXTURES USING A FUEL CELL SYSTEM AND RECOVERY UNIT - The invention relates to a method for the environmentally sound disposal of air/solvent mixtures which are made of combustible gaseous vaporous or liquid waste products, using a fuel cell system for the recycling of the air/solvent mixtures while removing the environmentally compatible exhaust air developing in the fuel cell system, the waste heat that is produced and the electric power that is produced.02-25-2010
20100047638Method and Device for Safe Storage and Use of Volatile Ammonia Storage Materials - There is described a method and apparatus (02-25-2010
20100047636HYDROGEN GENERATING APPARATUS, METHOD OF OPERATING HYDROGEN GENERATING APPARATUS, AND FUEL CELL SYSTEM - A hydrogen generating apparatus of the present invention includes a controller (02-25-2010
20100047635Hydrating A Reactant Flow Of An Electrochemical Stack - A technique includes communicating a reactant stream into a reactant plenum passageway of an electrochemical cell stack. Inside the reactant plenum passageway, water is injected into the reactant stream.02-25-2010
20100047634PORTABLE REFORMED FUEL CELL SYSTEMS WITH WATER RECOVERY - Described herein is a portable fuel cell system with water recovery capabilities. The system generates one or more exhaust streams from which water can be recovered. A water removal system contained in the portable fuel cell system package draws water from an exhaust stream; the exhaust may include a burner exhaust, a reformer exhaust, and/or a fuel cell exhaust. The water can then be provided to the incoming fuel.02-25-2010
20100009223FUEL CELL STACK WITH INTEGRATED PROCESS ENDPLATES - This disclosure related to polymer electrolyte member fuel cells and components thereof, including fuel cell endplates.01-14-2010
20090061266METHOD OF DRIVING FUEL CELL DEVICE - According to one embodiment, a method of driving a fuel cell device includes calculating a fuel shortage based on a difference between the fuel concentration detected by a concentration sensor element and a predetermined desired fuel concentration, and obtaining an efficiency of electricity generation of an electromotive section based on the temperature of the electromotive section detected by a temperature sensor element and the load current measured by a control section. The method includes calculating a fuel consumption by the electromotive section for electricity generation based on the output of the electromotive section and the obtained electricity generation efficiency, and replenishing by a supply section a mixing tank with an amount of fuel equivalent to the sum of the calculated fuel shortage and the calculated fuel consumption, thereby controlling the concentration of the fuel supplied to the electromotive section.03-05-2009
20090061265FUEL PROCESSOR COMPRISING SHIFT REACTOR HAVING IMPROVED WARMING UP STRUCTURE AND METHOD OF OPERATING THE SAME - Provided is a fuel processor in a fuel cell system having a shift reactor with an improved warming up structure and a method of operating the fuel cell system. The fuel processor includes a combustion reactor for rapidly increasing the temperature of the shift reactor. The combustion reactor is installed to contact an outer circumference of the shift reactor and includes a combustion catalyst disposed along a gas flow channel formed therein. In the fuel processor, the shift reactor can be rapidly heated by the combustion reactor that contacts the shift reactor using an exothermic reaction of the combustion catalyst disposed in the combustion reactor. Therefore, a warming-up time required for the fuel processor to reach a normal operation in an initial start-up can be greatly reduced.03-05-2009
20080248347FUEL PROCESSOR FEEDSTOCK DELIVERY SYSTEM - Fuel processing and fuel cell systems with feedstock delivery systems that are designed to deliver a mixed component feed stream to a hydrogen-producing region for the production of hydrogen gas therefrom and to selectively deliver the feed stream to a heating assembly for use as a combustible fuel stream for heating at least the hydrogen-producing region. The feed stream contains water and a carbon-containing feedstock, and may contain at least 31 vol % water. In some embodiments, the feedstock delivery system may be adapted to mix the components of the feed stream at a determined mix ratio and to deliver this feed stream to the fuel processor(s). The fuel processing system may also include one or more fuel cell stacks that are adapted to produce an electric current from the product hydrogen stream produced by the fuel processing system.10-09-2008
20080248345METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY CONVERSION - An electrochemical energy conversion system comprises an electrochemical energy conversion device, in fluid communication with a source of liquid carrier of hydrogen and an oxidant, for receiving, catalyzing and electrochemically oxidizing at least a portion of said hydrogen to generate electricity, a hydrogen depleted liquid, and water; and a recharging component for connecting said electrochemical conversion system to a source of electricity for rehydrogenating the hydrogen depleted liquid across said electrochemical energy conversion device.10-09-2008
20080248344Ceramic Microreactor Built from Layers and Having at Least 3 Interior Spaces as Well as Buffers - A ceramic microreactor for carrying out reactions having a large heat of reaction which has at least three interior spaces, with at least one interior space having internal buffers whose shape, number and positioning ensure homogeneous flow, is described. The microreactor is built up as a monolith from at least seven plate-shaped layers of inert ceramic material, preferably aluminium oxide, which form an upper heating/cooling space, a central reaction space and a lower heating/cooling space. One interior space has a coating of a catalyst comprising noble metal. The shape, number and positioning of the internal buffers is determined by means of flow simulation calculations; the internal buffers preferably have a lozenge shape. The microreactor displays very good selectivity in reactions having a large heat of reaction, in particular in heterogeneous gas-phase reactions, and is used in particular for hydrogen production and/or hydrogen purification in fuel cell technology.10-09-2008
20080233440System and method for hydrogen-based energy source - A fuel cell system is disclosed that comprises a fuel cell unit operable to store at least one of water and hydrogen. At least one membrane is provided at one or more ends of the fuel cell unit. The membrane is operable to enable a flow of oxygen through the at least a portion of fuel cell unit. Further, the membrane is further operable to prevent water from flowing through at least a portion of the fuel cell. Moreover, an electrical source in operative engagement with the fuel cell unit. The fuel cell operates in a first mode to collect the hydrogen when receiving voltage from the electrical source, and further the fuel cell operates in a second mode to generate electricity using the hydrogen. The fuel cell unit is preferably stackable via a combination of conductible studs and receptacles.09-25-2008
20080226954Hydrogen generating apparatus, fuel cell power generation system, method of controlling hydrogen generating quantity and recorded medium recorded program performing the same - The present invention discloses a hydrogen generating apparatus that is capable of controlling the amount of hydrogen generation. The hydrogen generating apparatus in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention has an electrolyzer, which is filled with an aqueous electrolyte solution containing hydrogen ions, a first electrode, which is accommodated in the electrolyzer, is submerged in the aqueous electrolyte solution, and generates electrons, a second electrode, which is accommodated in the electrolyzer, is submerged in the aqueous electrolyte solution, and receives the electrons to generate hydrogen, a variable resistance, which is located between the first electrode and the second electrode, a flow rate meter, which measures an amount of hydrogen generation in the second electrode, and a variable resistance controller, which receives a set value, compares the amount of hydrogen generation measured by the flow rate meter with the set value, and controls a resistance value of the variable resistance. The amount of hydrogen generation can be controlled by use of variable resistance.09-18-2008
20080220295RAPID LIGHT-OFF CATALYTIC COMBUSTOR FOR FUEL CELL VEHICLE - A catalytic combustion unit for a fuel cell system is provided. The catalytic combustion unit includes a reactor having a porous medium with a catalyst deposited thereon. The reactor is disposed adjacent a heat exchanger and adapted to receive an air stream and a hydrogen stream. The reactor is further adapted to promote an exothermic reaction and modulate a temperature of a fuel cell stack. A fuel cell system and method employing the catalytic combustion unit are also provided.09-11-2008
20080213637Gas Station Hydrogen - A device and method of using the device to convert gasoline to hydrogen with zero carbon dioxide emissions and are suitable for co-location at a gasoline filling station. The device has a plasma reactor (09-04-2008
20080199745METHOD OF DRIVING HEATING UNIT FOR REFORMER, AND REFORMER AND FUEL CELL SYSTEM INCLUDING THE SAME - A method of driving a heating unit for a fuel cell reformer, a reformer applied with the method for driving the heating unit, and/or a fuel cell system including the reformer. The method includes: supplying an oxidant to the heating unit and absorbing the oxidant by a fuel oxidizing catalyst of the heating unit; supplying a fuel at an excessive amount to the heating unit and absorbing the fuel by the fuel oxidizing catalyst of the heating unit; and supplying the fuel and the oxidant to the heating unit at a stoichiometric ratio of the fuel to the oxidant ranging from 1:1 to 2:1, wherein the heating unit generates heat through an oxidizing catalyst reaction between the fuel and the oxidant.08-21-2008
20080199744Hydrogen generating apparatus, fuel cell power generation system, method of controlling hydrogen generating quantity and recorded medium recorded program performing the same - The present invention discloses a hydrogen generating apparatus that is capable of controlling the amount of hydrogen generation. The hydrogen generating apparatus in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention has an electrolyzer, which is filled with an aqueous electrolyte solution containing hydrogen ions, a first electrode, which is accommodated in the electrolyzer, is submerged in the aqueous electrolyte solution, and generates electrons, a second electrode, which is accommodated in the electrolyzer, is submerged in the aqueous electrolyte solution, and receives the electrons to generate hydrogen, a switch, which is located between the first electrode and the second electrode, a flow rate meter, which measures an amount of hydrogen generation in the second electrode, and a switch controller, which receives a set value, compares the amount of hydrogen generation measured by the flow rate meter with the set value, and controls an on/off status of the switch. The amount of hydrogen generation can be controlled by use of on/off time and/or on/of frequency of the switch.08-21-2008
20080318094METHODS FOR CONVERSION OF A LIGHT ALKANE TO A HIGHER HYDROCARBON, METHOD OF DEHYDROGENATING AN ALKANE, AND METHOD OF REACTIVATING A CATALYST LAYER - A controllable proton exchange reactive membrane comprising a proton exchange membrane, at least two catalyst layers disposed on opposing sides of the proton exchange membrane, and a power source operably coupled to the at least two catalyst layers. A direction and magnitude of flow of hydrogen through the proton exchange reactive membrane is controlled by modulating the power source across the proton exchange membrane, thereby enabling hydrogen to be transported in either direction across the proton exchange reactive membrane. By controlling the transport of hydrogen, the extent of a homologation reaction is enhanced. A proton exchange reactive membrane reactor comprising the proton exchange reactive membrane is also disclosed. A method of producing a higher hydrocarbon from a light alkane is disclosed, as is a method of regenerating a catalyst layer.12-25-2008
20090305092COMBINED FUEL CELL AIRCRAFT AUXILIARY POWER UNIT AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM - Combined aircraft hybrid fuel cell auxiliary power unit and environmental control system and methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method includes chemically converting a portion of combustible fuel into electrical energy. An unutilized portion of fuel emitted by the chemical conversion of combustible fuel is combusted to thermal power. The heated gas is used to drive a power recovery turbine connected to a drive shaft. A source of input oxidizing gas is compressed and is used to help chemically convert the combustible fuel into electrical energy. The heated gas is used to mechanically drive the power recovery turbine which is coupled to a generator to produce electrical energy.12-10-2009

Patent applications in class Generating, regenerating or recycling reactant